Cricket Sport Management Organisational Chart The Level 3 Award

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					The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports

Unit 1

         Introduction to Higher Sports
The Sports Leader Awards Scheme
• Administered by Sports Leaders UK
• The SLA scheme is made up of:
   –   The Level 1 Award in Sports Leadership
   –   The Level 2 Award in Community Sports Leadership
   –   The Level 3 Award in Higher Sports Leadership
   –   The Level 2 Award in Basic Expedition Leadership
   –   The Dance Leaders Award
   –   The Young Leader Award
   –   Women‟s Get Set Go!
   –   Foreign Language Leaders Award

                                             OHT 1.1
Level 3 Award in Higher
Sports Leadership
Unit   Unit     Unit     Unit     Unit      Unit    Unit      Unit     Unit
1      2        3        4        5         6       7         8        9
comp   comp     option   option   option    comp    comp      comp     comp

2      24       12       12       12        10      Min8      Min 6    16
GLH    GLH      GLH      GLH      GLH       GLH     GLH       GLH      GLH

N/a    10       10       10       10        N/a     N/a       N/a      N/a
       LE       LE       LE       LE

              GLH = guided learning hours               Comp = compulsory unit
              LE = leadership experience      option = optional unit (2 out of 3)

 Being a Higher Sports Leader is not just
 about being a better leader; it is about having
 the skills and confidence to initiate sports
 activities, to deliver them to a variety of
 community groups and to be able to take sole
 responsibility for the group‟s welfare.
                                          OHT 1.3
A HSL should be able to:

• Use initiative              • Lead safe, purposeful
• Work in a team                activity for a variety of
• Lead without                  community groups
  supervision                 • Plan, deliver & Evaluate
• Utilise the assistance of     sports sessions
  others                      • Control a group
• Communicate to a
  diverse audience

                                                 OHT 1.4
  Sports              Centre Course
  Leaders UK          Managers & Tutor /


Employers                 Sports           Course
                          Leader           colleagues

  Independent                                  Themselves
  (L.E. Supervisor)

                                                   OHT 1.5
The Higher Sports Leader in Action

• Session content           • Appropriate to group
• Facility                  • Inclusive
• Equipment                 • FUN
• Assistance
• Knowledge of

                                                OHT 1.6
HSL IN ACTION (cont..)
Assessment                      Image
• Session
• Feedback
                                • Appropriate clothing &
Safe                              preparation
• Facility                      • Prompt Start & finish
• Equipment                     • Reliable / Enthusiastic
• Content
• First Aid
                                • Committed / Courteous
• Awareness of Participants &

                                                 OHT 1.6
External Verification

The External Verifier will   The External Verifier will
  look at:                     also:
• Course programme           • Speak to the HSL‟s
• Attendance register        • Sign ROA‟s
• Course Files               • Discuss course with
• ROA‟s                        CCM.
• Students leading a
                                                  OHT 1.7

   Sports Leadership In the Community
The Leader

         I wanna be the leader
         I wanna be the leader
         Can I be the Leader?
              Can I? I can?
           Promise? Promise?
         Yippee, I‟m the leader
              OK, what shall I do??

                                      OHT 2.1
Some components of Leadership

•   Technical Competence
•   Experience
•   Communication
•   Planning and Preparation
•   Motivation
•   Awareness
•   Responsibility & Control
                                OHT 2.2


                        OHT 2.3
        Adair 1988
Core Leadership Skills

•   Communication
•   Organisation
•   Motivation
•   Confidence
•   Safety Awareness

                         OHT 2.4
Ways of Communicating
Speech           Signals       Signs

Sounds           Eye Contact   Facial Expressions

Demonstrations   Leaflets      Gestures

IT               Books         TV
Radio            Videos        Body language
Posters          Braille       Charts
                 ROLE MODEL

                                            OHT 2.5
Communication Skills

Sports Leaders must be able to:
• Communicate clearly & precisely, using verbal and non-verbal
• Position themselves appropriately when leading
• Listen to & Understand others
• Recognise when others have understood what has been
Remember: Actions speak louder than words

                                                         OHT 2.6
Verbal Skills Debrief
Volume        Clarity       Projection

Expression    Questioning   Jargon

Information   Delegation    FUN

                                         OHT 2.7
    Sports Leaders who are
    effective motivators are….
•   Self Motivated
•   Responsible
•   Interested, enthusiastic
•   Enjoy Sport
•   Confident
•   Able to plan
•   Excited about achievement
•   Willing to learn & share good practice
•    A good role model
                                             OHT 2.8A
Sports Leaders who are
effective motivators can………
•   Appreciate & acknowledge effort and achievement
•   Take decisive action
•   Respond to situations
•   Laugh with their group
•   Laugh at themselves
•   Let the group laugh at you
•   Inspire others

                                             OHT 2.8B
Sports Leaders who are
effective motivators……
KNOW:                      HAVE:
• That people come first   • Vision
• The difference between   • Clear Goals
  encouragement &
  pressure                 • Realistic expectation
• The difference between   • Ability to inspire
  negative and positive

                                               OHT 2.8C
Sports Leaders who are
effective motivators….
RUN:                       VALUE:
• Appropriate,             • Others work &
  challenging, safe, fun     achievements
  sessions                 • The opportunity to
                             contribute to well being
SET:                         of others
• Realistic Goals          SHOW:
WANT:                      • Integrity, honesty,
• Everyone to achieve        selflessness.
  their potential
                                              OHT 2.8C
     A.P.P.L.E. – An organisation Cycle





                                          OHT 2.9
                                   x                 X
             SKILLS PRACTICE
start                            Game
        End                             Full Game Cool down
        of warm up

OO                        Chuff chart
                                               OHT 2.10
A Sports Leader will delegate for:

• Efficiency

• Confidence Building

• Team Building

                                 OHT 2.11
 Risk Assessment
• Factors to consider:
• Type of activity and level
• Competence, experience and qualifications of the
  leader and other staff
• Group members
• Ratio of qualified leaders to participants
• The quality and suitability of equipment
• The weather

                                                OHT 2.12
5 Steps to Risk Assessment

1. Identify Hazard
2. Assess the risk, who will be affected & how
3. Evaluate measures of control
4. Record findings
5. Monitor & review periodically

                                         OHT 2.13
Simple RA Part 1

• Hazard: the potential to cause harm will vary in
• The effect of the hazard may be rated:
3 – Major e.g death or major injury
2 – Serious e.g injuries where people may be off work
   for more than 3 days
1 – Slight e.g all other injuries including those where
   people are off work for a period of up to 3 days .

                                                  OHT 2.14a
Simple Risk Assessment Part 2

• RISK: is the combination of the severity of the hazard
   with the likelihood of its occurrence
RISK = Hazard                  X     Likelihood of
          Severity                   Occurrence
Likelihood of occurrence:
3=High , certain of harm
2= Medium, harm will occur frequently
1= Low, seldom occurrence
                                               OHT 2.14B
           Risk Assessment

• Who may be harmed?

Is the risk adequately controlled?
What further action is necessary to control the

                                          OHT 2.15

• Report all accidents in writing stating:
Nature of incident
When it happened
Where it happened
Who it concerned
Nature of injury
Action taken when and by whom
Recommendation given to casualty
                                             OHT 2.16

• DIRECTIVE – Coach focused, autocratic
• SUPPORTIVE – Friendly, approachable,
• PARTICIPATIVE – Sharing, decision making,
• LAISSEZ – FAIRE – Laid Back, allow
  decisions to come about naturally

                                    OHT 2.17

Common Goal
                Together        Contribution
   Commitment   More
                                    OHT 2.18
Member Characteristics

• The Leader – takes the initiative

• The Doer – action orientated

• The Thinker – considers carefully

• The Carer – people orientated

                                      OHT 2.19
Some Characteristics of a good team

• High success rate
• Leader who adjusts leadership styles
• Balances the “what” and “how”
• Supportive Atmosphere
• All team members are accountable
• Learns form experience

                                         OHT 2.20
Why plan?
•   Session content
•   Logical delivery
•   Time allocation
•   Helps to review / evaluate the session
•   Changes can be introduced
•   Can share ideas with someone else
•   Sessions can be filed for future reference

                                            OHT 2.21
Evaluation and Feedback

ASK: Was the aim achieved?
     Did the participants enjoy?
     Was it safe?
     Was it well organised?

                                   OHT 2.22
Is everyone       Lots of activity? Am I sticking to Is everyone
active?                             the plan?        learning
Is it relevant?   Am I giving      Is it boring?    Am I giving
                  feedback?                         encouragement?

Did I prepare     Is it            Am I a good      Is it
effectively?      challenging?     role model?      achievable?

Review            Review           Review           Review

                                                             OHT 2.23
Planning a Presentation
•   Who is the audience?
•   Purpose of the presentation
•   Room layout
•   Method of presenting
•   Content
•   Structure
•   Style
•   Time
•   Resources
•   Where to stand
                                  OHT 2.24
Methods of Presenting
•   Demonstration
•   Visual Aids
•   “Talk & Chalk”
•   Audience Participation

• Visual Aids - OHP, Video, Flip Chart, Power
  point, Posters, Flash Cards.

                                        OHT 2.25
What is Community Sport?

• What is the definition of Sport?

• What is the definition of Community?

           Community Sport is all forms of
           activity, provided for the
                                         OHT 2.26
What role does the Sports leader have in the provision
of community sport?

• Leading sessions           • Linking to play schemes
• Organising events          • Team Manager
• After school sports        • Introducing taster
• Linking to TOPS
                             • Assisting with regional
  programmes                   “Games” events
• Working with voluntary     • Working with specific
  groups                       groups

                                                OHT 2.27
Why do people participate in Sport?

• Physical Development

• Cognitive Development

• Personal & Social Development

                                  OHT 2.28
  Sports Development
                                        Increase number of participants

      Participation in
      Sport                              Quality
                                         Improve standards
                                         of performance

Sports Development is the promotion and provision of Sports
Activities for the community.

