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					Crew Endurance
Management
System
(CEMS)
One of AWO’s ongoing priorities is to
improve crew alertness.     AWO has
worked with the Coast Guard to develop
educational tools to inform companies
and crewmembers about this topic. The
Coast Guard Research and Development
Center has developed a Crew Endurance
Management System (CEMS) to help
companies introduce a holistic program
addressing endurance factors.        The
following is adapted from materials
supporting the CEMS.

For further information on resources
available for CEMS, please contact the
Coast Guard’s Human Element & Ship
Design Division at (202) 267-2997.
INTRO                 What is
                      Crew Endurance
                      In Maritime Operations                                        ?
        Maritime crews generally work 12 hours             body’s internal timing system (the
        per day, seven days a week, in cycles              biological clock). Each of these factors
        varying from 15 to                                                       affects a
        30 days. The cycle,                                                      crewmember’s
        or crew shift,             Crew endurance refers to the ability of a     endurance level by
        depends on                   crew to maintain performance within         exerting a direct
                                   safety limits while coping with job-related
        environmental                                                            influence on his or her
                                   environmental, operational, physiological
        factors, crew travel            and psychological challenges.
                                                                                 energy and alertness
        frequency to and                                                         levels. Therefore, a
        from assigned                                                            crewmember’s
        vessels, and industry and operational              performance and safety levels depend on his
        constraints. The 24/7 working                      or her level of endurance.
        environment of the maritime industry can
        subject crews to a number of operational           One key to maintaining a high level of
        risk factors such as sustained wakefulness,        performance and safety in maritime
        temperature variations, and uneven work            operations is crew endurance management.
        demands that can affect crew endurance
        (stamina and alertness).

        While the endurance of a vessel is a
        function of how long the vessel can
        support operations underway without                       Factors:
        replenishment or maintenance, the
        endurance of its crewmembers is a function                 • Environmental: Effects of ambient temperature, noise
        of a combination of environmental,                           and vibration on the human body.
        operational, physiological and
        psychological factors.                                     • Operational: Effects of company and boat policies.

        These factors include the internal state of                • Physiological: Effects of sleep, diet, exercise and shift
        crewmembers (e.g., emotional state, stress                   work on the body and performance.
        level), physical conditioning, motion-
        discomfort level, quality and duration of                  • Psychological: Effects of stress and working
        sleep periods, diet, and the stability of the                conditions on performance.




                                                              3
INTRO                What is
                     Crew Endurance
                     Management                                   ?
        Crew endurance refers to the ability of a         There is also an internal risk factor related
        crew to maintain performance within safety        to a person’s “body clock.” Within an
        limits while coping with job-related              individual’s body clock is a period known
        environmental, operational, physiological         as the “Red Zone.” The Red Zone can
        and psychological challenges. These               also be managed to affect crewmember
        challenges are:                                   alertness and stamina.

          • Environmental: Effects of
            ambient temperature, noise and
            vibration on the human body              Performance Stressors:
          • Operational: Effects of
            company and boat policies                   Environmental                        Physiological

          • Physiological: Effects of sleep,              • Heat illness, caused by            • Excessive caffeine use, which
            diet, exercise and shift work on                dehydration and the loss of          is an energy drain that can
            the body and performance                        minerals needed to maintain          cause anxiety and sleep loss
                                                            normal body function
          • Psychological: Effects of stress                                                   • Improper use of over-the-
            and working conditions on                     • Cold illness, caused by heat         counter medications, which
            performance                                     and energy loss, resulting in        can cause drowsiness and
                                                            hypothermia and frostbite            reduced alertness
        Crew endurance can be managed by
        controlling the major risk factors              Operational                         Psychological
        affecting crewmember alertness and
        stamina. These risk factors are                   • Company and boat policies          • Stress caused by flight-or-
        called performance stressors and can                that define the parameters of        fight anxiety or burnout
        affect crewmember performance                       crewmember work practices
        individually and/or collectively.
        Some examples can be seen in the
        box to the right.

        These are external risk factors affecting
        crewmembers that can be managed by
        mitigating the stressors. For example,
        drinking additional fluids can minimize
        dehydration and mineral loss during high heat
        working conditions.




                                                              4
                                                                ?
INTRO
                      What is
                      The “Red Zone”

