Dictionary of Human resources management by SunnyUjjawal1

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									   Dictionary of
Human Resources
   and Personnel
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  Dictionary of
Human Resources
   and Personnel

       third edition

   A & C Black   London

           Third edition publshed 2003, reprinted 2006
               Second edition 1997, reprinted 1998
First edition published in 1988 as Dictionary of Personnel Management

                     A & C Black Publishers Ltd
                 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

           © A. Ivanovic MBA & P. H. Collin 1988, 1997
                © A & C Black Publishers Ltd 2006

   All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
 in any form or by any means without the permission of the publishers

    A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library

                    eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0217-6

                    Text Production and Proofreading
                    Heather Bateman, Katy McAdam

   A & C Black uses paper produced with elemental chlorine-free pulp,
             harvested from managed sustainable forests.

                      Text typeset by A & C Black
                      Printed in Italy by Legoprint

This dictionary provides the user with a comprehensive vocabulary of terms
used in human resource management. It covers all aspects of the subject
including recruitment and selection, appraisals, payment systems, dismissals
and other aspects of industrial relations.

The main words are explained in simple English, and pronunciations are
given in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Where appropriate, examples
are included to show how the words are used in context. Quotations are also
given from various magazines and newspapers, which give an idea of how
the terms are used in real life. The supplement at the back of the book gives
various documents which provide useful guidelines as to how a company’s
own documents can be constructed.

We are grateful to the following for their valuable comments on the text:
Dena Michelli, Michael Furlong, Yvonne Quinn, Stephen Curtis, Margaret
Jull Costa, Georgia Hole, Dinah Jackson and Sandra Anderson.
Pronunciation Guide
The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main
words in the dictionary.

Stress is indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark ( ). Note
that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position
in the sentence.

            Vowels                                  Consonants
                        back                        b            buck
            ɑ           harm                        d            dead
            ɒ           stop                        ð            other
            a          type                        d            jump
            aυ          how                         f            fare
            aə         hire                                     gold
            aυə         hour                        h            head
            ɔ           course                      j            yellow
            ɔ          annoy                       k            cab
            e           head                        l            leave
            eə          fair                        m            mix
            e          make                        n            nil
            eυ          go                          ŋ            sing
                        word                        p            print
            i           keep                        r            rest
            i           happy                       s            save
            ə           about                       ʃ            shop
                       fit                         t            take
            ə          near                        tʃ           change
            u           annual                      θ            theft
            u           pool                        v            value
            υ           book                        w            work
            υə          tour                        x            loch
                        shut                                     measure
                                                    z            zone
AA                                           1                       acceptance bonus


AA / e     e/ same as attendance               absenteeism.    Absenteeism is high in
allowance                                        the week before Christmas.
ability /ə blti/ noun the capacity or           ‘…but the reforms still hadn’t fundamentally
                                                  changed conditions on the shop floor:
power to do something Ability to sell             absenteeism was as high as 20% on some days’
is essential for the job.                         [Business Week]
ability test /ə blti test/ noun same           absenteeism           rate      / bsən-
as aptitude test                                  ti z(ə)m ret/ noun the percentage of
able / eb(ə)l/ adjective capable or             the workforce which is away from work
working well        She’s a very able            with no good excuse The rate of ab-
manager.                                         senteeism or the absenteeism rate al-
                                                 ways increases in fine weather.
able-bodied / eb(ə)l bɒdid/ adjec-
tive with no physical handicap     The           ACAS / ek s/ abbr Advisory, Concil-
work is strenuous and only suitable for          iation and Arbitration Service
the young and able-bodied.                       accept /ək sept/ verb 1. to take some-
abroad /ə brɔ d/ adverb to or in an-             thing which is being offered to accept
other country      The consignment of            delivery of a shipment to take goods
cars was shipped abroad last week.               into the warehouse officially when they
The chairman is abroad on business.              are delivered 2. to say ‘yes’ or to agree
He worked abroad for ten years. Half             to something She accepted the offer of
of our profit comes from sales abroad.           a job in Australia. He accepted £2000
                                                 in lieu of notice.
absence / bsəns/ noun the fact of
not being at work or at a meeting in             acceptable /ək septəb(ə)l/ adjective
the absence of when someone is not               which can be accepted       Both parties
there In the absence of the chairman,            found the offer acceptable. The terms
his deputy took the chair. unauthor-             of the contract of employment are not
ised absence from work, absence                  acceptable to the candidate.
without leave being away from work               acceptance /ək septəns/ noun ac-
without permission and without a good            ceptance of an offer the act of agreeing
reason                                           to an offer to give an offer a condi-
absent / bsənt/ adjective not at                 tional acceptance to accept an offer
work or not at a meeting He was ab-              provided that specific things happen or
sent owing to illness. Ten of the work-          that specific terms apply       we have
ers are absent with flu. The chairman            their letter of acceptance we have re-
is absent in Holland on business.                ceived a letter from them accepting the
absentee / bsən ti / noun a person               acceptance bonus /ək septəns
who is absent or an employee who stays            bəυnəs/ noun a bonus paid to a new
away from work for no good reason                employee when they agree to join an or-
absenteeism          / bs(ə)n ti z(ə)m/         ganisation (NOTE: an acceptance bonus
noun the practice of staying away from           can be a feature of a golden hello and
work for no good reason Low produc-              is designed both to attract and to retain
tivity is largely due to the high level of       staff)
acceptance sampling                         2                                          account

acceptance sampling /ək septəns                 accident-prone                          worker
 sɑ mplŋ/ noun the process of testing a        /  ksd(ə)nt prəυn w kə/ noun a
small sample of a batch to see if the           worker who is more likely to have acci-
whole batch is good enough to be                dents than other workers
accepted                                        accident report / ksd(ə)nt r-
access / kses/ noun to have ac-                  pɔ t/ noun a report of an accident
cess to something to be able to obtain          which has taken place at work
or reach something She has access to            accommodate /ə kɒmədet/ verb to
large amounts of venture capital. í verb        provide someone with a place to live in
to call up data which is stored in a com-          The company accommodates its em-
puter She accessed the address file on          ployees near their workplace.
the computer.
                                                accommodation /ə kɒmə deʃ(ə)n/
accession /ək seʃ(ə)n/ noun the act             noun 1. money lent for a short time 2. a
of joining an organisation                      place to stay temporarily or live in
accession rate /ək seʃ(ə)n ret/                Visitors have difficulty in finding hotel
noun 1. the percentage of employees in          accommodation during the summer.
an organisation who have joined it dur-             ‘…any non-resident private landlord can let
                                                    furnished or unfurnished accommodation to a
ing a particular period of time 2. a rate           tenant’ [Times]
of pay for employees when first hired
                                                    ‘…the airline providing roomy accommodations
After the first year, pay went up consid-           at below-average fares’ [Dun’s Business Month]
erably despite the low accession rate.
The accession rate depends on whether           accommodation            address /ə-
the entrants are skilled or unskilled.           kɒmə deʃ(ə)n ə dres/ noun an ad-
                                                dress used for receiving messages but
access time / kses tam/ noun the               which is not the real address of the
time taken by a computer to find data           company
stored in it
                                                accordance /ə kɔ dns/ noun in ac-
accident / ksd(ə)nt/ noun some-                cordance with in agreement with, ac-
thing unpleasant which can be caused            cording to, as someone says or writes
by carelessness or which happens by             In accordance with your instructions we
chance such as a plane crash                    have deposited the money in your cur-
 COMMENT: Fatal accidents and accidents         rent account.       I am submitting the
 which cause major injuries or which pre-       claim for damages in accordance with
 vent an employee from working for more         the advice of our legal advisers.
 than three days must be reported to the
 Health and Safety Executive.
                                                accordingly /ə kɔ dŋli/ adverb in
                                                agreement with what has been decided
accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adjective               We have received your letter and have
happening by chance, not done inten-            altered the contract accordingly.
tionally accidental destruction of the          according to /ə kɔ dŋ tu / prepo-
computer files                                  sition as stated or shown by someone
accident book / ksd(ə)nt bυk/                  The computer was installed according
noun a book in which details of acci-           to the manufacturer’s instructions.
dents at work are noted down                        ‘…the budget targets for employment and
                                                    growth are within reach according to the latest
accident         frequency           rate           figures’ [Australian Financial Review]
/ ksd(ə)nt fri kwənsi ret/ noun the           account /ə kaυnt/ noun 1. a record of
number of accidents involving injury or         financial transactions over a period of
death during a specified number of              time, such as money paid, received, bor-
man-hours      The accident frequency           rowed or owed Please send me your
rate has risen since the new machinery          account or a detailed or an itemized ac-
was installed.                                  count. 2. accounts of a business, a
accident prevention / ksd(ə)nt                 company’s accounts a detailed record
pr venʃən/ noun measures taken to              of a company’s financial affairs 3. a
prevent accidents                               customer who does a large amount of
accountability                               3                                       accrue

business with a firm and has an account          accounting system           an accounting
with it Smith Brothers is one of our             machine
largest accounts.       Our sales people          ‘…applicants will be professionally qualified
call on their best accounts twice a               and have a degree in Commerce or Accounting’
month. 4.      to keep the accounts to            [Australian Financial Review]
write each sum of money in the account           accounting       period /ə kaυntŋ
book The bookkeeper’s job is to enter             pəriəd/ noun a period of time at the
all the money received in the accounts.          end of which the firm’s accounts are
5. notice to take account of inflation,          made up
to take inflation into account to as-            accounts department /ə kaυnts
sume that there will be a specific per-          d pɑ tmənt/ noun a department in a
centage of inflation when making                 company which deals with money paid,
calculations í verb to account for to            received, borrowed or owed
explain and record a money transaction
   to account for a loss or a discrepancy        accounts manager /ə kaυnts
   The reps have to account for all their         m nd ə/ noun the manager of an ac-
expenses to the sales manager.                   counts department
accountability           /ə kaυntə blti/       accounts        payable       /ə kaυnts
noun the fact of being responsible to             peəb(ə)l/ noun money owed by a
someone for something (such as the ac-           company
countability of directors to the                 accounts receivable /ə kaυnts r-
shareholders)                                     si vəb(ə)l/ noun money owed to a
accountable /ə kaυntəb(ə)l/ adjec-               company
tive referring to a person who has to ex-        accreditation        /ə kred teʃ(ə)n/
plain what has taken place or who is             noun the process of certifying the com-
responsible for something (NOTE: you             petence of a person in a certain area
are accountable to someone for                   accreditation of union officials official
something)                                       recognition by a company that certain
accountancy /ə kaυntənsi/ noun the               employees are representatives of a trade
work of an accountant They are study-            union and are treated as such by the
ing accountancy or They are accoun-              company
tancy students. (NOTE: American                  accreditation of prior learning
English is accounting in this meaning)           /əkred teʃ(ə)n əv praə l nŋ/
accountant /ə kaυntənt/ noun a per-              noun a process that enables people to
son who keeps a company’s accounts               obtain formal recognition of qualifica-
The chief accountant of a manufactur-            tions and experience that they have
ing group. The accountant has shown              gained before joining an organisation
a sharp variance in our labour costs.            (NOTE: accreditation of prior learning
                                                 may be used to support the award of a
account director /ə kaυnt da-                   vocational qualification)
 rektə/ noun a person who works in an
advertising agency and who oversees              accredited /ə kredtd/ adjective re-
various account managers who are each            ferring to an agent who is appointed by
responsible for specific clients                 a company to act on its behalf
account executive /ə kaυnt  -                   accrual /ə kru əl/ noun a gradual in-
 zekjυtv/ noun an employee of an or-            crease by addition accrual of interest
ganisation such as a bank, public rela-          automatic addition of interest to capital
tions firm, or advertising agency who is         accrual rate /ə kru əl ret/ noun the
responsible for looking after particular         rate at which an employee’s pension in-
clients and handling their business with         creases as each year of service is com-
the organisation                                 pleted, so forming the basis for
accounting /ə kaυntŋ/ noun the                  calculating their pension
work of recording money paid, re-                accrue /ə kru / verb 1. to record a fi-
ceived, borrowed or owed accounting              nancial transaction in accounts when it
methods accounting procedures an                 takes place, and not when payment is
accurate                                        4                      Action Programme

made or received 2. to increase and be              on our behalf. to act as someone to
due for payment at a later date Inter-              do someone’s job while he is away
est accrues from the beginning of the               She will act as marketing manager
month.                                              while Mr Smith is on holiday. 2. to do
accurate / kjυrət/ adjective correct                something The board will have to act
   The sales department made an accu-               quickly if the company’s losses are go-
rate forecast of sales. The designers               ing to be reduced.        The lawyers are
produced an accurate copy of the plan.              acting on our instructions. to act on a
                                                    letter to do what a letter asks to be done
accurately / kjυrətli/ adverb cor-
rectly   The second quarter’s drop in               acting / ktŋ/ adjective working in
sales was accurately forecast by the                place of someone for a short time act-
computer.                                           ing manager the Acting Chairman
accuse /ə kju z/ verb to say that                   action / kʃən/ noun 1. a thing which
someone has committed a crime She                   has been done actions short of dis-
was accused of stealing from the petty              missal ways of disciplining an em-
cash box. He was accused of indus-                  ployee who has committed an offence,
trial espionage. (NOTE: you accuse                  which stop short of dismissing them
someone of a crime or of doing                      (such as demotion, removal of privi-
something)                                          leges, etc.) 2. to take industrial ac-
achieve /ə tʃi v/ verb to succeed in                tion to do something (usually to go on
doing something, to do something suc-               strike) to show that you are not happy
cessfully       He has achieved his                 with conditions at work 3. a case in a
long-term training objectives.   The                law court where a person or company
company has achieved great success in               sues another person or company          to
the Far East. We achieved all our ob-               take legal action to sue someone an
jectives in 2001.                                   action for libel or a libel action an ac-
 ‘…the company expects to move to profits of        tion for damages She brought an ac-
 FFr 2m next year and achieve equally rapid         tion for wrongful dismissal against her
 growth in following years’ [Financial Times]       former employer.
achievement /ə tʃi vmənt/ noun                      actionable / kʃənəb(ə)l/ adjective
success or something that has been                  referring to writing, speech or an act
achieved                                            which could provide the grounds for
achievement test /ə tʃi vmənt                       bringing an action against someone
test/ noun a test designed to measure               Was the employer’s treatment of the em-
the skills which someone is currently               ployee actionable?
using (as opposed to an aptitude test,              action-centred                 leadership
which measures the skills a person                  /  kʃən sentəd li dəʃp/ noun a
could use in the future) (NOTE: also                theory of leadership which focuses on
called attainment test)                             what leaders actually have to do in order
achiever /ə tʃi və/ noun a person who               to be effective, rather than on the per-
is successful or who tends to achieve his           sonal qualities that they need to be good
or her objectives It was her reputation             leaders, and which believes that leader-
as a high achiever that made us think of            ship can be taught (NOTE: ac-
headhunting her.                                    tion-centred leadership is usually
across-the-board /ə krɒs ðə bɔ d/                   illustrated by three overlapping circles,
adjective applying to everything or                 which represent the three key activities
everyone      an across-the-board price             undertaken by leaders: achieving the
increase     an across-the-board wage               task, building and maintaining the
increase                                            team and developing the individual)
act / kt/ noun a law passed by parlia-              action learning / kʃən l nŋ/
ment which must be obeyed by the peo-               noun the process of learning by doing or
ple í verb 1. to work He has agreed                 participating in an activity
to act as an agent for an American com-             Action       Programme          / kʃən
pany. The solicitor is acting for us or                 prəυ r m/ noun an EU initiative con-
active                                          5                        additional award

taining various draft directives to imple-          actuary / ktʃuəri/ noun a person
ment the Social Charter                             employed by an insurance company or
active / ktv/ adjective involving                  other organisation to calculate the risk
many transactions or activities an ac-              involved in an insurance, and therefore
tive demand for oil shares Computer                 the premiums payable by people taking
shares are very active. an active day               out insurance
on the Stock Exchange                               acute shortage /ə kju t ʃɔ td /
active interview / ktv ntəvju /                   noun a very severe shortage for a period
noun an interview where the inter-                  of time
viewee is encouraged to answer fully                ad / d/ noun same as advertisement
the questions asked (as in an open-end              (informal ) We put an ad in the paper.

interview)                                             She answered an ad in the paper.
active listening / ktv ls(ə)nŋ/                  He found his job through an ad in the
noun a technique which involves not                 paper.
only listening to the words someone                 adaptable /ə d ptəb(ə)l/ adjective 1.
uses, but also taking into account their            being able to change working practices
tone of voice, their body language and              2. being able to change from job to job
other non-verbal signs in order to gain a           adaptation / d p teʃ(ə)n/ noun
fuller understanding of what they are ac-           something which has been adapted
tually communicating                                This machine is an adaptation of our
actively / ktvli/ adverb in a busy                 original model.
way The company is actively recruit-                add / d/ verb 1. to put figures together
ing new personnel.                                  to make a total If you add the interest
active partner / ktv pɑ tnə/                       to the capital you will get quite a large
noun a partner who works in a company               sum. Interest is added monthly. 2. to
that is a partnership                               put things together to make a large
activity / k tvti/ noun 1. the fact of            group      We are adding to the sales
being active or busy       a low level of           force. They have added two new prod-
business activity     There was a lot of            ucts to their range. this all adds to
activity on the Stock Exchange.                     the company’s costs this makes the
monthly activity report a report by a               company’s costs higher
department on what has been done dur-               adding machine / dŋ mə ʃi n/
ing the past month 2. something which               noun a machine which adds numbers
is done out-of-work activities
 ‘…preliminary indications of the level of
                                                    addition /ə dʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a thing or
 business investment and activity during the        person added       The management has
 March quarter will provide a good picture of       stopped all additions to the staff. We
 economic       activity    in   the    year’       are exhibiting several additions to our
 [Australian Financial Review]                      product line. The marketing director
activity chart / k tvti tʃɑ t/ noun               is the latest addition to the board. 2.
a plan showing work which has been                  in addition to added to, as well as
done so that it can be compared to the              There are twelve registered letters to be
plan of work to be done                             sent in addition to this packet. 3. an act
activity      sampling        / k tvti            of putting numbers together You don’t
 sɑ mplŋ/ noun an observation of tasks             need a calculator to do simple addition.
and their performances, carried out at              additional /ə dʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective ex-
random intervals      Activity sampling             tra which is added additional costs
was carried out to see how fast the ma-             They sent us a list of additional charges.
chinists worked.                                       Some additional clauses were added
actuarial analysis / ktʃu eəriəl ə-                 to the contract. Additional duty will
 n ləss/ noun a calculation carried out            have to be paid.
by an actuary to assess somebody’s life             additional award /ə dʃ(ə)nəl ə-
expectancy or the degree of risk in-                 wɔ d/ noun an extra payment ordered
volved in an insurance proposal                     by an industrial tribunal to a dismissed
additional voluntary contributions 6                                             admin

employee if the company refuses to re-        adjourn /ə d n/ verb to stop a meet-
instate them. ‘ special award                 ing for a period       The chairman ad-
                                              journed the meeting until three o’clock.
additional voluntary contribu-                  The meeting adjourned at midday.
tions /ə dʃ(ə)nəl vɒlənt(ə)ri kɒntr-
 bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun extra pay-           adjournment /ə d nmənt/ noun an
ments made voluntarily by an employee         act of adjourning He proposed the ad-
to a pension scheme (on top of the nor-       journment of the meeting.
mal contributions, up to a maximum of         adjudicate /ə d u dket/ verb to
15% of gross earnings). Abbr AVCs             give a judgement between two parties in
address /ə dres/ noun the details of          law or to decide a legal problem       to
number, street and town where an office       adjudicate a claim to adjudicate in a
is or a person lives My business ad-          dispute      he was adjudicated bank-
dress and phone number are printed on         rupt he was declared legally bankrupt
the card. í verb 1. to write the details of   adjudication          /ə d u d keʃ(ə)n/
an address on an envelope or package          noun the act of giving a judgement or of
a letter addressed to the managing di-        deciding a legal problem
rector an incorrectly addressed pack-         adjudication officer /ə d u d-
age Please address your enquiries to           keʃ(ə)n ɒfsə/ noun an official who
the manager. 2. to speak The chair-           decides whether someone is qualified to
man addressed the meeting.                    receive benefit
addressee / dre si / noun a person            adjudication tribunal /ə d u d-
to whom a letter or package is addressed       keʃ(ə)n tra bju n(ə)l/ noun a group
addressing machine /ə dresŋ mə-              which adjudicates in industrial disputes
 ʃi n/ noun a machine which puts ad-          adjudicator /ə d u dketə/ noun a
dresses on envelopes automatically            person who gives a decision on a prob-
                                              lem     an adjudicator in an industrial
add up / d p/ verb 1. to put several          dispute
figures together to make a total        He
made a mistake in adding up the column        adjust /ə d st/ verb to change some-
of figures. the figures do not add up         thing to fit new conditions Prices are
the total given is not correct 2. to make     adjusted for inflation.
sense The complaints in the letter just        ‘…inflation-adjusted GNP moved up at a 1.3%
                                               annual rate’ [Fortune]
do not add up.
                                               ‘Saudi Arabia will no longer adjust its
add up to / d p tυ/ verb to make a             production to match short-term supply with
total of The total expenditure adds up         demand’ [Economist]
to more than £1,000.                           ‘…on a seasonally-adjusted basis, output of
                                               trucks, electric power, steel and paper
adequate / dkwət/ adjective large             decreased’ [Business Week]
enough to operate without adequate            adjuster /ə d stə/ noun a person
cover to act without being completely         who calculates losses for an insurance
protected by insurance                        company
ad hoc / d hɒk/ adjective for this            adjustment /ə d stmənt/ noun the
particular purpose      They run ad hoc       act of adjusting     to make an adjust-
surveys to test customer reaction when        ment to salaries adjustment of prices
products are launched.        Shipping by     to take account of rising costs Details
airfreight was an ad hoc arrangement          of tax adjustments are set out in the en-
initially.                                    closed document.       an adjustment of
ad hoc decision / d hɒk d-                   prices to take account of rising costs
 s (ə)n/ noun a decision taken to solve      adjustor /ə d stə/ noun same as
a particular problem                          adjuster
adhocracy / d hɒkrəsi/ noun man-              admin /     dmn/ noun 1. the work of
agement which works by taking                 administration, especially paperwork
short-term decisions, but fails to make       (informal ) All this admin work takes a

long-term plans                               lot of my time.     There is too much
administer                                    7                     adventure training

admin in this job. Admin costs seem to            adult     education / d lt edjυ-
be rising each quarter.      The admin             keʃ(ə)n/ noun education provided for
people have sent the report back. 2. ad-          adults
ministration staff or the administration          ad valorem tax / d və lɔ rem
department Admin say they need the                t ks/ noun tax calculated according to
report immediately.     She did not an-           the value of the goods taxed
swer my note but sent it on to admin.
(NOTE: no plural; as a group of people it         advance /əd vɑ ns/ noun 1. money
can have a plural verb)                           paid as a loan or as a part of a payment
                                                  to be made later       She asked if she
administer /əd mnstə/ verb to or-               could have a cash advance. We paid
ganise, manage or direct the whole of an          her an advance on account.         Can I
organisation or part of one She admin-            have an advance of £100 against next
isters a large pension fund. It will be           month’s salary? 2. an increase 3. in
the HR manager’s job to administer the            advance early, before something hap-
induction programme.                              pens     freight payable in advance
administration /əd mn streʃ(ə)n/               prices fixed in advance í adjective
noun 1. the action of organising, con-            early     advance booking        advance
trolling or managing a company          He        payment       Advance holiday bookings
has a qualification in business adminis-          are up on last year.      You must give
tration. 2. a person or group of people           seven days’ advance notice of with-
who manage or direct an organisation              drawals from the account. í verb 1. to
It is up to the administration to solve the       lend       The bank advanced him
problem, not the government. 3. the run-          £100,000 against the security of his
ning of a company in receivership by an           house. 2. to increase Prices generally
administrator appointed by the courts             advanced on the stock market. 3. to
                                                  make something happen earlier        The
administration costs /əd mn-                    date of the AGM has been advanced to
 streʃ(ə)n kɒsts/, administration                May 10th. The meeting with the Ger-
expenses /əd mn streʃ(ə)n k-                  man distributors has been advanced
 spensz/ plural noun the costs of man-           from 11.00 to 09.30.
agement, not including production, mar-
keting or distribution costs                      advanced course /əd vɑ nst kɔ s/
                                                  noun a course for students who are not
administrative /əd mnstrətv/ ad-               beginners
jective referring to administration ad-
ministrative details        administrative        advancement /əd vɑ nsmənt/ noun
expenses                                          promotion       The only way to get ad-
                                                  vancement in this company is through
administrator            /əd mnstretə/         further training. The job is attractive
noun 1. a person who directs the work             because      of    the   potential    for
of other employees in a business After            advancement.
several years as a college teacher, she
                                                  advantage /əd vɑ ntd / noun some-
hopes to become an administrator. 2. a
                                                  thing useful which may help you to be
person appointed by a court to manage
                                                  successful Knowledge of two foreign
the affairs of someone who dies without
                                                  languages is an advantage. There is
leaving a will 3. a person appointed by a
                                                  no advantage in arriving at the exhibi-
court to administer a company which is
                                                  tion before it opens. Fast typing is an
                                                  advantage in a secretary. to take ad-
admonish /əd mɒnʃ/ verb to give a                vantage of something to use something
warning or reprimand (formal )   .     The        which helps you
workers were admonished by the man-               adventure training /əd ventʃə
ager for careless work.                            trenŋ/, adventure learning /əd-
adoption leave /ə dɒpʃən li v/ noun                ventʃə l nŋ/ noun a type of
time away from work allowed to an em-             training in which employees engage
ployee for dealing with matters relating          in group games and physically de-
to the adoption of a child                        manding outdoor activities such as
adverse                                         8            Advisory, Conciliation and