                                                   OHT 2.29
Sports Development Tools

• The Sports Development Continuum

• Models of Sports Development

• The Sports Development Strategy

                                    OHT 2.30
     A Model Of Sports Development

                  Active    Active       World
                Communities Sports       Class         Excellence

                        Active Schools

                  Foundation / Learning Basic Skills     OHT 2.31
                                                         Sport England
                                                         Adopted 1998
Agencies involved in sports
• Governing Bodies of       Skills of an SDO:
  Sport                     • Research
• Local Authorities
                            • Marketing
• National Sports
  Councils                  • Negotiating
• Voluntary Sector Sports   • Planning
  Clubs                     • Communication
• Schools / Education       • Organisation
                            • Evaluating
                                                OHT 2.32
Barriers to Participation
Lack of confidence
Lack of self motivation
Image of sport
Family / personal relationships
Cultural norms
Lack of interest
Too competitive

                                  OHT 2.33
Barriers to participation

Facilities            Lifestyle
Transport             Health
Timing of openings    Education
Lack of information   Socio-economic status
Official procedures   Other activities
                                         OHT 2.33
Barriers to participation
Content / Delivery
Range of activities
Inappropriate for ability
Inappropriate delivery style
Quality of provision
Too competitive
Not enough fun
                               OHT 2.33
Sports Equity
• Overcoming Discrimination
Recognising your own prejudice
Understanding the difficulty
Talking to people
Support from others
Thinking of alternatives
Go on a training course
Using a policy / guidelines.

                                 OHT 2.34
Sports Equity
Can be achieved through:
• Sharing common values
• Promoting equality through sport
• Working in partnership
• Endorsing the Law
• Challenging discrimination

                                     OHT 2.35
   Sports Integration Continuum

     Mainstream          Mainstream          Parallel          Adapted             Adapted
     Sport               Sport               Sport             Sport               Sport
          1              (modified)            3               (integrated)        (segregated)
                            2                                        4                  5

The Winnick Model. PJ Winnick, an Integration Continuum for sports participation

                                                                                   OHT 2.36
   Example of Partnerships in Action –
   Exercise in Prescription Schemes
                      Local Authority
 Local GPs & Nurses

Sport Development
                      Exercise on          Facility
                      Prescription         staff

                                         Health Authority
Vol. Support groups
                                         NGB‟s   OHT 2.37
                      Local Press

    Principles & Practice for Children in
What is the Sports Leaders role?

•   Guardian
•   Organiser
•   Motivator
•   Teacher
•   Trainer
•   Facilitator

                                   OHT 3.1
How Children Grow

• At birth – a baby is about ¼ of its adult height
• Up to 6 –7 years – fastest growth period
• Adolescence – second growth spurt, slowing
  until full height is reached.

                                           OHT 3.2
Changes in proportion are
more dramatic
•   A baby‟s head = ¼ of its height
•   An adult head = a sixth of its height
•   A baby‟s legs account for a third of its height
•   An adult‟s legs account for ½ of its height
•   Just before the adolescent growth spurt,
    children's arms and legs are
    disproportionately long (which often makes
    them clumsy and uncoordinated)             OHT 3.3
Body Shape

Fat / Muscular:                   Thin:
(Endomorph / Mesomorph)           (Ectomorph)
- Children who are fat or         - Thin children often take
   muscular tend to be taller       longer to mature
   and heavier than their peers
                                  - They develop into taller,
- They mature earlier
                                    slimmer adults
- They stop growing earlier
                                  - They may develop
- They develop into shorter,
   heavily built adults
                                    proportionally longer

                                                   OHT 3.4

• Muscle strength is closely related to muscle

• Young children are disproportionately weaker
  than older children

                                       OHT 3.5
Gender and Body Shape

• As boys and girls mature, they develop larger
  body sizes:
• BOYS – larger, fat free and increased muscle
• GIRLS – relatively more fat

                                          OHT 3.6
Implications in organising children‟s sport

• Mixed gender              • Encourage skill learning
  participation               for everyone
• Growth stages             • Early talent spotting is
• Grouping children           not always effective
  according to height &
  weight                    • Do not stereotype
                              children into specific
• Avoid matching children
  with different              sports, based on body
  development needs           type.

                                               OHT 3.7
How children respond differently to
exercise than adults
• They get a higher proportion of their energy
• They are less mechanically efficient
• They produce more heat
• They cannot regulate their body heat as
• They have weaker bones
• They are much less aware of their real limits

                                           OHT 3.8

Because of the development difference between
  children of the same age,children should be offered a
  choice of:

  Pace / Style / Duration / Distance / Equipment

during exercise , so that they can carry out a task at
  their own level.

                                                    OHT 3.9
Safe Exercise Practice
Include Warm Up Steady , low          REST PERIODS
and Cool Down   intensity

Plenty of Fluid!   Appropriate        Watch for signs
B, D & A           clothing           of distress

Never PUSH a      Encourage           Never use
child to extremes monitoring of       weights before
                  breathing / heart   bone dev. Is
                  rates               complete

                                                OHT 3.10
Children Learn:

•   By doing
•   When they are motivated
•   When they are successful
•   By copying others
•   Through encouragement
•   Often rapidly. Children are more confident &
    willing to make mistakes than adults.
                                           OHT 3.11
Stages of Developing Skills
- the child must know / understand what they are trying
   to achieve
- purposeful practice is essential
- Reinforces progress or alters techniques
- the skill becomes almost automatic

                                               OHT 3.12
Learning Cycle



Plan –     the child understands the task and sets him / herself a goal
Perform – the child practices the task
Evaluate – the child assesses his / her success against the goal

                                                             OHT 3.13
Practical Tips

•   Treat each child as an individual
•   Make sure the children are ready to learn
•   Use short, simple explanations
•   Demonstrate clearly
•   Give plenty of time for practice
•   Make it FUN, active and challenging

                                           OHT 3.14
    Practical Tips (cont..)
•    Ensure success is achieved before moving on
•    Use questions to help identify mistakes
•    Guide the child to the most important factor
•    Focus on one mistake at a time
•    Start with big simple movements – before complex
•    Be Positive
•    Put the skills into a meaningful situation asap
•    Reinforce skills through repetition

                                                  OHT 3.14
How children see themselves

Children‟s image of themselves is shaped by:
• The aims they have for themselves
• Their achievements in competition
• Other children's achievements
• Feedback from adults
• Feedback form other children

                                         OHT 3.15
Relationships with Others

• Very small children are    • At 6 –9 yrs friendship
  at the centre of their       becomes increasingly
  own world                    important
• Children starting school   • At 9yrs children form
  need lots of approval.       tight knit groups
• Children at 6+yrs begin    • From then on friends
  co-operative play & are      are a major influence –
  less dependant on            co-operation is better,
  adults                       along with awareness of

                                               OHT 3.16
Practical Tips
Keep FUN in         Childs needs first;   Focus on
practice &          Winning second.       performance not
competition                               outcome

Help CH to set      Use PRAISE!!          Encourage
own goals and                             Teamwork
evaluate progress

Reinforce FAIR      Treat CH with         Every child is
PLAY                equal                 Unique!

                                                            OHT 3.17
Why Children do Sport

•   FUN

                               OHT 3.18
Sport can be detrimental to
children when:
•   Winning is everything
•   Rules are too restrictive
•   The emphasis is on right or wrong techniques
•   Leaders are autocratic
•   Inequalities are reinforced

                                         OHT 3.19
The benefits of physical
activity for children
These could be described under 3 broad
• Physical Development
• Intellectual Development
• Personal & Social Development

                                         OHT 3.20
Physical Development

• Basic Motor Skills e.g moving in different
• Spatial Awareness
• Co-ordination & Control
• Manipulative skills
• Health & Fitness
• Positive use of Energy
                                         OHT 3.21
Intellectual Development

• Creativity
• Cognitive Skills ( awareness &
• Concentration
• Language & Literacy
• Numeracy

                                   OHT 3.22
Personal & Social Development
•   Confidence
•   Self – Esteem
•   Self – Awareness
•   Awareness of others
•   Co-operative skills
•   Organisational skills
•   Leadership skills
•   Equality & Justice

                                OHT 3.23
When writing a Code of Conduct
the following issues should be considered:

• Has the leader planned well?   • Is the activity safe?
• Is the leader organised        • How do the children treat
• How does the leader              each other?
  interact?                      • Does the leader challenge
• Are the children clear about     discrimination?
  the activity?                  • Will the children come back?
• Are all children succeeding    • Is the leader a positive role
  and having fun?                  model for children?

                                                        OHT 3.24
All Sports Leaders and Coaches
have a responsibility to ensure that they :

•   Are suitably qualified in the sport activity
•   Are suitably insured
•   Understand their duty of care
•   Understand Health & safety requirements
•   Keep family members informed about the
    nature of the activity

                                              OHT 3.25

•   First Aid Kit / person identified
•   Emergency telephone
•   Playing surface checked
•   Dangerous obstacles eliminated
•   Equipment checked
•   Children‟s attire checked
•   Rules and boundaries clearly explained

                                             OHT 3.26
•   Venue has been confirmed
•   Numbers / ages / ability of children are known
•   Any specific needs / medical history
•   Staffing ratio is appropriate
•   Equipment prepared
•   Activities / Session prepared & identified
•   Times confirmed with parents
•   Contingency plan in place

                                                     OHT 3.27
•   Arrive early – start on time
•   Prepare playing area
•   Sort / store equipment
•   Greet parents and children
•   Give clear instructions
•   Ensure staff and children know what they are doing
•   Finish on time

                                              OHT 3.28
Organising Space
Alternative Markings:
• Cones placed closer together
• Colour coding of cones
• Chalk Lines
• Tape Lines
• Tactile Lines (visually impaired)
• Throw down lines
• Natural Boundaries

                                      OHT 3.29
    Factors Influencing play-
    area size
•    Number of children
•    Size of children
•    Mobility of Children
•    Type of activity
•    Need to work individually, in pairs or in small groups
•    Safety constraints of playing area
•    Need for zones

                                                      OHT 3.30
Warm Ups and Cool Downs

• A Warm Up should include:
• Low level activities to raise temperature,
  breathing & heart rate
• Controlled movements of joints
• Stretches held for 6 – 10 seconds

                                               OHT 3.31
A Cool – Down should include:

• Cooling activities to gradually decrease
  intensity of exercise e.g walk back to
  changing room
• Stretches held still for 6 – 10 seconds

                                             OHT 3.32
Some characteristics to consider
• Which ball is easiest to         • Which ball is easy to dribble?
  catch?                           • Which ball has a controlled
• Which ball travels furthest?       bounce?
• What type of “ball” is easiest   • What difference does colour
  to grasp?                          make?
• What type of ball won‟t roll     • What is the point of a “tee”?
• Which bat / racquet is
  easiest to control?