        Crew endurance refers to the ability of a       evening hours, and begins to decrease in the
        crew to maintain performance within safety      early night, reaching all time lows in the
        limits while coping with job-related            middle of the night.
        physiological, environmental, operational
        and psychological challenges.                   As illustrated in the figure below,
                                                        performance (energy) dips after noontime,
        Crew endurance can be managed by                reaching a mild low at about 1300, increases
        controlling the major challenges or risk        to a daily peak at about 1800, and then
        factors affecting crewmember alertness and      decreases steadily until reaching a daily low
        stamina. These risk factors are called          between 0200 and 0400. It then increases
        performance stressors and can affect            steadily, reaching another daily peak at
        crewmember performance individually             about 1000, and then decreases through the
        and/or collectively.                            late morning. The “Red Zone” is defined as
                                                        the daily period of lowest energy and
        These are external risk factors affecting       alertness that typically spans from roughly
        crewmembers that can be managed by              sundown to sun up; in this case, from 2100
        mitigating the stressors. For example,          until 0700.
        drinking additional fluids can minimize
        dehydration and mineral loss during high        The exact times of these peaks and valleys
        heat working conditions.                        depend on specific inputs to the biological
                                                        clock system, namely wake-up times,
        There is also an internal risk factor related   bedtimes, and daily time of daylight (and/or
        to a person’s “body clock.” Within an           artificial bright light) exposure.
        individual’s body clock is a period known
        as the “Red Zone.”                              The Red Zone can be managed to affect
                                                        crewmember alertness and stamina.
        The body’s biological clock is a
        physiological mechanism composed           The “Red Zone”
        of neural networks and hormonal
        outputs that regulate the timing of
        energy production and the timing of
        sleep onset and wake-up. The
        body’s clock system maintains a
        sleep/wake schedule in
        synchronization with local sunrise
        and sunset, along with the duration
        of daylight hours. Because the
        human body is naturally inclined to
        sleep during the night and spend
        energy during daylight hours, the
        biological clock reflects this cycle.

        The biological clock regulates energy
        cycles so that alertness increases after
        wake-up time, peaks in the mid-
        morning hours, dips in the afternoon
        hours, peaks again in the early



                                                            5
INTRO                How can
                     The “Red Zone”
                     Be Managed                              ?
        Crew endurance refers to the ability     system cannot function efficiently,        (body), but they cannot produce
        of a crew to maintain performance        causing one to:                            energy. The only way to produce
        within safety limits while coping                                                   energy is through adequate sleep,
        with job-related physiological,            • Think less clearly                     sufficient water intake, a balanced
        environmental, operational and                                                      diet, a stable body clock and
        psychological challenges.                  • Become irritable                       regular exercise.

        Crew endurance can be managed by           • Have problems communicating            Here are a few tips on how to control
        controlling the major challenges or          with others                            your daily energy level:
        risk factors affecting crewmember
        alertness and stamina. There are           • Experience degraded endurance            • Exercise daily. Any simple form
        external risk factors affecting              through work and leisure hours             of regular exercise helps: a 20-
        crewmembers that can be managed                                                         minute walk, running, weight
        by mitigating the stressors, like          • Become withdrawn and less                  lifting, 10-minute aerobic
        insulation from the cold and damp.           willing to resolve issues and              workouts, etc.
        There is also an internal risk factor        problems
        related to a person’s “body clock.”                                                   • Consume a balanced diet: low
        Within an individual’s body clock is       • Have less ability to fight disease         sugar, low fat, low starch, high
        a period known as the “Red Zone.”                                                       in green and yellow vegetables,
                                                 Regardless of how hard people might            chicken, turkey and fish
        The body’s biological clock is a         try to compensate for lack of energy,
        physiological mechanism that             their ability to carry out both physical     • Get adequate sleep
        regulates the timing of energy           and mental tasks is reduced. This
        production and the timing of sleep       reduction in energy compromises              • Manage stress, using relaxation
        onset and wake-up. The biological        their safety as well as the safety of          methods to reduce stress at the
        clock regulates energy cycles so that    those around them.                             individual level
        alertness increases after wake-up
        time, peaks in the mid-morning           Be cautious of products that claim         It is important to understand how
        hours, dips in the afternoon hours,      to boost energy resources. These           energy is produced, how it affects
        peaks again in the early evening         products can provide dietary input         endurance, and how it can be increased
        hours, and begins to decrease in the     to the energy-producing machinery          or decreased in certain situations.
        early night, reaching all time lows in
                                                  The “Red Zone”
        the middle of the night. The “Red
        Zone” is defined as the daily period
        of lowest energy and alertness that
        typically spans from roughly
        sundown to sun up; in this case, from
        2100 until 0700.

        Staying out of the Red Zone is a
        matter of energy management. If the
        body does not produce sufficient
        energy, the brain and the nervous




                                                             6
                                                               ?
INTRO
                      How is
                      Energy Produced

        Crew endurance refers to the ability of a      energy substrates: glucose (sugar), amino
        crew to maintain performance within safety     acids and fatty acids. These substrates are
        limits while coping with job-related           then processed within individual cells into
        physiological, environmental, operational      ATP (energy).
        and psychological challenges.
                                                       The Role of Sleep
        Crew endurance can be managed by
        controlling the major challenges or risk       Energy production generally takes place
        factors affecting crewmember alertness and     when energy is not being expended, i.e.,
        stamina. There are external risk factors       during sleep cycles. The “Red Zone,” the
        affecting crewmembers that can be managed      daily period of lowest energy and alertness,
        by mitigating the stressors, like insulation   is also the time of greatest energy
        from the cold and damp. There is also an       production. That is why sufficient sleep is
        internal risk factor related to a person’s     necessary to maintain adequate energy and
        “body clock.” Within an individual’s body      performance levels.
        clock is a period known as the “Red Zone.”
        The “Red Zone” is the daily period of
        lowest energy and alertness that typically     Since the “Red Zone” is triggered by the
        spans from roughly sundown to sun up.          body’s internal clock, simply shifting the
                                                       timing of sleep is not sufficient. Hormones
        Staying out of the “Red Zone” is a matter of   that regulate the body clock, like melatonin,
        energy management. An important part of        are affected by several factors. One of these
        managing the “Red Zone” is understanding       factors -- the amount of light to which the
        how energy is produced, how it affects         body is exposed -- has an impact on when
        endurance, and how it can be increased or      the body produces energy. Understanding
        decreased in certain situations.               how light affects the “Red Zone” is key to
                                                       “Red Zone” management.
        What Is Energy and How
        Is It Produced?                           Food is Broken Down into Energy Substrates