climbing and abseiling away from                    advertising.     Their new advertising
their usual work environment (NOTE:                 campaign is being launched next week.
the aim of adventure training is to                    The company has asked an advertis-
develop skills in leadership, prob-                 ing agent to prepare a presentation.
lem-solving, decision-making and in-                to take advertising space in a paper to
terpersonal communication and to                    book space for an advertisement in a
build team spirit)                                  newspaper
adverse / dv s/ adjective unfa-                     advertising manager / dvətazŋ
vourable adverse balance of trade a                  m nd ə/ noun the manager in charge
situation in which a country imports                of advertising a company’s products
more than it exports                                advertising space / dvətazŋ
adverse action / dv s                  kʃən/        spes/ noun a space in a newspaper set
noun a decision which has unfavourable              aside for advertisements
consequences for employees The new                  advice /əd vas/ noun 1. a notifica-
bonus system was considered adverse                 tion telling someone what has happened
action by underachievers in the                     2. an opinion as to what action to
organisation.                                       take     to take legal advice to ask a
adverse impact / dv s mp kt/                       lawyer to say what should be done
noun an undesirable and unexpected re-              The accountant’s advice was to send the
sult of an action         Offering bonuses          documents to the police. We sent the
only for very high productivity rates had           documents to the police on the advice of
an adverse impact, discouraging rather              the accountant. We took the accoun-
than motivating workers.                            tant’s advice and sent the documents to
                                                    the police. as per advice according
advert / dv t/ noun same as adver-                  to what is written on the advice note
tisement (informal ) to put an advert

in the paper to answer an advert in                 advise /əd vaz/ verb 1. to tell some-
the paper classified adverts display                one what has happened We have been
adverts                                             advised that the shipment will arrive
                                                    next week. 2. to suggest to someone
advertise / dvətaz/ verb 1. to ar-                 what should be done The lawyer ad-
range and pay for publicity designed to             vised us to send the documents to the
help sell products or services or to find           police.
new employees           to advertise a va-
cancy to advertise for a secretary 2.               advise against /əd vaz ə enst/
to announce that something is for sale or           verb to suggest that something should
that a job is vacant or that a service is           not be done The HR manager advised
offered to advertise a new product                  against dismissing the staff without
advertisement              /əd v tsmənt/
noun a notice which shows that some-
                                                    adviser /əd vazə/, advisor noun a
                                                    person who suggests what should be
thing is for sale, that a service is offered,
                                                    done He is consulting the company’s
that someone wants something or that a
                                                    legal adviser.
job is vacant
                                                    advisory /əd vaz(ə)ri/ adjective as
advertisement manager /əd-                          an adviser He is acting in an advisory
 v tsmənt m nd ə/ noun the                        capacity.
manager in charge of the advertisement
section of a newspaper                              Advisory, Conciliation and Arbi-
                                                    tration   Service    /əd vaz(ə)ri
advertiser / dvətazə/ noun a per-                  kənsli eʃ(ə)n ənd ɑ           b treʃ(ə)n
son or company that advertises           The         s vs/ noun a British          government
catalogue gives a list of advertisers.              service which arbitrates in     disputes be-
advertising / dvətazŋ/ noun the                   tween management and             employees.
business of announcing that something               Abbr ACAS
is for sale or of trying to persuade cus-            COMMENT: ACAS has three roles: it will
tomers to buy a product or service She               conciliate in a dispute if asked; it advises
works in advertising or She has a job in             employers, trade unions and employees
advisory arbitration                             9                                     agency

 on matters concerning industrial relations;         tion in employment (NOTE: the British
 it arbitrates in cases where industrial dis-        equivalent is equal opportunities)
 putes cannot be settled inside the com-
 pany’s own grievance structure.                     affirmative      recruitment        /ə-
                                                      f mətv r kru tmənt/ noun recruit-
advisory arbitration /əd vaz(ə)ri                   ment which gives special consideration
ɑ b treʃ(ə)n/ noun arbitration which               to applicants from affirmative action
recommends a solution to a dispute, but              groups (NOTE: the British equivalent is
is not binding on either party The two               equal opportunities)
parties resorted to advisory arbitration
to avoid the legal process. Though the               afford /ə fɔ d/ verb to be able to pay
two parties had agreed to advisory arbi-             for or buy something We could not af-
tration, neither of them agreed with the             ford the cost of two telephones. The
recommendation.                                      company cannot afford the time to train
                                                     new staff. (NOTE: only used after can,
advisory board /əd vaz(ə)ri bɔ d/                   cannot, could, could not, able to)
noun a group of advisors
                                                     AFL-CIO noun an organisation linking
affect /ə fekt/ verb to cause some                   US trade unions. Abbr of American
change in or to have a bad effect on                 Federation of Labor – Congress of
something The new government regu-                   Industrial Organisations
lations do not affect us.
                                                     after-tax profit / ɑ ftə t ks prɒft/
affiliated /ə fletd/ adjective con-              noun profit after tax has been deducted
nected with or owned by another com-
pany        Smiths Ltd is one of our                 against /ə enst/ preposition relating
affiliated companies.                                to or part of Can I have an advance
                                                     against next month’s salary?     The
affiliated societies /ə flietd sə-                bank advanced him £10,000 against the
 saətiz/ plural noun non-profit-making
                                                     security of his house.
organisations which exist to provide fi-
                                                      ‘…investment can be written off against the
nancial support to members and their                  marginal rate of tax’ [Investors Chronicle]
families in sickness and old age
affiliated trade union /ə flietd                  age /ed / noun the number of years
tred ju njən/ noun trade unions                     someone has lived
which a member of a larger organisa-                 age bracket / ed br kt/, age
tion, such as a national association                 group / ed     ru p/ noun a group of
affirmative /ə f mətv/ adjective                    people of about the same age         the
meaning ‘yes’ the answer was in the                  25–30 age group
affirmative the answer was yes                       age       discrimination         / ed
affirmative action /ə f mətv                        dskrm neʃ(ə)n/ noun unfair treat-
   kʃən/ noun US the practice of pro-                ment resulting from prejudice against a
viding opportunities for disadvantaged               person on the grounds of their age
groups such as ethnic minorities,                    (NOTE: countries such as Australia and
women or people with disabilities                    the United States have passed laws to
                                                     make age discrimination illegal)
 COMMENT: Affirmative recruitment is usu-
 ally carried out by central or local govern-        ageism / ed z(ə)m/ noun unfair dis-
 ment organisations.                                 crimination against older people
affirmative       action       group       /ə-       age limit / ed lmt/ noun the top
 f mətv kʃən ru p/ noun a group                     age at which you are allowed to do a job
of people who are eligible for or need                  There is an age limit of thirty-five on
affirmative action People in affirma-                the post of buyer.
tive action groups get special consider-             agency / ed əns/ noun 1. an office
ation when applying for local                        or job of representing another company
government jobs.                                     in an area      They signed an agency
affirmative action program /ə-                       agreement or an agency contract. 2. an
 f mətv      kʃən prəυ r m/ noun                    office or business which arranges things
US a programme to avoid discrimina-                  for other companies
agency labour                                 10                                              aim

agency labour / ed ənsi lebə/                    to something that is suggested We all
noun staff supplied by an employment               agreed on the plan. 3. to agree to or
agency                                             on something to approve something
agency shop / ed ənsi ʃɒp/ noun                   After some discussion she agreed to our
US a provision that requires non-union             plan.     The bank will never agree to
employees to pay union dues if they are            lend the company £250,000.      We all
part of a bargaining unit                          agreed on the need for action.       to
                                                   agree to do something to say that you
agenda /ə d endə/ noun a list of                   will do something She agreed to be
things to be discussed at a meeting                chairman.     Will the finance director
The conference agenda or the agenda of             agree to resign?
   After two hours we were still discuss-
ing the first item on the agenda. We               agreed /ə ri d/ adjective which has
usually put put finance at the top of the          been accepted by everyone We pay an
agenda. The chair wants two items re-              agreed amount each month. The shop
moved from or taken off the agenda.                is leased on agreed terms. The agreed
                                                   terms of employment are laid down in
agent / ed ənt/ noun 1. a person                  the contract.
who represents a company or another
person in an area         to be the agent          agreement /ə ri mənt/ noun 1. a
for BMW cars          to be the agent for          spoken or written contract between peo-
IBM 2. a person in charge of an agency             ple or groups which explains how they
   an advertising agent         The estate         will act a written agreement an un-
agent sent me a list of properties for             written or verbal agreement to draw
sale. Our trip was organised through               up or to draft an agreement to break
our local travel agent.      Management            an agreement to sign an agreement
would only discuss the new payment                 to reach an agreement or to come to an
scheme with agents officially represent-           agreement on something a collective
ing the workers. 3. a person who is                wage agreement 2. a contract between
formally acting on behalf of employees             two parties which explains how they
or a union       Management would only             will act a written agreement an un-
discuss the new payment scheme with                written or verbal agreement to draw
agents officially representing the work-           up or to draft an agreement to break
ers. Certain workers were selected as              an agreement to sign an agreement
agents to voice the grievances of the              to reach an agreement or to come to an
men and women on the shop floor.                   agreement on something a collective
(business) agent US the chief local                wage agreement
                                                       ‘…after three days of tough negotiations the
official of a trade union                              company has reached agreement with its 1,200
agent’s commission / ed ənts                          unionized workers’ [Toronto Star]
kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun money, often a per-               agree with /ə ri wð/ verb 1. to say
centage of sales, paid to an agent                 that your opinions are the same as some-
age pension / ed penʃən/ noun a                   one else’s I agree with the chairman
sum of money paid regularly by a gov-              that the figures are lower than normal.
ernment to people who have reached the             2. to be the same as The auditors’ fig-
official age of retirement                         ures do not agree with those of the ac-
                                                   counts department.
aggrieved /ə ri vd/ adjective upset
and annoyed                                        agricultural                       labourer
                                                   /    rk ltʃərəl leb(ə)rə/ noun a per-
aggrieved party /ə ri vd pɑ ti/                    son who does heavy work on a farm
noun the person who has a grievance
                                                   aim /em/ noun something which you
AGM abbr Annual General Meeting                    try to do    One of our aims is to in-
agree /ə ri / verb 1. to approve The               crease the quality of our products. the
figures were agreed between the two                company has achieved all its aims the
parties. We have agreed the budgets                company has done all the things it had
for next year. The terms of the con-               hoped to do í verb to try to do some-
tract are still to be agreed. 2. to say yes        thing Each member of the sales team
air                                         11                                            alter

must aim to double their previous year’s         all-out campaign to improve productiv-
sales. We aim to be No. 1 in the mar-            ity on Friday afternoons.
ket within two years.
                                                 all-out strike / ɔ l aυt strak/ noun
air /eə/ verb       to air a grievance to        a complete strike by all employees
talk about or discuss a grievance The
management committee is useful be-               allow /ə laυ/ verb 1. to say that some-
cause it allows the workers’ representa-         one can do something       Junior mem-
tives to air their grievances.                   bers of staff are not allowed to use the
                                                 chairman’s lift. The company allows
AIRC abbr Australian Industrial Rela-            all members of staff to take six days’
tions Commission                                 holiday at Christmas. 2. to give to al-
airmail letter / eəmel letə/ noun a             low 5% discount to members of staff
letter sent by air                               We allow her a discount because she’s
                                                 the manager’s sister. 3. to agree to or
alarm /ə lɑ m/ noun a device which               accept legally to allow a claim or an
gives a loud warning                             appeal
alcoholism / lkəhɒlz(ə)m/ noun                  allowable /ə laυəb(ə)l/ adjective le-
the excessive drinking of alcohol which          gally accepted
becomes addictive
alien / eliən/ noun 1. a person who is          allowance /ə laυəns/ noun 1. money
not a citizen of a country 2. (in the UK)        which is given for a special reason a
a person who is not a citizen of the             travel allowance or a travelling allow-
United Kingdom, a Commonwealth                   ance 2. part of an income which is not
country or the Irish Republic                    taxed     allowances against tax or tax
                                                 allowances      personal allowances 3.
alienation / eliə neʃ(ə)n/ noun a              money removed in the form of a dis-
lack of a sense of fulfilment when an            count an allowance for depreciation
employee cannot see the result of their             an allowance for exchange loss
work The monotony of the job created              ‘…the compensation plan includes base,
a sense of alienation.       The manage-          incentive and car allowance totalling $50,000+’
ment wanted to combat any sense of                [Globe and Mail (Toronto)]
alienation by involving the employees in
company decisions.                               allowed time /ə laυd tam/ noun
                                                 paid time which the management agrees
allegation / lə eʃ(ə)n/ noun the                an employee can spend on rest, cleaning
suggestion that something has hap-               or meals, not working
pened, without being able to prove it
                                                 allow for /ə laυ fɔ / verb to give a dis-
allege /ə led / verb to suggest some-            count for or to add an extra sum to cover
thing, without being able to prove it            something to allow for money paid in
The management alleged that the union            advance Allow an extra 10% for post-
had broken the agreement.                        age and packing. delivery is not al-
all-in / ɔ l n/ adjective including             lowed for delivery charges are not
everything      The fee payable is £150          included allow 28 days for delivery
all-in.                                          calculate that delivery will take up to 28
all-in policy / ɔ l n pɒlsi/ noun in-
surance which covers all risks                   all-risks policy / ɔ l rsks pɒlsi/
                                                 noun an insurance policy which covers
all-in rate / ɔ l n ret/, all-in               risks of any kind, with no exclusions
price / ɔ l n pras/ noun 1. a price
which covers all items in a purchase             alphabetical order / lfəbetk(ə)l
such as delivery, tax and insurance, as           ɔ də/ noun the arrangement of records
well as the goods themselves 2. a wage           (such as files and index cards) in the or-
which includes all extra payments such           der of the letters of the alphabet
as bonuses and merit pay                         (A,B,C,D, etc.)
all-out / ɔ l aυt/ adjective complete or         alter / ɔ ltə/ verb to change to alter
very serious The firm has launched an            the terms of a contract
alteration                                   12              analytical job evaluation

alteration / ɔ ltə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a               amenities /ə mi ntiz/ plural noun
change which has been made          He            services provided by an organisation for
made some alterations to the terms of a           the people who work in it The staff
contract. The agreement was signed                amenities included a subsidised canteen
without any alterations.                          and sports facilities.
alternate / ɔ ltənet/ verb to do                 amount /ə maυnt/ noun a quantity of
something by turns or in rotation Two             money      a small amount invested in
workers alternate on the machine.                 gilt-edged stock A small amount has
alternating         shift       system            been deducted to cover our costs. A
/ ɔ ltənetŋ    ʃft sstəm/ noun a              large amount is still owing. What is
system where two groups of employees              the amount to be written off? What is
work day or night shifts, and after a             the amount outstanding? í verb         to
certain period, change round                      amount to to make a total of Their
                                                  debts amount to over £1m.
alternation ranking / ɔ ltə neʃ(ə)n
 r ŋkŋ/ noun a method of ranking,                analogue / n(ə)lɒ / noun a person’s
beginning with the highest and lowest,            opposite in another organisation The
then the second highest and lowest, and           conference of production managers
so on                                             gave those attending the opportunity to
                                                  meet their analogues in other industries.
alternative /ɔ l t nətv/ noun a                  (NOTE: US spelling is also analog)
thing which can be done instead of an-
other What is the alternative to firing           analyse / nəlaz/, analyze verb to
half the staff? we have no alternative            examine someone or something in detail
there is nothing else we can do í adjec-            to analyse a statement of account to
tive other, which can take the place of
                                                  analyse the market potential
something to find someone alterna-                analysis /ə n ləss/ noun a detailed
tive employment to find someone an-               examination and report a job analysis
other job                                           market analysis Her job is to pro-
                                                  duce a regular sales analysis. (NOTE:
amalgamate /ə m l əmet/ verb to                  plural is analyses)
join together with another group The
amalgamated union has a total member-             analyst / nəlst/ noun a person who
ship of 250,000.                                  analyses   a market analyst    a systems
amalgamation /ə m l ə meʃ(ə)n/
noun the joining together of several              analytical / nə ltk(ə)l/ adjective
trade unions to increase their strength           using analysis
ambition / m bʃ(ə)n/ noun what                   analytical                 estimating
someone wants to do or achieve in their           /  nəltk(ə)l estmetŋ/ noun a
life We insist that our sales represen-           work measurement technique where the
tatives have plenty of ambition. Her              time taken to perform a job is estimated
ambition is to become the senior partner          on the basis of prior experience
in the firm.                                      Analytical estimating was not consid-
                                                  ered a satisfactory work measurement
ambitious / m bʃəs/ adjective full               technique because the union com-
of ambition, wanting to do or achieve             plained that previously established time
something      He is ambitious, but not           period Analytical estimating was used
very competent.                                   on those jobs that hadn’t changed
amend /ə mend/ verb to change and                 since the original work measurement.
make more correct or acceptable                   analytical       job       evaluation
Please amend your copy of the contract            / nəltk(ə)l d ɒb v lju eʃ(ə)n/
accordingly.                                      noun a method of evaluating a job using
amendment /ə mendmənt/ noun a                     a points system to compare one job with
change to a document to propose an                another (as opposed to non-analytical
amendment to the constitution           to        evaluation)
make amendments to a contract
ancillary staff                                    13                                           annuity

ancillary staff / n sləri stɑ f/ noun                  uation is presented by and discussed
staff who are not administrators, pro-                  with the directors, when the accounts for
duction staff or sales staff (such as                   the past year are approved and when
cleaners, porters, canteen staff, etc.)                 dividends are declared and audited.
andragogy / ndrə ɒ i/ noun the                          Abbr AGM (NOTE: the American equiv-
science of adult learning, that is of                   alent is annual meeting or annual
teaching adults in an adult way, as op-                 stockholders’ meeting)
posed to teaching them as if they were                  annual holiday / njuəl hɒlde/
children Andragogy has developed in                     noun a holiday which is taken once a
response to the increasing number of                    year
adults with the time and money to spend                 annual hours / njuəl aυəz/ plural
on further education.        The training               noun the total of all the hours worked in
manager was aware of the latest theo-                   a year (e.g. 1720 hours per annum), laid
ries in andragogy of importance in the                  out in a contract of employment, so al-
training of machinists.                                 lowing an employee more flexibility
Anglo-Saxon work ethic / ŋ ləυ                          than a weekly hour system
s ksən w k eθk/ noun a feeling in                      annual income / njuəl nk m/
Britain and the USA that work is the                    noun money received during a calendar
most important task for an adult                        year
anniversary / n v s(ə)ri/, anni-                       annualised / njuəlazd/, annual-
versary date / n v s(ə)ri det/ noun                   ized adjective shown on an annual basis
a date in a following year which is the                     ‘…he believes this may have caused the
same as a particular occasion, e.g. the                     economy to grow at an annualized rate of almost
date of joining a pension scheme                            5 per cent in the final quarter of last year’
                                                            [Investors Chronicle]
announce /ə naυns/ verb to tell
something to the public to announce                     annualised             percentage            rate
the first year’s trading results to an-                 /   njuəlazd pə sentd ret/ noun a
nounce the results for 2002 The direc-                  yearly percentage rate, calculated by
tor has announced a programme of                        multiplying the monthly rate by twelve
investment.                                             (not as accurate as the APR, which in-
                                                        cludes fees and other charges)
announcement              /ə naυnsmənt/
noun an act of telling something in pub-                annually / njuəli/ adverb each year
lic the announcement of a cutback in                       The figures are updated annually.
expenditure the announcement of the                     Annual Percentage Rate / njuəl
appointment of a new managing direc-                    pə sentd ret/ noun a rate of interest
tor The managing director made an                       (such as on a hire-purchase agreement)
announcement to the staff.                              shown on an annual compound basis, in-
annual / njuəl/ adjective for one                       cluding fees and charges. Abbr APR
year an annual statement of income                      annual report / njuəl r pɔ t/ noun
They have six weeks’ annual leave.                      a report of a company’s financial situa-
The company has an annual growth of                     tion at the end of a year, sent to all the
5%. We get an annual bonus. on an                       shareholders
annual basis each year        The figures               annual salary / njuəl s ləri/
are revised on an annual basis.                         noun a salary for one year’s work
 ‘…real wages have risen at an annual rate of
 only 1% in the last two years’ [Sunday Times]          annuitant /ə nju tənt/ noun a per-
 ‘…the remuneration package will include an
                                                        son who receives an annuity
 attractive salary, profit sharing and a company        annuity /ə nju ti/ noun money paid
 car together with four weeks’ annual holiday’          each year to a retired person, usually in
                                                        return for a lump-sum payment; the
Annual General Meeting / njuəl                          value of the annuity depends on how
 d en(ə)rəl mi tŋ/ noun an annual                      long the person lives, as it usually can-
meeting of all shareholders of a com-                   not be passed on to another person; an-
pany, when the company’s financial sit-                 nuities are fixed payments, and lose
annuity for life                                     14                               application

their value with inflation, whereas a                     anticipatory / n tspət(ə)ri/ adjec-
pension can be index-linked to buy or                     tive done before it is due
to take out an annuity He has a gov-                      anticipatory           breach        / n-
ernment annuity or an annuity from the                     tspət(ə)ri bri tʃ/ noun the refusal
government.     contingent annuity an                     by a party to a contract to perform their
annuity paid to someone on the death of                   obligations under the contract at a time
another person                                            before they were due to be performed
 COMMENT: When a person retires, he or
                                                          anti-inflationary measure / nti
 she is required by law to purchase a ‘com-
 pulsory purchase annuity’ with the funds
                                                          n fleʃ(ə)n(ə)ri me ə/ noun a mea-
 accumulated in his or her pension fund.
                                                          sure taken to reduce inflation
 This gives them a taxable income for the                 any other business / eni ðə
 rest of their life, but usually it is a fixed in-         bzns/ noun an item at the end of an
 come which does not change with                          agenda, where any matter can be raised.
 inflation.                                               Abbr AOB
annuity for life /ə nju ti fə laf/                      appeal /ə pi l/ noun 1. the fact of be-
noun annual payments made to some-                        ing attractive 2. the act of asking a law
one as long as they are alive                             court or a government department to
annul /ə n l/ verb to cancel or to stop                   change its decision He lost his appeal
something being legal    The contract                     for damages against the company. she
was annulled by the court. (NOTE: an-                     won her case on appeal her case was
nulling – annulled)                                       lost in the first court, but the appeal
                                                          court said that she was right í verb 1. to
annullable /ə n ləb(ə)l/ adjective                        attract The idea of working in Austra-
which can be cancelled                                    lia for six months appealed to her. 2. to
annulling /ə n lŋ/ adjective which                       ask a law court or a government depart-
cancels an annulling clause in a con-                     ment or to alter its decision The union
tract í noun the act of cancelling the                    appealed against the decision of the tri-
annulling of a contract                                   bunal. (NOTE: you appeal to a court or
                                                          a person against a decision)
annulment /ə n lmənt/ noun the act
of cancelling       the annulment of a                    appeal proceedings /ə pi l prə-
contract                                                   si dŋz/ plural noun the formal hearing
                                                          of an appeal by a tribunal
answer / ɑ nsə/ verb to speak or write
after someone has spoken or written to                    appeals procedure /ə pi lz prə-
you to answer a letter to write a letter                   si d ə/ noun the way in which an em-
in reply to a letter which you have re-                   ployee can appeal against a decision
ceived to answer the telephone to lift                    appendix /ə pendks/ noun 1. addi-
the telephone when it rings and listen to                 tional sheets at the back of a contract 2.
what the caller is saying                                 additional pages at the back of a book
answerphone / ɑ nsəfəυn/ noun a                           applicant / plkənt/ noun a person
machine which answers the telephone                       who applies for something an appli-
automatically when a person is not in                     cant for a job or a job applicant an
the office and allows messages to be re-                  applicant to an industrial tribunal
corded He wasn’t in when I called so I                    There were thousands of applicants for
left a message on his answerphone.                        shares in the new company.
antedate / nt det/ verb to put an                       application / pl keʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
earlier date on a document       The in-                  the act of asking for something, usually
voice was antedated to January 1st.                       in writing shares payable on applica-
The contract was antedated to January                     tion She sent off six applications for
1st.                                                      job or six job applications. 2. effort or
anticipation / n ts peʃ(ə)n/ noun                      diligence She has shown great appli-
the act of doing something before it is                   cation in her work on the project.
due to be done
application blank                            15                                    appropriate

application blank / pl keʃ(ə)n                  pany’s apportionment of wages, claim-
bl ŋk/ noun US a form for recording               ing that employees were not receiving
an applicant’s qualifications for a job           amounts corresponding to days worked.
application form / pl keʃ(ə)n                   appraisal /ə prez(ə)l/ noun a calcu-
fɔ m/ noun a form to be filled in when            lation of the value of someone or
applying for a new issue of shares or for         something
a job                                              ‘…we are now reaching a stage in industry and
apply /ə pla/ verb 1. to ask for some-            commerce where appraisals are becoming part
thing, usually in writing to apply in              of the management culture. Most managers now
                                                   take it for granted that they will appraise and be
writing     to apply in person       About         appraised’ [Personnel Management]
fifty people have applied so far. The
more ambitious of the office workers              appraisal      interview /ə prez(ə)l
will apply for the management trainee              ntəvju / noun an interview where the
programme. (NOTE: applies- applying-              manager (the appraiser) discusses with
applied) 2. to affect or to relate to             the employee (the appraisee) his or her
This clause applies only to deals outside         performance
the EU.                                           appraise /ə prez/ verb to assess or to
appoint /ə pɔnt/ verb to choose                  calculate the value of something or
someone for a job We have appointed               someone
a new distribution manager. They’ve               appraisee /ə pre zi / noun an em-
appointed Janet Smith (to the post of)            ployee who is being appraised by their
manager. (NOTE: you appoint a person              manager in an appraisal interview
to a job)
                                                  appraiser /ə prezə/ noun a person
appointee /əpɔn ti / noun a person               who conducts an appraisal inteview
who is appointed to a job
appointment /ə pɔntmənt/ noun 1.                 appreciate /ə pri ʃiet/ verb 1. to no-
an arrangement to meet to make or to              tice how good something is 2. (of cur-
                                                  rency, shares, etc.) to increase in value
fix an appointment with someone for
two o’clock He was late for his ap-               appreciation /ə pri ʃi eʃ(ə)n/ noun
pointment. She had to cancel her ap-              1. an increase in value 2. the act of valu-
pointment. 2. the act of being appointed          ing something highly He was given a
to a job on his appointment as man-               rise in appreciation of his excellent
ager when he was made manager 3. a                work.
job                                               apprentice /ə prents/ noun a young
appointments book /ə pɔntmənts                   person who works under contract for a
bυk/ noun a desk diary in which ap-               period in order to be trained in a skill í
pointments are noted                              verb to be apprenticed to someone
appointments            vacant       /ə-          to work with a skilled worker to learn
 pɔntmənts vekənt/ noun a list (in a            from them
newspaper) of jobs which are available            apprenticeship /ə prentsʃp/ noun
apportion /ə pɔ ʃ(ə)n/ verb to share              the time spent learning a skilled trade
out costs, blame, etc. Costs are appor-           He served a six-year apprenticeship in
tioned according to projected revenue.            the steel works.
apportionment          /ə pɔ ʃ(ə)nmənt/           approach /ə prəυtʃ/ noun an act of
noun the sharing out of costs                     getting in touch with someone with a
apportionment of wages /ə-                        proposal      She has had an approach
 pɔ ʃ(ə)nmənt əv wed z/ noun a de-              from a firm of headhunters. í verb
cision as to what payment is made to an           to get in touch with someone with a pro-
employee who leaves before pay day                posal She was approached by a head-
A generous apportionment of wages was             hunter with the offer of a job.
favoured by the human resources de-               appropriate adjective /ə prəυpriət/
partment so that employees would not              suitable I leave it to you to take ap-
lea    The union objected to the com-             propriate action.
approval                                       16                                     argue