    How will you help a child to choose the right equipment?

                                                          OHT 3.33
Children want equipment
to be:



      Colourful             Easy to use
                                  Like the “Real Thing”
 “Cool”           Durable
                                                  OHT 3.34
Developing techniques
Rolling easier:              Rolling : More difficult
• Using a larger ball        • Use a smaller ball
                             • Use non-dominant hand
• Roll with 2 hands
                             • Use variety of speeds
• Kneel or sit down          • Roll along a line
• Roll slowly                • Move further apart
• Move closer together       • Move the target further away
• Move the target nearer     • Smaller targets

• Use an aid e.g guttering

                                                    OHT 3.35
Throwing & catching
Easier:                           More Difficult:
• Use larger, lighter ball        • Use smaller faster ball
• Use jingle or bright coloured   • Use 1 hand
                                  • Use non-dominant hand
• Use 2 hands
• Bounce then catch               • Throw then catch
• Remain Stationary               • Throw & catch on the move
• Adjust distance between         • Adjust distance between
  partners                          partners
• Throw underarm                  • Throw over - arm

                                                      OHT 3.36

Easier:                         More Difficult:
• Use a bigger less bouncy      • Use a smaller, faster ball
  ball                          • Travel with the ball whilst
• Stand still before kicking      kicking
• Make the target larger        • Make the target smaller
• Move the target closer
                                • Move the target further away
• Adjust the distance between
  partners                      • Use different parts of the foot

                                                         OHT 3.37

Easier                     More Difficult
• Use a larger ball        • Use a smaller ball
• Walk first, then jog     • Jog then move quickly
• Use two hands            • Use one hand
• Use the outside of the   • Use alternate hands or
  foot                       feet
• Use a puck for hockey    • Use one side of the
                             stick only

                                              OHT 3.38

Easier                              More Difficult
• Start with a stationary ball or   • Hit a moving ball
  use a tee                         • Return a volley
• Progress to a rolled ball         • Use a smaller ball
• Use a larger or lighter ball      • Set up a rally
• Use a bat with a large face       • Use a string racquet
• Use a bat with a shorter

                                                             OHT 3.39

• Can you do … 5 …10…50 etc?
• How many can you do in 30 seconds …1 minute?
• Can you make consecutive passes, throws, etc?
• How far can you kick, throw, roll, etc?
• How many points can you score from hitting different
  parts of a target?
• Can you invent another game similar to this?

                                               OHT 3.40
Modifying Games

•   Playing area
•   Equipment
•   Team structure
•   Individual roles and positions
•   Rules
•   Scoring

                                     OHT 3.41
    Invasion Games
•   Have smaller/larger area
•   A wide playing area favours attack; narrow favours defence
•   Use non-threatening balls
•   Group children according to size not age
•   Have teams with an unequal number of players
•   Specify an individual‟s role e.g. shooter
•   Allow all players to rotate
•   All player must touch the ball
•   Certain players can‟t be marked
•   Increase the number of goals
•   Have zones within the playing area
•   Allow wheelchair users to play in zones outside the sidelines

                                                                    OHT 3.42
Net/Wall Games
•   Have a smaller court
•   Lower the net
•   Use softer/larger balls
•   Match children with similar abilities
•   One child defends a smaller area
•   The ball can bounce twice
•   Each „score‟ carries more points for some children
•   „No go zone‟ instead of a net, alter its width
•   Singles against doubles
•   Use side walls
•   Change the type of serve

                                                         OHT 3.43
Striking/Fielding Games
•   Zone hitting areas
•   Use a tee
•   Use a lighter bat with a larger hitting surface
•   Ensure mixed ability teams
•   Everyone fields whilst 1 person bats
•   Different length „runs‟
•   Every child has a set number of hits
•   Balls are drop-fed, rolled and bowled underarm
•   The bowler is on the same team as the batters
•   No one can be „caught out‟
•   Points for accuracy not just distance/runs

                                                      OHT 3.44
Target Games

•   Target sizes & distances are adjusted
•   Different delivery techniques are used e.g. rolling,
    throwing, kicking etc.
•   An assistive device can be used e.g. guttering
•   Audible „guides‟ are used
•   Players can choose different positions around the
•   Scores carry more points for some children

                                                           OHT 3.45
General Issues
• Do not underestimate the intelligence or ability of
  disabled children
• Talk with them – find out what they can do
• Explore ways of including rather than reasons for not
• Enable disabled children to succeed and enjoy the
• Encourage the non-disabled children to identify ways
  of including

                                               OHT 3.46
     Inclusion Analysis
                                       1.   What can they do? What can
1.   Assess the children's skill and        you do?
                                       2.   What skills are needed? What
2.   Analyse the activity                   is the point?
3.   Modify the activity/adapt the     3.   Different ways and rules
                                       4.   Give the children time
4.   Practice
                                       5.   Including the children
5.   Play the activity
                                       6.   Essential for learning. Take
6.   Feedback                               account of player’s reactions
7.   Praise                            7.   Often & positive, don’t
8.   Monitor progress                       reinforce unacceptable
9.   Evaluate                               behaviour or under
                                       8.   Leader & children
                                       9.   Let the group discuss changes

                                                                OHT 3.47
   Principles & Practice for Older People
                  in Sport
Ageing by Numbers

                              • 37% of the population will be
• 3 % of pensioners who
                                over 60yrs by 2041
  regularly visit discos or
                              • 49% projected % of men
                                aged 60 –64 who will still be
• 4% of British                 working in 8 years time
  grandparents who            • 60 – the age of the oldest
  contact their                 person to climb Mt. Everest
  grandchildren via           • 50% of babies born in 1995
  internet or email             will live to celebrate their 50th
• 8% of men and women           birthday
  aged 80 – 84 who do
  voluntary work
                                                         OHT 4.1
Ageing by numbers (cont…)
• 95 Age of the worlds oldest         • 188 number of women
  triplets, Faith, Hope &               in their eighties
  Charity Cardwell
                                      • 1,800,00 people have
• 99 age of the world‟s oldest
  parachutist, Hildegarde
                                        had to deal with ageism
  Ferrera                               in employment
• 173% rise in US of over 60‟s        • 11,000,000 people in
  injured after taking up               the UK are over state
  rollerblading, aerobics or            pension age

                Information adapted from the Guardian Oct.’98 N. Ascherson
                                                                   OHT 4.1
“Youth is a period of missed opportunities”
                    Cyril Connolly(1903 –74) British Critic
“Man does not cease to play because he grows old, he
  grows old because he ceases to play”
                                         George Bernard Shaw
“You are not necessarily as old as you feel, but you are
  as old as other people feel you are”
                    Neal Ascherson, Guardian Oct’98

“Some   live dying, but best to die living”
                              Edward J Steiqlitz

                                                               OHT 4.2
Ageing – is the change in function
of organs and systems

Functional Age includes:
• Biological age – refers to physiological processes of the body,
  the underlying mechanisms responsible for structural &
  functional changes changes that characterise advancing age.
• Psychological age – refers to one‟s capability of cognitive
  functioning, including self – esteem as well as learning and
• Social Age - refers to society‟s perception of what is
  acceptable behaviour of an older person

                                                          OHT 4.3
The Ageing process is related to:

•   Genetics
•   Gender
•   Nutrition
•   Disease
•   Smoking
•   Stress
•   Trauma
•   Inactivity
•   Living conditions

                                    OHT 4.4
Changes associated with ageing
– the skeletal system
Change in bones
• Reduced bone mass and bone density
• Reduced bone mineral content
Changes in joints
• Reduced water content and harder, drier cartilage
• Thinner intervetebral discs
• Increased synovial fluid stickiness
• Reduced ligament strength
• Reduced ligament and tendon pliability

                  Reduced range and ease of movement
                        Increased risk of injury

                                                       OHT 4.5
Changes associated with
ageing - The muscular system

•   Reduced muscle mass
•   Reduced number and size of muscle fibres
•   Fewer fast twitch fibres
•   Reduced number of capillaries
•   Reduced number of motor cells

    Resulting in reduced muscular strength, power and endurance
                         More easily fatigued

                                                  OHT 4.6
Changes associated with ageing
– the cardio-respiratory system
•   Reduced heart mass
•   Decrease nervous stimulation of the heart
•   Increased furring and hardening of the arteries
•   Reduced numbers of capillaries
•   Decreased maximum heart rate
•   Reduced cardiac output and stroke volume
•   Reduced body temperature control
•   Tire more quickly, recover less quickly
•   Can overheat rapidly

                                                      OHT 4.7
Changes associated with
ageing – the nervous system
•   Fewer brain cells controlling movement
•   Fewer and reduced speed of messages
•   Reduction in balance mechanisms
•   Reduced vision and hearing
•   Slower information processing time
•   Slower reaction time
•   Poorer short term memory
•   Impaired balance