        The production of energy is
        dependent upon the production of
        molecules called adenosine tri-
        phosphate (ATP). ATP is found in all
        cells of the body. The amount of
        ATP produced by the body depends
        on good nutrition, adequate hydration
        (water intake), oxygen, and sufficient
        sleep. (See figure at right.)

        How the Body Turns Food
        into Energy

        The digestive system breaks food down
        into carbohydrates, proteins, and fats,
        which are then converted by enzymes into




                                                           7
INTRO                How does
                     Light Affect
                     The “Red Zone”                             ?
        Crew endurance refers to the ability of a       Personnel exposed to regular work
        crew to maintain performance within safety      schedules that allow for consistency from
        limits while coping with job-related            day to day will enjoy the benefits of a well-
        physiological, environmental, operational       synchronized biological clock. This allows
        and psychological challenges.                   daily energy restorative cycles to take place
                                                        regularly and for the experience of
        Crew endurance can be managed by                predictable alertness peaks and troughs.
        controlling the major challenges or risk        In contrast, work schedules that impose
        factors affecting crewmember alertness and      frequent transitions from daytime to
        stamina. There are external risk factors        nighttime duty hours disrupt energy
        affecting crewmembers that can be managed       production and decrease endurance.
        by mitigating the stressors, like insulation
        from the cold and damp. There is also an        The adjustment of the biological clock
        internal risk factor related to a person’s      requires the implementation of a specific
        “body clock.” Within an individual’s body       schedule of daylight and/or bright artificial
        clock is a period known as the “Red Zone.”      light exposure, as well as the maintenance
                                                        of a consistent sleep schedule. One way to
        The “Red Zone” is the daily period of           increase endurance during nighttime work is
        lowest energy and alertness that typically      to reverse the biological clock’s
        spans from roughly sundown to sun up.           synchronization from daytime to nighttime
        Since the “Red Zone” is triggered by the        orientation. This is known as “shifting the
        body’s internal clock, simply shifting the      ‘Red Zone’.”
        timing of sleep is not sufficient. Hormones
        that regulate the body clock, like melatonin,
        are affected by several factors. One of these
        factors -- the amount of light to which the
        body is exposed -- has an impact on when
        the body produces energy.

        Due to evolutionary pressures and
        physiological characteristics, the human
        body is predisposed to work during daylight
        hours and sleep during nighttime hours.
        The body’s clock system maintains a
        sleep/wake system schedule in
        synchronization with local sunrise and
        sunset and the duration of daylight hours.




                                                            8
INTRO                  How can
                       The “Red Zone”
                       Be Shifted                                ?
        Crew endurance refers to the ability of a         dark and noise-reduced environment.
        crew to maintain performance within safety        Lacking control of daylight and/or light
        limits while coping with job-related              exposure is a significant contributor to
        physiological, environmental, operational         fatigue and shiftwork maladapation.
        and psychological challenges.
                                                          Using Light Management Techniques
        Crew endurance can be managed by
        controlling the major challenges or risk          A strategic use of light management can help
        factors affecting crewmember alertness and        crewmembers to function optimally during
        stamina. There are external risk factors          nighttime rather than daytime hours. For
        affecting crewmembers that can be managed         example, exposing the human eye to artificial
        by mitigating the stressors, like insulation      light during the period between sunset and
        from the cold and damp. There is also an          0200 can shift the “Red Zone” for after-
        internal risk factor related to a person’s        watch duty. See Figure 1.
        “body clock.” Within an individual’s body
        clock is a period known as the “Red Zone.”
                                                                               (continued on page 10)
        The “Red Zone” is the daily period of
        lowest energy and alertness that typically
        spans from roughly sundown to sun up.
                                                      Figure 1
        Controlling Shiftwork Adaptation

        Adapting to nighttime or daytime work
        requires synchronizing physiological
        and cognitive resources with the
        biological clock. Maladaptation results
        if the body clock is not adjusted to the
        watch schedule. To adapt the
        biological clock, crewmembers must
        see daylight (or bright artificial light of
        at least 1,000 lux) on awakening and
        throughout their active periods (e.g.,
        during work hours). Light
        management is a critical part of the
        process of adapting to new watch
        schedules.