approval /ə pru v(ə)l/ noun 1. agree-               ferences between them shall be settled
ment to submit a budget for approval                by arbitration
   to give something your approval to               arbitration award / ɑ b treʃ(ə)n
approve something 2. on approval a                  ə wɔ d/ noun a decision by an arbitra-
sale where the buyer only pays for                  tion tribunal
goods if they are satisfactory to buy a
photocopier on approval                             arbitration board / ɑ b treʃ(ə)n
                                                    bɔ d/ noun a group which arbitrates
approve /ə pru v/ verb 1. to ap-
prove of something to think something               arbitration clause / ɑ b treʃ(ə)n
is good The chairman approves of the                klɔ z/ noun a clause in a contract stating
new company letter heading.             The         how differences between the parties can
sales staff do not approve of interfer-             be settled by arbitration
ence from the accounts division. 2. to              arbitration tribunal / ɑ b treʃ(ə)n
agree to something officially        to ap-         tra bju n(ə)l/ noun a group which ad-
prove the terms of a contract The pro-              judicates in industrial disputes
posal was approved by the board.                    arbitrator / ɑ btretə/ noun a person
approximate /ə prɒksmət/ adjec-                    not concerned with a dispute who is
tive not exact, but almost correct The              chosen by both sides to try to settle it
sales division has made an approximate              an industrial arbitrator They refused
forecast of expenditure.                            to accept or they rejected the arbitra-
approximately /ə prɒksmətli/ ad-                   tor’s ruling.
verb almost correctly Expenditure on                area / eəriə/ noun 1. a measurement of
marketing is approximately 10% down                 the space taken up by something (calcu-
on the previous quarter.                            lated by multiplying the length by the
approximation /ə prɒks meʃ(ə)n/                   width) a no-smoking area The area
noun a rough calculation          Each de-          of this office is 3,400 square feet. We
partment has been asked to provide an               are looking for a shop with a sales area
approximation of expenditure for next               of about 100 square metres. 2. a region
year.      The final figure is only an              of the world 3. a subject a problem
approximation.                                      area or an area for concern 4. a district
APR abbr Annual Percentage Rate                     or part of a town The office is in the
                                                    commercial area of the town.        Their
aptitude / pttju d/ noun the ability               factory is in a very good area for getting
to do something                                     to the motorways and airports. 5. a part
aptitude test / pt tju d test/ noun                of a country, a division for commercial
test to see if a candidate is suitable for a        purposes        Her sales area is the
certain type of work. Compare attain-               North-West.       He finds it difficult to
ment test                                           cover all his area in a week. 6. part of a
arbitrate / ɑ btret/ verb (of an out-             room, factory, restaurant, etc.          a
side party) to try to settle an industrial          no-smoking area
dispute by talking to representatives of            area code / eəriə kəυd/ noun a spe-
both sides, who agree in advance to                 cial telephone number which is given to
abide by the arbitrator’s decision                  a particular area      The area code for
arbitration / ɑ b treʃ(ə)n/ noun the              central London is 0207.
settling of a dispute by an outside party,          area manager / eəriə m nd ə/
agreed on by both sides to take a dis-              noun a manager who is responsible for a
pute to arbitration or to go to arbitra-            company’s work in a specific part of the
tion      arbitration in an industrial              country
dispute The two sides decided to sub-               argue / ɑ ju / verb to discuss some-
mit the dispute to arbitration or to refer          thing about which you do not agree
the question to arbitration.                        The union officials argued among them-
arbitration agreement / ɑ b-                       selves over the best way to deal with the
 treʃ(ə)n ə ri mənt/ noun an agree-                ultimatum from the management. We
ment between two parties that any dif-              spent hours arguing with the managing
argument                                       17                          ascribed status

director about the site for the new factory.        Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome an
   to argue against something to give               article which requires all member states
reasons why you think something                     to apply equal pay to men and women
should not be done                                  doing equal jobs
argument / ɑ jυmənt/ noun 1. an                     articled clerk / ɑ tk(ə)ld         klɑ k/
act of discussing something without                 noun a clerk who is bound by contract
agreeing She was sacked after an ar-                to work in a solicitor’s office for some
gument with the managing director. 2. a             years to learn the law (NOTE: officially
reason for supporting or rejecting some-            now called a trainee solicitor, though
thing     The document gives the man-               the old term is still used)
agement’s arguments in favour of
flexible working hours.                             articles / ɑ tk(ə)lz/ plural noun a
                                                    time when a clerk is working in a solici-
arising /ə razŋ/ adjective which co-              tor’s office learning the law (NOTE: offi-
mes from differences arising from the               cially now called a training contract,
contract                                            though the old term is still used) to
around /ə raυnd/ preposition approxi-               serve articles to work in a solicitor’s of-
mately His salary is around $85,000.                fice to learn the law
arrange /ə rend / verb 1. to put into              articles of association / ɑ tk(ə)lz
a suitable or pleasing order The office             əv əsəυsi eʃ(ə)n/ plural noun a docu-
is arranged as an open-plan area with               ment which lays down the rules for a
small separate rooms for meetings.                  company regarding such matters as the
The files are arranged in alphabetical              issue of shares, the conduct of meetings
order. 2. to organise We arranged to                and the appointment of directors He is
have the meeting in their offices. (NOTE:           a director appointed under the articles
you arrange for someone to do some-                 of association of the company.        This
thing; you arrange for something to be              procedure is not allowed under the arti-
done; or you arrange to do something)               cles of association of the company.
arrangement /ə rend mənt/ noun                     articles        of      incorporation
1. the way in which something is organ-
                                                    / ɑ tk(ə)lz əv nkɔ pə reʃ(ə)n/ plural
ised The company secretary is making
                                                    noun US a document which sets up a
all the arrangements for the meeting. 2.
                                                    company and lays down the relationship
the settling of a financial dispute He
                                                    between the shareholders and the com-
came to an arrangement with his
creditors.                                          pany (NOTE: the British equivalent is
                                                    Memorandum of Association)
arrears /ə rəz/ plural noun 1. money
which is owed, but which has not been               articles of indenture / ɑ tk(ə)lz
paid at the right time We are pressing              əv n dentʃə/ plural noun a contract by
the company to pay arrears of interest.             which an apprentice works for a master
2.     in arrears owing money which                 for some years to learn a trade
should have been paid earlier         The           articles of partnership / ɑ tk(ə)lz
payments are six months in arrears.                 əv pɑ tnəʃp/ plural noun a document
He is six weeks in arrears with his rent.           which sets up the legal conditions of a
article / ɑ tk(ə)l/ noun 1. a product or           partnership
thing for sale to launch a new article              artisan / ɑ t z n/ noun a worker
on the market 2. a section of a legal               who has special training in a manual
agreement such as a contract or treaty              skill
See article 8 of the contract. Article
117 of the Treaty of Rome an article                asap / e es e pi , es p/, ASAP as
which requires member states to im-                 soon as possible
prove working conditions and workers’               ascribed status /ə skrabd stetəs/
living conditions     Article 118(a) of             noun status which someone has in an or-
the Treaty of Rome an article which re-             ganisation by right (as opposed to status
quires member states to improve health              achieved by merit)
and safety in the working environment
aspirations                                   18                              associated

aspirations / sp reʃ(ə)nz/ plural                assessor /ə sesə/ noun 1. a person
noun ambitions or hopes of advance-                who assesses someone 2. a person who
ment in your job                                   advises a tribunal
aspire /ə spaə/ verb       to aspire to to        assign /ə san/ verb 1. to give legally
have a strong ambition to                             to assign a right to someone to as-
                                                   sign shares to someone 2. to give some-
assembly line /ə sembli lan/ noun                 one something to use or a job of work to
a production system where a product                do, and be responsible for He was as-
such as a car moves slowly through the             signed the job of checking the sales
factory with new sections added to it as           figures.
it goes along She works on an assem-
bly line or She is an assembly line                assignee / sa ni / noun a person
worker.                                            who receives something which has been
                                                   assigned to him or her
assembly point /ə sembli pɔnt/,
meeting point / mi tŋ pɔnt/ noun a               assignment /ə sanmənt/ noun 1.
place where people can meet (such as at            the legal transfer of a property or right
a railway station or for checking during           the assignment of a patent or of a copy-
fire drill)                                        right to sign a deed of assignment 2. a
                                                   particular task given to someone Her
assert /ə s t/ verb to assert your-                first assignment was to improve the
self to show that you have control or can          company’s image. The oil team is on
make decisions         She doesn’t assert          an assignment in the North Sea.
herself much in public meetings, but her           assignment of wages /ə sanmənt
sales figures are impressive.                      əv wed z/ noun a procedure in
assertiveness /ə s tvnəs/ noun                    which a deduction is made from an em-
the ability to state opinions or show that         ployee’s wages and is paid to a third
you can make decisions                             party An assignment of wages was ar-
assertiveness            training       /ə-        ranged to pay a worker who had filled
 s tvnəs trenŋ/ noun the process                in while the regular employee was ill.
of training employees to have more con-            assignor / sa nɔ / noun a person
fidence in themselves                              who assigns something to someone
assess /ə ses/ verb to calculate the               assist /ə sst/ verb to help Can you
value of something or someone to as-               assist the stock controller in counting
sess damages at £1,000         to assess a         the stock? She assists me with my in-
property for the purposes of insurance             come tax returns. (NOTE: you assist
                                                   someone in doing something or with
assessment /ə sesmənt/ noun a cal-                 something)
culation of value       a property assess-
ment a tax assessment They made a                  assistance /ə sst(ə)ns/ noun help
complete assessment of each employee’s             Some candidates need assistance in fill-
contribution to the organisation.                  ing in the form.
                                                   assistant /ə sst(ə)nt/ noun a person
assessment centre /ə sesmənt                       who helps or a clerical employee
 sentə/ noun a special place which as-
sesses the abilities of a group of em-             assistant manager /ə sst(ə)nt
ployees sent by their organisations                 m nd ə/ noun a person who helps a
The three days at the assessment centre            manager
consisted of in-basket tests and personal          associate /ə səυsiət/ adjective linked
interviews.       The assessment centre            í noun a person who works in the same
aims to spot those individuals with man-           business as someone She is a business
agement potential.                                 associate of mine.
assessment of competence /ə-                       associate company /ə səυsiət
 sesmənt əv kɒmpt(ə)ns/ noun an                    k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company which is
assessment of an employee’s ability to             partly owned by another company
do a job properly as measured by an                associated /ə səυsietd/ adjective
agreed set of standards                            linked
associated company                         19                      attendance money

associated company /ə səυsietd                the terms      insure,    insurer,   and
 k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company which is             insurance)
partly owned by another (though less
than 50%), and where the share-owning
                                                attach /ə t tʃ/ verb to fasten or to link
                                                   I am attaching a copy of my previous
company exerts some management con-
                                                letter. Please find attached a copy of
trol or has a close trading relationship
                                                my letter of June 24th. The company
with the associate Smith Ltd and its
                                                attaches great importance to good
associated company, Jones Brothers
associate director /ə səυsiət da-              attachment /ə t tʃmənt/ noun the
 rektə/ noun a director who attends             act of holding a debtor’s property to pre-
board meetings, but has not been elected        vent it being sold until debts are paid
by the shareholders
                                                attachment of earnings order /ə-
association /ə səυsi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a             t tʃmənt əv        nŋz ɔ də/ noun a
group of people or companies with the           court order to make an employer pay
same interest an employers’ associa-            part of an employee’s salary to the court
tion Our company has applied to join            to pay off debts
the trade association.
                                                attainment /ə tenmənt/ noun the act
assume /ə sju m/ verb 1. to suppose,            of reaching a certain standard or goal
to believe something to be true I as-
sume you have enough money to pay               attainment test /ə tenmənt test/
these expenses? 2. to take for yourself         noun a test designed to measure the
He has assumed responsibility for mar-          skills which someone is currently using.
keting. The company will assume all             Compare aptitude test
risks.                                          attend /ə tend/ verb to be present at
assumption /ə s mpʃən/ noun 1. a                The chairman has asked all managers to
general belief We are working on the            attend the meeting. None of the share-
assumption that the exchange rate will          holders attended the AGM.
stay the same. 2. the act of taking for         attendance /ə tendəns/ noun the fact
yourself assumption of risks                    of being present at a meeting or at work
assurance /ə ʃυərəns/ noun 1. insur-               Attendance at the staff meeting is not
ance, an agreement that in return for           compulsory.      Some of the employees
regular payments a company will pay             were reprimanded for poor attendance.
compensation for loss of life 2. a firm            The supervisor kept a strict record of
statement that something will happen            the workers’ attendance.        Promotion
He received an assurance from the HR            to the post of supervisor depends to a
director that he would not be demoted.          certain extent on a person’s attendance
assure /ə ʃυə/ verb 1. to insure or to
have a contract with a company where if         attendance allowance /ə tendəns
regular payments are made, the com-             ə laυəns/ noun a benefit paid to a dis-
pany will pay compensation if you die           abled person over 65 to cover the costs
He has paid the premiums to have his            of having someone to care for them.
wife’s life assured. 2. to assure some-         Abbr AA
one that to state something firmly so           attendance bonus /ə tendəns
that someone is sure that it is true             bəυnəs/ noun a bonus given to em-
assurer /ə ʃυərə/, assuror noun an              ployees for good attendance You may
insurer or a company which insures              find that payment of an attendance bo-
(NOTE: assure, assurer, and assur-              nus will motivate workers. An atten-
ance are used in Britain for insurance          dance bonus is awarded for a 95%
policies relating to something which            attendance record.
will certainly happen (such as death);          attendance money /ə tendəns
for other types of policy (i.e. those            m ni/ noun payment made to workers
against something which may or may              who turn up even when there is no work
not happen, such as an accident) use            for them to do
attendance time                               20                                   authorise

attendance time /ə tendəns tam/                   evaluation. 2. a detailed examination of
noun hours spent at work that are paid             something in order to assess it A thor-
for                                                ough job audit was needed for job eval-
attendant /ə tendənt/ noun a                       uation. A manpower audit showed up
lower-level employee who is given a                a desperate lack of talent. í verb to ex-
measure of responsibility                          amine the books and accounts of a com-
                                                   pany Messrs Smith have been asked to
attend to /ə tend tu / verb to give                audit the accounts.      The books have
careful thought to something and deal              not yet been audited.
with it The managing director will at-
tend to your complaint personally. We              auditing / ɔ dtŋ/ noun the act of ex-
have brought in experts to attend to the           amining the books and accounts of a
problem of installing the new computer.            company
attention /ə tenʃən/ noun careful                  auditor / ɔ dtə/ noun a person who
thought or consideration to pay atten-             audits
tion to to study carefully and follow in-           COMMENT: Auditors are appointed by the
structions, rules, etc.                             company’s directors and voted by the
attitude / ttju d/ noun the way in                 AGM. In the USA, audited accounts are
which a person behaves or thinks                    only required by corporations which are
attract /ə tr kt/ verb to make some-                registered with the SEC, but in the UK all
thing or someone join or come in We                 limited companies with a turnover over a
                                                    certain limit must provide audited annual
have difficulty in attracting skilled staff
to this part of the country.
attractive /ə tr ktv/ adjective                   audit trail / ɔ dt trel/ noun the
which attracts       attractive salary a           records that show all the stages of a
good salary to make high-quality appli-            transaction, e.g. a purchase, a sale or
cants apply for the job                            a customer complaint, in the order in
attribution theory of leadership                   which they happened (NOTE: an audit
/ tr bju ʃ(ə)n θəri əv li dəʃp/                 trail can be a useful tool for
noun the theory that leaders observe               problem-solving and, in financial
the behaviour of the people they lead,             markets, may be used to ensure
decide what it is that is causing them             that the dealers have been fair and
to behave in that particular way, e.g.             accurate in their proceedings.)
what is causing them to perform well               Aufsichtsrat / aυfzkts rɑ t/ Ger-
or perform badly, and base their own               man noun a supervisory board
actions on what they believe those                 Australian Industrial Relations
causes to be                                       Commission /ɒ streliən n d striəl
attrition /ə trʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a de-               r leʃ(ə)nz kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun an ad-
crease in the loyalty of consumers to a            ministrative body in Australia, estab-
product, due to factors such as boredom            lished in 1988, that is responsible for
or desire for a change 2. loss of labour           settling industrial disputes by concilia-
through natural wastage                            tion and for setting the standards that
at will /ət          wl/ adverb                   companies must meet to qualify for in-
employment-at-will                                 dustrial awards
audio-typing / ɔ diəυ tapŋ/ noun                 authorisation / ɔ θəra zeʃ(ə)n/,
typing to dictation from a recording on a          authorization noun permission or
dictating machine                                  power to do something Do you have
audio-typist / ɔ diəυ tapst/ noun                authorisation for this expenditure?
a typist who types to dictation from a re-         He has no authorisation to act on our
cording on a dictating machine                     behalf.
audit / ɔ dt/ noun 1. the examination             authorise / ɔ θəraz/, authorize verb
of the books and accounts of a company             1. to give permission for something to
   to carry out the annual audit        A          be done       to authorise payment of
thorough job audit was needed for job              £10,000 2. to give someone the author-
authoritarian                               21                                  average

ity to do something       to authorise           automatic sanction / ɔ təm tk
someone to act on the company’s behalf            s ŋkʃən/ noun a penalty which is ap-
authoritarian /ɔ θɒr teəriən/ ad-               plied automatically, outside the legal
jective demanding a high level of disci-         process, to an employee taking part in
pline or obedience       The employees           industrial action The fear of automatic
disliked the authoritarian management            sanction stopped many employees going
style. The managing director is very             on strike for better working conditions.
authoritarian and expects immediate              automatic        telling      machine
obedience.                                       / ɔ təm tk     telŋ mə ʃi n/ noun a
                                                 machine which gives out money
authority /ɔ θɒrti/ noun the power              when a special card is inserted and
to do something a manager with au-               special instructions given
thority to sign cheques He has no au-
thority to act on our behalf. Without            automatic      wage        progression
the necessary authority, the manager             / ɔ təm tk  wed      prə reʃ(ə)n/
could not command respect. Only se-              noun an automatic increase in wages
nior managers have the authority to ini-         according to the time a person has
tiate these changes.                             worked in the organisation Automatic
                                                 wage progression was seen as a way of
authority chart /ɔ θɒrti tʃɑ t/                 motivating employees to stay in the
noun a diagram that shows who has au-            company.
thority over whom and who is account-
able to whom within an organisation              automation / ɔ tə meʃ(ə)n/ noun
(NOTE: an authority chart is similar to          the use of machines to do work with
an organisation chart.)                          very little supervision by people
autocratic      management        style          autonomous /ɔ tɒnəməs/ adjective
                                                 which rules itself      The workforce in
/ ɔ təkr tk  m nd mənt stal/
                                                 the factory is made up of several auton-
noun a style of management where
                                                 omous work groups.
the managers tell the employees what
to do, without involving them in the             autonomous bargaining /ɔ -
decision-making processes (NOTE: the              tɒnəməs bɑ nŋ/ noun direct bar-
opposite is democratic management                gaining between management and em-
style)                                           ployees, without involving trade unions
automated / ɔ təmetd/ adjective                autonomous learning /ɔ tɒnəməs
worked automatically by machines a                l nŋ/ noun learning by yourself,
fully automated car assembly plant               without teachers
automatic / ɔ tə m tk/ adjective                autonomous teamworking /ɔ -
which works or takes place without any            tɒnəməs ti mw kŋ/, autonomous
person making it happen There is an              working group /ɔ tɒnəməs w kŋ
automatic increase in salaries on Janu-            ru p/ noun a group of employees
ary 1st.                                         who can work independently, taking
                                                 decisions together as a group (NOTE:
automatically / ɔ tə m tkli/ ad-                also called self-managing team)
verb working without a person giving
                                                 autonomy /ɔ tɒnəmi/ noun working
instructions    Addresses are typed in           by yourself, without being managed
automatically. automatically unfair
dismissals dismissals which are always           available      capital /ə veləb(ə)l
unfair, whatever the circumstances                k pt(ə)l/ noun capital which is ready
(such as when a woman employee is                to be used
dismissed for being pregnant or some-            AVCs abbr additional voluntary
one is dismissed for belonging to a trade        contributions
union)                                           average / v(ə)rd / noun 1. a num-
automatic       data      processing             ber calculated by adding several figures
/ ɔ təm tk detə prəυsesŋ/ noun                together and dividing by the number of
data processing done by a computer               figures added the average for the last
                                                 three months or the last three months’
average adjustment                                   22                                         axe

average sales average or average of                       average-sized company.      He has an
sales 2. on average, on an average in                     average-sized office.
general     On average, £15 worth of                      avert /ə v t/ verb to stop something
goods are stolen every day. 3. the shar-                  happening The management made an
ing of the cost of damage or loss of a                    increased offer in the hope of averting
ship between the insurers and the own-                    the strike.
ers í adjective 1. the middle of a set of
figures the average figures for the last
                                                          avoid /ə vɔd/ verb to try not to do
                                                          something My aim is to avoid paying
three months the average increase in
                                                          too much tax. We want to avoid direct
salaries 2. not very good     The com-
                                                          competition with Smith Ltd. The com-
pany’s performance has been only aver-
                                                          pany is struggling to avoid bankruptcy.
age. He’s only an average worker. í
                                                          (NOTE: you avoid something or avoid
verb to produce as an average figure
                                                          doing something)
Price increases have averaged 10% per
annum.      Days lost through sickness                    avoidance /ə vɔdns/ noun trying not
have averaged twenty-two over the last                    to do something          avoidance of an
four years.                                               agreement or of a contract
    ‘…a share with an average rating might yield 5        await /ə wet/ verb to wait for We
    per cent and have a PER of about 10’                  are awaiting the decision of the plan-
    [Investors Chronicle]                                 ning department. They are awaiting a
    ‘…the average price per kilogram for this             decision of the court.       The agent is
    season to the end of April has been 300 cents’
    [Australian Financial Review]                         awaiting our instructions.
average adjustment / v(ə)rd ə-                           award /ə wɔ d/ noun a decision which
 d stmənt/ noun a calculation of the                      settles a dispute or claim an award by
share of cost of damage or loss of a ship                 an industrial tribunal The arbitrator’s
                                                          award was set aside on appeal. The
average age / v(ə)rd ed / noun                          latest pay award has been announced. í
the age of a group of people, calculated                  verb to decide the amount of money
by adding all the ages and dividing by                    to be given to someone          to award
the number of people in the group The                     someone a salary increase              to
average age of our managers is 32.                        award a contract to someone to decide
average            earnings           scheme              that someone will have the contract to
/  v(ə)rd       nŋz ski m/ noun a                       do work
pension scheme where the benefit is                       award wage /ə wɔ d wed / noun a
calculated annually on the earnings in                    rate of pay set by an industrial court or
each year                                                 tribunal in Australia or New Zealand for
average out / v(ə)rd aυt/ verb                           a particular occupation
to come to a figure as an average It                      axe / ks/ noun the project got the
averages out at 10% per annum. Sales                      axe the project was stopped í verb to
increases have averaged out at 15%.                       cut or to stop      to axe expenditure
average-sized / vərd sazd/ ad-                          Several thousand jobs are to be axed.
jective not large or small They are an                    (NOTE: the usual US spelling is ax)
back                                            23                                    backshift


back /b k/ noun the opposite side                    board. 2. financial support   She has
to the front      Write your address on              the backing of an Australian bank.
the back of the envelope. í adjective                The company will succeed only if it has
referring to the past a back payment í               sufficient backing. Who is providing
adverb as things were before         He              the backing for the project?    Where
will pay back the money in monthly in-               does the backing for the project come
stalments.      The store sent back the              from?      She gave her backing to the
cheque because the date was wrong.                   proposal.
The company went back on its agree-                   ‘…the company has received the backing of a
ment to supply at £1.50 a unit. í                     number of oil companies who are willing to pay
verb to back someone to help some-                    for the results of the survey’ [Lloyd’s List]
one financially The bank is backing us               backlog / b klɒ / noun work which
to the tune of £10,000. She is looking               has piled up waiting to be done, e.g. or-
for someone to back her project.                     ders or letters The warehouse is trying
 ‘…the businesses we back range from start-up        to cope with a backlog of orders.
 ventures to established companies in need of        We’re finding it hard to cope with the
 further capital for expansion’ [Times]
                                                     backlog of paperwork.
backdate /b k det/ verb to put an
earlier date on a document such as a                 back orders / b k ɔ dəz/ plural
                                                     noun orders received and not yet ful-
cheque or an invoice The pay increase
is backdated to January 1st.                         filled, usually because the item is out of
                                                     stock It took the factory six weeks to
back down / b k daυn/ verb to give                   clear all the accumulated back orders.
up something which you claimed
                                                     back out / b k aυt/ verb to stop be-
background / b k raυnd/ noun 1.                      ing part of a deal or an agreement The
past work or experience       My back-               bank backed out of the contract. We
ground is in the steel industry.    The              had to cancel the project when our Ger-
company is looking for someone with a                man partners backed out.
background of success in the electronics
industry. She has a publishing back-                 back pay / b k pe/ noun a salary
ground. What is his background?                      which has not been paid I am owed
Do you know anything about his back-                 £500 in back pay.
ground? 2. past details He explained                 back payments / b k pemənts/
the background of the claim. I know                  plural noun payments which are due
the contractual situation as it stands               backpedal / b k ped(ə)l/ verb to
now, but can you fill in the background              go back on something which was
details?                                             stated earlier      When questioned by
backhander / b k h ndə/ noun a                       reporters about the redundancies, the
bribe or money given to persuade some-               MD       backpedalled      fast.   (NOTE:
one to do something for you (informal )    .         backpedalling- backpedalled)
   He was accused of taking backhand-                backshift / b kʃft/ noun the after-
ers from the company’s suppliers.                    noon shift in a three-shift system, work-
backing / b kŋ/ noun 1. support                     ing from late afternoon until late
He gave his backing to the proposal.                 evening (after the morning shift and be-
The proposal has the backing of the                  fore the night shift)
back tax                                     24                                          ballot