                                             OHT 4.8
Social benefits of physical
activity for older people
Promotion of a more positive and active image of older
people by :-
• Increased contribution to society by older people
• Enhanced social integration, formation of new
  friendships and the widening of social networks
• Role maintenance and new role acquisition
• Maintenance of caring skills

                                            OHT 4.9
Health benefits of physical
activity for older people
•   Prevention and management of CHD and stroke
•   Prevention and management of type II Diabetes
•   Management of weight and obesity
•   Prevention of Osteoporosis
•   Reduction of accidental falls
•   Prevention of (colon) cancer
•   Improvement in length and depth of sleep
Even when taken up in later life

Psychological benefits of physical
activity for older people
• Reduction in stress and anxiety and improvement in overall
  psychological well-being.
• Reduction in depression
• Improvements in cognitive function, self-esteem and self worth.
• Improvements in perception of health
• A reduction of loneliness and isolation
• Enhanced feeling of worth to society


•   To feel better
•   Enjoyment , fun
•   Social benefits
•   Health related reasons
•   Wanting to counter the effects of ageing
•   A sense of adventure, challenge,
                                           OHT 4.12

                ACTIVITIES          ACTIVITES
                               OTHERS eg
                    OHT 4.13   ACTIVE LIVING
• Promote circulation            • Increase body awareness
• Stimulate movement             • Increase awareness /
• Articulate specific movement     interaction with others
  response                       • Engage attention
• Broaden the range of
  movement at each joint         • Increase daily activity levels
• Improve posture                • Increase enjoyment
• Improve motor skills
• Improve performance of daily

                                        OHT 4.13a
                                        Exercise journal jan/feb ’99 S.Dinan

Appropriate activities are those which:
• Meet the specific needs of older people
• Take account of the current physical activity
  recommendations for older people
• Take place in a safe and supportive

                                HEA Guidelines, promoting Physical
                                Activity with Older people
                                             OHT 4.13B
Barriers to Physical Activity
for Older People
  Perception of self (How we     Time barriers (or excuses ?)
  see ourselves)                 • I‟m too busy with work
  • I‟m too fat                  • I have grandchildren to look
  • My health is not good           after
     enough                      • I have an elderly relative to
  • I‟m too old                     look after
  • I‟m not the sporty type
  • I‟m too shy or embarrassed

                                                   OHT 4.14
Barriers to Physical Activity
for Older People
  Motivational barriers               Availability barriers
  • I need to relax in my spare       • I don‟t know where to go
    time                              • I can‟t afford it
  • I haven‟t got the energy          • There are no facilities nearby
  • I‟d never keep it up              • I haven‟t got the right clothes
  • I don‟t enjoy physical activity     or equipment
  • There‟s no-one to go with         • I‟d feel out of place in a gym

                                                              OHT 4.15
Barriers to Physical Activity
for Older people
  Fears and concerns              Personal safety
  • It‟s too strenuous, I might   • It‟s not safe to use the park
    overdo it                     • I don‟t like using the buses in
  • I might have a heart attack     the evening
  • I could make my aches and     • I wouldn‟t use my bicycle,
    pains worse                     the roads are too busy

                                                           OHT 4.16
•   Children leaving home
•   Wanting to play with grandchildren
•   Physiological signs of ageing
•   Retirement
•   Onset of ailments / illness
•   Becoming a widow / widower
•   Wanting to maintain independence
•   Moving out of the home into a residential

                                                OHT 4.17
Countering the effects of ageing
Those entering old age
• Looking ahead to retirement
• Concern to prolong life
• Fit enough to play with the grandchildren
• Look after myself
• Sense of achievement and challenge
• Learn something new
• Meet people and get out
• Chance to let off steam
Most likely 50 – 65 years

                                              OHT 4.18
Countering the effects of ageing
Those in the transitional phase
• Maintain mobility
• Maintaining independence
• Avoid becoming isolated/cut off
• Keeping my mind active
• Good to get some fresh air and have a break
• Avoiding stiffness and keeping agile
• To get out with the grandchildren
• To help with caring activities
• Helps with tying up my shoes
Most likely to be 60 – 80 years

                                                OHT 4.19
Countering the effects of ageing

Frailer older people
• Keeps my mind active
• Helps with my arthritis
• I‟ve always been active
• Gives me something to do
• We have a good time together
• Helps we with my dressing
• I can get around a bit more
Most likely to be 75 +

                                 OHT 4.20

Leaders should be:
•   Trained in areas of physical activity and ageing
•   Able to offer a mixture of fun & purposeful activities
•   Able to relate meaningfully to older adults
•   Good listeners and empathetic
•   Patient with themselves and others
•   Organised
•   Clear, firm but not authoritarian
•   Trained in CPR able to recognise overexertion

                                                             OHT 4.21

1 Media Images
2 change perceptions of activity
3 Reassure people about exertion
4 Provide information around the time of retirement
5 Promote activity to men
6 Emphasise non-health benefits
7 Avoid being patronising
8 Promote information via the medical profession
9 Improve facilities
10 Start promoting physical activity to the young
                                                  OHT 4.22
Aims of a warm up for
Older People
• Gradually prepare mind & body for work safely &
• Mobilise joints in order to improve joint function in the
  performance of everyday activities
• Promote circulation & generate heat
• Stretch out the muscles as part of activity
• Stimulate CNS facilitating performance
• Enhance enjoyment & motivation by providing a
  relaxed, fun atmosphere

                                                    OHT 4.23
Aim of cool down for the Older adult

• To return the body to pre activity state
• To ensure the cool down is gradual and
  relatively prolonged: min 10 mins
• Allow the HR a longer time to return to pre-
  activity state
• Avoid getting up and down from the floor

                                         OHT 4.24
Mobilising through walking
    Can decreases immobility         - and increases mobility
    which can cause:-                  which can improve
•   Gravitational odema (swelling   • Circulation
    on the legs)                    • Local muscle endurance
•   Leg ulcers                      • Range of movement and
•   Skin ulcers
                                    • Co-ordination
•   Constipation                    • Balance
•   Joint stiffness                 • Gait rhythm
•   Muscular wastage                • Social inter-action
•   Deep vein thrombosis            • Awareness of surroundings and
                                       of others

                                                           Chart 4.6

    Principles & Practice for Disabled
             People in Sport
   Models of Disability

     Medical Model                     Social Model

• Owned by the individual       • Owned by society
• Something wrong with the      • Something caused by a
  person                          negative attitude, planning &
                                  practice of society
• Not preventable solution is
  to find a medical cure        • Preventable solution is to
                                  eliminate discrimination
• Only way to get rid of
  disability is by making a     • Prevented through better
  person better                   practice & positive attitudes
                                  that reflect equality of
                                                      OHT 5.1
Terminology Guideline
   Wheelchair user
   Learning disability
   Person who has a physical or learning impairment/challenge
   Disabled people
   Older person/people
   Non-disabled person
   Mental health challenge
   A person who has Cerebral Palsy
   A person who has Downs Syndrome
   Hearing impairment
   Deaf people
   Speech impairment
   Has …(the particular condition)

                                                                 OHT 5.2
    Preferred Group Terminology

•   Visual impairment – visually impaired people or blind people
•   Hearing impairment – hearing impaired people or deaf people
•   Physical impairment – physically disabled people
•   Learning impairment – people with a learning disability

    Disabled people: the preferred term to use when describing disabled
    people as it is based on the Social Model of Disability.
    Impairment: the term used to describe a person‟s medical condition
    such as a visual impairment.
    Disability Sport: sport specifically played by disabled people.

                                                                      OHT 5.3
  Pathways In Sport for Disabled People

Olympics & World Champion             Paralympics & world championships

National Champs (non-disabled)            National Champs (disabled)

Junior Development Squad              Junior Development Squad (disab.)

 Regional Champs/Squads               Regional Champs/Squads (disab.)

                      Sports Specific Sports Club
                      (non-disabled or disabled)
                                                              OHT 5.4
                            Multi-Sports Club
                        (non-disabled or disabled)

    Youth Service                School                  Voluntary Sector
Event                            Paralympic     Olympic
                                 Records        Records
Archery     72 Arrows men        634 points     684 points
Athletics   100m men             10.72 secs     9.84 secs
            200m men             21.89 secs     19.32 secs
            Marathon Men         Wheelchair
                                 1:29:44 secs   2:09:21 secs
            Long Jump            7.17m          8.90m
Shooting    Air Rifle Standing   491.3 points   498.2 points
Swimming    100m freestyle men   56.40 secs     48.63 secs
                                                OHT 5.5
Communication Considerations
Physically Disabled People

• Discuss personal needs and consider adaptations
• Respect personal space for wheelchair users
• Talk to wheelchair users in a position comfortable to
  both of you
• If assisting, ask how the disabled person would prefer
  you to do this
• Talk to the disabled person themselves and not their
  helper, parent or friend that might be with them.

                                                 OHT 5.6a
Communication Considerations
Visually impaired people / blind people

• Determine what can be seen   • Guide people appropriately
  (this can vary from day to     (see RNIB leaflets)
  day depending on light,
  weather and environment )    • May need to provide
                                 information on audio tape /
• Explain who is with them /
  who you are                    large print or Braille
• Describe the coaching area   • Use of tactile demos /
  and layout and keep them       guiding. Ask permission first
  aware of any changes in        & tell person what you are
  layout or group                doing.

                                                     OHT 5.6B
Communication Considerations
Hearing Impaired / Deaf people

• Find out if the person uses      • Ensure your face is in good
  sign language / lip reads          light
• Find out if they use a hearing   • If stuck write it down
                                   • Be patient
• Face the person when
  talking to them                  • Inform those with
• Do not shout                       impairments what others
• Do not chew or cover your          have said
  mouth                            • May need to impose rules eg
• Use gestures, signs and            raise your hand when
  signals                            speaking

                                                       OHT 5.6C
Hearing Impaired cont…..

