Investigating IPv6 migration techniques in the context of

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					 Investigating IPv6 migration techniques in the context
           of University of Fort Hare Intranet
                                          M. Vijayakurup and H.N. Muyingi
                Centre of Excellence in Developmental E-Commerce, Department of Computer Science
                        University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
                                Email:maya_vkurup@yahoo.com,hmuyingi@ufh.ac.za


Abstract: University of Fort Hare ICT infrastructure is
being upgraded across its 3 campuses with the aim to                        B. Transition
provide an integrated environment to its users. As a                        The period of transition passes through 3 stages:
result, the University has to go for private IPv4 address                   • Co-existence of         IPv4 and IPv6 with larger IPv4
space to meet its address requirements which forms the                           domain and smaller IPv6 domain
primary concern of introducing IPv6. By the                                 • Co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6 with smaller IPv4
introduction of IPv6, the network can benefit in terms of                        domain and larger IPv6 domain
addresses, performance, security, and quality of service.                   • IPv6 domain
The research in IPv6 has been initiated last year in the                    These stages were considered in developing different
Centre of Excellence (CoE) at Fort Hare by looking into                     transition mechanisms. They have been grouped into three
the security issues of IPv6. This project intends to design                 categories:
a suitable transition strategy to implement IPv6 in the                     • Dual Stack
University network.                                                              In the dual stack model, the nodes have both the stacks
                                                                                 enabled
Index terms: IPv6, intranet, migration                                      • Tunneling
                                                                                 It is used to connect two IPv6 domains separated by a
                   I INTRODUCTION                                                IPv4 infrastructure. A tunnel is established, which
 The next generation Internet Protocol IPv6 has been                             carries IPv6 packets encapsulated in IPv4 packets over
designed to solve the discrepancies of the current protocol                      the IPv4 network.
IPv4. The unprecedented growth of the internet, demanding                   • Translation
larger address space, performance, quality of service and                        It is used when IPv4 only nodes need to communicate
security led to the evolution of IPv6 [1][2][3][4]. Since the                    with IPv6 nodes and vice-versa
transition phase foresees the co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6                 About 16 transition mechanisms have been developed and
hosts for a long time [5], different transition mechanisms                  some of them are no longer in use [7].
have been developed for various network scenarios [6]. A
careful study of the devices and services should be done in                                   III RELATED WORK
order to migrate a network to IPv6. Despite the services                     [7] is a work done by 6Net (a European project on IPv6)
offered by the experimental network 6Bone, ISP’s like                       which conducts a study on different transition mechanisms
Tertiary Education Network (TENET) are offering IPv6                        and their security issues. It has provided some experimental
services in South Africa. This project aims to study the                    data on the migration of some university networks. [8] is a
different mechanisms necessary to do the transition of the                  Masters’ project that provides a methodology that could
University network, enabling the University to join the IPv6                form the basis of a tool that could help in migrating and
research community of South Africa.                                         optimizing a network. [9] is a research on IPv6 including
                                                                            practical implementations of IPv6 characteristics and
                  II BACKGROUND
                                                                            transition mechanisms. Extensive research has been going
A. Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6
                                                                            on in this area as more and more networks are shifting to
                                  TABLE I                                   IPv6 and they are different in many aspects. So careful
                   COMPARISON OF IPv4 AND IPv6                              collection of data and tools and analysis of scenarios must
Features           IPv4                      IPv6                           be done to migrate the target network.
Addressing         Small Address space, Large Address space, 128
                   32      bit.     Unicast, bit. Unicast, anycast and
                   multicast            and multicast.                                       IV RESEARCH GOALS
                   broadcast.                                               1.   Develop a migration strategy for the University of Fort
Header             Variable header length, Fixed header length, 40
                   20 bytes with options, bytes,       8    fields  with
                                                                                 Hare intranet
                   12 fields                 extension headers              2.   Migrate a component of the intranet to IPv6
Routing            Fragmentation         of Source         fragmentation,
                   packets by both hosts MTU=1280                                             V METHODOLOGY
                   and routers, MTU=576
                                                                            In order to make intelligent decisions regarding migration
Security           IPSec optional            IPSec mandatory
Service            With         Type     of With Priority and Flow          mechanisms, there are certain facts to be obtained from the
                   Service(TOS) field        Label                          network. The enterprise scenarios [10] help to identify the
Mobility           Added                     Built-in and Efficient         generalized data listed below [11]:
Auto-              Nil                       Built-in                       • IPv4 addresses
configuration
Plug-n-play         Nil                      Built-in
                                                                                How many global IPv4 addresses are there?