back tax / b k t ks/ noun a tax                   us which is due to be paid í verb 1. (of
which is owed                                     two sides in a balance sheet) to be
back to work / b k tə w k/ noun                   equal (i.e. the assets owned must always
the act of returning to work after being          equal the total liabilities plus capital)
unemployed                                        the February accounts do not balance
                                                  the two sides are not equal 2. to calcu-
backtrack / b ktr k/ verb to go                   late the amount needed to make the two
back on what has been said before                 sides of an account equal I have fin-
back up / b k p/ verb to support or               ished balancing the accounts for March.
help He brought along a file of docu-             3. to plan a budget so that expenditure
ments to back up his claim. The em-               and income are equal The president is
ployee said his union had refused to              planning for a balanced budget.
back him up in his argument with
management.                                       balance sheet / b ləns ʃi t/ noun a
                                                  statement of the financial position of a
backup / b k p/ adjective supporting              company at a particular time such as the
or helping We offer a free backup ser-            end of the financial year or the end of a
vice to customers.       After a series of        quarter showing the company’s assets
sales tours by representatives, the sales         and liabilities      Our accountant has
director sends backup letters to all the          prepared the balance sheet for the first
contacts.                                         half-year. The company balance sheet
backup copy / b k p kɒpi/ noun a                  for the last financial year shows a worse
copy of a computer disk to be kept in             position than for the previous year.
case the original disk is damaged                 The company balance sheet for 1984
back-up facility / b k p fə slti/               shows a substantial loss.
noun something that performs the same              COMMENT: The balance sheet shows the
task or contains the same information as           state of a company’s finances at a certain
something else and can replace it if it            date; the profit and loss account shows
fails                                              the movements which have taken place
                                                   since the end of the previous accounting
back wages / b k wed z/ plural                   period. A balance sheet must balance,
noun same as back pay                              with the basic equation that assets (i.e.
bad /b d/ adjective not good                       what the company owns, including money
                                                   owed to the company) must equal liabili-
bad buy /b d ba/ noun a thing                     ties (i.e. what the company owes to its
bought which was not worth the money               creditors) plus capital (i.e. what it owes to
paid for it                                        its shareholders). A balance sheet can be
badge /b d / noun a piece of plastic               drawn up either in the horizontal form,
or card which can be clipped to a per-             with (in the UK) liabilities and capital on
son’s shirt or coat and on which a name            the left-hand side of the page (in the USA,
can be written All the staff at the exhi-          it is the reverse) or in the vertical form,
bition must wear badges.          Visitors         with assets at the top of the page, fol-
have to sign in at reception, and will be          lowed by liabilities, and capital at the bot-
given visitors’ badges.                            tom. Most are usually drawn up in the
                                                   vertical format, as opposed to the more
balance / b ləns/ noun 1. the amount               old-fashioned horizontal style.
to be put in one of the columns of an ac-
count to make the total debits and cred-          ball /bɔ l/ noun the ball is in the
its equal balance in hand cash held to            management’s court the management
pay small debts        balance brought            has to make the next move
down or forward the closing balance of            ballot / b lət/ noun 1. an election
the previous period used as the opening           where people vote for someone by
balance of the current period balance             marking a cross on a paper with a list of
carried down or forward the closing               names      Six names were put forward
balance of the current period 2. the rest         for three vacancies on the committee so
of an amount owed You can pay £100                a ballot was held. 2. a vote where voters
deposit and the balance within 60 days.           decide on an issue by marking a piece of
   balance due to us the amount owed to           paper 3. a selection made by taking pa-
ballot box                                    25                                     bar chart

pers at random out of a box The share              bank giro / b ŋk d arəυ/ noun a
issue was oversubscribed, so there was             method used by clearing banks to trans-
a ballot for the shares. í verb to take a          fer money rapidly from one account to
vote by ballot The union is balloting              another
for the post of president.                         bank holiday /b ŋk hɒlde/ noun
ballot box / b lət bɒks/ noun a                    a weekday which is a public holiday
sealed box into which ballot papers are            when the banks are closed New Year’s
put                                                Day is a bank holiday. Are we paid
ballot paper / b lət pepə/ noun a                 for bank holidays in this job?
paper on which the voter marks a cross             banking / b ŋkŋ/ noun the business
to show who they want to vote for                  of banks       He is studying banking.
ballot-rigging / b lət r ŋ/ noun                 She has gone into banking. a banking
the illegal arranging of the votes in a            crisis a crisis affecting the banks
ballot, so that a particular candidate or          bank manager / b ŋk m nd ə/
party wins                                         noun the person in charge of a branch of
                                                   a bank      They asked their bank man-
ban /b n/ noun an order which forbids              ager for a loan.
someone from doing something to im-
pose a ban on smoking to make an or-               bankrupt / b ŋkr pt/ adjective,
der which forbids smoking to lift the              noun a person who has been declared by
ban on smoking to allow people to                  a court not to be capable of paying their
smoke í verb to forbid something                   debts and whose affairs are put into the
The council has banned the sale of alco-           hands of a receiver a bankrupt prop-
hol at the sports ground.        The com-          erty developer She was adjudicated or
pany has banned drinking on company                declared bankrupt. He went bankrupt
premises. (NOTE: banning – banned)                 after two years in business.        undis-
                                                   charged bankrupt a person who has
band /b nd/ noun 1. a strip of paper               been declared bankrupt and has not been
or plastic or a rubber ring put round arti-
                                                   released from that state í verb to make
cles to attach them together 2. a range of
                                                   someone become bankrupt The reces-
figures between low and high, within
                                                   sion bankrupted my father.
which a figure can move           a salary
band 3. a grade or level í verb to divide          bankruptcy / b ŋkr ptsi/ noun the
into bands                                         state of being bankrupt The recession
                                                   has caused thousands of bankruptcies.
bandwidth / b ndwdθ/ noun limits                  (NOTE: plural is bankruptcies)
such as upper and lower performance
levels or work hours that define a range            COMMENT: In the UK, ‘bankruptcy’ is ap-
                                                    plied only to individual persons, but in the
bank /b ŋk/ noun a business which                   USA the term is also applied to corpora-
holds money for its clients, lends money            tions. In the UK, a bankrupt cannot hold
at interest, and trades generally in                public office (for example, they cannot be
money Lloyds Bank the First Na-                     elected an MP) and cannot be the director
tional Bank the Royal Bank of Scot-                 of a company. They also cannot borrow
land She put all her earnings into her              money. In the USA, there are two types of
bank.      I have had a letter from my              bankruptcy: ‘involuntary’, where the credi-
bank telling me my account is                       tors ask for a person or corporation to be
overdrawn.                                          made bankrupt; and ‘voluntary’, where a
                                                    person or corporation applies to be made
bank account / b ŋk ə kaυnt/ noun                   bankrupt (in the UK, this is called ‘volun-
an account which a customer has with a              tary liquidation’).
bank, where the customer can deposit
and withdraw money to open a bank                  bank transfer / b ŋk          tr nsf /
account      to close a bank account               noun an act of moving money from a
How much money do you have in your                 bank account to another account
bank account? If you let the balance               bar chart / bɑ tʃɑ t/ noun a chart
in your bank account fall below £100,              where values or quantities are shown as
you have to pay bank charges.                      columns of different heights set on a
bargain                                     26                                      basically

base line, the different lengths express-        base /bes/ noun 1. the lowest or first
ing the quantity of the item or unit             position Turnover increased by 200%,
bargain / bɑ n/ noun 1. an agree-               but started from a low base. 2. a place
ment on the price of something         to        where a company has its main office or
strike a bargain or to make a bargain 2.         factory, or a place where a businessper-
something which is cheaper than usual            son’s office is located The company
   That car is a (real) bargain at £500.         has its base in London and branches in
í verb to discuss a price for something
                                                 all the European countries. He has an
   You will have to bargain with the             office in Madrid which he uses as a base
dealer if you want a discount. (NOTE:            while travelling in Southern Europe.
you bargain with someone over or                 to touch base to get in touch with some-
about or for something)                          one to see how things are going í verb
                                                 1. to start to calculate or to negotiate
bargaining / bɑ nŋ/ noun the act               from a position We based our calcula-
of discussing between two people or              tions on the forecast turnover. based
groups, to achieve a settlement, usually         on calculating from       based on last
wage increases for workers to come               year’s figures     based on population
to, to sit round the bargaining table to         forecasts 2. to set up a company or a
meet for negotiations                            person in a place The European man-
bargaining level / bɑ nŋ lev(ə)l/              ager is based in our London office.
noun the level at which bargaining takes         Our overseas branch is based in the
place (i.e. at department level, whole           Bahamas.
company level, industry level, etc.)              ‘…the base lending rate, or prime rate, is the
                                                  rate at which banks lend to their top corporate
bargaining position / bɑ nŋ pə-                 borrowers’ [Wall Street Journal]
 zʃ(ə)n/ noun the statement of position
by one group during negotiations                  ‘…other investments include a large stake in the
                                                  Chicago-based       insurance         company’
bargaining structure / bɑ nŋ                    [Lloyd’s List]
 str ktʃə/ noun a structure of collective
bargaining negotiations, comprising the          base pay / bes pe/ noun US pay for
subjects dealt with, the number of em-           a job which does not include extras such
ployees covered, whether the negotia-            as overtime pay or bonuses
tions apply to a single factory or to the        base period / bes pəriəd/ US 1. a
whole industry, etc.                             period against which comparisons are
bargaining         table       / bɑ nŋ         made 2. the time that an employee must
 teb(ə)l/ noun a table where negotia-           work before becoming eligible for state
tors sit The arbitrators are trying to           unemployment insurance benefits Be-
get the parties to return to the bargain-        cause he had not worked for the base
ing table.                                       period, he had to rely on the support of
                                                 his family when he lost his job. The
bargaining      theory     of   wages            new government shortened the base pe-
/ bɑ nŋ θəri əv     wed z/ noun             riod, in order to increase social service
a theory which states that the relative          spending.
bargaining power of the employers and
employees will decide wage levels                basic / besk/ adjective 1. normal 2.
                                                 most important 3. simple, or from which
bargaining unit / bɑ nŋ ju nt/                everything starts      She has a basic
noun a group of employees who
                                                 knowledge of the market. To work at
negotiate with their employer to
                                                 the cash desk, you need a basic qualifi-
reach a collective agreement        The
                                                 cation in maths.
bargaining unit had a meeting with top
management in order to thrash out their          BASIC / besk/ noun a simple lan-
differences. The bargaining unit was             guage for writing computer programs.
supported by the union in its attempt to         Full form beginner’s all-purpose
improve conditions.                              symbolic instruction code
BARS abbr behaviourally anchored                 basically / beskli/ adverb seen from
rating scales                                    the point from which everything starts
basic award                                   27                 behavioural modelling

basic award / besk ə wɔ d/ noun                  a time. í verb to put items together in
an award by an industrial tribunal based           groups to batch invoices or cheques
on the employee’s age, length of service           batch          processing          / b tʃ
and current salary and equal to what the            prəυsesŋ/ noun a system of data pro-
employee would have received if they               cessing where information is collected
had been made redundant (used in cases             into batches before being loaded into the
of unfair dismissal)                               computer
basic education / besk edjυ-                     battery / b t(ə)ri/ noun 1. a small
 keʃ(ə)n/ noun a first level education,           object for storing electric power       a
giving basic skills and information                battery-powered calculator My phone
basic industry / besk ndəstri/                  battery needs charging. 2. a series of
noun the most important industry of a              similar things      Candidates have to
country, e.g. coal, steel or agriculture           pass a battery of tests.
basic pay / besk pe/ noun a nor-                beat /bi t/ verb to win in a fight against
mal salary without extra payments                  someone       They have beaten their ri-
basic rate tax / besk ret t ks/                 vals into second place in the computer
noun the lowest rate of income tax                 market.
basics / besks/ plural noun simple               beginner /b nə/ noun a person
and important facts       She has studied          who is starting in a job
the basics of foreign exchange dealing.            beginners’ course /b nəz kɔ s/
   to get back to basics to consider the           noun a course for students who know
main facts again                                   nothing about the subject
basic salary / besk s ləri/ noun                 behalf /b hɑ f/ noun on behalf of
same as basic pay                                  acting for someone or a company so-
basic time / besk tam/ noun the                 licitors acting on behalf of the American
normal time taken to do a job, estab-              company I am writing on behalf of the
lished by work study The basic time                minority shareholders. She is acting
for the job was not accepted by the em-            on my behalf.
ployees who found it too demanding.                behaviour /b hevjə/ noun the way
                                                   in which someone behaves The man-
basic wage / besk wed / noun                    ager had to talk to him about his disrup-
same as basic pay The basic wage is
                                                   tive behaviour. (NOTE: the usual US
£110 a week, but you can expect to earn
                                                   spelling is behavior)
more than that with overtime.
                                                   behavioural /b hevjərəl/ adjective
basis / bess/ noun 1. a point or num-            referring to behaviour (NOTE: the usual
ber from which calculations are made               US spelling is behavioral)
We have calculated the turnover on the
basis of a 6% price increase. 2. general           behavioural         interview      /b-
terms of agreement or general principles            hevjərəl ntəvju / noun a type of
on which something is decided on a                 interview that aims to find out how
short-term, long-term basis for a short            applicants have behaved in the past
or long period He has been appointed               when faced with the kind of situations
on a short-term basis. We have three               they might meet in the job they are
people working on a freelance basis.               being interviewed for
batch /b tʃ/ noun 1. a group of items              behaviourally anchored rating
which are made at one time             This        scales /b hevjərəli ŋkəd retŋ
batch of shoes has the serial number                skelz/ plural noun a method of
25–02. 2. a group of documents which               appraising performance based on typical
are processed at the same time          To-        performance criteria set for each
day’s batch of invoices is ready to be             individual member of staff. Abbr BARS
mailed. The factory is working on yes-             behavioural         modelling        /b-
terday’s batch of orders. The accoun-               hevjərəl mɒd(ə)lŋ/ noun 1. a
tant signed a batch of cheques.         We         process that tries to capture skills that
deal with the orders in batches of fifty at        people possess or use unconsciously
behavioural sciences                       28                                  benefits plan

in a form that makes it possible to             benchmark job / bentʃmɑ k d ɒbz/
teach those skills to others 2. a               noun a job used as a measure of
technique used in skills training that          performance
involves encouraging somebody to imi-           beneficiary / ben fʃəri/ noun a per-
tate what another person does and then          son who gains money from something
to retain the skill or type of behaviour        the beneficiaries of a will
they have learned from that other person
                                                benefit / benft/ noun 1. payments
behavioural         sciences     /b-           which are made to someone under a na-
 hevjərəl saənsz/ plural noun                tional or private insurance scheme
sciences which study human behaviour,           She receives £75 a week as unemploy-
such as sociology and psychology                ment benefit. Sickness benefit is paid
behaviour expectation rate /b-                 monthly.     The insurance office sends
 hevjə ekspek teʃ(ə)n ret/ noun              out benefit cheques each week. 2. some-
same as behaviourally anchored                  thing of value given to an employee in
rating scales                                   addition to their salary í verb 1. to
                                                make better or to improve A fall in in-
behind /b hand/ preposition at the            flation benefits the exchange rate. 2.
back or after The company is No. 2 in           to benefit from or by something to be
the market, about £4m behind their ri-          improved by something, to gain more
vals. í adverb she has fallen behind            money because of something Exports
with her loan repayments she is late            have benefited from the fall in the ex-
with her payments                               change rate.       The employees have
belong /b lɒŋ/ verb to belong to to            benefited from the profit-sharing
be the property of The company be-              scheme.
longs to an old American banking                 ‘…the retail sector will also benefit from the
family.                                          expected influx of tourists’ [Australian
                                                 Financial Review]
belongings /b lɒŋŋz/ plural noun               ‘…what benefits does the executive derive from
things which belong to someone The               his directorship? Compensation has increased
company is not responsible for personal          sharply in recent years and fringe benefits for
belongings left in the cloakrooms.               directors have proliferated’ [Duns Business
When I was sacked I had five minutes to          Month]
collect my personal belongings.                  ‘…salary is negotiable to £30,000, plus car and
                                                 a benefits package appropriate to this senior
below /b ləυ/ preposition lower down            post’ [Financial Times]
than or less than We sold the property           ‘California is the latest state to enact a program
at below the market price. You can get           forcing welfare recipients to work for their
a ticket for New York at below £150 on           benefits’ [Fortune]
the Internet. The company has a pol-             ‘…salary range is $54,957 – $81,189, with a
icy of paying staff below the market             competitive benefits package’ [Washington
rates.                                           Post]

benchmark / bentʃmɑ k/ noun 1. a                benefit in kind / benft n kand/
point or level which is important, and          noun a benefit other than money re-
can be used as a reference when making          ceived by an employee as part of their
evaluations or assessments 2. a standard        total compensation package, e.g. com-
used to measure performance (NOTE: a            pany cars or private health insurance.
benchmark was originally a set of com-          Such benefits are usually subject to tax.
puter programs that was used to mea-            benefits entitlement / benfts n-
sure how well a particular computer              tat(ə)lmənt/ noun the type of social
performed in comparison with similar            security benefit to which someone has
models)                                         the right
benchmarking           / bentʃmɑ kŋ/           benefits plan / benfts pl n/ noun
noun the practice of measuring the per-         a Canadian government programme
formance of a company against the per-          intended to promote the employment
formance of other companies in the              of Canadian citizens and to provide
same sector                                     Canadian manufacturers, consultants,
benevolent                                   29                         biological clock

contractors and service companies with            tion the bidding started at £1,000 the
opportunities to compete for projects             first and lowest bid was £1,000 the
benevolent /bə nev(ə)lənt/ adjective              bidding stopped at £250,000 the last
which does good to other people                   bid, i.e. the successful bid, was for
                                                  £250,000 2. an attempt by an employee
benevolent fund /bə nev(ə)lənt                    to be considered for a vacant post in the
f nd/ noun a fund contributed to by em-
                                                  same organisation When the vacancy
ployers and employees to provide em-
                                                  was pinned up on the notice board there
ployees and their families with financial
                                                  was much bidding for the job among the
help in case of sickness, injury or death
                                                  staff in the department.
  Benevolent funds are set up to provide
employees with more security.          The        big business /b bzns/ noun
employer’s contribution to the staff be-          very large commercial firms
nevolent fund was the most attractive of          big picture /b pktʃə/ noun a
the fringe benefits offered with the job.         broad view of a subject that takes into
best practice / best pr kts/ noun                account all the factors that are relevant
the most effective and efficient way to           to it and considers the future conse-
do something or to achieve a particular           quences of action taken now (informal )

aim (NOTE: in business, best practice is          bilateral /ba l t(ə)rəl/ adjective be-
often determined by benchmarking,                 tween two parties or countries       The
that is by comparing the method one               minister signed a bilateral trade
organisation uses to carry out a task             agreement.
with the methods used by other similar
organisations and determining which               bilingual /ba lŋ wəl/ adjective re-
method is most efficient and effective)           ferring to a person who is able to speak
                                                  and write two languages fluently a bi-
bi- /ba/ prefix twice      bi-monthly            lingual secretary Secretaries working
twice a month      bi-annually twice a            overseas are required to be bilingual.
year                                              Having worked for a French company
bias / baəs/ noun the practice of fa-            for some years, he is now completely bi-
vouring of one group or person rather             lingual. (NOTE: in the USA, the word bi-
than another A postal survey will do              lingual normally means speaking
away with bias. The trainee interview-            English and Spanish)
ers were taught how to control bias and           bind /band/ verb to tie or to attach
its effects.   Management has shown               The company is bound by its articles of
bias in favour of graduates in its recent         association.   He does not consider
appointments.                                     himself bound by the agreement which
biased / baəst/ adjective referring to           was signed by his predecessor. (NOTE:
a person who favours one group rather             binding – bound)
than another     She is biased towards
younger staff.                                    binder / bandə/ noun 1. a stiff card-
                                                  board cover for papers 2. US a tempo-
bid /bd/ noun 1. an offer to buy some-           rary agreement for insurance sent before
thing at a specific price to make a               the insurance policy is issued (NOTE: the
cash bid to offer to pay cash for some-           British equivalent is cover note)
thing     to put in or enter a bid for
something to offer to buy something,              binding / bandŋ/ adjective which le-
usually in writing 2. an offer to sell            gally forces someone to do something
something or do a piece of work at a              a binding contract This document is
specific price She made the lowest bid            not legally binding. the agreement is
for the job. í verb to offer to buy to            binding on all parties all parties sign-
bid for something (at an auction) to of-          ing it must do what is agreed
fer to buy something he bid £1,000                biodata / baəυdetə/ noun biograph-
for the jewels he offered to pay £1,000           ical information about an employee and
for the jewels                                    their employment history
bidding / bdŋ/ noun 1. the act of               biological clock / baəlɒd k(ə)l
making offers to buy, usually at an auc-           klɒk/ noun the system inside a person’s
biorhythms                                  30                             block release

body which regulates cyclical activities         tant for not warning her of the loss.
such as biorhythms and has an effect on          The union is blaming the management
night-shift working                              for poor industrial relations.
biorhythms / baəυ rðəmz/ plural                blamestorming            / blemstɔ mŋ/
noun recurring cycles of different               noun group discussion of the reasons
lengths which some people believe af-            why a project has failed or is late and
fect a person’s behaviour, sensitivity           who is to blame for it (slang) (NOTE: the
and intelligence                                 term is modelled on the word
birth certificate / b θ sə tfkət/              ‘brainstorming’)
noun a paper giving details of a person’s        blame-time / blem tam/ noun the
parents and date and place of birth              moment when an organisation an-
                                                 nounces publicly who or what is to
black /bl k/ adjective in the black,             blame for the failure of a project or task
into the black in or into credit The
                                                 (informal )
company has moved into the black.

