Critique Learning Contract by dlr16083


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									  The interface between academic
knowledge and working knowledge:
  implications for curriculum design,
     pedagogies and assessment

       ‘Recognising Workbased Learning’
           HETAC Conference 2007

             Dr Anne Murphy, DIT
                Structure of the Presentation

• About working knowledge in HE

• About paradigms in HE

• Why WBL now?

• Conceptualising the interface

• Curriculum styles

• Pedagogies and assessment in WBL

• Unresolved issues
Learning through work is nothing new in HE

     Apprenticeship
     Placements
     Internships
     Sandwich courses
     Block release
     Applied MSc
     MBA & DBA
     CPD courses
     Graduate Diplomas
     Special Purpose Awards
Partnerships with the world of work are not new in HE

    Law
    Accountancy
    Medicine
    Pharma industry
    IT industry ……..

  Off-campus delivery/in-company

  Negotiated programmes: public service, defence forces, gárdaí….
        Features of a paradigm or worldview                (Kuhn etc.)

 Defined broadly as a set of practices underpinned by shared epistemology,
  values and beliefs, habits of reasoning, patterns of judgement, working
  techniques, with broad agreement on theories and concepts

 A paradigm may emerge from an earlier one, may displace an
  earlier paradigm, or exist alongside a different one

 At the MACRO level of metaphysics, a paradigm defines what can be
  known and understood
 At the MESO level of epistemology, a paradigm determines what counts a
  acceptable, or legitimate, knowledge
 At the MICRO level of ethics and praxis, a paradigm mediates the practices
  of its own community.
                         Shifting paradigms and worldviews
   Circumstances, events and actions cause paradigm shifts in how HE organises itself and
    positions itself within the world

   Paradigms become accepted when:
    - professional bodies give them legitimacy

    - dynamic leaders adopt and promote them

    - specialised journals and books emerge

    - conferences of like-minded thinkers are organised

    - government agencies grant funding

    - educators include them in their curriculum content

    - they become popular in the media

    - they are no longer regarded as deviant

    - research gives them ‘scientific’ legitimacy

    - they feature in policy documents.
                           Impact of a new paradigm in HE

   The ‘rules’ of the paradigm become tacitly known

   New theories emerge from practice within the paradigm

   The change in worldview impacts differently on different academic disciplines

   Resistances identify anomalies in the old and new paradigms

   When a paradigm becomes entrenched it too begins to resist challenges to it assumptions,
    values and theories

   Paradigmatic changes can blur boundaries and sometime generate border-crossings
    among paradigms

   Crises in paradigms can result in paralysis, resistance, or passive acceptance of new

   A new paradigm may not be a cumulative outcome of earlier paradigms, but can represent
    an entirely different worldview which needs mass persuasion for acceptance

   Acceptance of, or surrender to, a new paradigm frees practitioner from continuously
    examining the assumptions underpinning previous paradigms.
          Scholarship of the WBL Paradigm

                            Selected Contemporary WBL
Aspect of WBL                 International ‘Scholars’

Ontology and Epistemology: Hagar, Boud, Fenwick, Eraut,
The nature of working      Schön, Brown and Duguid,
knowledge                  Sfard, Engeström, Fuller

                            Billet, Solomon, Mills, Illeris,
How people learn at work    Eraut, Lave & Wenger,
                            Bandura, Rogoff, Guile
Partnerships between HE     Brennan and Little,
and the world of work       Gallacher and Reeve, Field,
General and                 Coffield,Fenwick,
Postmodern Critique         Usher, Edwards, Lynch
      Drivers for a greater ‘recognition’ of working knowledge
                                  HE output

                           EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
                                 Global change
New forms of delivery        Economic markets agenda                Graduates
                               EU policy agendas
New student types                Mobility of workers           New knowledge
                        Changes in sources of HE funding
New Faculties                 Demand to research           Usable technologies
                          Power of professional bodies
                                 Social stability
                                 Justice agenda
                         Focus on a knowledge society
                            Increasing credentialism
                                Employer needs

                              FEEDBACK LOOP
          The interface between College Knowledge and Working Knowledge

        Knowledge                                                                                                     Mode 2
                                                                                                         Work-based Knowledge
                                                 Knowledge how to….                                           Codified in the workplace
                                  Knowledge of …
                                                                                          Applied Skills

                                                      Knowledge about …                                              Insights

                           Mode 1
                           College Knowledge / Prescribed Learning outcomes
                          HE Codified Knowledge                                                                          Tacit Knowledge
Murphy, A. (2007) elaborated from Campbell, D. (2007) ‘Bachelors and Employability’, presentation to BeSt Graduate Fair Seminar, Vienna
       Pre-scribed Curriculum or Learning Contracts?
                                  Atomistic or Holistic?

                ATOMISTIC                                      HOLISTIC
           Pre-scribed curriculum                          Learning Contract

•   Pre-determined LOs at unit or module      •   LOs broadly defined at level in context
                                              •   Integrated and relational curriculum
•   Alignment of curriculum content,
    learning activities and assessment        •   Negotiated assessment activities

                                              •   Scale of learning negotiable
•   Teaching hours, learning hours and
    assessment hours mathematically
    determined                                •   Challenges of learning tasks determine
                                                  the pace and extent of learning
•   ECTS formulae determine programme
    design and pace of learning achievement   •   Work-place timelines dominate

•   Static timetabling of learning progress   •   Negotiated weighting of assessment
•   Semester-based calendar structures
Stage      Innovation in HE programme       basis/dominant        Centrality of the
           design and pedagogies            paradigm of           learner

1950s      Programmed learning, open        Behaviourism          Learners control the
           learning                                               pace of learning

           Adult learning methods, self-                          Learners negotiate
1970s      directed and negotiated          Humanism              the pace and
and ’80s   learning                                               content

           E-learning, group and project-   Constructivism        collaboratively
1990s      based learning, teams, sets                            focus on what is
                                                                  needed to be

                                                                  Learners negotiate
Late       Work-based learning              Eclectic (situated,   programme
1990s      partnerships                     distributed,          activities from the
                                            complex)              exigencies of work
WBL Model of a Learning Contract
Negotiating Assessment Criteria for a WBL
            Learning Contract
          Some Critique of WBL Pedagogical Design

•   Colonisation of the lifeworlds of workers
•   Emphasis on performativity
•   Too-close to market needs
•   Demand for the ‘flexible’ worker

•   Lack of sufficient theory
•   Too-subjective
•   Too-generalist
•   Too-contextual
•   Too-difficult and time intensive
     Back to the Conference Title: Unresolved Issues

•   ‘Recognising’ con-current experiential learning

•   Acts of legitimation? Whose codes and accreditation are more powerful?

•   The power to regulate what is know?

•   Eliding WBL and AP(E)L as epistemological twins?

•   The learned curriculum versus the taught curriculum?

•   WBL as ‘collaborative co-creation’?

•   ‘Static’ or ‘emergent’ learning?

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