        The only way to fully adapt to night
        watch schedules is to reset the
        biological clock so that energy peaks during
        nighttime. Work must take place under
        artificial light (of at least 1,000 lux) that
        mimics daylight. Sleep must take place in a




                                                                 9
INTRO                  How can
                       The “Red Zone”
                       Be Shifted
                       (continued from page 9)
                                                                ?
        Figure 2 shows the “Red Zone” being         Figure 2
        shifted into full daylight hours. The
        three arrows indicate the amount of
        relative shift realized by applying light
        management techniques over three
        different periods of time. (Note that if
        sunrise occurs prior to 0700, natural
        light may be used for light
        management once daylight is of
        sufficient intensity.)

        Also note that it takes about five or
        six days of consistent light
        management to shift the “Red Zone”
        fully from a nighttime orientation
        over to a daylight (morning)
        orientation. Light management in
        this case could consist of closely
        replicating a daylight environment
        during nighttime hours, and a
        nighttime environment during
        morning hours.
                                                    Figure 3
        This “reverse” light management
        regimen is illustrated in Figure 3.
        Since wheelhouse personnel cannot
        generally work in bright artificial
        light at night, special “green” lights
        have recently been developed to
        provide the 1,000 lux needed to
        simulate daytime brightness.

        Now that the science of crew
        endurance management has been
        examined, the implementation of a
        Crew Endurance Management
        System can be discussed.




                                                               10
INTRO
                     The Structure Of A Crew
                     Endurance Management System

        Now that the science of crew endurance         at hand and focus less on advance planning.
        management has been explained, the next        Planning ahead before a task allows
        half of this series will describe the Crew     crewmembers to anticipate specific risks
        Endurance Management System developed          and maintain operational safety. However,
        by the Coast Guard Research and                when stress factors are not controlled
        Development Center in Groton, CT, and          proactively, crewmembers must simply
        how it can be implemented into a               dedicate all their attention and effort to the
        company’s operations.                          task at hand and forfeit planning their next
                                                       task. These are the conditions that result in
        History of the Crew Endurance                  momentary lapses in safety. For the planner
        Management System                              and maintainer, it means fewer resources
                                                       available for dealing with the important
        Dr. Carlos Comperatore, the senior scientist   details of their critical tasks. Effectively
        heading this effort for the Coast Guard,       addressing these weaknesses in performance
        began his work on endurance management         is critical to productivity and safety.
        with the U.S. military. Working with elite
        teams in special forces applications, he       The Phases of Developing a Company-
        developed ways to improve mission              Specific Crew Endurance Management
        performance during short-term, 24-hour-a-      System
        day operations. The U.S. Coast Guard
        initially tapped Dr. Comperatore to help its   Implementing a CEMS into a company’s
        own maritime operations and saw how other      operations involves three phases:
        segments of the maritime industry could
        benefit from this initiative. The Crew         •   Phase I: Program Development
        Endurance Management System (CEMS)
        discussed here has been tested in a variety    •   Phase II: Program Deployment
        of maritime environments, including marine
        shipping companies, towing vessel              •   Phase III: Program Assessment
        operations, U.S. Coast Guard cutters, small
        boat stations and aviation units.              Two critical elements of Phase I are
        Dr. Comperatore is continuing to introduce     1) setting up a Crew Endurance Working
        CEMS to other maritime segments, most          Group; and, 2) setting up and maintaining a
        recently the Washington State ferry system.    Final Common Path.

        How Can Crew Endurance Management
        Affect Company Performance?

        Mental and physical stress factors have an
        impact on the human ability to focus on the
        task at hand and can cause errors in
        performance. Unless the impact of stress
        factors on performance is controlled,
        crewmembers must dedicate a larger part of
        their mental resources to the immediate task




                                                           11
CEMS
PHASE I

             Program Development


Part II of this series describes the     Developing a CEMS program                  • Engineer of the vessel; and,
Crew Endurance Management                involves the following:
System (CEMS) developed by the                                                      • One or more deckhands of
Coast Guard Research and                   • Setting up and training a                the vessel.
Development Center in Groton, CT,            Working Group;
and how it can be implemented in a
company’s operations. There are            • Analyzing the current situation;      To control factors affecting crew
three phases of developing a                 and,                                       endurance requires the
company-specific crew endurance                                                       development of a supporting
management system: Program                 • Drawing up a CEMS plan.                  organizational infrastructure.
                                                                                     Without management support,
Development, Program Deployment
                                                                                    individual crewmembers cannot
and Program Assessment.                  Setting Up and Training a                  effectively implement endurance
                                         Working Group                                   management practices.
Phase I: Program Development
                                         The Crew Endurance Working Group
As with any project, development is      (CEWG) is responsible for all aspects    The members of the CEWG must
the crucial first step. Despite some     of implementing a CEMS aboard a          receive training as needed in
misperceptions, CEMS does not            maritime vessel, including:              identifying and managing crew
mean simply changing a watch                                                      endurance risk factors; creating
schedule. CEMS is a field-tested           • Identifying the endurance risk       collaborative networks to facilitate
system with concrete phases and              factors relevant to the vessel;      CEMS implementation; and, devising
steps that must be undertaken in a                                                and deploying CEMS.
logical way to be successfully             • Creating a collaborative network
integrated into a company’s                  to facilitate implementing CEMS      Typically, the goal of a CEWG is to
operations. Many facets of a                 aboard the vessel; and,              develop a CEMS for a particular
company’s operations and structure                                                situation -- in most cases, a specific
must be considered and resources           • Devising and deploying a CEMS        vessel; however, CEMS can also be
tapped to ensure that CEMS is fully          plan specific to the vessel.         set up to apply to an entire company.
explained to all employees involved,
both crewmembers and shoreside           To be effective, a CEWG must include     Successful working groups avoid
staff. Once a company commits to         or represent all those individuals who   personal or organizational agendas,
implementing CEMS, education             stand to be affected by the              and seek improvement of policies
about elements of the program must       implementation of CEMS aboard a          and crew management practices that
be undertaken. CEMS relies on the        particular vessel. A CEWG typically      will help crewmembers maintain
communication between, and support       consists of the following individuals:   endurance.
of, all areas of company operations --
management, shoreside support and          • One or two company officers;
crewmembers -- to achieve the
desired goals.                             • Company operations manager;