•    Identify the devices in the network and the platforms            introduced without disrupting the IPv4 infrastructure. So far,
    Servers, clients, routers, switches, printers, etc                the study of the University network, gathering of the
    Are they IPv6 capable?                                            software and test lab patterns [13] and getting acquainted
• Identify the applications used and services offered by              with IPv6 on different platforms have been done.
     the network
     Domain Name System (DNS), File serving, email,                                        VI CONCLUSION
     remote login, databases, etc                                     The project proposes to add more experimental data on IPv6
     Can they be upgraded to IPv6?                                    in campus networks using the available transition tools and
• Security                                                            mechanisms and exploring how the boons of IPv6 can be
     Levels of security in the different parts of the network         beneficial to the network. The strategies developed in this
• Network management                                                  area are yet to be standardized and there are many missing
• Provider                                                            bits to be dealt with. The establishment of the IPv6 network
     Does the ISP provide IPv6 services and addresses?                will indeed provide extensive research prospects in this area
     If so, what is the address assignment plan?                      as the next generation protocol emerges with new features in
• Routing                                                             response to the growing needs of the internet.
     What site internal and external routing protocols are
     used?                                                                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
                                                                      We would like to thank the Telkom Centre of Excellence at
• Network Address Translation (NAT) or proxy
     Is the network behind a NAT or proxy?                            University of Fort Hare for providing us the financial
                                                                      assistance, infrastructure and moral support.
• Firewall
     Is the network behind a firewall?
                                                                                                 REFERENCE
The research intends to focus on the primary services                 [1] R. M. Hinden, ‘IP Next Generation Overview’, 1995
offered by the network, e.g., DNS, email, web hosting, file               Available:http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/INET-IPng-
serving, databases, remote login and directory services.                  Paper.html, last accessed 23 March 2004
With regard to the device platforms and applications, model           [2] W.Stallings,‘IPv6:TheNewInternet Protocol’, 1998. Available:
networks will be developed to experiment with IPv4 only                    http://www.cs- lancs.ac.uk/ipv6/documents/papers/stallings, last
hosts, dual stack hosts and IPv6 only hosts. For e.g., Client-             accessed 1 April 2004
server system can be modeled where the client is located in           [3] I.Guardini, P. Fasano, and G. Girardi ‘IPv6 operational
IPv4 only network, or IPv6 only network, or IPv4/IPv6                      experiencewith                     6Bone’                 Available:
                                                                           http://carmen.cselt.it/papers/inet2000/6bone-oper-exp[1],       last
network. The following cases can be studied:
                                                                           accessed 10 May 2004
                                                                      [4] S.Gai, ‘Internetworking IPv6 with cisco routers’ Available:
                              IPv6 network                                 http://www.ip6.com/us/book
                              IPv6/dual stack client                  [5] P. Loshin, ‘IPv6-Clearly Explained’, Morgan Kaufmann
                                                                           Publishers, Inc, 1999
                                                                      [6] R. Gilligan, and E. Nordmark, ‘Transition Mechanisms for
                                                                           IPv6 Hosts and Routers’ RFC 2893, 2000
                                                                      [7] C. Schild, T. Strauf, and T Chown, ‘Updated IPv4 to IPv6
                                                                           transition cookbook for end site networks/universities’, 2004
IPv4/IPv6 network                                  IPv4 network            Available http://www.6net.org/publications/deliverables/D2.3.3.pdf,
IPv4/IPv6/dual stack client                                                last accessed 2 July 2004
                                                                      [8] A.J. Thalmann, and N.G. Harris, ‘Internet Protocol version 6
                                                                           Network Migration and Performance Analysis’, SATNAC
                                                                           2003 published paper
                                                                      [9] M. Kasseb, M. Malli, and A.A. Hanbali, ‘Internet protocol
                                                                           Version          6’,       2002.      Available:        http://www-
                                                                           sop.inria.fr/planete/personnel/Mohammad.Malli/IPv6e-book,       last
IPv4 network                                       IPv6 network            accessed 5 June 2004
                                                                      [10] J. Bound, ‘IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios’, Internet draft
                                                                           (work in progress), draft-ietf-v6ops-ent-scenarios-02.txt
IPv4 client                             IPv6/dual stack server        [11] T. Chown, ‘IPv6 Campus Transition Scenario Description and
                                                                           Analysis’, Internet draft (work in progress), draft-chown-
                                                                           v6ops-campus-transition-00
                                                                      [12] S. Subramanian, ‘IPv6 transition strategies’, 2002, Available:
                                                                           http://www.wipro.com/insights/IPv6transition.htm, last accessed 12
Fig I, Modelling a client-server system for transition applications        May 2004
                                                                      [13] ‘Step-by-Step Guide for Setting Up IPv6 in a Test Lab’, 2003
The transition mechanisms can be classified according to the               Available:http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologi
                                                                           es/ipv6/default.mspx, last accessed 26 June 2004
needs of global IPv4 addresses, less manual intervention,
security [7], NAT, Virtual Private network (VPN), hosts and
router requirements. The closest match will be applied in                                   BIOGRAPHY
each situation above and tested with the available software.          Maya Vijayakurup completed her B.Tech degree in
A comparative study of IPv4 and IPv6 will be done during              Computer Science & Engineering from Cochin University
the research, particularly on performance, Quality of Service         of Science & Technology, Kerala, India. She is a Masters’
(QoS) and cost [12]. Due to the Virtual Local Area Network            student in the Department of Computer Science, University
(VLAN) technology used in the network, IPv6 can be                    of Fort Hare, Alice. Her research interests are in IPv6
                                                                      networking and applications.