• Speak to the person, not interpreter
• Learn some simple signs
• Check for understanding
• Use visual clues to support language or
• Introduce buddy scheme

                                            OHT 5.6C
Communication Considerations
People with a learning disability

• Treat people by their age,    • Check for understanding
  not their apparent level of   • Give time for learning and for
  ability                         skills to develop
• Use simple straightforward    • Repeat exercises in a variety
  language                        of ways
• Use gestures and changes in   • Break down skills into small
  tone and volume of your
  voice                         • Ask participant for
                                  information and only if
• Use demonstrations              unsuccessful ask their carer

                                                      OHT 5.6D
Communication Considerations
People with Speech impairments

• Do not pretend to have understood when you have
• Be patient
• Do not rush people
• Do not finish their sentences for them
• Always ensure understanding - yours and theirs
  before proceeding
• If after several attempts you are unable to understand
  , then consult a carer

                                             OHT 5.6E
Inclusion of Disabled People Into
Main stream Sport
Key components of sport include:
• Techniques: kicking, hitting, running, throwing
• Skills
• Rules
• People
• Tactics
• Playing Areas
• Equipment

                                                    OHT 5.7
The Key Skills would be:

•   Throwing
•   Catching
•   Kicking
•   Striking / hitting
•   Moving
•   Travelling

                           OHT 5.8
Different ways of travelling

•   Running         •   Hopping
•   Crawling        •   On 3 Limbs
•   Jumping         •   On Backsides
•   Rolling         •   Skipping
•   Sliding

                                       OHT 5.9
Different ways of travelling
with a ball include:
•   Held in arms or hands
•   Carried on lap
•   Carried on lap tray
•   Held under chin
•   Held in receptacle
•   Pushed along ground

                               OHT 5.10
Different ways of sending
and receiving a ball
Sending               Receiving
• Bouncing            • Catching by hand
• Hitting             • Catching with a glove
• Rolling             • Catching with a device
• Throwing            • Stopping with hands
• With scoop / ramp   • Stopping with feet
• Heading             • Stopping with wheels
• Kicking             • Seated or standing
                                         OHT 5.11
Main Categories of Sports Games

Sports can be divided up into 4 main types
• Net / wall games
• Striking / Fielding games
• Invasion games
• Target Games

                                        OHT 5.12
 A Model for adapting activities
                Select The Activity


                                Skills & Objectives
                                Incidental Skills

                Set Realistic
Observation &       Goals                   NCF 1991
Analysis                                    OHT 5.13
Adaptations might include:
• Equipment                 • Players
  Larger, lighter, softer     Wheelchair users may stop
                              the ball with wheels of chair.
  balls                       Players who use rollators,
  Ball with bell inside       sticks, crutches or walking
                              frames can also use these to
• Rules
                              assist in stopping / striking
  Smaller playing areas       the ball
  Playing zones

                                                  OHT 5.14
Adaptations might include:
Equipment                     Rules:
• Larger, lighter balls       • Players can carry sticks on
• Balls that are more         • Laps whilst manoeuvring
• controllable                • wheelchair
• Koosh balls
                              • Use zones for players
• Ball with bell
                              • All players touch ball
• Larger ball
• A puck                      • before shot
• Strapping hockey stick to   • Some players cannot be marked

                                                     OHT 5.15
Adaptations might include:
Equipment:                       Rules
•   Different size balls         • WCH users can only use
•   Ball with bell                 one revolution of their
•   Different colour balls         wheels
•   Lower the ring               • Increase holding time for
•   Alternative scoring system     some players

• Use flag & whistle

                                                       OHT 5.16
NETBALL         (cont…)

Playing Area:
• Extra Zones

• Some players cannot be marked
• Every player must touch before scoring

                                           OHT 5.16
NGB Award Schemes
Athletics   Badminton      Basketball     Boccia   Canoeing
YES         YES
                           OPEN           YES      OPEN

Croquet     Football       Gymnastics     Hockey   Life saving

OPEN        YES            YES            OPEN     OPEN

Netball     Orienteering   Rowing         Rugby    Rugby league

YES         YES            OPEN           OPEN     OPEN

Squash      Swimming       Table Tennis   Tennis   Triathlon

OPEN        OPEN           OPEN           OPEN     OPEN

                                                      OHT 5.17

• Boccia pronounced         • All players play from a
  Botcha                      seated position
                            • Played locally in schools and
• Similar to bowls            clubs, regional, national,
• Target group                international, Paralympics &
• Played individually in
                            • Played by 30 Countries
  pairs or teams of 3
                            • Estimated 5000 people play
• Originally designed for     boccia in UK
  people with severe        • NGB = British Boccia
  impairment, (CP)            Federation

                                                   OHT 5.18

• 3 a side game
• Aim is to score ball by rolling   • Features which enable
  ball along floor into               visually impaired people to
  opponents goal                      play:
• Developed for visually              Ball has bell inside
  impaired                            Playing court has tactile
• Played in 87 countries              Markings
• Paralympic sport                    All players wear eyeshades
• BBS is the organisation             to ensure everyone is equal

                                                       OHT 5.19
GOALBALL           (cont…)

• Approx. 15 clubs and school teams in the UK
• BBS organises 10 one day tournaments a year,
  national schools competition, British Goalball cup
• There are at present no coaching courses for

                                                OHT 5.19
•   A 1-1 hitting game played on a     •   In 1990 the game was
    modified table tennis table            introduced to Disability Sport
                                           England National Mini Games,
•   Table has no net, with panels on
                                           now played regionally
    2 sides of the table
                                       •   Fast growing sport, currently
•   Aim is to hit ball past opponent
                                           played in Brazil, Canada, New
    and off end of table
                                           Zealand, Spain, USA
•   Developed as a result of an
    increased level of young people
    with severe impairments,
    entering the special school
    system of the ‟80‟s.

                                                                OHT 5.20
Table Cricket

• Involves all principles of     • Designed to mirror as many
  cricket , but played on a        aspects as possible of the
  table                            traditional sport of cricket
• Played in teams, pairs or      • In 1992 Table cricket was
  individually                     included in the Disability
• Developed as a result of the     Sport England National mini
  success of polybat, by Doug      games.

                                                       OHT 5.21

• Aim is to score goal by         • Developed by Ken Black
  striking puck or ball throguh     from the YST
  goal at opponents end of        • Regarded as a hybrid game
  table                             of polybat and table cricket
• Played on a TT table            • Currently not played at
• Screen placed in middle of        regional / national
  table, reducing reaction time     competitions, but included
  for players                       within SportSability
• Played as singles

                                                         OHT 5.22
Classification Systems

• The word classification means to arrange into classes
• Participants are classified for competition purposes
• Gender, age, weight, type of equipment, may determine which
  class is suitable
• Key reason for classification is to ensure FAIR competition

                                                        OHT 5.23
Sports Leadership &
Classification Systems
• Organisation of events or internal club competitions
• Ensuring competitions are fair allowing everyone to achieve
  their potential
• Supporting disabled athletes to attend events and get involved
  in the disability sports network
• Assisting in competitions

                                                  OHT 5.24
Types of Classification

• Impairment Based Classification Systems
• Functional Ability Systems
• The Time Banding System
• The Time Handicap System

                                            OHT 5.25

     Understanding Fitness & Health
                in Sport
The Facts:
• 7 out of 10 men & 8 out      • 81% of men aged 45 – 54
  of 10 women fell below         fell below their level of
                                 activity, knowing they were
  their appropriate activity     at high risk of CHD
  level necessary to           • Activity declines with age
  achieve a health benefit     • Routine physical activity
• 1 out of 6 people is           plays a very small part in the
  reasonable sedentary,          daily life of most people
  having done no activity
  for 20 mins or more the
  the last 4 weeks!
                                                        OHT 6.1
Activity Matters

• 44% of men & 40% of             • There is clear association
  women take part in sport at a     between past participation in
  vigorous / moderate               sport & the prevalence of
  intensity level                   Heart disease, angina and
• People who exercise in their      breathlessness
  youth are more likely to        • Men who smoked ( 20 a
  continue in later years           day)were found to be less
• Activity level varies             active at a vigorous or
  according to social /             moderate level compared
  economic status                   with non - smokers

                                                           OHT 6.1

• Light Activity – little or no exertion, no noticeable change in
• Moderate Activity – Requires sustained, muscular movement =
  to brisk walking, getting warm & slightly out of breath
• Vigorous Activity – Requires sustained, large muscle
  movements at 60 – 70 % of MHR, getting sweaty & out of breath

                                                         OHT 6.2
Health Related Benefits of
Physical Activity
Coronary Heart Disease
Physical activity reduces the risk of CHD by
strengthening the heart and lungs, reducing fatty acids
in the blood, reducing chance of thrombosis and
normalising BP

The Problem
CHD is the single leading cause of death for M & F
in England. It accounts for 29% of all M deaths and
23% of F deaths. Death rates from CHD in the
UK are among the highest in the world
                                                          OHT 6.3
CHD (cont….)

The risk of CHD decreases as physical activity increases
The greatest reduction in the risk of developing CHD is found when
inactive people move towards moderate activity intensity, rather
than moderate to vigorous.