Phase I consists of several steps,         • Captain/pilot/mate of the vessel;
each with specific elements.




                                                   12
CEMS
PHASE I
             Program Development --
             Analyzing The Situation

Part II of this series describes the   1st Step: Receiving Training in          Information collected during this
Crew Endurance Management              CEMS Principles and Practices            analysis helps CEWG members
System (CEMS) developed by the                                                  identify endurance risk factors of
Coast Guard Research and               The CEWG meets initially to receive      organizational as well as operational
Development Center in Groton, CT,      specific training in CEMS practices      origin. Identifying all these risk
and how it can be implemented into a   and procedures. The objective for        factors is fundamental to developing
company’s operations. There are        this meeting is for all members of the   a CEMS plan for a specific real-
three phases of developing a           CEWG to reach the same level of          world operation, as one size DOES
company-specific crew endurance        knowledge concerning identifying         NOT fit all. As the relevant risk
management system: Program             and managing crew endurance risk         factors are identified, the CEWG can
Development, Program Deployment        factors; creating collaborative          then develop a specific plan to
and Program Assessment. The first      networks to facilitate CEMS              control the impact of these risk
step in program development is         implementation; and, devising and        factors on performance and safety.
setting up and training a Crew         deploying CEMS plans.
Endurance Working Group -- the                                                  3rd Step: Identifying
CEWG.                                  The CEWG must also choose a leader       Contributing Elements
                                       at this stage. In this regard, it is
The three elements of CEMS             critically important that the CEWG       The third step consists of analyzing
Program Development are:               choose a leader who is respected by      the operational risk areas to identify
                                       all stakeholders and who is capable of   specific risk elements (activities,
  • Setting up and training a          guiding the group away from              environmental conditions, policies,
    working group;                     individual agendas.                      operational situations) that appear to
                                                                                be affecting crew endurance. For
  • Analyzing the current situation;   2nd Step: Identifying Endurance          example, in the area of diet,
    and,                               Risk Factors                             consumption of large amounts of
                                                                                caffeine may affect the quality and
  • Drawing up a CEMS plan.            The process of controlling endurance     duration of sleep. Typically, risk
                                       risk factors requires an analysis of     factors in more than one area are
Before drawing up a CEMS plan, the     the entire operational system of the     identified.
working group must analyze the         vessel. This analysis consists of
current situation.                     identifying the various areas of risk,   4th Step: Identifying
                                       such as workload, onboard                Possible Modifications
Analyzing the Current Situation        environment, weather and company
                                       policy, as well as the relationship      The fourth step consists of suggesting
  • Step 1: Review crew endurance      between these areas of risk.             modifications that affect the risk
    management information.                                                     elements identified in the analysis.
                                       This analysis should be conducted        Frequently, these types of possible
  • Step 2: Identify crew endurance    during at least a 15- to 30-day period   modifications include changing
    performance factors.               in order to properly document duty       crewmember dietary practices and
                                       hours, workload and crew rest            exercise habits, modifying the use of
  • Step 3: Identify elements          associated with periods of low and       caffeine, and making physical
    affecting endurance during         high workload. Depending on the          changes to crewmember sleeping
    maritime operations.               geographical location, workloads         quarters. More sophisticated
                                       may be directly affected by seasonal     modifications may involve changing
  • Step 4: Analyze relationships      changes; thus, some analyses must be     the watch schedule and introducing
    between elements; determine        conducted during both winter and         light management techniques.
    modifications.                     summer seasons.