My bank account is still in the black. í         blank /bl ŋk/ adjective with nothing
verb to forbid trading in specific goods         written í noun a space on a form which
or with specific suppliers Three firms           has to be completed Fill in the blanks
were blacked by the government. The              and return the form to your local office.
union has blacked a trucking firm.               blank cheque /bl ŋk tʃek/ noun a
black-coated           worker       /bl k        cheque with the amount of money and
 kəυtd w kə/ noun a white-collar                the payee left blank, but signed by the
worker, a worker in an administrative            drawer
job, not a manual worker                         blanket agreement / bl ŋkt ə-
blacking / bl kŋ/ noun the refusal                 ri mənt/ noun an agreement which
by employees to work with materials              covers many different items
normally supplied by employees of an-            blanket dismissal / bl ŋkt ds-
other organisation who are engaged in             ms(ə)l/ noun the dismissal of a group
industrial action Blacking of the rub-           of employees because one unidentified
ber already delivered to the factory held        employee is suspected of having com-
up tyre production for days. Blacking            mitted an offence, and the others refuse
of materials was carried out by workers          to reveal the identity of the culprit
in another factory who were sympa-               blank vote /bl ŋk vəυt/ noun a vot-
thetic to the strikers’ cause.                   ing paper which has not been marked
blackleg / bl kle / noun an em-                  block /blɒk/ noun 1. a series of items
ployee who continues working when                grouped together I bought a block of
there is a strike                                6,000 shares. 2. a series of buildings
black list / bl k lst/ noun 1. a list of        forming a square with streets on all
goods, people or companies which have            sides They want to redevelop a block
been blacked 2. a list of people consid-         in the centre of the town. a block of
ered by an employer to be too dangerous          offices, an office block a large building
or disruptive to employ                          which only contains offices í verb to
                                                 stop something taking place He used
blacklist / bl klst/ verb to put                his casting vote to block the motion.
goods, people or a company on a black
list Their firm was blacklisted by the           block capitals / blɒk k pt(ə)lz/,
government.                                      block letters / blɒk letəz/ plural noun
                                                 capital letters such as A,B,C         Write
blame /blem/ noun the act of saying             your name and address in block letters.
that someone has done something
wrong or that someone is responsible             blocked mobility /blɒkt məυ blti/
The sales staff got the blame for the            noun limited potential for promotion
poor sales figures. í verb to say that           that is not dependent on the educational
someone has done something wrong or              background of the employee
is responsible for a mistake The man-            block release /blɒk r li s/ noun per-
aging director blamed the chief accoun-          mission for an employee to attend a se-
blue circle rate                                31                             bonus scheme

ries of courses outside their place of               cers who are responsible for managing
work                                                 the company. See also the comment at
blue circle rate /blu s k(ə)l ret/                  director
noun US a pay rate which is below the                 ‘…a proxy is the written authorization an
                                                      investor sends to a stockholder meeting
minimum rate of an employee’s evalu-                  conveying his vote on a corporate resolution or
ated pay level                                        the election of a company’s board of directors’
blue-collar union /blu                kɒlə            [Barrons]
 ju njən/ noun a trade union formed                  boardroom / bɔ dru m/ noun a room
mainly of blue-collar workers                        where the directors of a company meet
blue-collar worker /blu               kɒlə           board seat / bɔ d si t/ noun a posi-
 w kə/ noun a manual worker in a                     tion as a member of a board, especially a
factory                                              board of directors
Blue Laws / blu lɔ z/ plural noun                    board secretary / bɔ d sekrt(ə)ri/
US regulations governing business ac-                noun a person who acts as secretary to a
tivities on Sundays                                  board of directors or governors
blueprint / blu prnt/ noun a plan or                body language / bɒd l ŋ wd /
model of something         The agreement             noun gestures, expressions and move-
will be the blueprint for other agree-               ments which show what somebody’s re-
ments in the industry.                               sponse is to a situation          Trainee
blueshirt / blu ʃ t/ noun an em-                     salespeople learn how to interpret a
ployee of the computer company IBM                   customer’s body language. The inter-
                                                     viewer of prospective marketing manag-
bluetooth / blu tu θ/ trademark a                    ers observed the body language of the
type of technology allowing for commu-               candidates very carefully. The candi-
nication between mobile phones, com-                 date claimed to be very confident about
puters and the Internet                              taking the job, but her body language
board /bɔ d/ noun 1. board of di-                    was saying the opposite.
rectors 2. a group of people who run an
                                                     bogus degree / bəυ əs d ri /
organisation, trust or society 3. an offi-           noun a university degree or similar
cial group of people 4. an official body             qualification that has little or no value
5. a large flat piece of wood or card
                                                     because it is awarded by an organisation
 ‘CEOs, with their wealth of practical
 experience, are in great demand and can pick        that is not recognised as a genuinely ed-
 and choose the boards they want to serve on’        ucational institution by the country in
 [Duns Business Month]                               which it operates (NOTE: bogus degrees
board interview / bɔ d ntəvju /                     are usually awarded by organisations
noun an interview in which a candidate               with names that are similar to those of
is asked questions by several representa-            respected universities, which take ad-
tives of an organisation                             vantage of the naivety of foreign
board meeting / bɔ d mi tŋ/ noun
a meeting of the directors of a company              bona fide / bəυnə fadi/ adjective
                                                     trustworthy, which can be trusted a
board member / bɔ d membə/                           bona fide offer an offer which is made
noun one of the directors of a company               honestly
board of directors / bɔ d əv da-                    bona fide union / bəυnə fadi
 rektəz/ noun 1. GB a group of direc-                 ju njən/ noun a union which is freely
tors elected by the shareholders to run a            chosen by employees without any influ-
company The bank has two represen-                   ence from the employer Most of the
tatives on the board. He sits on the                 workers in the industry are members of
board as a representative of the bank.               bona fide unions.
Two directors were removed from the
board at the AGM. 2. US a group of                   bonus / bəυnəs/ noun an extra pay-
people elected by the shareholders to                ment in addition to a normal payment
draw up company policy and to appoint                bonus scheme / bəυnəs ski m/, bo-
the president and other executive offi-              nus system / bəυnəs sstəm/ noun a
bonus share                                  32                                bottom line

scheme by which workers can earn bo-              opment. í verb to make something in-
nuses (such as for exceeding targets or           crease We expect our publicity cam-
completing a task within the deadline)            paign to boost sales by 25%.     The
bonus share / bəυnəs ʃeə/ noun an                 company hopes to boost its market
extra share given to an existing                  share. Incentive schemes are boosting
shareholder                                       production.
book /bυk/ noun a set of sheets of pa-             ‘…the company expects to boost turnover this
                                                   year to FFr 16bn from FFr 13.6bn last year’
per attached together       a company’s            [Financial Times]
books the financial records of a com-
pany í verb to order or to reserve some-          boot /bu t/ noun      to get the boot to
thing to book a room in a hotel or a              be sacked (informal ).

table at a restaurant or a ticket on a            boot camp / bu t k mp/ noun US a
plane I booked a table for 7.45. He               demanding programme for new employ-
booked a ticket through to Cairo. to              ees, designed to teach them technical
book someone into a hotel or on/onto              skills and introduce them to the corpo-
a flight to order a room or a plane ticket        rate culture of the organisation they are
for someone else He was booked on                 joining (NOTE: boot camps are mod-
the 09.00 flight to Zurich. the hotel,            elled on the basic training of the US
flight is fully booked or is booked up            Marine Corps)
all the rooms or seats are reserved The
restaurant is booked up over the Christ-          border crosser / bɔ də krɒsə/ noun
mas period.                                       an employee who has a variety of skills
                                                  and is able to move from job to job
booking / bυkŋ/ noun the act of re-              within a company (slang)
serving something such as a room or a
seat Hotel bookings have fallen since             borderline case / bɔ dəlan kes/
the end of the tourist season. to con-            noun 1. a situation which is not easy to
firm a booking to say that a booking is           resolve, being either one way or the
certain                                           other 2. a worker who may or may not
                                                  be recommended some action such as
booking clerk / bυkŋ klɑ k/ noun a               for promotion or dismissal
person who sells tickets in a booking
office                                            borrowings / bɒrəυŋz/ plural noun
bookkeeper / bυkki pə/ noun a per-                money borrowed            The company’s
son who keeps the financial records of a          borrowings have doubled.
company or an organisation                        boss /bɒs/ noun an employer or per-
bookkeeping / bυkki pŋ/ noun the                 son in charge of a company or an office
keeping of the financial records of a             (informal ) If you want a pay rise, go

company or an organisation                        and talk to your boss. He became a di-
                                                  rector when he married the boss’s
booklet / bυklət/ noun a small book               daughter.
with a paper cover
book sales / bυk selz/ plural noun               bottom / bɒtəm/ noun the lowest part
sales as recorded in the sales book               or point the bottom has fallen out of
                                                  the market sales have fallen below
bookwork / bυkw k/ noun the keep-                 what previously seemed to be the lowest
ing of financial records                          point rock-bottom price the lowest
boomerang worker / bu mər ŋ                       price of all í verb to reach the lowest
 w kə/ noun an employee who returns               point the market has bottomed out
to work for a previous employer (slang)           the market has reached the lowest point
boom industry / bu m ndəstri/                    and does not seem likely to fall further
noun an industry which is expanding               bottom line / bɒtəm lan/ noun 1.
rapidly                                           the last line on a balance sheet indicat-
boost /bu st/ noun help given to in-              ing profit or loss 2. the final decision on
crease something       This publicity will        a matter The bottom line was that any
give sales a boost.      The government           workers showing dissatisfaction with
hopes to give a boost to industrial devel-        conditions would be fired.
bottom price                                     33                               break point

bottom price / bɒtəm pras/ noun                      branch office /brɑ ntʃ ɒfs/ noun a
the lowest price                                      less important office, usually in a differ-
boycott / bɔkɒt/ noun a refusal to                   ent town or country from the main
buy or to deal in certain products The                office
union organised a boycott against or of               breach /bri tʃ/ noun a failure to carry
imported cars. í verb to refuse to buy                out the terms of an agreement
or deal in a product We are boycotting                breach of contract / bri tʃ əv
all imports from that country.        the              kɒntr kt/ noun the failure to do some-
management has boycotted the meet-                    thing which has been agreed in a con-
ing the management has refused to at-                 tract    the company is in breach of
tend the meeting                                      contract the company has failed to do
bracket / br kt/ noun a group of                     what was agreed in the contract
items or people taken together people                 breach of discipline / bri tʃ əv
in the middle-income bracket people                    dspln/ noun an action which goes
with average incomes, not high or low                 against the company rules or against
she is in the top tax bracket she pays                instructions
the highest level of tax
brain /bren/ noun a part of the body                 breadwinner / bredwnə/ noun a
                                                      person who earns the main income in a
in which decisions are taken she is the
                                                      family, and so provides food for the
brains behind the organisation she is
the clever person who is running the
organisation                                          break /brek/ verb 1. to fail to carry
brain drain / bren dren/ noun the                   out the duties of a contract The com-
movement of clever people away from a                 pany has broken the contract or the
country to find better jobs in other                  agreement by selling at a lower price.
countries                                             to break an engagement to do some-
                                                      thing not to do what has been agreed 2.
brainiac / breni k/ noun a very in-                  to cancel a contract The company is
telligent and creative employee who is                hoping to be able to break the contract.
also unpredictable and eccentric (slang)              (NOTE: breaking – broke – broken)
brainstorming            / bren stɔ mŋ/             break down / brek daυn/ verb 1. to
noun an intensive discussion by a small               stop working because of mechanical
group of people as a method of produc-                failure    The fax machine has broken
ing new ideas or solving problems                     down. 2. to stop Negotiations broke
brainstorming session / bren-                        down after six hours. 3. to show all the
 stɔ mŋ seʃ(ə)n/ noun a meeting to                   items in a total list of costs or expendi-
thrash out problems, where everyone                   ture We broke the expenditure down
puts forward different ideas                          into fixed and variable costs.
branch /brɑ ntʃ/ noun 1. the local of-                breakdown / brekdaυn/ noun 1. an
fice of a bank or large business, or a lo-            act of stopping working because of me-
cal shop which is part of a large chain 2.            chanical failure 2. an act of stopping
the local office of a union, based in a               talking a breakdown in wage negotia-
factory                                               tions 3. an act of showing details item
branch committee /brɑ ntʃ kə-                         by item Give me a breakdown of in-
 mti/ noun an elected committee of un-               vestment costs.
ion members which deals with general                  break off / brek ɒf/ verb to stop
day-to-day problems                                   We broke off the discussion at midnight.
branch          manager          /brɑ ntʃ                Management broke off negotiations
 m nd ə/ noun a person in charge of a                with the union.
branch of a company                                   break point / brek pɔnt/ noun the
 ‘…a leading manufacturer of business,                dividing point between one job or ele-
 industrial and commercial products requires a
 branch manager to head up its mid-western            ment and the next, or between one level
 Canada operations based in Winnipeg’                 established on a job evaluation and the
 [Globe and Mail (Toronto)]                           next     A break point was established
break up                                     34                              BR tax code

between unskilled and semi-skilled jobs,          cently recruited employees first,
separating the two categories, with dif-          since these are often the best
ferent rates of pay.                              trained and best educated members
break up / brek p/ verb 1. to split              of its staff)
something large into small sections               bring /brŋ/ verb to come to a place
The company was broken up and sepa-               with someone or something             He
rate divisions sold off. 2. to come to an         brought his documents with him. The
end The meeting broke up at 12.30.                finance director brought her assistant to
bribe /brab/ noun money given to                 take notes of the meeting. (NOTE: bring-
someone in authority to get them to help          ing- brought)
   The minister was dismissed for taking          bring down / brŋ daυn/ verb 1. to
bribes. í verb to pay someone money to            reduce        Petrol companies have
get them to do something illegal or dis-          brought down the price of oil. 2. to add
honest for you                                    a figure to an account at the end of a pe-
bribery / brab(ə)ri/ noun the illegal            riod to balance expenditure and income
or dishonest act of offering somebody                balance brought down: £365.15
cash or a gift in order to persuade them          bring forward / brŋ fɔ wəd/ verb
to give you an unfair advantage                   1. to make earlier to bring forward the
bridge job / brd d ɒb/ noun a posi-              date of repayment The date of the next
tion designed to help the movement of             meeting has been brought forward to
employees from one job category to an-            March. 2. to take an account balance
other     She was given a bridge job              from the end of the previous period as
while being considered for real promo-            the starting point for the current period
tion. The bridge job between machin-                 balance brought forward: £365.15
ist and supervisor consisted of some
tasks from each of these posts.
                                                  bring in / brŋ n/ verb to earn an
                                                  amount of interest The shares bring in
brief /bri f/ noun instructions given to          a small amount.
someone       He went into the negotia-
tions with the brief to get a deal at any         bring out / brŋ aυt/ verb to produce
price. í verb to explain something to             something new They are bringing out
someone in detail        The salespeople          a new model of the car for the Motor
were briefed on the new product. The              Show.
managing director briefed the board on            bring up / brŋ p/ verb to refer to
the progress of the negotiations.                 something for the first time The chair-
briefing / bri fŋ/ noun an act of tell-          man brought up the question of redun-
ing someone details        All sales staff        dancy payments.
have to attend a sales briefing on the            broadbanding / brɔ db ndŋ/ noun
new product.                                      the reorganisation of the ranges of
briefing group / bri fŋ ru p/ noun               pay that an organisation offers for
a group of people who are briefed, espe-          various types of jobs, so that its pay
cially a group who take part in team              scale has fewer, but wider bands
briefings                                         (NOTE: broadbanding makes the pay
                                                  structure more flexible and is espe-
briefing session / bri fŋ seʃ(ə)n/               cially suited to flat organisations)
noun a meeting between managers and
staff where the staff are informed of             broke /brəυk/ adjective having no
matters such as decisions or plans                money (informal ) .     The company is
brightsizing / bratsazŋ/ noun                  broke. She cannot pay for the new car
the practice of reducing the size of              because she is broke.
the workforce by making the most                  BR tax code / bi ɑ t ks kəυd/
capable or intelligent employees re-              noun a number given to an employee
dundant (NOTE: this usually happens               and sent to the employer, which allows
accidentally when a company has                   the employer to deduct tax from the em-
a policy of laying off its most re-               ployee’s pay at the correct rate
BS                                                 35                                  bumping

BS plural noun quality standards which                  structed     All visitors to the site must
apply to various products or services.                  wear safety helmets.
Full form British Standards                             build into / bld ntu / verb to add
B share / bi ʃeə/ noun an ordinary                      something to something being set up
share with special voting rights (often                 You must build all the forecasts into the
owned by the founder of the company                     budget. we have built 10% for con-
and their family)                                       tingencies into our cost forecast we
                                                        have added 10% to our basic forecast to
buddy system / b di sstəm/ noun                        allow for items which may appear
US an on-the-job training system, where
a trainee works with an experienced em-
ployee The buddy system teaches the                     build up / bld p/ verb 1. to create
trainee the practical realities of the job.             something by adding pieces together
   The company operates both a buddy                    She bought several shoe shops and
system and some off-the-job classroom                   gradually built up a chain. 2. to expand
instruction for its trainees.                           something gradually         to build up a
                                                        profitable business to build up a team
budget / b d t/ noun a plan of ex-                     of sales representatives
pected spending and income for a period
of time to draw up a budget for sala-                   buildup / bld p/ noun a gradual in-
ries for the coming year         We have                crease     a buildup in sales or a sales
agreed the budgets for next year. í verb                buildup There will be a big publicity
to plan probable income and expendi-                    buildup before the launch of the new
ture We are budgeting for £10,000 of                    model. There has been a buildup of
sales next year.                                        complaints about customer service.
 ‘…he budgeted for further growth of 150,000            built-in / blt n/ adjective forming
 jobs (or 2.5 per cent) in the current financial        part of the system or of a machine The
 year’ [Sydney Morning Herald]                          PC has a built-in modem.          The ac-
 ‘…the Federal government’s budget targets for          counting system has a series of built-in
 employment and growth are within reach                 checks. The microwave has a built-in
 according to the latest figures’ [Australian           clock.
 Financial Review]
                                                        bulletin board / bυltn bɔ d/ noun
budgetary / b d t(ə)r/ adjective                      a board fixed to a wall where notices
referring to a budget                                   can be put up
budgetary        policy / b d t(ə)ri                   bully / bυli/ noun a person who is in a
 pɒlsi/ noun the policy of planning in-                powerful position and continually ha-
come and expenditure                                    rasses others í verb to threaten and in-
budget          variance        / b d t                timidate other members of staff She
 veəriəns/ noun the difference between                  complained that she was being bullied
the cost as estimated for a budget and                  by the assistant manager. (NOTE: bul-
the actual cost                                         lies- bullying- bullied)
build /bld/ verb to make by putting                    bullying / bυliŋ/ noun intimidation
                                                        and harassment of someone by another
pieces together The new director’s job
                                                        member of staff in a more powerful
is to build a sales structure.      They
want to demolish the old factory and
build an office block on the site. to                   bumping / b mpŋ/ noun 1. US a
build on past experience to use experi-                 lay-off procedure that allows an em-
ence as a base on which to act in the                   ployee with greater seniority to displace
future                                                  a more junior employee The economic
                                                        recession led to extensive bumping in
building / bldŋ/ noun a structure                     companies where only the most quali-
such as a house, factory or office block                fied were retained for some jobs. The
   They have redeveloped the site of the                trade unions strongly objected to bump-
old office building.                                    ing practices since they considered that
building site / bldŋ sat/ noun a                     many employees were being laid off un-
place where a building is being con-                    fairly. 2. the situation where a senior
Bundy                                      36                           business plan

employee takes the place of a junior (in        business of the meeting was finished by
a restaurant)                                   3 p.m.
Bundy / b ndi/ noun a timing system             business address / bzns ə dres/
in Australia and New Zealand that re-           noun the details of number, street and
cords the time at which employees ar-           town where a company is located
rive at and leave their place of work           business agent / bzns ed ənt/
Bundy off / b ndi ɒf/ verb (in Aus-             noun US the chief local official of a
tralia and New Zealand ) to clock off
                           .                    trade union
from work                                       business card / bzns kɑ d/ noun a
Bundy on / b ndi ɒn/ verb (in Aus-              card showing a businessperson’s name
tralia and New Zealand ) to clock on for
                       .                        and the name and address of the com-
work                                            pany they work for
burden / b dn/ noun a heavy load                business centre / bzns sentə/
which you have to carry                         noun the part of a town where the main
                                                banks, shops and offices are located
bureau / bjυərəυ/ noun an office
which specialises in a specific service         business class / bzns klɑ s/ noun
                                                a type of airline travel which is less ex-
bureaucracy /bjυə rɒkrəsi/ noun a               pensive than first class and more com-
system of administration where an indi-         fortable than economy class
vidual person’s responsibilities and
powers are strictly defined and pro-            business college / bzns kɒld /
cesses are strictly followed                    noun same as business school
bureaucratic / bjυərə kr tk/ ad-               business            correspondence
jective following strict administrative         / bzns kɒr spɒndəns/ noun letters
principles                                      concerned with a business
burn out / b n aυt/ verb to become              business correspondent / bzns
tired and incapable for further work be-        kɒr spɒndənt/ noun a journalist who
cause of stress (NOTE: burning- burnt           writes articles on business news for
or burned)                                      newspapers
burnout / b naυt/, burnt out case               business cycle / bzns sak(ə)l/
/ b nt aυt kes/ noun a case where an           noun the period during which trade ex-
employee is tired and incapable of doing        pands, slows down and then expands
any more work as a result of overwork           again
   He’s a burnt-out case and had to give        business equipment / bzns -
up his job.                                      kwpmənt/ noun the machines used in
business / bzns/ noun 1. work in              an office
buying or selling We do a lot of busi-          business expenses / bzns k-
ness with Japan. Business is expand-             spensz/ plural noun money spent on
ing.     Business is slow.    Repairing         running a business, not on stock or
cars is 90% of our business. We did             assets
more business in the week before                business letter / bzns letə/ noun
Christmas than we usually do in a               a letter which deals with business
month. Strikes are very bad for busi-           matters
ness. What’s your line of business?
to be in business to run a commercial           businessman / bznsm n/, busi-
firm on business doing commercial               nesswoman / bzns wυmən/ noun a
work She had to go abroad on busi-              man or woman engaged in business
ness. The chairman is in Holland on             business plan / bzns pl n/ noun a
business. 2. a commercial company               document drawn up to show how a busi-
He owns a small car repair business.            ness is planned to work, with cash flow
She runs a business from her home. I            forecasts, sales forecasts, etc., often
set up in business as an insurance bro-         used when trying to raise a loan, or
ker. 3. affairs discussed     The main          when setting up a new business
business school                             37                                        buyout

business school / bzns sku l/                  The manager is busy at the moment, but
noun an educational institution at uni-          she will be free in about fifteen minutes.
versity level that offers courses in sub-           The busiest time of year for stores is
jects related to business such as                the week before Christmas. Summer is
management, technology, finance, and             the busy season for hotels. the line is
interpersonal skills (NOTE: business             busy the telephone line is being used
schools provide courses of varying               busy season / bzi si z(ə)n/ noun
length and level, up to Master of Busi-          the period when a company is busy
ness Administration, and besides ca-             buyout / baaυt/ noun the purchase of
tering for full-time students, also offer        a controlling interest in a company
part-time courses and distance learn-             ‘…we also invest in companies whose growth
ing to people already in employment)              and profitability could be improved by a
                                                  management buyout’ [Times]
busy / bzi/ adjective occupied in do-
                                                  ‘…in a normal leveraged buyout, the acquirer
ing something or in working         He is         raises money by borrowing against the assets or
busy preparing the annual accounts.               cash flow of the target company’ [Fortune]
CAC                                        38                                 call-in pay


CAC abbr          Central    Arbitration        days’ credit is almost three calendar
Committee                                       months.
cafeteria      / k fə təriə/ noun a            calendar year / k lndə jə/ noun a
self-service restaurant which belongs to        year from the 1st January to 31st
a factory or office, where the staff can        December
eat Most people have lunch in the staff         call /kɔ l/ noun 1. a conversation on
cafeteria.                                      the telephone to make a call to dial
cafeteria-style      benefits     plan          and speak to someone on the telephone
/k fə təriə stal benfts pl n/                  to log calls to note all details of tele-
noun a scheme for benefits for em-              phone calls made 2. a demand for repay-
ployees, where the employee can                 ment of a loan by a lender 3. an official
choose from a range of benefits on              request for something 4. a visit The
offer, depending on different levels of         salespeople make six calls a day. í verb
contribution                                    1. to telephone someone I’ll call you
calculate / k lkjυlet/ verb 1. to find         at your office tomorrow. 2. to call on
the answer to a problem using numbers           someone to visit someone Our sales-
   The bank clerk calculated the rate of        people call on their best accounts twice
exchange for the dollar. 2. to estimate         a month. 3. to ask someone to do some-
I calculate that we have six months’            thing the union called a strike the
stock left.                                     union told its members to go on strike
calculating                  machine            call-back pay / kɔ l b k pe/ noun
/ k lkjυletŋ mə ʃi n/ noun same as            pay given to an employee who has been
calculator                                      called back to work after their normal
calculation / k lkjυ leʃ(ə)n/ noun             working hours
the answer to a problem in mathematics          call centre / kɔ l sentə/ noun a de-
    According to my calculations, we            partment or business that operates a
have six months’ stock left.     we are         large number of telephones and special-
£20,000 out in our calculations we              ises in making calls to sell products or in
have £20,000 too much or too little             receiving calls from customers to
calculator / k lkjυletə/ noun an               helplines or information or after-sales
electronic machine which does calcula-          services (NOTE: a call centre often acts
tions such as adding, subtracting and           as the central point of contact between
multiplying     He worked out the dis-          an organisation and its customers)
count on his calculator.                        caller / kɔ lə/ noun 1. a person who
calendar / k lndə/ noun a book or              telephones 2. a person who visits
set of sheets of paper showing the days         call in / kɔ l n/ verb 1. to visit
and months in a year, often attached to         Their sales representative called in
pictures For the New Year, the garage           twice last week. 2. to telephone to make
sent me a calendar with photographs of          contact We ask the reps to call in ev-
old cars.                                       ery Friday to report the weeks’ sales. 3.
calendar month / k lndə m nθ/                  to ask for a debt to be paid
noun a whole month as on a calendar,            call-in pay / kɔ l n pe/ noun
from the 1st to the 30th or 31st Ninety         payment guaranteed to employees who
call off                                      39                                  carbonless

report for work even if there is no work           on something to cap a local author-
for them to do        Call-in pay is often         ity’s budget   to cap a department’s
necessary to ensure the attendance of              budget (NOTE: capping – capped)
workers where there is at least the pos-
sibility of work needing to be done.               capability / kepə blti/ noun a skill
                                                   which an employee has learnt and which
call off / kɔ l ɒf/ verb to ask for                can be applied to their work
something not to take place The union
has called off the strike. The deal was            capable / kepəb(ə)l/ adjective effi-
called off at the last moment.                     cient   She is a very capable depart-
                                                   mental manager. (NOTE: you are
can /k n/ verb to dismiss somebody                 capable of something or of doing
from employment (informal ) (NOTE:
canning- canned)
                                                   capacity /kə p sti/ noun 1. the
cancel / k nsəl/ verb to stop some-                amount which can be produced, or the
thing which has been agreed or planned             amount of work which can be done
   The manager is still ill, so the inter-         industrial or manufacturing or produc-
views planned for this week have been              tion capacity to work at full capacity
cancelled.     (NOTE:        cancelling-           to do as much work as possible 2. the
cancelled)                                         amount of space to use up spare or
cancellation / k nsə leʃ(ə)n/ noun                excess capacity to make use of time or
the act of stopping something which has            space which is not fully used 3. ability
been agreed or planned the cancella-               She has a particular capacity for de-
tion of an appointment the cancella-               tailed business deals with overseas com-
tion of an agreement                               panies. 4. in one’s capacity as acting
cancellation clause / k nsə-                       as I signed the document in my capac-
 leʃ(ə)n klɔ z/ noun a clause in a con-           ity as chairman.
tract which states the terms on which the           ‘…analysts are increasingly convinced that the
contract may be cancelled                           industry simply has too much capacity’
cancel out / k nsəl aυt/ verb (of
two things) to balance or act against              capacity       planning        /kə p sti
each other and so make each other in-               pl nŋ/ noun forward planning to re-
valid     The two clauses cancel each              late production needs to anticipated
other out. Higher costs have cancel-               demand
led out the increased sales revenue.               capital bonus / k pt(ə)l bəυnəs/
candidate / k nddet/ noun a per-                 noun an extra payment by an insurance
son who applies for or is considered               company which is produced by a capital
suitable for a job or for a training course        gain
   I don’t consider him as suitable can-           capital goods / k pt(ə)l υdz/ plu-
didate for management training. Ten                ral noun machinery, buildings and raw
out of fifty candidates were shortlisted.          materials which are used to make other
   The candidates for department man-              goods
ager were each given a personality test
and an intelligence test.                          captain of industry / k ptnz əv
                                                    ndəstri/ noun a head of a major indus-
can-do / k n du / adjective go-ahead,              trial company
liking to cope with new challenges
She’s a can-do individual.                         car /kɑ / noun a small motor vehicle
                                                   for carrying people
canteen /k n ti n/ noun a restaurant
which belongs to a factory or office,              carbon copy / kɑ bən kɒpi/ noun a
where the staff can eat Most people                copy made with carbon paper Give me
have lunch in the canteen.                         the original, and file the carbon copy.
cap /k p/ noun an upper limit placed               carbonless / kɑ bənləs/ adjective
on something, such as an interest rate             which makes a copy without using car-
(the opposite, i.e. a lower limit, is a            bon paper      Our reps use carbonless
‘floor’) í verb to place an upper limit            order pads.
card                                         40                       careers guidance