                                                         OHT 6.3

During the initial 3 year campaign (1996 –9)
Active For Life targeted the entire population of England aged 16
- 74, with emphasis on sedentary groups. These are:
•        Young Women aged16 – 24 yrs
•        Middle aged M & F aged 44 – 54 yrs
•        Older people aged 50 +

                                                        OHT 6.4

• Estimated that if the whole    • Health promotion
  population exercised             programmes have been
  adequately the ave. annual       successful in increasing
  care cost would be less than     levels of activity among
  £10 per person for people        general population
  aged 45 and over. The cost     • Workplace programmes
  avoided would be more than       have reported benefits to
  £30 pp                           workforce including reduced
                                   absenteeism & improved job

                                                        OHT 6.5
Five core Components of
physical fitness

•   Sometimes called Stamina or      •   Muscle exerts maximum force to
    aerobic fitness                      overcome resistance
•   Heart, Lungs and Blood vessels   •   Increasing the amount of
•   Delivers oxygen to the working       resistance will train a muscle to
    muscles & carries carbon             become more efficient &
    dioxide to site of excretion         stronger
•   Exercise improves CV system,
    allowing muscles to work
    harder & longer

                                                                OHT 6.6
Components of Physical Fitness

MUSCULAR                        FLEXIBILITY
 ENDURANCE                      • Capability of an individual
• The ability of a muscle to      to use the muscles &
                                  related joints through the
  exert a force to overcome a
                                  full natural range of
  resistance over a period of
                                • Increased flexibility
• ME is increased by              increases length of muscle,
  performing high repetitions     extending the range of
  using low resistance            movement of that joint

                                                       OHT 6.6
Components of Physical Fitness

Motor Fitness
• Refers to agility, reaction, time, co-ordination, power and speed.
• These aspects are often inter – related
• Improvements in these factors will lead to particular movement
  being performed and executed more skilfully

                                                             OHT 6.6
Factors Affecting Physical
• Heredity
The genetic make up of a          • Body Type
person, will in part              The Morphic Shape of a
predetermine their physical       person can influence
capabilities                      capabilities
• Lifestyle
                                  • Age
The general level of
                                  Physical capabilities tend
everyday activities will affect
physical fitness                  to decline with age
• Diet                            • Health Status
Healthy eating patterns are       Performance can be severely
important in order to provide     affected by poor health
the body with sufficient

                                                        OHT 6.7
Functions of the Skeleton

•   Movement
•   Shape
•   Protection
•   Storage
•   Production

                            OHT 6.8
BONES – The Facts

• The human skeleton is made       • At birth , bones are made of
  up of 206 bones                    cartilage and as growth
• The types of bones are long,       occurs, calcium and
  short, irregular , flat            phosphorus are laid down
• Ossification is the process of     and cartilage becomes bone
  bone formation                   • Developed bones have a
• Ossification is generally          hard compact outer layer
  completed by the age of 21         and honeycomb like inner

                                                          OHT 6.9
Movement of the Spine

• Flexion & Extension of the neck occur in the cervical region
• Rotation of the trunk occurs mainly in the thoracic region
• Flexion & extension of the trunk occur mainly in the lumbar

                                                         OHT 6.10
Types of joints
• Immovable e.g. skull
• Slightly Movable e.g. vertebrae
• Freely movable e.g. Hinge – ankle
                      Ball & Socket – hip
                      Pivot - neck

 • Ligaments – tissues which connect bone to
 • Tendons – Connects muscle to bone
 • Cartilage – Glassy looking tissue covering
   ends of bones; the shock absorber
                                                OHT 6.11
The synovial joint

         Please photocopy out of TRP and enlarge
         By 100%

                                        OHT 6.12
Joint Actions
Our movement is restricted by the structure of the joints. Knowledge of joint actions
will help us to understand how we move.

•   Bend – Reduce angle at joint FLEXION
•   Straighten – Enlarge angle at joint EXTENSION
•   Side Outward – Take away from body ABDUCTION
•   Side Inward - Bring towards body ADDUCTION
•   Pivot – Turn inwards / outwards ROTATION
•   Complete circular movement – CIRCUMDUCTION

                                                                           OHT 6.13
Skeletal muscle
Muscle Types

There are three types of muscle:
• Skeletal – attached to the bone, its contraction is responsible for
  supporting and moving the skeleton

• Smooth – surrounds various hollow organs or tubes, including
  the stomach, blood vessels and airways. Controlled by the
  sympathetic nervous system

• Cardiac – muscle of the heart whose contraction propels blood
  through the circulatory system.

                                                            OHT 6.14
Skeletal Muscle (cont…)
• Approximately 650 muscles      •   Muscles have elastic properties
  in the body                    •   Are always in slight tension,
• Make up 35 – 40 % of total         ready to react
  body weight                    •   Two ends of a muscle move
                                     closer together when
• Muscles attached to bone via       contracting
                                 •   Muscles can stretch, contract
• Muscles can only pull along        and relax
  the line of their fibres       •   They work on the “all or nothing”
• Muscles are more pliable           principle
  when warm                      •   Strength of contraction depends
                                     on number of muscle fibres

                                                             OHT 6.14
Two Types of Muscular
  A static contraction, when the muscle contracts but there is no
  visible joint movement or limited range of joint movement. This
  could be when a muscle is activity engaged in holding a static
  A moving contraction, when a muscle moves through its full
  range of movement. There are 2 phases to this contraction:
  Concentric – when a muscle is shortening
   Eccentric – when a muscle is lengthening

                                                          OHT 6.15
The Strength Continuum

       Absolute                         Muscle
       strength                         Endurance

    Very high resistance               Low or moderate
    Low reps                           resistance

    Fast twitch fibres                Slow twitch fibres
Stronger ligaments            Increased efficiency of fibres
Increase in muscle size       Increased number of capillaries
Increase in muscle strength   Increased supply of 02
                                                    OHT 6.16
Long – term benefits of
muscular strength and endurance training
•   Improves posture
•   Injury prevention
•   Improves body shape by toning muscles
•   Strengthens bone density
•   Improves functional capacity
•   Improves neuromuscular efficiency

                                        OHT 6.17
Psychological and Social Effects of
Muscular strength and Endurance training

•   Increased feeling of well being
•   Reduced stress
•   Increased self esteem
•   Increased self confidence
•   Provides opportunities and occasions for
    meeting and communicating with others

                                           OHT 6.17
The Respiratory System

Consists of:                  Its Role:
• Nose, pharynx, larynx,      • To provide blood with a
  trachea, bronchii, lungs       constant supply of O2 from
                                 the air
  2 lungs, divided into       • To allow unwanted carbon
  several lobes                  dioxide to be passed out of
• Each lobe consists of          blood back into air.
  thousands of tiny air       As you exercise:
  sacs called alveoli         • Efficient respiration is critical

• Gaseous exchange
  occurs within the alveloi                           OHT 6.18
Diagram of Respiratory System

         See diagram in TRP page 12
         and photocopy at increased rate of 100%

                                            OHT 6.19
The route air follows through the respiratory system

    AIR                     …ENTERS BODY VIA NOSE AND MOUTH
                            Air is warmed, moistened & filtered

                         …PASSES THROUGH PHARYNX
                         Lies behind nose and mouth. Receives both air and food

                              …...PHARYNX TO LARYNX
                Separated by epiglottis, which prevents food from entering the Trachea

                                ..THROUGH LARYNX TO TRACHEA
      Trachea is a tube & is kept open by a series of cartilage rings. This allows free movement of air

          …TRACHEA DIVIDES INTO 2 BRONCHI                     1 bronchus leads to right lung, 1 to left

        …Bronchi further divide into smaller bronchi & bronchioles leading to alveloi
  Diffusion of gasses take place, CO2 passes into alveolus and O2 replaces it

            When the diaphragm contracts it flattens increasing the capacity of the chest cavity
                                                                                                     OHT 6.20
• Automatically controlled by
  respiratory centre in the     • Adults breathe 14 – 20 x per
  brain                           minute
• Happens continuously &        • Babies breathe 30 – 40 x per
  unconsciously                   minute
• Air contains 21% oxygen
• Illnesses which can affect
  the respiratory system,       Regular aerobic exercise can
  making exercise               increase efficiency of the
  uncomfortable are:            respiratory system, providing
  - Common cold
                                more oxygen to the CV system
  - Asthma
  - Bronchitis
  - Pneumonia

                                                     OHT 6.21
• Is a double pump about the size of a man‟s fist
• Each pump has 2 chambers:
  1 to collect blood in, Right & Left Atrium
  1 to pump blood around the body, Right & Left
• Every time the heart beats we can feel the pressure
  wave where an artery crosses a bone = PULSE
• At every heart beat, the heart pushes out a certain
  amount of blood = STROKE VOLUME

                                               OHT 6.22
 The CV system
• When we breathe in, air with O2 enters the lungs and
  supplies the body with oxygen for ENERGY
• Oxygen is absorbed from the air and transported to
  all parts of the body via the blood and circulatory
• The exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place in the alveoli
  in the lungs
• CO2 is a waste product of energy production
• From the lungs oxygenated blood enters the heart.

                                               OHT 6.23

• Oxygenated blood now enters the heart via
  the left atrium and is pumped out of the left
  ventricle via the aorta
• Arteries take blood away from the heart
• The circulatory system takes the oxygenated
  blood to the working muscles via arteries to
  arterioles to capillaries

                                          OHT 6.23
In the Heart cont..

• When O2 has been extracted from the blood and
  therefore contains CO2, this returns to the right side
  of the heart via capillaries to venules to veins
• Deoxy blood collects in the right atrium via the vena
  cava and is pumped out to the lungs via the right
  We can then expire the waste products containing

                                               OHT 6.23
The CV System
Components      Function

                • Chambers through which
• Atria           blood flows from veins

• Ventricles    • Chambers whose
                  contractions produce
                  pressure that drive blood
                  through vascular system
                  back to the heart.

                                   OHT 6.24
The CV System
Vascular System
                  • High pressure vessels which
• Arteries          carry oxy blood from the
                    heart to the tissues. They
                    offer little resistance to blood
                    flow, due to ability to expand
                    & recoil like an elastic band

• Arterioles      • Major sites of resistance to
                    flow. Thicker layer of smooth
                    muscle than larger arteries

                                            OHT 6.24
The CV System cont….