                                                 13
CEMS
PHASE I
             Program Development --
             Drawing Up A CEMS Plan

Part II of this series describes the   discipline. If individual agendas are   Setting Up a Final Common Path
Crew Endurance Management              allowed to take precedence, a
System (CEMS) developed by the         meaningful CEMS plan cannot             In order for a CEMS to succeed, a
Coast Guard Research and               be achieved.                            Final Common Path must be
Development Center in Groton, CT,                                              established and maintained. A Final
and how it can be implemented into a   It is recommended that the CEWG         Common Path consists of the
company’s operations. There are        focus on identifying changes (no        following key elements:
three phases of developing a           matter how small) that all
company-specific crew endurance        stakeholders can support. Other           • Setting up a team of onboard
management system: Program             changes, which may require                  coaches to train crewmembers
Development, Program Deployment        budgetary or manpower resources             on the science and practices of
and Program Assessment. The first      that have an impact on those other          CEMS, and to serve as program
step in program development is         than vessel crewmembers, may be             models and monitors. The team
setting up and training a Crew         considered for long-term projects.          of coaches typically consists of
Endurance Working Group. The                                                       the captain, the pilot, and
second step in program development     Agreeing On and Prioritizing                the mate.
is analyzing the situation.            Modifications
                                                                                 • Training the coaches in the
The three elements of CEMS             The CEWG must agree on and                  science and practices of CEMS.
Program Development are:               prioritize the system modifications         Training for coaches is provided
                                       suggested in Step 4 of the analysis         by company management,
  • Setting up and training a          process. The process of prioritizing        typically using resources
    Working Group;                     system modifications involves               available from the U.S. Coast
                                       placing them into one of three              Guard Human Element and Ship
  • Analyzing the current situation;   possible categories:                        Design Division.
    and,
                                         • Those that can be implemented         • The coaches train the
  • Drawing up a CEMS plan.                easily;                                 crewmembers in the science
                                                                                   and practices of CEMS, model
Once the Crew Endurance Working          • Those that can be implemented           the required practices, and
Group (CEWG) has been established          with more effort; or,                   monitor crew adherences to
and the current situation has been                                                 these practices.
analyzed, the final element of CEMS      • Those that cannot be
Program Development can be                 implemented.
conducted. This element, drawing up
a CEMS plan, consists of two           It is recommended that the CEWG
components:                            place an initial emphasis on small or
                                       inexpensive modifications that yield
 1. Agreeing on and prioritizing       relatively large benefits. Larger or
    modifications; and,                more expensive changes can then be
                                       phased in over time. It is paramount
 2. Setting up a Final Common          that the CEWG make its modification
    Path.                              recommendations on the basis of
                                       information gathered during the
The process involved in arriving at    analysis, rather than on the basis of
a plan for implementation requires     personal choice or preference.
dedication, cooperation and self-



                                                 14
CEMS
PHASE I
             Program Development --
             Setting Up A Team of Coaches

Part II of this series describes the Crew           emulation, actively encouraging
Endurance Management System (CEMS)                  crewmembers to follow these practices
developed by the Coast Guard Research and           themselves, and monitoring/enforcing
Development Center in Groton, CT, and               adherence to the policies and
how it can be implemented into a                    procedures of the CEMS plan.
company’s operations. There are three
phases of developing a company-specific           • Providing information to crewmembers
crew endurance management system:                   on the science of CEMS: diet, exercise,
Program Development, Program                        caffeine use, environmental stressors,
Deployment and Program Assessment. The              psychological conditions and, sleep and
first step in program development is setting        body clock management.
up and training a Crew Endurance Working
Group. The second step in program                 • Providing information to crewmembers
development is analyzing the situation. The         on how to maximize the benefits of rest
final step in program development is                opportunities.
drawing up a CEMS plan.
                                                  • Implementing crew-rest protocols that
Setting Up a Team of Coaches                        document 1) the timing and number of
                                                    rest opportunities made available to
One of the most critical elements of a              crewmembers and, 2) crewmember
company’s CEMS is the team of coaches.              efficiency in taking advantage of rest
As mentioned in the last article, the team          opportunities.
of coaches typically consists of the captain,
the pilot, and the mate. Coaches are            Along with adequately trained coaches, the
trained in the science and practices of         successful implementation of CEMS to
CEMS, typically using resources available       improve endurance requires an active
from the U.S. Coast Guard Human                 education campaign. The education
Element and Ship Design Division. The           campaign must be designed to instruct
coaches then train crewmembers in the           company managers, wheelhouse personnel,
science and practices of CEMS, model the        department heads, and crewmembers on
required practices, and monitor crew            their contribution to the coordination and
adherence to these practices.                   execution of the various elements of the
                                                CEMS plan. Coaches, once trained, can
Effective crew endurance management             help spearhead this campaign.
requires constant encouragement and
reinforcement. Coaches accomplish this by:

  • Supporting the overall implementation
    of CEMS by modeling endurance
    management practices for crew




