Investigating IPv6 migration techniques in the context of University of Fort Hare Intranet M. Vijayakurup and H.N. Muyingi Centre of Excellence in Developmental E-Commerce, Department of Computer Science University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa Email:firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com Abstract: University of Fort Hare ICT infrastructure is being upgraded across its 3 campuses with the aim to B. Transition provide an integrated environment to its users. As a The period of transition passes through 3 stages: result, the University has to go for private IPv4 address • Co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6 with larger IPv4 space to meet its address requirements which forms the domain and smaller IPv6 domain primary concern of introducing IPv6. By the • Co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6 with smaller IPv4 introduction of IPv6, the network can benefit in terms of domain and larger IPv6 domain addresses, performance, security, and quality of service. • IPv6 domain The research in IPv6 has been initiated last year in the These stages were considered in developing different Centre of Excellence (CoE) at Fort Hare by looking into transition mechanisms. They have been grouped into three the security issues of IPv6. This project intends to design categories: a suitable transition strategy to implement IPv6 in the • Dual Stack University network. In the dual stack model, the nodes have both the stacks enabled Index terms: IPv6, intranet, migration • Tunneling It is used to connect two IPv6 domains separated by a I INTRODUCTION IPv4 infrastructure. A tunnel is established, which The next generation Internet Protocol IPv6 has been carries IPv6 packets encapsulated in IPv4 packets over designed to solve the discrepancies of the current protocol the IPv4 network. IPv4. The unprecedented growth of the internet, demanding • Translation larger address space, performance, quality of service and It is used when IPv4 only nodes need to communicate security led to the evolution of IPv6 . Since the with IPv6 nodes and vice-versa transition phase foresees the co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6 About 16 transition mechanisms have been developed and hosts for a long time , different transition mechanisms some of them are no longer in use . have been developed for various network scenarios . A careful study of the devices and services should be done in III RELATED WORK order to migrate a network to IPv6. Despite the services  is a work done by 6Net (a European project on IPv6) offered by the experimental network 6Bone, ISP’s like which conducts a study on different transition mechanisms Tertiary Education Network (TENET) are offering IPv6 and their security issues. It has provided some experimental services in South Africa. This project aims to study the data on the migration of some university networks.  is a different mechanisms necessary to do the transition of the Masters’ project that provides a methodology that could University network, enabling the University to join the IPv6 form the basis of a tool that could help in migrating and research community of South Africa. optimizing a network.  is a research on IPv6 including practical implementations of IPv6 characteristics and II BACKGROUND transition mechanisms. Extensive research has been going A. Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6 on in this area as more and more networks are shifting to TABLE I IPv6 and they are different in many aspects. So careful COMPARISON OF IPv4 AND IPv6 collection of data and tools and analysis of scenarios must Features IPv4 IPv6 be done to migrate the target network. Addressing Small Address space, Large Address space, 128 32 bit. Unicast, bit. Unicast, anycast and multicast and multicast. IV RESEARCH GOALS broadcast. 1. Develop a migration strategy for the University of Fort Header Variable header length, Fixed header length, 40 20 bytes with options, bytes, 8 fields with Hare intranet 12 fields extension headers 2. Migrate a component of the intranet to IPv6 Routing Fragmentation of Source fragmentation, packets by both hosts MTU=1280 V METHODOLOGY and routers, MTU=576 In order to make intelligent decisions regarding migration Security IPSec optional IPSec mandatory Service With Type of With Priority and Flow mechanisms, there are certain facts to be obtained from the Service(TOS) field Label network. The enterprise scenarios  help to identify the Mobility Added Built-in and Efficient generalized data listed below : Auto- Nil Built-in • IPv4 addresses configuration Plug-n-play Nil Built-in How many global IPv4 addresses are there? • Identify the devices in the network and the platforms introduced without disrupting the IPv4 infrastructure. So far, Servers, clients, routers, switches, printers, etc the study of the University network, gathering of the Are they IPv6 capable? software