• Capillaries   • A network of tiny
                  vessels, exchanging
                  gases, nutrients and
                  waste products
• Venules       • Small veins.Relatively
                  flaccid, more compliant
• Veins         • Low resistance conduits
                  for blood flow back to
                  the heart

                                   OHT 6.24
    Physiological Effects of Aerobic
    Exercise on the CV System
Immediate Effects:
•      HR increases
•      BR increases
•      Cardiac Output increases
•      BP increases
•      Arteries, Arterioles & capillaries dilate
•      Increased blood flow
•      Blood supply redirected to working muscles
•      Body Temp increases
•      Skin appears flushed
•      Sweating

                                                    OHT 6.25
 Physiological Effects (cont…)
Short Term Effects:
•      Heart becomes stronger
•      Increased stroke volume
•      Resting HR is lowered
•      Increase in size & number of blood vessels to
•      Increase capillaries in muscle
•      Shorter recovery time after exercise

                                                  OHT 6.25
Physiological Effects (cont…)

Long Term Effects:
•    Heart becomes a more efficient pump
•    Prevents furring up of arteries
•    Decreased risk of CHD
•    Ability to cope with everyday tasks &
     stressful situation improved

                                      OHT 6.25

• Flexibility = the maximum natural range of
  movement possible about a joint, or joints

• Stretching = Stretching muscles is a method
  of increasing or maintaining flexibility. This
  includes taking the origin & insertion of the
  muscle further apart.

                                          OHT 6.26
 Why Stretch?

• Reduces muscle tension and makes the body feel more relaxed
• Increases natural range of movement of joints & muscles so that
  the body can work more efficiently.
• Helps prevent muscle soreness or muscle tears.
• Helps facilitate recovery from soft tissues
• Improves exercise techniques by extending the body‟s natural
  range of movement
• Returns the body to pre-exercise state.
• Body awareness: knowing where your body is in time & space

                                                          OHT 6.26
  Flexibility is limited by:
• Joint Structure
• Ligaments and tendons can offer greater
• Muscle bulk can limit range of movement
  round a joint
• Elasticity of muscle wrappings
• Age & Gender
• Specificity

                                       OHT 6.26
    Different types of Stretch

• Performed with jerky / bouncing movements
• The force of the movements stretches the muscle
• Creates tension in the muscle
• Traditionally used by dancers / athletes
• Stretching like this likelihood of injury
• The position is not held, so the muscle never gets a chance to
  relax in the stretch
• High risk of muscle strain, soreness and possible damage. This
  form of stretching is not recommended

                                                           OHT 6.27
• These movements take a muscle slowly and
  deliberately to the end of its range
• As the position is held, the tension from the
  stretch eases allowing the muscle to stretch
  enhancing flexibility
• Safer and more effective than ballistic
  stretching as the tissues have time to relax

                                            OHT 6.27

                   ACTIVE                        PASSIVE

•Stretching alone, without           •Achieved by using an external force
 external aid                         while individual remains inactive
•When the opposing muscle            •Allows all muscle surrounding joint
 contracts & shortens, lengthening    to totally relax
 the opposing one                    •Easy to stretch muscles beyond their
•Depends on the strength in the       limit, so must be done with care
•Safest method of stretching,
 requiring no partner
                                                    Adapted Cullum &
                                                    Mowbray 1992
                                                    OHT 6.27
Types of Flexibility Training
•   Preparatory Stretch                 •   Developmental Stretch
    6 – 10 seconds in a warm up to          To increase flexibility of muscles
    reduce injury by preparing              where range of movement is
    muscles for work to come                poor, held for 15 – 30 + secs,
•   Maintenance Stretch                     gradually increasing range of
    Maintains the flexibility already       movement.
    established and should be used          All these stretches are brought
    where flexibility of different          about by RELAXATION of the
    areas is generally good. Usually        muscles and can be performed
    performed as part of the cool           as part of the cool down session

                                                                    OHT 6.28
Stretching exercises should take into account the
following areas of the body:
• Neck
• Arms
• Chest
• Legs
• Shoulders
• Gluteals / hips
• Back

                                                    OHT 6.28

How does muscular contraction take place?
• Muscular contraction cannot take place
  without energy
• O2 allows muscles to contract repeatedly
• O2 is transported to the working muscles via
  the CV system

                                          OHT 6.29
Food = Energy

• Food is the fuel we need for energy
  production, just as a car‟s fuel is petrol
• Our bodies can use many different energy
  supplies and change from one to another
  depending on how hard we are working
• There are 2 main energy systems

                                         OHT 6.29
   Energy systems
ANAEROBIC:                        AEROBIC:
• High Intensity Work             • Lower level of intensity of
  Explosive Movements               work with O2
  WITHOUT O2                      • Longer period of time as long
• Uses stored CHO‟s in the          as Glycogen & Oxygen are
  muscle                            present
• When work becomes too
                                  • The only waste product is
  hard for our supplies to meet
  demand, then LACTIC acid          CO2 & H2O
  is produced and the body
  reaches its Anaerobic

                                                        OHT 6.29
Structure of a session
Every session, regardless of the session objectives, should have the
following structure:

• A Warm Up = approx 15% of session
• A Main Session = approx 70% session
• A cool Down = approx 10% to include

                                                                 OHT 6.30
Why warm up?

• To Prepare the body for exercise to follow
• To improve performance
• To protect against injury

                                         OHT 6.31

The 3 main physical parts are the:
• Joints
• Heart & Lungs
• Muscles

                                     OHT 6.32
How to warm up (1)

•   The body adapts progressively
•   There should be no sudden burst of activity
•   Whole body approach
•   Small movement – full range of movement
•   Should be related to the activity to follow

• Loosening joints to allow the synovial fluids
  surrounding the joint to be lubricated
• It allows the joint to move freely like the oil in the
  engine car
                                                           OHT 6.32
   How to warm up (2)
Heart & Lungs
•       The heart is a pump
•       Pump needs to work more efficiently
•       H & L should be prepared for more strenuous activity
•       Heart needs to pump blood faster to the working muscles
•       Increase intensity gradually.

• By performing movements which make you work harder,
  either at a low level using whole body movements, or by large
  movements involving large muscle groups
• As the muscles work harder the heart also has to work harder
  to pump more oxy blood to them. This increases HR.

                                                           OHT 6.33

• Muscles are made up of a collection of bundles of
  muscle fibres
• Fibres are elastic so they can:
   contract             shorten
   relax                lengthen

When the muscles are worked, heat is released by the
contractions taking place:
• Increase in temperature
• Muscles are more pliable
• allows muscles to move at a greater speed
                                                       OHT 6.34
  Warm up intensity
• WU should allow participants     How Long?
  to work within 20 bpm of
  training HR zone                 • Fitness levels will affect
• Consider the temperature           duration of WU
• Consider the ability             • A fitter person will take
• A warm up that is too              longer to get HR up
  complex can take HR into         • An unfit person will take a
  the training zone                  short time to raise HR
• Appropriate motivation from      • Combination of mobility &
  the leader, will control those     pulse raising activities will
  too eager                          decrease overall length of
                                     time for fitter person

                                                             OHT 6.34
Why cool down?

• Return the body gradually to pre-exercise state
• Relax in order to reduce physical tension
• Assist the CV system to remove substances that may
  contribute to muscle stiffness or soreness
• Prevents blood pooling
• Assists CV system return to its normal rate of
  function avoiding dizziness after exercise

                                             OHT 6.35
Pulse Lowering
• To prevent blood pooling
• To reduce HR and BR
• To remove waste products ( & by products
• Maintain & improve Flexibility
• Realign muscle fibres to prevent injury
• Core Temperature of muscle must be warm before stretching
• Leaders may have to re-warm after main session

                                                         OHT 6.36

• Pulse decreasing activities using large muscle groups to help
  flush out lactic acid. Gradually decrease intensity.
• Stretching to prevent Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
• To realign muscle fibres after repeated muscular contraction
• Maintain flexibility: hold stretch for 10 - 15 secs
• Develop flexibility: stretches should be held for 15 secs +

                                                       OHT 6.36

• Mild jogging, skipping & walking
• Variety of stretching to lengthen muscles
  which have been shortened by the activity
• It could be simply a reverse of the warm up

                                        OHT 6.36

Relaxation can be defined as:
• A time of rest / refreshment after work
• Relax by listening to music, reading, play a game of
• There are specific forms of relaxation to truly rest the
• Rest can be defined as a time when the body is free
  from exertion, not moving, a period of calm
• Rest is important in maintaining a healthy lifestyle

                                                    OHT 6.37

• It is during rest that the body adapts to the
  exercise stress and subsequently becomes
• When a muscle works, a certain amount of
  muscle tissue breakdown occurs. During rest
  this tissue repairs itself, becoming stronger

                                        OHT 6.37

• Without regular periods of rest in a work out
  schedule, the body never gets a chance to
  recover and adapt but will remain in a
  constant state of fatigue.
• Ultimately performance will suffer, fitness
  improvements will plateau and the risk of
  over-use injuries will rise.