                                                   15
                       Program Deployment
 CEMS
PHASE 2



          Part II of this series describes the    crewmember training onboard during       modifications recommended in the
          Crew Endurance Management               normal operations.                       final plan are made. These
          System (CEMS) developed by the                                                   modifications potentially include
          Coast Guard Research and                Implementing the Plan                    physical changes to crew quarters,
          Development Center in Groton, CT,                                                dissemination of new onboard
          and how it can be implemented into a    The process of implementing the plan     policies, and requests to the crew for
          company’s operations. There are         is accomplished through three            changes in personal choice (for
          three phases of developing a            interlocking methods:                    example, modifying the use of
          company-specific crew endurance                                                  caffeine or other stimulant drugs).
          management system: Program                • Enlisting the support of the         Watch schedule changes may also be
          Development, Program Deployment             full crew                            included in these modifications but
          and Program Assessment. The first                                                are generally not the first, and usually
          step in program development is            • Making the recommended               not the only, modification to be
          setting up and training a Crew              system modifications                 implemented.
          Endurance Working Group. The
          second step in program development        • Coaching the crew toward             Coaching the Crew
          is analyzing the situation. Drawing         consistency
          up a CEMS plan is the final step in                                              The coaches are responsible for
          program development. Another            Enlisting the Support of the Crew        training individual crewmembers in
          crucial step in program development                                              endurance management practices.
          is setting up a team of coaches.        Crewmembers are provided with key        Coaches serve as models for
                                                  information and training on crew         emulation and actively encourage
          This article explores Phase II of       endurance (benefits, factors,            crewmembers to help achieve the
          CEMS -- program deployment -- the       procedures, etc.) and are presented      success of the plan.
          implementation of CEMS on board         with the company Crew Endurance
          a vessel.                               Working Group’s (CEWG) plan,             At various times during the
                                                  together with the rationale underlying   implementation phase, the CEMS
          Program Deployment                      each of its features.                    plan should be assessed.

          The process of deploying the            Crewmembers are invited to make
          company-specific crew endurance         suggestions toward improving the plan
          management plan consists of training    and asked to support the final plan
          the full crew and implementing the      toward the mutual benefit of all
          CEMS plan.                              concerned. Crewmember buy-in is
                                                  critical to the success of the CEMS
          Training the Crew                       plan and including their input in
                                                  tailoring the plan can help make the
          The team of coaches trains the vessel   plan their own. No buy-in, no success.
          crew in sleep and body-clock
          management, as well as stress           Making the Recommended
          management and other crew               System Modifications
          endurance practices. This can be
          done in a workshop format, typically    The CEWG, together with company
          lasting a day-and-a-half. Vessel        management and the vessel’s
          coaches can carry out additional        coaches, ensure that all of the system




                                                            16
             Program Assessment
 CEMS
PHASE 3



Part II of this series describes the Crew      document whether crewmembers’ rest
Endurance Management System (CEMS)             periods occur consistently and under
developed by the Coast Guard Research          environmental conditions that promote the
and Development Center in Groton, CT,          restoration of alertness and physical energy
and how it can be implemented in a             from day to day. In addition, these data
company’s operations. There are three          reveal how well personnel take advantage
phases of developing a company-specific        of rest periods provided by the crew
crew endurance management system:              endurance plan.
Program Development, Program
Deployment, and Program Assessment.            These observations can help determine the
The first step in program development is       need for further modifications to the crew
setting up and training a Crew Endurance       endurance plan. This type of information is
Working Group. The second step in              of great value to the Crew Endurance
program development is analyzing the           Working Group (CEWG) members because
situation. Drawing up a CEMS plan is the       it helps identify endurance risk factors, both
final step in program development.             organizational and operational, and possible
Another crucial step in program development    ways to mitigate them.
is setting up a team of coaches. Phase II of
CEMS -- program deployment -- is the           As a matter of good crew endurance
implementation of CEMS on board a vessel.      management practice, it is recommended
                                               that the CEWG maintain an active
Program Assessment                             education program for crewmembers and
                                               ensure that crew endurance evaluations
The final phase of CEMS is Program             occur on at least a semi-annual basis.
Assessment. The purpose is to evaluate
how well a newly deployed CEMS plan is         Now that CEMS has been explained, a real-
working under real-world conditions. It is     world example can illustrate how CEMS
usually conducted over a 30-60 day period      can work at an AWO member company.
(depending on hitch schedules and other
factors) and during high operational
tempo. As in Phase I analysis, it is
necessary to document the impact of
watch, work and training schedules on
crew rest and stress levels.

The Coast Guard Research and
Development Center has used wrist
monitors to provide accurate information
on the quality and duration of the wearer’s
sleep. A logbook, possibly electronic, can
also be used in the field. The data should