card /kɑ d/ noun 1. stiff paper        We         redundancy, ill-health, or a change in
have printed the instructions on thick            their personal circumstances.)
white card. 2. a small piece of cardboard         career development /kə rə d-
or plastic, usually with information               veləpmənt/ noun the planning of an
printed on it He showed his staff card            employee’s future career in an organisa-
to get a discount in the store. 3. a post-        tion         a career development
card      to get one’s cards to be                programme If the company does not
dismissed                                         spend more time on career development,
card-carrying / kɑ d k riŋ/ adjec-               many employees will leave.         Career
tive referring to a person who has a              development involves a very compre-
membership card of an organisation                hensive training programme.
such as a union The union had many                career       expectations         /kə rər
sympathisers,      but     few      actual        ekspek teʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun hopes
card-carrying members.                            which an employee has of how their
card vote / kɑ d vəυt/ noun a vote at             career will develop in terms of matters
a Trades Union Congress where the rep-            such as promotion or salary
resentatives of unions vote according to          career ladder /kə rə l də/ noun a
the numbers of union members                      sequence of jobs within an organisation
career /kə rə/ noun a job which you              or department, starting with the most ju-
are trained for and which you expect to           nior and ending with most senior,
do all your life He made his career in            through which an employee can ad-
electronics. She has had a varied ca-             vance in the course of their working life
reer, having worked in education and              career-limiting        move        /kə rə
industry. The company offered its em-              lmtŋ mu v/ noun full form of CLM
ployees no advice on their future ca-
reers. to embark on a career to start             career opportunities /kə rər ɒpə-
a career to pursue a career as to fol-             tju ntiz/, career prospects /kə rə
low a career as                                    prɒspekts/ plural noun possibilities of
                                                  advancement in a career
career anchor /kə rər ŋkə/ noun
a basic, sometimes subconscious factor            career path /kə rə pɑ θ/ noun a
that strongly influences all the choices          planned logical sequence of jobs within
and decisions that people make when               one or more professions through which
shaping their careers (NOTE: a career             a person can progress in the course of
anchor may be a special skill that                their working life (NOTE: it is much eas-
somebody wants to use, an ambition                ier to plan a career path when the mar-
somebody wants to achieve, or an eth-             ket is stable and there is little change
ical principle that is particularly impor-        in business conditions; in uncertain
tant to somebody, but it always                   times people need to be more adapt-
something that is very important to that          able and the idea of a planned career
person’s sense of who they are)                   path has much less value, according to
                                                  some experts)
career break /kə rə brek/ noun a
period when an employee leaves a ca-              career pattern /kə rə p tn/ noun
reer job for several years to undertake           the way in which a person has spent
another activity such as studying for a           their employed life (such as years em-
degree or having a baby and then returns          ployed in each firm, promotions or
at the same level                                 salary)
career change /kə rə tʃend /                    career planning /kə rə pl nŋ/
noun a change in a person’s profession            noun the examination of the way in
or in the type of job they do, that often         which career opportunities are available,
involves going to work for a different            leading to advice on which careers to
employer (NOTE: career changes may                pursue or how to further an employee’s
be planned as part of somebody’s                  existing career
CPD or career development, or may                 careers guidance /kə rəz adns/
be forced on somebody as a result of              noun professional help given to people
careers officer                               41                            casual leave

in choosing their career    Many em-               carry / k ri/ verb 1. to take from one
ployees are in the wrong jobs due to               place to another a tanker carrying oil
poor careers guidance at school.                   from the Gulf The truck was carrying
                                                   goods to the supermarket. The train
careers officer /kə rəz ɒfsə/ noun               was carrying a consignment of cars for
a person who gives advice to students or
                                                   export. 2. to vote to approve the mo-
new employees on their career prospects
                                                   tion was carried the motion was ac-
career structure /kə rə str ktʃə/                 cepted after a vote 3. to produce The
noun the way in which jobs in a com-               bonds carry interest at 10%. 4. to keep
pany are planned to lead on to other               in stock to carry a line of goods We
posts at a higher level I left the com-            do not carry pens. (NOTE: carries – car-
pany because of its poor career                    rying – carried)
structure.                                         carry on / k ri ɒn/ verb to continue
career woman /kə rə wυmən/                        or to go on doing something The staff
noun a woman who is working in busi-               carried on working in spite of the fire.
ness and does not plan to stop working             to carry on a business to be active in
to look after the house or children                running a business
careline / keəlan/ noun a telephone               carry out / k ri aυt/ verb to carry
number which links people to services              out one’s duties to do what one has to
which can help them such as social ser-            do in one’s job
vices departments, hospitals, or a simi-           case /kes/ noun 1. a cardboard or
lar service offered by shops to their              wooden box for packing and carrying
customers                                          goods to state one’s case to put for-
caretaker / keətekə/ noun a person                ward arguments which support your po-
who looks after a building, making sure            sition 2. a typical example of something
it is clean and that the rubbish is cleared           The company has had several cases of
away (a caretaker often lives on the pre-          petty theft in the post room. 3. reasons
mises) Go and ask the caretaker to re-             for doing something The negotiations
place the light bulb. (NOTE: American              put the union’s case for a pay rise. 4.
English is janitor)                                the case is being heard next week the
                                                   case is coming to court next week
car expenses / kɑ r k spensz/ plu-
ral noun money spent on a private car              cash /k ʃ/ verb to cash a cheque to
used during work for a company                     exchange a cheque for cash
car-hire / kɑ haə/ noun the business              cash-flow life / k ʃ fləυ laf/ noun a
of lending cars to people for a payment            working life in which a person works
   He runs a car-hire business.                    for fees paid for individual projects
                                                   rather than for a regular salary
car hire firm / kɑ haə f m/ noun                  cashless pay / k ʃləs pe/ noun a
a company which owns cars or equip-                weekly or monthly wage paid directly
ment and lends them to customers for a             into an employee’s bank account
payment                                            through an electronic transfer of funds
car insurance / kɑ r n ʃυərəns/                   casual / k uəl/ adjective 1. informal
noun the insuring of a car, the driver             or not serious 2. not permanent or not
and passengers in case of accident                 regular
carousel        training      / k rə sel           casual job / k uəl d ɒb/ noun a
 trenŋ/ noun training which involves             job which exists for a short period only
moving from job to job or from depart-             casual labour / k uəl lebə/ noun
ment to department in an organisation              workers who are hired for a short period
Carousel training was instituted in or-
der to provide trainees with a wide                casual labourer / k uəl lebərə/
range of practical experience. During              noun a worker who can be hired for a
their carousel training, trainee manag-            short period
ers spend time in the marketing, HR and            casual leave / k uəl li v/ noun
finance departments.                               paid time off from work given to an em-
casual vacancy                               42                   centre of excellence

ployee to deal with personal affairs              ceiling / si lŋ/ noun the highest point
He was granted casual leave to settle             that something can reach, e.g. the high-
his family affairs.                               est rate of a pay increase What ceiling
casual vacancy / k uəl vekənsi/                  has the government put on wage in-
noun a job which has become vacant be-            creases this year?
cause the previous employee left                  cell work system / sel w k
unexpectedly                                       sstəm/ noun a system of working
casual work / k uəl w k/ noun                     where an item is produced within a sep-
work where the workers are hired for a            arate production unit, and does not
short period                                      move round an assembly line
casual worker / k uəl w kə/                       central / sentrəl/ adjective organised
noun a worker who can be hired for a              by one main point
short period                                      Central Arbitration Committee
catastrophe /kə t strəfi/ noun a                  / sentrəl ɑ b treʃ(ə)n kə mti/ noun
sudden disaster                                   an independent arbitration body dealing
                                                  mainly with union claims for disclosure
catastrophic / k tə strɒfk/ adjec-               of information by management. Abbr
tive disastrous                                   CAC
catastrophic health insurance                     centralisation / sentrəla zeʃ(ə)n/,
/ k təstrɒfk helθ n ʃυərəns/ noun               centralization noun the organisation of
health insurance which provides for the           everything from a central point
high cost of treating severe or lengthy
illnesses Miners are advised to take              centralise / sentrəlaz/, centralize
out catastrophic health insurance since           verb to organise from a central point
lung diseases are expensive to treat.             All purchasing has been centralised in
                                                  our main office.     The group benefits
categorical / k tə ɒrk(ə)l/ adjec-               from a highly centralised organisational
tive straightforward or definite                  structure.    The company has become
category / k t (ə)ri/ noun a type or             very centralised, and far more staff
sort of item We deal only in the most             work at headquarters.
expensive categories of watches. The              central office / sentrəl ɒfs/ noun
company has vacancies for most catego-            the main office which controls all
ries of office staff.                             smaller offices
caution / kɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a warning             Central Provident Fund / sentrəl
from someone in authority, telling                 prɒvd(ə)nt f nd/ noun (in Singa-
someone not to repeat a minor crime               pore) a retirement benefit scheme to
The boys were let off with a caution. 2. a        which all employees and employers
warning by a police officer, that some-           must make contributions each month
one will be charged with a crime, and
that what he says will be used in evi-            central      purchasing         / sentrəl
dence í verb 1. to warn someone that               p tʃsŋ/ noun purchasing organised
what they have done is wrong and                  by a central office for all branches of a
should not be repeated The manager                company
cautioned the clerks after she caught             centre / sentə/ noun 1. an important
them drinking beer in the office. 2. to           town     Sheffield is a major industrial
warn someone that they will be charged            centre. Nottingham is the centre for
with a crime, and that what they say will         the shoe industry. (NOTE: the usual US
be used as evidence at their trial The            spelling is center) 2. a group of items
accused was arrested by the detectives            in an account (NOTE: the usual US
and cautioned.                                    spelling is center)
 COMMENT: The person who is cautioned             centre of excellence / sentər əv
 has the right not to answer any question          eksələns/ noun an organisation which
 put to them.                                     is recognised as being successful and
CBI abbr Confederation of British                 having a world-wide reputation in its
Industry                                          field, and so receives special funding
CEO                                             43                                       chance

CEO abbr chief executive officer                     chainsaw consultant / tʃensɔ
certificate /sə tfkət/ noun an offi-               kən s ltənt/ noun an outside expert
cial document carrying an official decla-            brought into a company to reduce the
ration by someone, and signed by that                number of its employees drastically
person                                               (slang)
certificate of approval /sə tfkət                  chair /tʃeə/ noun the position of the
əv ə pru v(ə)l/ noun a document show-                chairman, presiding over a meeting to
ing that an item has been approved                   be in the chair Mr Smith was in the
officially                                           chair. Mrs Brown was voted into the
                                                     chair. Mr Jones took the chair Mr
certification /sə tf keʃ(ə)n/ noun                Jones presided over the meeting       to
the act of giving an official certificate of         address the chair to speak to the chair-
approval                                             man and not to the rest of the people at
certification       officer       / s tf-          the meeting Please address your re-
 keʃ(ə)n ɒfsə/ noun the official re-               marks to the chair. í verb to preside
sponsible for trade unions, ensuring that            over a meeting       The meeting was
they are properly registered, well con-              chaired by Mrs Smith.
ducted and that trade union legislation is           chairman / tʃeəmən/ noun 1. a per-
adhered to                                           son who is in charge of a meeting Mr
certified      public       accountant               Howard was chairman or acted as
/ s tfad p blk ə kaυntənt/ noun                   chairman 2. a person who presides over
US an accountant who has passed                      the board meetings of a company the
professional examinations                            chairman of the board or the company
certify / s tfa/ verb to make an offi-             chairman the chairman’s report, the
cial declaration in writing      I certify           chairman’s statement an annual report
that this is a true copy. The document               from the chairman of a company to the
is certified as a true copy. (NOTE: certi-           shareholders
fies – certifying – certified)                        ‘…the corporation’s entrepreneurial chairman
                                                      seeks a dedicated but part-time president. The
CGI Joe / si d i a d əυ/ noun a                      new president will work a three-day week’
computer programmer who lacks per-                    [Globe and Mail (Toronto)]
sonal charm and is not very good at                  chairman and managing direc-
communicating with other people                      tor / tʃeəmən ən m nd ŋ da-
(slang) (NOTE: the term is modelled on                rektə/ noun a managing director who
‘GI Joe’, a word for a US soldier in the             is also chairman of the board of
Second World War; its first part is an               directors
abbreviation of ‘computer generated                  chairmanship / tʃeəmənʃp/ noun
imagery’)                                            the fact of being a chairman The com-
chain /tʃen/ noun 1. a series of stores             mittee met under the chairmanship of
or other businesses belonging to the                 Mr Jones.
same company a chain of hotels or a                  chairperson / tʃeəp s(ə)n/ noun a
hotel chain the chairman of a large                  person who is in charge of a meeting
do-it-yourself chain He runs a chain                 (NOTE: plural is chairpersons)
of shoe shops.      She bought several
garden centres and gradually built up a              chairwoman / tʃeəwυmən/ noun a
chain. 2. a series of things linked to-              woman who is in charge of a meeting
gether an unfortunate chain of events                (NOTE: plural is chairwomen)
 ‘…the giant US group is better known for its        chance /tʃɑ ns/ noun 1. the fact of
 chain of cinemas and hotels rather than its         being possible    The company has a
 involvement in shipping’ [Lloyd’s List]             good chance of winning the contract.
chain of command / tʃen əv kə-                      His promotion chances are small. 2. the
 mɑ nd/ noun a series of links between               opportunity to do something      She is
directors, management and employees,                 waiting for a chance to see the manag-
by which instructions and information                ing director.   He had his chance of
are passed up or down                                promotion when the finance director’s
change                                         44                                    charge

assistant resigned. (NOTE: you have a               will or decisiveness       a post needing
chance of doing something or to do                  character and a willingness to work
something)                                          hard
change /tʃend / noun 1. money in                   character analysis / k rktə ə-
coins or small notes to give someone                 n ləss/ noun the analysis of a job ap-
change for £10 to give someone coins                plicant’s general nature and qualities
or notes in exchange for a ten pound                All candidates for the job underwent a
note 2. money given back by the seller,             character analysis.
when the buyer can pay only with a                  character assessment / k rktə
larger note or coin than the amount                 ə sesmənt/ noun the process of judging
asked She gave me the wrong change.                 the personality of an employee
   You paid the £5.75 bill with a £10               character reference / k rktə
note, so you should have £4.25 change.               ref(ə)rəns/ noun a report showing the
   keep the change keep it as a tip (said           strength of someone’s character
to waiters, taxi-drivers, etc.) 3. an alter-
ation of the way something is done or of            charge /tʃɑ d / noun 1. money which
the way work is carried out í verb 1.               must be paid, or the price of a service
to change a £20 note to give change in              to make no charge for delivery          to
smaller notes or coins for a £20 note 2.            make a small charge for rental There
to give one type of currency for another            is no charge for this service or No
   to change £1,000 into dollars We                 charge is made for this service. bank
want to change some traveller’s                     charges, service charge US charges
cheques. 3.      to change hands (of a              made by a bank for carrying out work
business, property, etc.) to be sold to a
                                                    for a customer 2. management or con-
new owner The shop changed hands                    trol to be in charge of something to
for £100,000.                                       be the manager or to deal with some-
                                                    thing She is in charge of all our HR
change of use / tʃend əv ju s/                     documentation.       to take charge of
noun permission given by a local au-                something to start to deal with some-
thority for premises to be used for a dif-          thing or to become responsible for
ferent purpose (such as house to become             something When the manager was ill,
a shop or a shop to become a restaurant)            his deputy took charge of the depart-
channel / tʃ n(ə)l/ noun a means by                 ment. 3. an official statement in a court
which information or goods pass from                accusing someone of having committed
one place to another to go through                  a crime     He appeared in court on a
the official channels to deal with gov-             charge of embezzling or on an embezzle-
ernment officials, especially when mak-             ment charge. to take charge of some-
ing a request í verb to send in a certain           thing to start to deal with something or
direction They are channelling their                to become responsible for something
research funds into developing Euro-                When the manager was ill, her deputy
pean communication systems. (NOTE:                  took charge of the department. to be
channelling – channelled)                           in charge of something to be the man-
                                                    ager or to deal with something She is
channels        of    communication                 in charge of all our personnel documen-
/ tʃ n(ə)lz əv kəmju n keʃ(ə)n/                   tation. í verb 1. to ask someone to pay
noun ways in which information can be               for services later 2. to ask for money to
passed (post, telephone, fax, the                   be paid to charge £5 for delivery
Internet, newspapers, TV, etc.)      to             How much does he charge?               he
open up new channels of communi-                    charges £16 an hour he asks to be paid
cation to find new ways of communi-                 £16 for an hour’s work 3. to pay for
cating with someone                                 something by putting it on a charge ac-
character / k rktə/ noun 1. the gen-               count Can you charge the meal to my
eral nature or qualities of a person,               room?      I want to charge these pur-
which make that person different from               chases to the company account. They
others You need an easy-going char-                 were charged with murder. 4. (in a
acter to work in this office. 2. strong             court) to accuse someone formally of
chargehand                                  45                            chilling effect

having committed a crime      He was             or as part of a procedure for evaluating
charged with embezzling his clients’             something
money.     Reps charge their hotel ex-           checkoff / tʃekɒf/ noun US a system
penses to the company’s account.                 where union dues are automatically de-
chargehand / tʃɑ d h nd/ noun a                  ducted by the employer from a worker’s
senior operator in a group of workers            paycheck Checkoffs are seen by most
under a foreman who has responsibility           employees as worthwhile as long as
for seeing that day-to-day problems are          their interests are well represented by
solved                                           the union. After checkoffs and tax de-
                                                 ductions the workers’ pay had been re-
chart /tʃɑ t/ noun a diagram display-            duced by one third.
ing information as a series of lines,
blocks, etc.                                     check time / tʃek tam/ noun the
                                                 time recorded between the start of a
chartered accountant / tʃɑ təd ə-                work study and the start of the first ele-
 kaυntənt/ noun an accountant who has            ment observed, plus the time recorded
passed the professional examinations             between the last element observed and
and is a member of the Institute of              the end of the study
Chartered Accountants. Abbr CA
                                                 checkup / tʃek p/ noun a medical
cheap /tʃi p/ adjective, adverb not              examination       All staff have to have
costing a lot of money or not expensive          regular checkups.
cheap labour /tʃi p lebə/ noun                  cherry-picking / tʃeri pkŋ/ noun
workers who do not earn much money               the practice of choosing only the best or
cheaply / tʃi pli/ adverb without pay-           most valuable items from among a
ing much money        The salesman was           group
living cheaply at home and claiming an           chief /tʃi f/ adjective most important
enormous hotel bill on expenses.                    He is the chief accountant of an in-
cheapness / tʃi pnəs/ noun the fact              dustrial group. She is the chief buyer
of being cheap The cheapness of the              for a department store.
pound means that many more tourists              chief clerk /tʃi f klɑ k/ noun the
will come to London.                             most important clerk
check /tʃek/ noun 1. a sudden stop               chief executive /tʃi f  zekjυtv/,
to put a check on imports to stop some           chief executive officer (CEO) /tʃi f
imports coming into a country 2. inves-           zekjυtv ɒfsə/ noun US the most
tigation or examination        a routine         important director in charge of a
check of the fire equipment The audi-            company
tors carried out checks on the petty cash        childcare provision / tʃaldkeə
book. í verb 1. to stop or to delay to           prə v (ə)n/ noun a human relations
check the entry of contraband into the           policy designed to help employees with
country      to check the flow of money          the cost of paying somebody to care for
out of a country 2. to examine or to in-         their children during working hours
vestigate to check that an invoice is            (NOTE: Childcare provision is intended
correct to check and sign for goods              to enable people who have children to
she checked the computer printout                look after to return to work. Equal op-
against the invoices she examined the            portunities laws stipulate that it must
printout and the invoices to see if the          be available to both male and female
figures were the same                            employees.)
checking / tʃekŋ/ noun an examina-              chilling effect / tʃlŋ  fekt/ noun a
tion or investigation     The inspectors         negative effect on employees of regula-
found some defects during their check-           tions or practices that limit their free-
ing of the building.                             dom and opportunities        the chilling
checklist / tʃeklst/ noun a list of             effect of punctuality checks Too many
points which have to be checked before           restrictions have a chilling effect which
something can be regarded as finished,           is counterproductive.
Chinese walls                               46                                       claim

Chinese walls / tʃani z          wɔ lz/         twenty-four hours 2. biorhythms, recur-
plural noun imaginary barriers between           ring cycles of different lengths which
departments in the same organisation,            some people believe affect a person’s
set up to avoid insider dealing or con-          behaviour, sensitivity and intelligence
flict of interest (as when a merchant            circular / s kjυlə/ adjective sent to
bank is advising on a planned takeover           many people í noun a leaflet or letter
bid, its investment department should            sent to many people They sent out a
not know that the bid is taking place, or        circular offering a 10% discount. Se-
they would advise their clients to invest        nior management sent out a circular to
in the company being taken over)                 all the employees explaining the
choice /tʃɔs/ noun 1. a thing which is          changes in the payment scheme.
chosen      You must give the customer           circularise / s kjυləraz/, circular-
time to make their choice. 2. a range of         ize verb to send a circular to The com-
items to choose from We have only a              mittee has agreed to circularise the
limited choice of suppliers. the shop            members of the society. They circular-
carries a good choice of paper the               ised all their customers with a new list
shop carries many types of paper to              of prices. The committee has agreed
choose from í adjective (of food ) spe-
                                                 to circularise the members.
cially selected choice meat choice
wines choice foodstuffs                          circulate / s kjυlet/ verb to send in-
                                                 formation to They circulated informa-
choose /tʃu z/ verb to decide to do a            tion about job vacancies to all colleges
particular thing or to buy a particular          in the area.
item (as opposed to something else)
There were several good candidates to            circulation / s kjυ leʃ(ə)n/ noun
choose from.       They chose the only           1. the act of sending information
woman applicant as sales director.               The company is trying to improve the
You must give the customers plenty of            circulation of information between de-
time to choose. (NOTE: choosing –                partments. 2. movement 3. the number
chose – has chosen)                              of readers of a newspaper or magazine.
                                                 It is audited and is not the same as
Christmas / krsməs/ noun a Chris-               ‘readership’.
tian holiday celebrated on 25th Decem-
ber The office closes for ten days at            Ciro method noun a method of as-
Christmas. We have allocated £50 for             sessing the value of a training
organising the office Christmas party.           programme under the four headings of
                                                 context, input, reaction and outcome
Christmas          bonus      / krsməs
 bəυnəs/ noun an extra payment made              civil / sv(ə)l/ adjective referring to or-
to staff at Christmas                            dinary people
chronic illness / krɒnk lnəs/                  civil rights / sv(ə)l rats/ plural
noun an illness or condition which lasts         noun the rights and privileges of each
for a long time                                  individual according to the law
chronic shortage / krɒnk ʃɔ td /               civil servant / sv(ə)l s vənt/ noun
noun a shortage which continues for a            a person who works in the civil service
period of time a chronic shortage of             civil service / sv(ə)l s vs/ noun
skilled staff                                    the organisation and personnel which
chronological                     order          administer a country You have to pass
/ krɒnəlɒd k(ə)l      ɔ də/ noun the            an examination to get a job in the civil
arrangement of records such as files and         service or to get a civil service job.
invoices in order of their dates                 claim /klem/ noun 1. an act of asking
circadian rhythm /s kediən                      for money the union put in a 6%
 rðəmz/ plural noun 1. the rhythms of           wage claim the union asked for a 6% in-
daily activities and bodily processes            crease in wages for its members 2. to
such as eating, defecating or sleeping           file or lodge a claim against someone
which are frequently controlled by hor-          to make an official claim against some-
mones and which repeat every                     one í verb 1. to ask for money She
claimant                                     47           clerical work measurement

claimed for repairs to the car against            classification         / kl sf keʃ(ə)n/
her insurance policy. 2. to say that              noun arrangement into classes or cate-
something is your property         No one         gories according to specific characteris-
claimed the umbrella found in my office.          tics the classification of employees by
3. to state that something is a fact She          ages or skills Jobs in this organisa-
claims that the shares are her property.          tion fall into several classifications.
claimant / klemənt/ noun a person                classified           advertisements
who claims a state benefit such as un-            / kl sfad əd v tsmənts/, classi-
employment benefit                                fied ads / kl sfad dz/ plural noun
                                                  advertisements listed in a newspaper un-
claim back / klem b k/ verb to ask               der special headings such as ‘property
for money to be paid back                         for sale’ or ‘jobs wanted’ Look in the
claimer / klemə/ noun same as                    small ads to see if anyone has a filing
claimant                                          cabinet for sale.
claiming / klemŋ/ noun the act of               classify / kl sfa/ verb to put into
making a claim                                    classes or categories according to spe-
                                                  cific characteristics (NOTE: classifies –
claims department / klemz d-                    classifying – classified)
 pɑ tmənt/ noun a department of an in-
surance company which deals with                  clause /klɔ z/ noun a section of a con-
claims                                            tract There are ten clauses in the con-
                                                  tract of employment. There is a clause
claims         manager            / klemz        in this contract concerning the em-
 m nd ə/ noun the manager of a                   ployer’s right to dismiss an employee.
claims department
                                                  clear /klə/ adjective (of a period of
class /klɑ s/ noun 1. a category or               time) free, total three clear days three
group into which things are classified 2.         whole working days Allow three clear
a group of students                               days for the cheque to be paid into your
Class 1 NI contributions /klɑ s                   account. í verb to clear one’s desk
 w n en a kɒntr bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural              to remove personal belongings from
noun National Insurance contributions             one’s desk when leaving a job He was
paid by an employee                               given five minutes to clear his desk.
Class 2 NI contributions /klɑ s                   clerical / klerk(ə)l/ adjective (of
 tu en a kɒntr bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural               work) done in an office or done by a
noun National Insurance contributions             clerk
paid by a self-employed person at a flat          clerical work / klerk(ə)l w k/
rate                                              noun work done in an office
Class 3 NI contributions /klɑ s                   clerical worker / klerk(ə)l w kə/
 θri en a kɒntr bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural              noun a person who works in an office
noun voluntary National Insurance con-
                                                  clerical work     improvement
tributions paid by someone who is not             programme / klerk(ə)l w k m-
earning enough to pay Class 1 contribu-            pru vmənt prəυ r m/ noun a
tions and is not self-employed                    programme based on data obtained by
Class 4 NI contributions /klɑ s                   clerical work measurement that aims to
 fɔ r en a kɒntr bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural             improve the productivity and efficiency
noun National Insurance contributions             of staff engaged in administrative and
paid by a self-employed person whose              clerical work
earnings are higher than for Class 2 con-         clerical     work       measurement
tributions (Class 4 contributions are a           / klerk(ə)l w k me əmənt/ noun a
percentage of profits, not a flat fee)            form of work measurement that focuses
class action /klɑ s kʃən/, class                  on the administrative and clerical tasks
suit /klɑ s su t/ noun US a legal ac-             such as filing and keyboarding done by
tion brought on behalf of a group of              employees in order to set standard times
people                                            for these activities
clerk                                                  48                              closed system