and test lab patterns  and getting acquainted • Identify the applications used and services offered by with IPv6 on different platforms have been done. the network Domain Name System (DNS), File serving, email, VI CONCLUSION remote login, databases, etc The project proposes to add more experimental data on IPv6 Can they be upgraded to IPv6? in campus networks using the available transition tools and • Security mechanisms and exploring how the boons of IPv6 can be Levels of security in the different parts of the network beneficial to the network. The strategies developed in this • Network management area are yet to be standardized and there are many missing • Provider bits to be dealt with. The establishment of the IPv6 network Does the ISP provide IPv6 services and addresses? will indeed provide extensive research prospects in this area If so, what is the address assignment plan? as the next generation protocol emerges with new features in • Routing response to the growing needs of the internet. What site internal and external routing protocols are used? ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank the Telkom Centre of Excellence at • Network Address Translation (NAT) or proxy Is the network behind a NAT or proxy? University of Fort Hare for providing us the financial assistance, infrastructure and moral support. • Firewall Is the network behind a firewall? REFERENCE The research intends to focus on the primary services  R. M. Hinden, ‘IP Next Generation Overview’, 1995 offered by the network, e.g., DNS, email, web hosting, file Available:http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/INET-IPng- serving, databases, remote login and directory services. Paper.html, last accessed 23 March 2004 With regard to the device platforms and applications, model  W.Stallings,‘IPv6:TheNewInternet Protocol’, 1998. Available: networks will be developed to experiment with IPv4 only http://www.cs- lancs.ac.uk/ipv6/documents/papers/stallings, last hosts, dual stack hosts and IPv6 only hosts. For e.g., Client- accessed 1 April 2004 server system can be modeled where the client is located in  I.Guardini, P. Fasano, and G. Girardi ‘IPv6 operational IPv4 only network, or IPv6 only network, or IPv4/IPv6 experiencewith 6Bone’ Available: http://carmen.cselt.it/papers/inet2000/6bone-oper-exp, last network. The following cases can be studied: accessed 10 May 2004  S.Gai, ‘Internetworking IPv6 with cisco routers’ Available: IPv6 network http://www.ip6.com/us/book IPv6/dual stack client  P. Loshin, ‘IPv6-Clearly Explained’, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc, 1999  R. Gilligan, and E. Nordmark, ‘Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers’ RFC 2893, 2000  C. Schild, T. Strauf, and T Chown, ‘Updated IPv4 to IPv6 transition cookbook for end site networks/universities’, 2004 IPv4/IPv6 network IPv4 network Available http://www.6net.org/publications/deliverables/D2.3.3.pdf, IPv4/IPv6/dual stack client last accessed 2 July 2004  A.J. Thalmann, and N.G. Harris, ‘Internet Protocol version 6 Network Migration and Performance Analysis’, SATNAC 2003 published paper  M. Kasseb, M. Malli, and A.A. Hanbali, ‘Internet protocol Version 6’, 2002. Available: http://www- sop.inria.fr/planete/personnel/Mohammad.Malli/IPv6e-book, last IPv4 network IPv6 network accessed 5 June 2004  J. Bound, ‘IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios’, Internet draft (work in progress), draft-ietf-v6ops-ent-scenarios-02.txt IPv4 client IPv6/dual stack server  T. Chown, ‘IPv6 Campus Transition Scenario Description and Analysis’, Internet draft (work in progress), draft-chown- v6ops-campus-transition-00  S. Subramanian, ‘IPv6 transition strategies’, 2002, Available: http://www.wipro.com/insights/IPv6transition.htm, last accessed 12 Fig I, Modelling a client-server system for transition applications May 2004  ‘Step-by-Step Guide for Setting Up IPv6 in a Test Lab’, 2003 The transition mechanisms can be classified according to the Available:http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologi es/ipv6/default.mspx, last accessed 26 June 2004 needs of global IPv4 addresses, less manual intervention, security , NAT, Virtual Private network (VPN), hosts and router requirements. The closest match will be applied in BIOGRAPHY each situation above and tested with the available software. Maya Vijayakurup completed her B.Tech degree in A comparative study of IPv4 and IPv6 will be done during Computer Science & Engineering from Cochin University the research, particularly on performance, Quality of Service of Science & Technology, Kerala, India. She is a Masters’ (QoS) and cost . Due to the Virtual Local Area Network student in the Department of Computer Science, University (VLAN) technology used in the network, IPv6 can be of Fort Hare, Alice. Her research interests are in IPv6 networking and applications.
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