                                          OHT 6.37

• 24 HOURS rest between aerobic workouts
• Minimum 24 – 48 hours between strength
  training sessions
• A more intense session e.g circuit training,
  requires longer rest between sessions
• At least 2 days off each week from moderate
  to high intensity aerobic workouts

                          Adapted from the Physical Website 1999
                          OHT 6.37

Food provides the materials needed for:
• Energy
• Growth
• Repair
• Reproduction
These materials are called nutrients

                                          OHT 6.38

• Proteins
• Carbohydrates
• Fats
• Minerals
• Vitamins
  Each nutrient has a particular role to play in the
  body‟s function

                                                  OHT 6.38

CARBOHYDRATES               PROTEIN         FAT

                Contains calories
                ( a unit of a measure of energy)

 Energy can be used in several ways:
 •For heat                              •To move its parts
 •To build its structures               •Or to be stored as fat
                                                      OHT 6.39
Adapted from LAY manual   OHT 6.43

         ENERGY INPUT                   =        ENERGY OUTPUT


     2                         GREATER THAN

                                     LESS THAN
Energy balance

1   energy balance is achieved
    energy input = energy output
2   Body fat is stored
    Energy input < energy output
3   Some body fat is used up
    Energy input > energy output

                                   OHT 6.40
Nutritional Pyramid

• Photocopy from TRP OHT 6.41

                                OHT 6.41
   The Food Plate

                       Starchy foods     Occasional foods

                                              Meat & alternatives

                  Dairy prods
                                Fruit & veg

It is important to select different
Food from each group & to balance the amount
You eat each day.                          HEA 1994 – LAY manual
                                                   OHT 6.42
The importance of water

• Dehydration leads to a decrease in performance. 2%
  dehydration can lead to a drop in performance by 20%!!
  Replace fluid as soon as it is lost!
• If you are thirsty its too late – you are already dehydrated
• Drink at least 0.5 L of fluid before exercising
• The 250ml every 15 mins
• Again between 0.5L and 1L after exercise has stopped
• On a daily basis, try to drink 4 pints

                                                          OHT 6.43
•   Medical problems                 Signs of over exertion & over
                                     exercise such as:
•   Past exercise / levels           • Undue fatigue during activity
•   Emergency procedures             • Inability to recover after cool down
•   Location of telephones /         Signs indicating that the participant
    number of nearest A&E            should stop exercising:
•   Location of first aid box        • Laboured breathing
                                     • Loss of co-ordination
•   Care taker info                  • Dizziness
•   Clean activity area / safe       • Tightness in chest
•   Availability of drinking water   • Nausea / vomiting
•   Correct clothing to wear         • Irregular HR
                                     • Muscular – skeletal problems

                                                               OHT 6.44
• Always wear the appropriate     • Always cool down after
  clothing                          exercise
• Wear extra layers of clothing   • When using equipment
  in cold                           always follow guide lines
• Always WU thoroughly
                                  • Do not exercise if unwell
• Practice good technique
                                  • Do not exercise with existing
• Progress gradually
• If it hurts don‟t do it
                                  • Seek medical advice for joint
                                  • If in doubt check with GP

                                                       OHT 6.45
• Collect essential information about participants
  health, fitness level and activity preference
• Identify medical conditions & medications
• Discover contraindicated activities
• Suggest suitable activities or exercise at appropriate
• Adhere to legal & ethical requirements of exercise &
  fitness industry

                                                 OHT 6.46
By completing Informal Consent forms participants will:
• Be able to understand purpose of activity
• Be informed about possible risks & benefits
• Be able to ask any questions / voice concerns
• Be advised that participation is voluntary

Getting the participants consent does not prevent legal
action or protect against negligence. It does indicate
that the leader is concerned with the participants safety

                                                    OHT 6.47

When planning safe exercise, leaders should consider
the following:
• Levels of fitness
• Body type
• Comfort & stability of position
• Speed of activity
• Range of movement previous injury
• Participants preference
                                              OHT 6.48
When risks outweigh the benefits

Consider the following:
• Continuous impact work where one foot leaves the
• Intense twisting actions in the legs and ankles
• Excessive bone loading
• Isometric work
• Unsupported shoulder work for clinical conditions eg
  frozen shoulder
• Contraindicated exercises / stretches
                                               OHT 6.49
STRESS                     OVERLOAD
• Skin colouring           • In order to improve it is
• HR too high                necessary to stress the
                             body to a higher level
• Severely laboured          than normal
                           • Placed in a state of
• Hyperventilation           overload – above a
• Lack of co-ordination      critical threshold
• Heaviness / clumsiness   • If threshold is not
                             achieved, no
                             improvement will occur

                                               OHT 6.50
                               Fatigue has many causes
• Inability to maintain a
  given exercise intensity
                               • Energy systems may be
  / or repeat the
  production of a
  contraction                  • Severe dehydration
                               • Psychological factors
• Fatigue limits the quality
  of a performance or          • Insufficient calcium inhibiting
                                  muscle contraction
  activity and may make a
  person susceptible to
                                                       OHT 6.50
Remember that:
• Appropriate training
• Appropriate diet
• Suitable exercise environment…
….can allow an individual to perform well and
maximise their exercise enjoyment.

                                         OHT 6.50
• HEART – beating fast, steady, slow?
• TEMPERATURE – warm, hot, sweaty, cold?
• BREATHING – heavy, slow, fast, light deep, out of
  Does the exercise feel: Easy?
                          Hard? Difficult?
                                              OHT 6.51
• SCALE                                • HOW EXERCISE FEELS

0    -----------------------------     Nothing
2                                      Easy
4    ------------------------------    Comfortable
6                                      Hard
8    -------------------------------   Difficult
10                                     Exhausting

                                                        OHT 6.51
Resting HR                        Training HR zone
• Indicates lowest level of       • Range within which the heart
  heart beats                        needs to work for a
• Take the pulse first thing in      consistent period of time to
  the morning before you get         improve CV fitness
  out of bed                      • Need to take pulse during
• Take for 60 seconds at the         exercise, or as close to
  throat or wrist                    finishing ex.
• As you become fitter,           • Take pulse for 10 s and
  number of beats will               times it by 6 to work out
  decrease                           bpm. Compare to chart.

                                                       OHT 6.52

Recovery Heart Rate
• How long the HR takes to return to normal post
  exercise. A good indicator of fitness level.
• To establish the recovery HR, take the pulse
  immediately after exercise and then at regular
  intervals to establish how long it takes to return to
• The greater the level of cardiovascular fitness, the
  quicker the HR and BR will return to normal
                               ADAPTED FORM GOSSELIN OHT   6.52
Training HR Zones
AGE         Max No          TRAIN   ING   ZONE
            beats in 10 s
                            60%     75%   85%
16– 24yrs   33              20      25    28

25-32yrs    31              19      24    27

33-39yrs    30              18      23    26

40-46yrs    29              17      22    25

47-53yrs    28              17      21    24

54-60yrs    27              16      20    23

                                                 OHT 6.53
Training HR zones

Maximum HR is calculated using the following formula:
                      MHR = 220 – age

Training zone   Intensity         Energy system used
(%of MHR)

50-60%          low                    aerobic
65-80%          moderate               aerobic
80-90%          high                   anaerobic

                                                        OHT 6.53
Planning the programme

•   How Long?
•   How Hard?
•   How Often?
•   What Type?

The FITTA principle should be applied in order
to answer the above questions
                                         OHT 6.54
  What is F.I.T.T.(A)?

• F frequency = the number of times an individual
  exercises in a week
• I intensity = how hard an individual should work in
  each exercise session
• T time = the length of each exercise
• T type = the specific types of activity that people
  should perform to maintain and promote health
• A adherence = anyone engaging in exercise must
  adhere to the programme if long term benefits are
  to be gained
                                                    OHT 6.54
The ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) has suggested
the following guidelines for applying the FITT principle to the
components of fitness:
Aerobic Exercise
• F = 3-5 times per week
• I = 55 –90% MHR
• T = 20-60 mins. Lower intensity 30 mins +
• T = continuous type exercises using large muscle groups,e.g
   walking, hiking, running, jogging, cycling, skipping, rowing,
   skating, endurance games

                                                             OHT 6.55
Muscular Strength & Endurance
• F = 2 days a week
• I = moderate
• T = 8 –12 reps x 8-10 exercises (for major
  muscle groups) older people / frail:10 –15
• T = Isotonic, whole body approach, 8-10

                                        OHT 6.55
• F = 3 times a week
• I = not so extreme as to cause pain – mild tension
• T = 10 – 30 s, repeated 3-5 times
• T = static stretching

Exercise should involve expenditure of 250 –300kcal
per session, 3x pw for weight control

                                               OHT 6.55
Adapting a session
altering the way an activity is performed in order to change the

• CHECK: signs of fatigue and Performance deterioration
• RESPOND: adapt activity as appropriate, make less
  demanding, break down technique
• CONTEXT: level of fitness of participant and aims of participant
  – social, enjoyable, competitive, improve fitness, psychological

                                                           OHT 6.56

Specificity Training         Cross Training
• Use of specific aspect     • Where a specific
  of fitness to achieve a      component of physical
  specific goal                fitness is trained to help
                               improve another
• e.g . If the goal is to      activity.
  improve CV fitness the     • e.g using leg weights in
  exercise will need to be     the gym to improve leg
  aerobic based.               strength to enhance
                               cycling ability

                                                OHT 6.57

Interval Training            Circuit Training
• Exercise is split into     • Used for all – round
                                development of each
   high intensity sessions      physical fitness component
   and rest sessions         • Can be a combination of
• e.g interval running          equipment / exercises
                                arranged in stations. Amount
   which involves running       of rest between is
   as hard as possible for      determined by the session
   1 minute, then walking       objective
                             • e.g high intensity with no rest
   for 3 mins.                  between stations - anaerobic

                               ADAPTED FROM GOSSELIN OHT   6.57

             SPORTS EVENT
Unit 9 objectives

By the end of this unit you should be able to:
• List the different types of sports events
• Take part in an event organising group
  sports event

                                           OHT 9.1
Key questions to ask when
planning an event…
•   Why are we holding the event?
•   Where will the event be?
•   When will the event be?
•   Who needs to be involved?
•   What needs to be done?
•   How will things be done?

                                    OHT 9.2

•   Facilities
•   Equipment
•   Staff / personnel
•   Support services
•   Administration
•   Presentation / media

                           OHT 9.3
• Attention – does the publicity attract
• Interest – does the publicity arouse interest?
• Desire – does the publicity create desire to go
  to the event?
• Action – does the publicity cause action?

                                          OHT 9.4
    On the Day
•   Signposting
•   Parking
•   First aid
•   Refreshments
•   Reception
•   Press
•   Post – event clear up

                            OHT 9.5
On the day what if ?….
• ….there is a problem – who will
• ….someone forgets what to do?
• ….someone goes sick after the start?
• ….there is an accident?
• ….the reporter fails to turn up?
• ….more people than anticipated turn up?

                                       OHT 9.6

Description: Cricket Sport Management Organisational Chart document sample