clerk      /klɑ k/ noun a person who                        close /kləυs/ noun the end of a day’s
works in an office í verb US to                             trading on the Stock Exchange At the
work as a clerk                                             close of the day’s trading the shares had
clerkess /klɑ kes/ noun (in Scot-                           fallen 20%. í adjective close to very
land ) a woman clerk
                                                            near, almost The company was close
                                                            to bankruptcy. We are close to meet-
clicks-and-mortar          / klks   ən                     ing our sales targets. í verb 1.       to
 mɔ tə/ adjective conducting business                       close the accounts to come to the end of
both through e-commerce and also in                         an accounting period and make up the
the traditional way in buildings such as                    profit and loss account 2. to bring to an
shops and warehouses (NOTE: Compare                         end 3. to stop doing business for the day
this term with bricks-and-mortar.)                             The office closes at 5.30. We close
 ‘…there may be a silver lining for                         early on Saturdays. 4.        the shares
 ‘clicks-and-mortar’ stores that have both an               closed at $15 at the end of the day’s
 online and a high street presence. Many of these
 are accepting returns of goods purchased online            trading the price of the shares was $15
 at their traditional stores. This is a service that        close company / kləυs k mp(ə)ni/
 may make them more popular as consumers                    noun a privately owned company con-
 become more experienced online shoppers’
 [Financial Times]                                          trolled by a few shareholders (in the
                                                            UK, less than five) where the public
clipboard / klpbɔ d/ noun a stiff                          may own a small number of the shares
board with a clip at the top so that a                      (NOTE: the American equivalent is
piece of paper can be clipped to the                        close    corporation    or    closed
board to allow you to write on it easily                    corporation)
CLM noun an action that could                               closed /kləυzd/ adjective 1. not open
endanger your career prospects, e.g.                        for business, or not doing business
criticising your boss publicly. Full form                   The office is closed on Mondays.
career-limiting nerve                                       These warehouses are usually closed to
clock /klɒk/ noun a machine which                           the public. All the banks are closed on
shows the time The office clock is fast.                    Christmas Day. 2. restricted
   All computers have built-in clocks.                      closed         interview         / kləυzd
The micro has a built-in clock.                              ntəvju / noun an interview where the
clock card / klɒk kɑ d/ noun a spe-                         interviewer asks only fixed questions
cial card which a worker puts into the                      with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers
time clock when clocking on or off                          close down / kləυz daυn/ verb to
clock in / klɒk n/, clock on / klɒk                        shut a shop, factory or service for a long
 ɒn/ verb (of a worker ) to record the                      period or for ever       The company is
                                                            closing down its London office. The

time of arriving for work by putting a
card into a special timing machine If                       accident closed down the station for a
workers do not clock in on arrival at the                   period.
                                                             ‘…the best thing would be to have a few more
factory, they may be sent a written                          plants close down and bring supply more in line
warning.                                                     with current demand’ [Fortune]
clocking in / klɒkŋ n/, clocking                          closed shop /kləυzd ʃɒp/ noun a
on / klɒkŋ ɒn/ noun the act of arriv-                      system where a company agrees to em-
ing for work and recording the time on a                    ploy only union members for specific
time-card                                                   jobs The union is asking the manage-
clocking out / klɒkŋ aυt/, clock-                          ment to agree to a closed shop.
ing off / klɒkŋ ɒf/ noun the act of                         COMMENT: Closed shops are illegal in
leaving work and recording the time on                       many countries.
a time-card                                                 closed system /kləυzd         sstəm/
clock out / klɒk aυt/, clock off                            noun a work system which is inflexible
/ klɒk ɒf/ verb (of a worker ) to record
                                     .                      and does not allow the employees much
the time of leaving work by putting a                       freedom to work in their own way
card into a special timing machine                          (NOTE: the opposite is open system)
closing                                     49                                      cold

closing / kləυzŋ/ adjective 1. final or         code      of conduct / kəυd əv
coming at the end 2. at the end of an ac-         kɒnd kt/ noun the guideline showing
counting period        At the end of the         how someone (such as shop assistants or
quarter the bookkeeper has to calculate          railway station staff) should behave to-
the closing balance. í noun the shutting         wards customers
of a shop or being shut                          code of ethics / kəυd əv eθks/
closing date / kləυzŋ det/ noun                noun a code of working which shows
the last date The closing date for ten-          how a professional group should work,
ders to be received is May 1st.                  and in particular what type of relation-
closing session / kləυzŋ seʃ(ə)n/               ship they should have with their clients
noun the last part of a meeting or               code of practice / kəυd əv
conference                                        pr kts/ noun rules drawn up by an as-
                                                 sociation which the members must fol-
closing time / kləυzŋ tam/ noun                low when doing business
the time when a shop or office stops
work                                             co-determination / kəυ dt m-
                                                  neʃ(ə)n/ noun (in Germany and some
closure / kləυ ə/ noun the act of                other countries) a system where a cer-
closing                                          tain percentage of representatives of the
clothing / kləυðŋ/ noun the clothes             workers must be part of the supervisory
which a person wears        The company          board of a company
provides special clothing for its                coding / kəυdŋ/ noun the act of putt-
employees.                                       ing a code on something the coding of
clothing allowance / kləυðŋ ə-                  invoices
 laυəns/ noun an addition to normal sal-         co-director / kəυ da rektə/ noun a
ary to cover the cost of buying special          person who is a director of the same
clothing to wear when on duty                    company as you
club /kl b/ noun a group of people               coercion /kəυ ʃ(ə)n/ noun the act
who have the same interest, or the place         of forcing someone to do something
where these people meet If you want
the managing director, you can phone             coffee break / kɒfi brek/ noun a
him at his club.       She has applied to        rest time during work when the employ-
join the sports club. club member-               ees can drink coffee or tea
ship all the members of a club club              cognition /kɒ nʃ(ə)n/ noun think-
subscription money paid to belong to a           ing processes
club í verb to club together to give             cognitive / kɒ ntv/ adjective relat-
money each for a special purpose                 ing to thinking processes
They clubbed together to buy the man-
ager a wedding present.                          cohort / kəυhɔ t/ noun a group of
                                                 people who do the same thing at the
co- /kəυ/ prefix working or acting               same time (such as a group of managers
together                                         who joined a company as trainees
coaching         / kəυtʃŋ/    noun     a        together)
face-to-face instruction where a subordi-        cohort study / kəυhɔ t st di/ noun
nate is shown how to change their be-            a study in which a group of individuals
haviour       The HR manager found               who have something in common with
coaching useful in dealing with employ-          each other, e.g. children with the same
ers needing a more tactful approach              birth date, are observed over several
when attempting to change their atti-            years
tude.     In our company coaching has            cold /kəυld/ adjective 1. not hot The
made management more aware of work-              machines work badly in cold weather.
ers’ attitudes.                                  The office was so cold that the staff
code /kəυd/ noun 1. a system of signs,           started complaining. The coffee ma-
numbers or letters which mean some-              chine also sells cold drinks. 2. without
thing 2. a set of rules                          being prepared
cold storage training                                50                   collective ownership

 ‘…the board is considering the introduction of a         ent when he got married. I know Jane
 set of common provisions on unsolicited calls to         Gray – she was a colleague of mine at
 investors. The board is aiming to permit the cold
 calling of customer agreements for the provision         my last job. She was unpopular with
 of services relating to listed securities. Cold          her colleagues in the machine room. 2. a
 calling would be allowed when the investor is            person who works in the same organisa-
 not a private investor’ [Accountancy]                    tion as another
cold    storage training /kəυld                           collect /kə lekt/ verb 1. to make
 stɔ rd trenŋ/ noun the training of                    someone pay money which is owed to
employees for jobs that will be created                   collect a debt to go and make someone
in the future     Cold storage training                   pay a debt 2. to take things away from a
was set up in the company based on                        place     We have to collect the stock
forecasts of future increases in produc-                  from the warehouse. í adverb, adjec-
tivity. Start your cold storage training                  tive referring to a phone call which the
in good time so that you have the skilled                 person receiving the call agrees to pay
manpower available when you need it.                      for
collaborate /kə l bəret/ verb to                         collecting        agency        /kə lektŋ
work together We collaborated with a
                                                           ed əns/ noun an agency which col-
French firm on a building project.
                                                          lects money owed to other companies
They collaborated on the new aircraft.
                                                          for a commission
(NOTE: you collaborate with someone
on something)                                             collection /kə lekʃən/ noun 1. the act
collaboration       /kə l bə reʃ(ə)n/                    of getting money together, or of making
noun the act of working together                          someone pay money which is owed
Their collaboration on the project was                    tax collection or collection of tax bills
very profitable.                                          for collection bills where payment is
                                                          due 2. the fetching of goods The stock
collaborative         working       /kə-                  is in the warehouse awaiting collection.
 l b(ə)rətv w kŋ/ noun a method                            to hand something in for collection
of working in which people at different                   to leave something for someone to come
locations or from different organisa-                     and collect 3. the act of taking letters
tions work together, usually using                        from a letter box or mail room to the
videoconferencing, email, networks and                    post office for dispatch There are four
other electronic communications tools                     collections a day from the letter box at
collaborator /kə l bəretə/ noun a                        the corner of the street.
person who works together with some-                      collections /kə lekʃənz/ plural noun
one on a project                                          money which has been collected
collapse /kə l ps/ noun 1. a sudden                       collective /kə lektv/ adjective refer-
fall in price the collapse of the market                  ring to a group of people together
in silver The collapse of the dollar on
the foreign exchange markets. 2. a sud-                   collective agreement /kə lektv ə-
den failure the collapse of the pay ne-                      ri mənt/ noun an agreement on
gotiations Investors lost thousands of                    salaries, working conditions, etc., ne-
pounds in the collapse of the company.                    gotiated through collective bargaining
í verb 1. to fall suddenly   The market                   collective bargaining /kə lektv
in silver collapsed. The yen collapsed                     bɑ ənŋ/ noun negotiations between
on the foreign exchange markets. 2. to                    employers and workers’ representatives
fail suddenly The company collapsed                       over wage increases and conditions
with £250,000 in debts. Talks between                     The sudden wave of strikes shows that
management and unions collapsed last                      collective bargaining is not working.
night.                                                    The government has put through legis-
collar / kɒlə/ noun a part of a coat or                   lation to make collective bargaining
shirt which goes round the neck                           easier.
colleague / kɒli / noun 1. a person                       collective ownership /kə lektv
who does the same type of work as an-                      əυnəʃp/ noun ownership of a business
other His colleagues gave him a pres-                     by the employees who work in it
collective relations                        51                            common law

collective relations /kə lektv r-              of people appointed to investigate some-
 leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun relations                thing officially    The government has
between employers associations and               appointed a commission of inquiry to
trade unions                                     look into the problems of small
collective wage agreement /kə-                   exporters.
 lektv wed ə ri mənt/ noun an                  commission sale /kə mʃ(ə)n sel/
agreement signed between management              noun a sale where the salesperson is
and the trade union about wages                  paid a commission
collectivism /kə lektvz(ə)m/ noun              commit /kə mt/ verb 1. to carry out a
the belief that society flourishes if the        crime She was accused of committing
individual gives up some rights to the           several thefts from the storeroom. 2. to
group of which they are a member, in             agree to do something (NOTE: commit-
return for support and protection from           ting- committed) to commit funds
the group (NOTE: the opposite is                 to a project to agree to spend money on
individualism)                                   a project to commit yourself to state
college / kɒld / noun a place where             publicly that you will do something
people can study after they have left            The MD refused to commit herself on
school                                           the question of redundancies.
command /kə mɑ nd/ noun               she        commitment /kə mtmənt/ noun 1.
has a good command of German she                 something which you have agreed to do
speaks and writes German well                       to make a commitment or to enter into
                                                 a commitment to do something         The
commercial college /kə m ʃ(ə)l                   company has a commitment to provide a
 kɒld / noun a college which teaches
                                                 cheap service. 2. money which you have
business studies
                                                 agreed to spend
commercial law /kə m ʃ(ə)l lɔ /                  commitments /kə mtmənts/ plural
noun the laws regarding business
                                                 noun things which you have agreed to
commercial lawyer /kə m ʃ(ə)l                    do, especially money which you have
 lɔ jə/ noun a person who specialises in         agreed to spend to meet your com-
company law or who advises companies             mitments to pay money which you had
on legal problems                                agreed to pay
commission /kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.                  committee /kə mti/ noun an official
money paid to a salesperson or agent,            group of people who organise or plan
usually a percentage of the sales made           for a larger group to be a member of a
She gets 10% commission on everything            committee or to sit on a committee He
she sells. He is paid on a commission            was elected to the committee of the staff
basis. he charges 10% commission                 club. The new plans have to be ap-
he asks for 10% of sales as his payment          proved by the committee members. He
2. a group of people officially appointed        is the secretary of the finance commit-
to examine some problem He is the                tee. to chair a committee to be the
chairman of the government commis-               chairman of a committee
sion on export subsidies.
                                                 common / kɒmən/ adjective 1. which
commission agent /kə mʃ(ə)n                     happens frequently Unrealistic salary
 ed ənt/ noun an agent who is paid a            expectations in younger staff was a
percentage of sales                              common problem they had to deal with.
commissioner /kə mʃ(ə)nə/ noun                     Being caught by the customs is very
an ombudsman                                     common these days. 2. belonging to sev-
Commission for Racial Equality                   eral different people or to everyone
/kə mʃ(ə)n fə reʃ(ə)l  kwɒlti/               common carrier / kɒmən k riə/
noun a statutory body set up to monitor          noun a firm which carries goods or pas-
racial matters in companies, and to issue        sengers, and which anyone can use
guidelines on best practice. Abbr CRE            common law / kɒmən lɔ / noun 1. a
commission of inquiry /kə-                       law as laid down in decisions of courts,
 mʃ(ə)n əv n kwaəri/ noun a group             rather than by statute 2. a general sys-
common ownership                                    52                                      company

tem of laws which formerly were the                      commutation of pension rights
only laws existing in England, and                       / kɒmjυteʃ(ə)n əv penʃən rats/
which in some cases have been super-                     noun the act of taking a lump sum in-
seded by statute (NOTE: you say at                       stead of a pension
common law when referring to some-                       commute /kə mju t/ verb 1. to travel
thing happening according to the prin-                   to work from home each day He com-
ciples of common law)                                    mutes from the country to his office in
common ownership / kɒmən                                 the centre of town.      She spends two
 əυnəʃp/ noun a situation where a                       hours a day commuting to and from
business is owned by the employees                       work. We have bought a house within
who work in it                                           commuting distance of London. 2. to ex-
communicate /kə mju nket/ verb                         change one form of payment for another
to exchange views or information with                       I decided to commute part of my pen-
someone We need to find better ways                      sion rights into a lump sum payment.
of communicating with staff       In her                  ‘Commuting is never business use. A trip to
                                                          work is personal and not deductible. And
presentation she communicated her                         making a business phone call or holding a
knowledge of details and her enthusi-                     business meeting in your car while you drive
asm for the project well.                                 will not change that fact’ [Nation’s Business]
communication                /kə mju n-                 commuter /kə mju tə/ noun a person
 keʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the passing on of                     who commutes to work
views or information A house journal                     commuter belt /kə mju tə belt/
was started to improve communication                     noun an area of country where the com-
between management and staff. Cus-                       muters live round a town
tomers complained about the lack of
communication about the unexpected                       commuter train /kə mju tə tren/
delay. to enter into communication                       noun a train which commuters take in
with someone to start discussing some-                   the morning and evening
thing with someone, usually in writing                   Companies Act / k mp(ə)niz kt/
   We have entered into communication                    noun an Act of Parliament which regu-
with the relevant government depart-                     lates the workings of companies, stating
ment. 2. an official message We have                     the legal limits within which companies
had a communication from the local tax                   may do their business
inspector.                                               Companies Registration Office
communications               /kə mju n-                 / k mp(ə)niz red  streʃ(ə)n ɒfs/
 keʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun the fact of being                noun an office of the Registrar of Com-
able to contact people or to pass mes-                   panies, the official organisation where
sages After the flood all communica-                     the records of companies must be de-
tions with the outside world were                        posited, so that they can be inspected by
broken. a breakdown of communi-                          the public. Abbr CRO (NOTE: also
cations a time when people do not com-                   called Companies’ House)
municate with each other There has                       company / k mp(ə)ni/ noun 1. a
been a breakdown of communications                       business, a group of people organised to
between management and shopfloor                         buy, sell or provide a service 2. to put
workers.                                                 a company into liquidation to close a
communicative /kə mju nkətv/                           company by selling its assets for cash
adjective referring to a person who can                   COMMENT: A company can be incorpo-
communicate easily with others                            rated (with memorandum and articles of
 ‘…that kind of approach will require a new style         association) as a private limited company,
 of communication, both upwards and                       and adds the initials ‘Ltd’ after its name, or
 downwards, throughout the organisation it has a          as a public limited company, when its
 forward-looking       and       communicative            name must end in ‘Plc’. Unincorporated
 management team’ [Personnel Management]
                                                          companies are partnerships such as firms
commutation          / kɒmjυ teʃ(ə)n/                    of solicitors, architects, accountants, etc.,
noun the act of exchanging something                      and they add the initials ‘Co.’ after their
for money in another form                                 name.
company car                                  53                            compatibility

company car / k mp(ə)ni               kɑ /        company          union      / k mp(ə)ni
noun a car which belongs to a company              ju njən/ noun an association of em-
and is lent to an employee to use for             ployees in a single business company
business or other purposes                        company-wide / k mp(ə)ni wad/
company director / k mp(ə)ni da-                 adjective affecting all the employees
 rektə/ noun a person appointed by the            in a company We are introducing a
shareholders to help run a company                company-wide bonus system.
company         doctor / k mp(ə)ni                comparability / kɒmp(ə)rə blti/
 dɒktə/ noun 1. a doctor who works for            noun the fact of being able to be
a company and looks after sick workers            compared
   The staff are all sent to see the com-         comparability claim / kɒmp(ə)rə-
pany doctor once a year. 2. a specialist           blti klem/ noun a claim by employ-
businessperson who rescues businesses             ees to bring their wages and fringe bene-
which are in difficulties                         fits into line with those in other
company executive / k mp(ə)ni                     industries
 zekjυtv/ noun a person in a busi-              comparable / kɒmp(ə)rəb(ə)l/ ad-
ness who takes decisions or top or se-            jective which can be compared        The
nior manager or director                          two sets of figures are not comparable.
company handbook / k mp(ə)ni                         which is the nearest company com-
 h ndbυk/ noun a booklet containing               parable to this one in size? which com-
information about the company’s struc-            pany is of a similar size and can be
ture, employees’ rights, grievance pro-           compared with this one?
cedure, etc.                                      comparable                       worth
company law / k mp(ə)ni lɔ / noun                 / kɒmp(ə)rəb(ə)l       w θ/ noun the
laws which refer to the way companies             principle of paying the same rate for
work                                              jobs which are worth the same
                                                  Comparable worth is difficult to apply
company         lawyer / k mp(ə)ni                to jobs of very diverse character. The
 lɔ jə/ noun a person who specialises in          salary scale is drawn up on the princi-
company law or who advises companies              ple of comparable worth.
on legal problems
                                                  compare /kəm peə/ verb to look at
company loyalty / k mp(ə)ni                       several things to see how they differ
 lɔəlti/ noun the dedication of staff to         The finance director compared the fig-
the company and its objectives                    ures for the first and second quarters.
company newspaper / k mp(ə)ni                     compare with /kəm peə wð/ verb
 nju spepə/ noun a regular news bulle-           to put two things together to see how
tin, published by a company, to keep the          they differ How do the sales this year
workforce informed about recent devel-            compare with last year’s? Compared
opments within the company                        with the previous month, last month was
company         pension        scheme             terrific.
/ k mp(ə)ni     penʃən ski m/ noun                comparison /kəm p rs(ə)n/ noun
same    as    occupational      pension           the act of comparing one thing with an-
scheme      He decided to join the com-           other Sales are down in comparison
pany’s pension scheme.                            with last year. there is no compari-
company secretary / k mp(ə)ni                     son between overseas and home sales
 sekrt(ə)ri/ noun a person who is re-            overseas and home sales are so different
sponsible for a company’s legal and fi-           they cannot be compared
nancial affairs                                   compassionate            leave     /kəm-
company town / k mp(ə)ni taυn/                     p ʃ(ə)nət li v/ noun time off work
noun a town in which most of the prop-            granted to an employee to deal with per-
erty and shops are owned by a large               sonal or family problems
company which employs most of the                 compatibility           /kəm p t blti/
population                                        noun the ability of people to work to-
compatible                                        54                          competitive edge

gether the compatibility of employees                  each company is trying to win a larger
sharing an office                                      part of the market or to win the contract
compatible /kəm p tb(ə)l/ adjec-                      competence / kɒmpt(ə)ns/ noun
tive which can exist or function together              the ability to do the tasks required in a
   It soon became clear that the new                   job The training sessions are intended
member of staff was not compatible with                to increase staff competence.
his colleagues. Are the objectives of
senior management and the interests of                 competence                     framework
the employees compatible?                              / kɒmpt(ə)ns fremw k/ noun the
                                                       set of duties or tasks performed as part
compensate / kɒmpənset/ verb to                       of a job with the standards which should
give someone money to make up for a                    be achieved in these duties
loss or injury In this case we will com-
pensate a manager for loss of commis-                  competency / kɒmpt(ə)nsi/ noun
sion.     The company will compensate                  same as competence
the employee for the burns suffered in                 competency                      statement
the accident. (NOTE: you compensate                    / kɒmpt(ə)nsi stetmənt/ noun a list
someone for something)                                 of qualities which an employee needs to
compensation / kɒmpən seʃ(ə)n/                        do their work
noun 1.   compensation for damage                      competent / kɒmpt(ə)nt/ adjective
payment for damage done compensa-                      able to do the tasks required in a job
tion for loss of office payment to a di-
rector who is asked to leave a company                 competing /kəm pi tŋ/ adjective
before their contract ends compensa-                   which competes         competing firms
tion for loss of earnings payment to                   firms which compete with each other
someone who has stopped earning                        competing products products from dif-
money or who is not able to earn money                 ferent companies which have the same
2. US a salary                                         use and are sold in the same markets at
 ‘…compensation can also be via the magistrates
                                                       similar prices
 courts   for   relatively  minor     injuries’        competition / kɒmpə tʃ(ə)n/ noun
 [Personnel Management]                                the action of companies or individuals
compensation                      package              who are trying to do better than others,
/ kɒmpən seʃ(ə)n   p kd / noun a                     to win a larger share of the market, to
salary, pension and other benefits of-                 control the use of resources, etc.
fered with a job                                        ‘…profit margins in the industries most exposed
 ‘…golden parachutes are liberal compensation           to foreign competition are worse than usual’
 packages given to executives leaving a                 [Sunday Times]
 company’ [Publishers Weekly]
                                                        ‘…competition is steadily increasing and could
compensatory / kɒmpən set(ə)ri/                        affect profit margins as the company tries to
adjective which         compensates        for          retain its market share’ [Citizen (Ottawa)]
something                                              competitive /kəm pettv/ adjective
compensatory award /kɒmpən-                            which competes fairly       competitive
 set(ə)ri ə wɔ d/ noun an award by an                 price a low price aimed to compete with
industrial tribunal based on what the tri-             a rival product competitive product a
bunal considers is just compensation for               product made to compete with existing
the employee’s loss of pension rights,                 products
etc., when dismissed                                    ‘…the company blamed fiercely competitive
compete /kəm pi t/ verb to com-                         market conditions in Europe for a £14m
                                                        operating loss last year’ [Financial Times]
pete with someone, with a company to
try to do better than another person or                competitive       edge /kəm pettv
another company We have to compete                      ed /,     competitive       advantage
with cheap imports from the Far East.                  /kəm pettv əd vɑ ntd / noun an
They were competing unsuccessfully                     advantage that one company or product
with local companies on their home ter-                has over its rivals in the market Any
ritory. two companies are competing                    competitive edge we have in this market
for a market share or for a contract                   is due to our good after-sales service.
competitive exam                                    55                            compromise