                                                   17
               Quick Example of
 CEMS          CEMS Implementation
PHASE 3



Part II of this series describes the Crew     beginning its work, the CEWG was trained
Endurance Management System (CEMS)            in the science of crew endurance and in the
developed by the Coast Guard Research and process of crew endurance management.
Development Center in Groton, CT, and
how it can be implemented into a              Once trained, the CEWG analyzed the current
company’s operations. There are three         situation by studying the vessel’s operational
phases of developing a company-specific       system and its major components. The
crew endurance management system:             CEWG identified the relationships between
Program Development, Program                  these major components and isolated specific
Deployment and Program Assessment.            factors within each component that were
The first step in program development is      affecting crew endurance.
setting up and training a Crew
Endurance Working Group. The
second step in program development        Operational Component         Factors Affecting Crew Endurance
is analyzing the situation. Drawing       Diet                          Crewmembers were eating large meals immediately
up a CEMS plan is the final step in                                     before going to bed after watch. Crewmembers were
program development. Another                                            consuming large quantities of caffeine.
crucial step in program development       Individual Choices            Crewmembers were being kept awake by noises
is setting up a team of coaches.                                        associated with crews handling rigging near the
                                                                        vessel; slamming doors or banging manhole covers;
Phase II of CEMS -- program                                             and using TVs, radios, handheld VHF radios, etc. at
deployment -- is the implementation                                     high-volume levels.
of CEMS on board a vessel.                Towing Vessel Environment     Crewmembers were being awakened by sudden
Phase III is program assessment.                                        movements of the vessel. Crewmembers were being
                                                                               kept awake by light coming into crew quarters through
                                                                               window ports and the air filter in the door.
Quick Example
                                                 Company Policies              Crewmembers were being delayed from sleep time by
                                                                               having to take their showers after watch and meals.
Now that CEMS has been fully                                                   Crewmembers were being delayed from sleep time by
explained, an example of a CEMS                                                having to wait to be relieved for meals.
program tailored to a specific vessel
will help illustrate CEMS elements.
This example was derived from a
vessel invited to participate in a CEMS             On the basis of their analysis, the CEWG
demonstration project.                              drew up a list of specific recommendations,
                                                    both operational and environmental.
Phase I: Program Development
                                                    Operational
Once the vessel was accepted into the
demonstration program, a Crew Endurance             Policy: Early showers will be allowed.
Working Group (CEWG) was assembled,                 However, crewmembers will be expected to
consisting of the company safety manager,           discuss any work to be completed before
company operations manager, and the                 taking early showers. An early shower does
entire crew of the vessel. Before

                                                                           (continued on page 19)




                                                        18
              Quick Example of
 CEMS         CEMS Implementation
PHASE 3       (continued from page 18)



not relieve anyone of any duties to be          Phase II: Program Deployment
performed on watch.
                                                Once the CEWG’s recommendations were
Policy: Early meals will be allowed, provided   approved, the CEMS was deployed.
they do not interfere with the cook.            Endurance coaching training was provided,
                                                as well as information on diet and stress
Policy: Crewmembers coming on watch will        management, in a daylong workshop. The
be given priority seating at meal times.        vessel’s own crew endurance coaches then
                                                carried out additional crewmember training
Environmental                                   onboard during normal operations.

Policy: Pilothouse personnel will actively      Crewmembers were invited to make
avoid rapid changes in throttle settings        suggestions toward improving the plan and
whenever practicable.                           helped to ensure that all of the system
                                                modifications recommended in the final
Policy: Deck crew will actively minimize        CEMS plan were made. Vessel coaches
noise associated with the performance of        served as models for crew emulation and
their duties. This will include handling        monitored adherence to the new policies and
rigging with care near the vessel.              procedures.

Policy: Crewmembers will avoid                  Phase III: Program Assessment
slamming doors or banging
manhole covers.                                 At various times during the implementation
                                                phase, the program was assessed through
Policy: Crewmembers will keep TVs,              sleep monitors, saliva specimens and a
radios, handheld VHF radios, etc. to            psychomotor vigilance task to measure
mutually acceptable volume levels.              alertness. Alternate measurements may also
                                                be used. Crewmembers showed indications
Physical: Install baffles on stateroom doors    of a well-adapted body clock and
that allow airflow while restricting noise      experienced minimal lapses in alertness.
and light.

Physical: Install slide panels over exterior
stateroom windows to restrict light.




                                                   19
              CEMS in a Nutshell


Endurance and Science                            phases and steps that must be undertaken in
                                                 a logical way to be incorporated
Crew endurance refers to the ability of a crew   successfully into a company’s operations.
to maintain performance within safety limits
while coping with job-related environmental,
operational, physiological and psychological     CEMS in a Nutshell
challenges (factors or stressors).
                                                      Phase I: Program Development
Since the human body clock is timed for
individuals to sleep at night, measures can           • Analyzing the Situation
be taken to improve the performance of
those who work at night, in the “Red                  • Drawing Up a CEMS Plan
Zone.” The “Red Zone” is the daily period
of lowest energy and alertness that typically         • Setting Up a Team of Coaches
spans from roughly sundown to sunup. All
mariners, whether working daylight or                 Phase II: Program Deployment
nighttime shifts, can benefit from education
on ways to mitigate the effects of stressors          Phase III: Program Assessment
on their performance.


A Methodical Program to Manage                   The Future
Crew Endurance
                                                 The Coast Guard and AWO are working in
Dr. Carlos Comperatore, U.S. Coast Guard         tandem to develop resources to assist the
Research & Development Center, has               tugboat, towboat and barge industry to
developed a program known as the Crew            integrate CEMS into its operations. The
Endurance Management System (CEMS).              Coast Guard-AWO Crew Endurance
CEMS is a program to help maritime               Management Working Group has been
companies introduce into their operations an     charged with developing a plan to do so. The
integrated way to address crew endurance         success of CEMS, a nonregulatory solution to
factors. Because there are so many factors       address factors critical to the industry’s
affecting crew endurance -- weather,             operations, depends on the commitment of
workload, watch schedule,                        government and industry, from management
nutrition/hydration, and rest, for example --    to deckplate. All AWO members are
there is a need for an integrated system to      encouraged to explore its benefits.
fully address the vessel operational model.
CEMS is a field-tested system with concrete




                                                    20

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Crew Management System document sample