Why does this product have the competi-                  complaints         procedure /kəm-
tive edge over its rivals?                                plents prə si d ə/ noun a way of pre-
                                                         senting complaints formally from a
competitive exam /kəm pettv  -
                                                         trade union to a management         The
 z m/ noun an examination (such as for
                                                         trade union has followed the correct
entry to the civil service) where only the
                                                         complaints procedure.
best candidates are offered jobs
                                                         complete         /kəm pli t/   adjective
competitively /kəm pettvli/ ad-
                                                         whole, with nothing missing         The
verb competitively priced sold at a
                                                         order is complete and ready for sending.
low price which competes with the price
                                                            The shipment will be delivered only if
of similar products from other
                                                         it is complete. í verb to finish    The
                                                         factory completed the order in two
competitiveness /kəm pettvnəs/                         weeks. How long will it take you to
noun the fact of being competitive                       complete the job? He has completed
 ‘…farmers are increasingly worried by the               his probationary period.
 growing lack of competitiveness for their
 products on world markets’ [Australian                  completion /kəm pli ʃ(ə)n/ noun the
 Financial Review]                                       act of finishing something
competitive pricing /kəm pettv                         completion date /kəm pli ʃ(ə)n
 prasŋ/ noun the practice of putting                   det/ noun a date when something will
low prices on goods so as to compete                     be finished
with other products                                      compliance /kəm plaəns/ noun
competitive tender /kəm pettv                          agreement to do what is ordered in
 tendə/ noun a form of tender where                      compliance with doing what has been
different organisations are asked to ten-                ordered in compliance with EU direc-
der for a contract, especially for govern-               tives on workers’ pension rights com-
ment or local government work                            pliance with company rules obeying
                                                         the rules set out by the company for
competitor /kəm pettə/ noun a per-                      good behaviour of employees
son or company that competes          Two
German firms are our main competitors.                   comply /kəm pla/ verb to agree to do
 ‘…sterling labour costs continue to rise between        what is ordered (NOTE: complies – com-
 3% and 5% a year faster than in most of our             plying – complied)
 competitor countries’ [Sunday Times]
                                                         comprehensive         / kɒmpr hensv/
complain /kəm plen/ verb to say that                    adjective which includes everything
something is no good or does not work                    compressed           (working)     time
properly The office is so cold the staff                 / kɒmprest     w kŋ tam/ noun a
have started complaining.       She com-                 normal number of hours of work spread
plained about the service.      They are                 over fewer days (such as four 10-hour
complaining that our prices are too                      days instead of five 8-hour days)
high. If you want to complain, write to                  Compressed time is popular because it
the manager.                                             enables more people to enjoy long
complaint /kəm plent/ noun a state-                     weekend breaks.      Compressed time
ment that you feel something is wrong                    will become more common when flexi-
complaints from the workforce about                      ble work hours are accepted by more
conditions in the factory She sent her                   organisations.
letter of complaint to the managing di-                  compromise / kɒmprəmaz/ noun
rector. to make or to lodge a com-                       an agreement between two sides, where
plaint against someone to write and                      each side gives way a little Manage-
send an official complaint to someone’s                  ment offered £5 an hour, the union
superior     to uphold a complaint to                    asked for £9, and a compromise of
agree that a complaint is well founded                   £7.50 was reached. í verb to reach an
complaints management /kəm-                              agreement by giving way a little He
 plents m nd mənt/ noun the man-                       asked £15 for it, I offered £7 and we
agement of complaints from customers                     compromised on £10.
compulsory                                   56                            concentration

compulsory /kəm p lsəri/ adjective                ters and words used to instruct a
which is forced or ordered                        computer
compulsory          liquidation /kəm-             computer        listing /kəm pju tə
 p lsəri lkw deʃ(ə)n/ noun liquida-             lstŋ/ noun a printout of a list of items
tion which is ordered by a court                  taken from data stored in a computer
compulsory redundancy /kəm-                       computer-literate            /kəm pju tə
 p lsəri r d ndənsi/ noun a situation             lt(ə)rət/ adjective referring to a per-
where an employee is made redundant               son who knows how to use more or less
by the company                                    any type of computer
computer /kəm pju tə/ noun an elec-               computer manager /kəm pju tə
tronic machine which calculates or                 m nd ə/ noun a person in charge of a
stores information and processes it               computer department
                                                  computer        operating        system
computer-based training /kəm-                     /kəm pju tər    ɒpəretŋ   sstəm/
 pju tə best trenŋ/ noun training              noun the main program which operates
that is carried out on computer, using            a computer
programs that are usually interactive so
that the trainees can select from multi-          computer        programmer /kəm-
ple-choice options or key in their own             pju tə prəυ r mə/ noun a person
answers                                           who writes computer programs
computer bureau /kəm pju tə                       computer-readable /kəm pju tə
 bjυərəυ/ noun an office which offers              ri dəb(ə)l/ adjective which can be read
to do work on its computers for compa-            and understood by a computer com-
nies which do not own their own                   puter-readable codes
computers                                         computer services /kəm pju tə
computer department /kəm-                          s vsz/ plural noun work using a
 pju tə d pɑ tmənt/ noun a depart-               computer, done by a computer bureau
ment in a company which manages the               computer system /kəm pju tə
company’s computers                                sstəm/ noun a set of programs, com-
computer error /kəm pju tər erə/                  mands, etc., which run a computer
noun a mistake made by a computer                 computer time /kəm pju tə tam/
computer file /kəm pju tə fal/                   noun the time when a computer is being
noun a section of information on a com-           used, paid for at an hourly rate
puter, e.g. the payroll, list of addresses
or customer accounts                              comrade / kɒmred/ noun a friend or
                                                  fellow employee or fellow member of a
computer fraud /kəm pju tə frɔ d/                 union
noun a fraud committed by using com-
puter files (as in a bank)                        comradeship / kɒmredʃp/ noun a
                                                  feeling of friendship and solidarity with
computerise             /kəm pju təraz/,         other employees
computerize verb to change from
a manual system to one using com-                 concentration / kɒnsən treʃ(ə)n/
puters       We have computerised all             noun 1. the degree to which a small
our records.        Stock control is now          number of businesses control a large
completely computerised. We should                section of the market Too much con-
computerise the personnel records to              centration created resentment among
save time.                                        small businesses trying to enter the mar-
                                                  ket. Concentration has meant too little
computerised /kəm pju tərazd/,                   competition and therefore higher prices
computerized adjective worked by                  to the consumer. 2. a situation in which
computers       a computerised invoicing          members of a specific social group are
system a computerised filing system               overrepresented The high percentage
computer language /kəm pju tə                     of nursery nurses who are women is an
 l ŋ wd / noun a system of signs, let-           example of concentration.
concern                                      57                          conference call

concern /kən s n/ noun 1. a busi-                 profits. Working in unhealthy condi-
ness or company 2. the fact of being              tions is responsible for various illnesses
worried about a problem The manage-               after retirement.
ment showed no concern at all for the             conditional /kən dʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective
workers’ safety. í verb to deal with or           provided that specific conditions are
be connected with The sales staff are             taken into account to give a condi-
not concerned with the cleaning of the            tional acceptance to accept, provided
store.      She filled in a questionnaire         that specific things happen or that spe-
concerning computer utilisation.        to        cific terms apply offer is conditional
whom it may concern words used at                 on board’s acceptance the offer is
the heading of a letter of recommenda-            made provided the board accepts
tion, etc., addressed to anyone who may
be interested (such as a potential
                                                  conditional offer /kən dʃ(ə)nəl
                                                   ɒfə/ noun an offer to buy provided that
                                                  specific terms apply
concession /kən seʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.                  conditions of employment /kən-
the right to use someone else’s property           dʃ(ə)nz əv m plɔmənt/ plural noun
for business purposes 2. an allowance             the terms of a contract of employment
such as a reduction of tax or price 3. the
act of allowing something to be done,             conduct verb /kən d kt/ to carry on
which is not normally done The union                 to conduct negotiations The chair-
obtained some important concessions               man conducted the negotiations very
from management during negotiations.              negligently. She conducted the train-
                                                  ing session very efficiently. í noun
concession bargaining /kən-                       / kɒnd kt/ a way of behaving           He
 seʃ(ə)n bɑ nŋ/ noun a situation                was sacked for bad conduct at the staff
where a union sees that it cannot negoti-         Christmas party.
ate large pay increases for its members,
and so negotiates improvements in areas           Confederation of British Indus-
such as working conditions instead                try /kɒnfedə reʃ(ə)n əv brtʃ
                                                   ndəstri/ noun an organisation which
conciliation /kən sli eʃ(ə)n/ noun              represents British employers in com-
the practice of bringing together the par-        merce and industry. Abbr CBI
ties in a dispute with an independent
third party, so that the dispute can be
                                                  confer /kən f / verb to discuss a
                                                  problem with another person or within a
settled through a series of negotiations.
                                                  group The interview board conferred
conciliation         officer    /kən sli-        in the next room before announcing the
 eʃ(ə)n ɒfsə/ noun an official of               names of the successful candidates.
ACAS who tries to get the parties in an           (NOTE: conferring – conferred)
industrial dispute to settle their                conference / kɒnf(ə)rəns/ noun 1. a
differences                                       meeting of people to discuss problems
Conciliation Service /kən sli-                   Many useful tips can be picked up at a
 eʃ(ə)n s vs/ noun same as Advi-                sales conference.     The conference of
sory, Conciliation and Arbitration                HR managers included talks on payment
Service                                           and recruitment policies.      to be in
condition /kən dʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.                   conference to be in a meeting 2. a meet-
something which has to be carried                 ing of an organisation such as an associ-
out as part of a contract or which                ation, society or union
has to be agreed before a contract be-            conference call / kɒnf(ə)rəns kɔ l/
comes valid       on condition that               noun a telephone call that connects
provided that They were granted the               three or more lines so that people in dif-
lease on condition that they paid the             ferent places can talk to one another
legal costs. 2. a general state or the            (NOTE: conference calls reduce the
general way of life in a certain place            cost of meetings by making it unneces-
   The union has complained of the                sary for the participants to spend time
bad working conditions in the factory.            and money on getting together in one
Adverse trading conditions affected our           place)
conference delegate                          58                             conformance

conference delegate / kɒnf(ə)rəns                 dential information and in partnerships
 del ət/ noun a person who attends a             and benchmarking programmes.)
conference as the representative of a             confidential report / kɒnfdenʃəl
group                                             r pɔ t/ noun a secret document which
conference method / kɒnf(ə)rəns                   must not be shown to other people
 meθəd/ noun a method of teaching us-             confirm /kən f m/ verb to say that
ing discussion or exchange of ideas               something is certain to confirm a ho-
amongst students                                  tel reservation or a ticket or an agree-
conference phone / kɒnf(ə)rəns                    ment or a booking            to confirm
fəυn/ noun a telephone arranged in such           someone in a job to say that someone is
a way that several people can speak into          now permanently in the job
it from around a table                            confirmation           / kɒnfə meʃ(ə)n/
confidence / kɒnfd(ə)ns/ noun 1.                 noun 1. the act of making certain 2. a
the state of feeling sure or being certain        document which confirms something
    The sales teams do not have much              conflict / kɒnflkt/ noun antagonism
confidence in their manager.          The         between people, e.g. between manage-
board has total confidence in the                 ment and workers There was conflict
managing director. 2. in confidence               between the two groups of workers.
in secret I will show you the report in
confidence.                                       conflict management / kɒnflkt
                                                   m nd mənt/ noun a system of work
confident / kɒnfd(ə)nt/ adjective                that involves identifying possible
certain or sure       I am confident the          sources of conflict within an organisa-
turnover will increase rapidly.       Are         tion and dealing with and settling con-
you confident the sales team can handle           flicts when they occur
this product?
                                                  conflict of interest / kɒnflkt əv
confidential / kɒnf denʃəl/ ad-                   ntrəst/ noun a situation where a per-
jective not to be told or shown to                son or firm may profit personally from
other people      The references sent by          decisions taken in an official capacity
the applicant’s last employer were in             conflict of interest(s) / kɒnflkt əv
an envelope marked ‘Private and                    ntrəsts/ noun a situation in which a
Confidential’. Whatever an employee               person or institution has difficulty in
says in an appraisal interview should             making a fair and impartial decision on
be treated as confidential.           The         some issue through having divided loy-
consultants sent a confidential report to         alties or being likely to benefit if the is-
the chairman.                                     sue is decided in one way rather than
confidential              information             another, as, e.g., when someone is con-
/ kɒnfdenʃəl    nfə meʃ(ə)n/ noun              nected with two or more companies who
information which has to be kept secret           are competing with each other (NOTE:
confidentiality / kɒnfdenʃi lti/                the correct thing to do in such cases is
noun the fact of being secret       she           for the person concerned to declare
broke the confidentiality of the dis-             any interests, to make known the way
cussions she told someone about the se-           in which those interests conflict and to
cret discussions                                  abstain from participating in the deci-
                                                  sion-making process)
confidentiality             agreement
/ kɒnfdenʃi   lti ə ri mənt/ noun               conflict of rights / kɒnflkt əv
an agreement in which an organisa-                 rats/ noun a situation where it is
tion that has important information               claimed that the terms of the employees
about the plans and activities of another         contracts of employment or a negotiated
organisation promises not to pass that            agreement have not been met
information on to outsiders (NOTE: con-           conformance /kən fɔ məns/ noun
fidentiality agreements are often used            the process of acting in accordance with
when someone is planning to buy a                 a rule The machine used is not in con-
company and is given access to confi-             formance with safety regulations.
conformance quality                         59                consultation agreement

conformance           quality      /kən-         consist of /kən sst ɒv/ verb to be
 fɔ məns kwɒlti/ noun (in total qual-           formed of The trade mission consists
ity management) the way in which the             of the sales directors of ten major
product is made to fit the desired               companies.
specifications                                   conspiracy /kən sprəsi/ noun a le-
congratulate /kən r tʃυlet/ verb                gal term used to describe the intention
to give someone your good wishes for             of employees to break the law when re-
having done something well The sales             sorting to industrial action Sanctions
director congratulated the sales staff on        were laid down to discourage conspir-
doubling sales. I want to congratulate           acy. The dockers resorted to conspir-
you on your promotion.                           acy since they felt they could only
congratulations            /kən r tʃυ-           oppose the bad working conditions
 leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun good wishes              through an illegal strike.
The staff sent her their congratulations         constitutional                     strike
on her promotion.                                / kɒnsttju ʃ(ə)n(ə)l strak/ noun
conjunctive bargaining /kən-                     US a strike that takes place when all the
 d ŋktv bɑ nŋ/ noun collective                procedures agreed between a trade un-
bargaining where the union has to settle         ion and an employer for the avoidance
on the management’s terms                        of strikes have been gone through and
                                                 the dispute has still not been resolved
conscientious / kɒnʃi enʃəs/ adjec-
tive referring to a person who works             construct /kən str kt/ verb to build
carefully and well She’s a very con-                The company has tendered for the
scientious worker.                               contract to construct the new bridge.
consensual /kən sensjυəl/ adjective              construction site /kən str kʃən
by means of a consensus                          sat/ noun a place where a building is
                                                 being constructed       All visitors to the
consensual         validation /kən-              construction site must wear safety
 sensjυəl v l deʃ(ə)n/ noun the pro-           helmets.
cess of validating an action by agreeing
with other people’s attitudes                    constructive /kən str ktv/ ad-
                                                 jective which helps in the making of
consensus /kən sensəs/ noun an                   something        She made some con-
opinion which most people agree on               structive suggestions for improving
management by consensus                          management-worker relations.            We
consent /kən sent/ noun agreement                had a constructive proposal from a
that something should be done                    distribution company in Italy.
Change of use requires the consent of            consult /kən s lt/ verb to ask an ex-
the local planning authorities. by mu-           pert for advice We consulted our ac-
tual consent by agreement between the            countant about our tax.
parties concerned í verb to agree that
something should be done The man-
                                                 consultancy /kən s ltənsi/ noun the
                                                 act of giving specialist advice a con-
agement consented to the union’s
                                                 sultancy firm She offers a consultancy
consider /kən sdə/ verb to think se-            consultant /kən s ltənt/ noun a spe-
riously about something to consider              cialist who gives advice an engineer-
the terms of a contract to examine a             ing consultant            a management
contract and discuss whether the terms           consultant a tax consultant
are acceptable
                                                 consultant’s fee /kən s ltənts fi /
consideration /kən sdə reʃ(ə)n/                noun money paid to a consultant
noun 1. serious thought We are giving
consideration to moving the head office          consultation            / kɒnsəl teʃ(ə)n/
to Scotland. the proposal under con-             noun the process of asking other people
sideration the proposal which is being           for advice before coming to a decision
considered at the moment 2. something            consultation agreement / kɒnsəl-
valuable exchanged as part of a contract          teʃ(ə)n ə ri mənt/ noun an agree-
consultative                                    60                   continuing education

ment which lays down the areas where                 wrong. 2. a dispute an area of conten-
management commits itself to consult                 tion between management and workers
the opinion of the employees                         contentious /kən tenʃəs/ adjective
consultative /kən s ltətv/ adjec-                   which is a source of dispute Manage-
tive which advises to play a consulta-               ment made a series of contentious
tive role in to act as consultant in                 proposals.
consultative committee /kən-                         contingency /kən tnd ənsi/ noun a
 s ltətv kə mti/ noun a committee of               possible state of emergency when deci-
representatives of the employees which               sions will have to be taken quickly to
meets regularly with top management                  add on 10% to provide for contingen-
The consultative committee was able to               cies to provide for further expenditure
keep senior management in touch with                 which may be incurred
feelings in the organisation.        Two             contingency allowance /kən-
workers and a foreman form the work-                  tnd ənsi ə laυəns/ noun time added
ers’ part of the consultative committee.             to the basic time established for a job to
consulting /kən s ltŋ/ adjective                    allow for irregularities in the job content
giving specialist advice a consulting                   A contingency allowance was neces-
engineer                                             sary since the machinery used was not
consumer /kən sju mə/ noun a per-                    wholly reliable. The unions protested
son or company that buys and uses                    that no contingency allowances were es-
goods and services        Gas consumers              tablished in those jobs where delays
are protesting at the increase in prices.            were not the fault of the workers.
   The factory is a heavy consumer of                contingency fund /kən tnd ənsi
water.                                               f nd/ noun money set aside in case it is
 ‘…forecasting consumer response is one              needed urgently
 problem which will never be finally solved’         contingency plan /kən tnd ənsi
 [Marketing Week]
                                                     pl n/ noun a plan which will be put
 ‘…consumer tastes in the UK are becoming
 much more varied’ [Marketing]                       into action if something unexpected
 ‘…the marketing director’s brief will be to
 develop the holiday villages as a consumer          contingency            reserve        /kən-
 brand, aimed at the upper end of the tourist         tnd ənsi r z v/ noun money set
 market’ [Marketing Week]                            aside in case it is needed urgently
contact / kɒnt kt/ noun 1. a person                  contingent           expenses         /kən-
you know or a person you can ask for                  tnd ənt k spensz/ plural noun ex-
help or advice He has many contacts                  penses which will be incurred only if
in the city. Who is your contact in the              something happens
ministry? 2. the act of getting in touch
with someone       I have lost contact               continual /kən tnjuəl/ adjective
with them I do not communicate with                  which happens again and again Pro-
them any longer he put me in contact                 duction was slow because of continual
with a good lawyer he told me how to                 breakdowns.
get in touch with a good lawyer í verb               continually /kən tnjuəli/ adverb
/ kɒnt kt, kən t kt/ to get in touch                 again and again        The photocopier is
with someone, to communicate with                    continually breaking down.
someone He tried to contact his office               continuation           /kən tnju eʃ(ə)n/
by phone. Can you contact the man-                   noun the act of continuing
aging director at his club?                          continue /kən tnju / verb to go on
contact effect / kɒnt kt  fekt/                     doing something or to do again some-
noun the impression received when                    thing which you were doing earlier
comparing the various performances of                The meeting started at 10 a.m. and con-
candidates in interviews                             tinued until 6 p.m. Negotiations will
contention /kən tenʃən/ noun 1. an                   continue next Monday.
opinion or belief It is our contention               continuing          education         /kən-
that the decision of the tribunal is                  tnjuŋ edjυ keʃ(ə)n/ noun education
continuing                                   61                                      contract

which continues after school and uni-             working designed to ensure that an or-
versity or college                                ganisation can operate seven days a
continuing professional devel-                    week, 24 hours a day, e.g. in order to
opment /kən tnjuŋ prə feʃ(ə)n(ə)l               make full use of expensive equipment or
d veləpmənt/ noun full form of CPD               to provide round-the-clock customer
                                                  service (NOTE: Continuous shiftwork
continuous /kən tnjυəs/ adjective                usually comprises three eight-hour or
with no end or with no breaks a con-              two twelve-hour shifts, or a mix of the
tinuous production line in continuous             two.)
employment employed for a period of
time, without more than a week’s gap              contract noun / kɒntr kt/ 1. a legal
(holidays, sickness, etc., are not counted        agreement between two parties         to
as gaps) She was in continuous em-                draw up a contract to draft a contract
ployment for the period 1998 to 2002.                to sign a contract the contract is
continuous assessment /kən-                       binding on both parties both parties
 tnjuəs ə sesmənt/ noun an assess-               signing the contract must do what is
ment of a trainee’s work carried out              agreed under contract bound by the
through the course (as opposed to termi-          terms of a contract The firm is under
nal assessment at the end of the course)          contract to deliver the goods by Novem-
                                                  ber. to void a contract to make a con-
continuous development /kən-                      tract invalid 2. by private contract
 tnjuəs d veləpmənt/ noun a system              by private legal agreement 3. an agree-
of continuous training for employees              ment for the supply of a service or
continuous feed /kən tnjuəs fi d/                goods to enter into a contract to sup-
noun a device which feeds continuous              ply spare parts to sign a contract for
stationery into a printer                         £10,000 worth of spare parts to put
continuous improvement /kən-                      work out to contract to decide that
 tnjuəs m pru vmənt/ noun a proce-              work should be done by another com-
dure and management philosophy that               pany on a contract, rather than by em-
focuses on looking all the time for ways          ploying members of staff to do it to
in which small improvements can be                award a contract to a company, to
made to processes and products, with              place a contract with a company to
the aim of increasing quality and reduc-          decide that a company shall have the
ing waste and cost (NOTE: Continuous              contract to do work for you to tender
improvement is one of the tools that              for a contract to put forward an esti-
underpin the philosophies of total qual-          mate of cost for work under contract í
ity management and lean production;               verb /kən tr kt/ to agree to do some
in Japan it is known as kaizen.)                  work on the basis of a legally binding
                                                  contract     to contract to supply spare
continuous learning /kən tnjuəs                  parts or to contract for the supply of
 l nŋ/ noun a system of training which           spare parts      to contract out of an
continues during an employee’s career             agreement to withdraw from an agree-
with a company                                    ment with the written permission of the
continuous service /kən tnjuəs                   other party
 s vs/ noun a period of employment                COMMENT: A contract is an agreement
with one employer, which begins on the             between two or more parties to create le-
day on which the employee starts work              gal obligations between them. Some con-
and ends on the day which they resign              tracts are made ‘under seal’, i.e. they are
or are dismissed                                   signed and sealed by the parties; most
continuous shift system /kən-                      contracts are made orally or in writing.
 tnjuəs ʃift sstəm/ noun a system                The essential elements of a contract are:
                                                   (a) that an offer made by one party should
where groups of employees work shifts
                                                   be accepted by the other; (b) consider-
throughout the week, including                     ation (i.e. payment of money); (c) the in-
weekends                                           tention to create legal relations. The terms
continuous       shiftwork       /kən-             of a contract may be express or implied. A
 tnjuəs ʃftw k/ noun a system of                 breach of contract by one party entitles
contracted-out pension scheme                 62                                    control

 the other party to sue for damages or to          your contractual obligations to do
 ask for something to be done.                     what you have agreed to do in a contract
contracted-out pension scheme                      contractual          liability      /kən-
/kən tr ktd aυt penʃən ski m/ noun                 tr ktʃuəl laə blti/ noun a legal re-
a private pension scheme which gives               sponsibility for something as stated in a
benefits at least as high as the state             contract
scheme                                             contractually /kən tr ktjuəli/ ad-
contract for services / kɒntr kt                   verb according to a contract The com-
fə s vsz/ noun an agreement be-                  pany is contractually bound to pay our
tween employer and employee where                  expenses.
the employee is hired as an independent            contract work / kɒntr kt w k/
party for a limited time and is not under          noun work done according to a written
the control of the employer                        agreement
contracting out / kɒntr ktŋ aυt/                  contrary / kɒntrəri/ noun the oppo-
noun 1. the process, on the part of an             site failing instructions to the con-
employee, of withdrawing from the UK               trary unless different instructions are
State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme              given
and buying an appropriate personal pen-            contribute /kən trbju t/ verb to
sion 2. the process, on the part of an em-         give money or add to money            We
ployer, of withdrawing employees from              agreed to contribute 10% of the profits.
the UK’s State Earnings-Related Pen-                  They had contributed to the pension
sion Scheme and enrolling them in an               fund for 10 years.
occupational pension scheme that meets
specified standards                                contribution          / kɒntr bju ʃ(ə)n/
                                                   noun money paid to add to a sum
contracting party /kən tr ktŋ
 pɑ ti/ noun a person or company that              contributor /kən trbjυtə/ noun a
signs a contract                                   person who gives money
contract law / kɒntr kt lɔ / noun                  contributory /kən trbjυt(ə)ri/ ad-
laws relating to private agreements                jective which helps to cause      Falling
                                                   exchange rates have been a contribu-
contract         of       employment               tory factor in the company’s loss of
/ kɒntr kt əv m plɔmənt/ noun a                  profits.
contract between employer and an em-               contributory fault /kən trbjυt(ə)ri
ployee stating all the conditions of work           fɔ lt/ noun a situation in an unfair dis-
contract of service / kɒntr kt əv                  missal where the employee was to a cer-
 s vs/ noun a legal agreement be-                 tain extent at fault
tween an employer and an employee                  contributory negligence /kən-
whereby the employee will work for the              trbjυt(ə)ri ne ld əns/ noun negli-
employer and be directed by them, in re-           gence partly caused by the plaintiff and
turn for payment                                   partly by the defendant, resulting in
contractor /kən tr ktə/ noun a per-                harm done to the plaintiff
son or company that does work accord-              contributory pension plan /kən-
ing to a written agreement                          trbjυt(ə)ri penʃən pl n/, contribu-
contract out / kɒntr kt aυt/ verb                  tory     pension        scheme      /kən-
to hire another organisation or person to           trbjυt(ə)ri penʃən ski m/ noun a
carry out part or all of a certain piece of        pension plan where the employee has to
work       The catering firm has con-              contribute a percentage of salary
tracted out the distribution of its prod-          control /kən trəυl/ noun 1. the
ucts to a delivery firm.         We shall          power or ability to direct something
contract out any work we are not spe-                 The company is under the control of
cialised in. The supply of spare parts             three shareholders. Top management
was contracted out to Smith Ltd.                   exercises tight control over spending.
contractual /kən tr ktʃuəl/ adjec-                 to lose control of a business to find
tive according to a contract to fulfil             that you have less than 50% of the
control group                               63                         copartnership

shares in a company, and so are no               convict /kən vkt/ verb to convict
longer able to direct it      The family         someone of a crime to find that some-
lost control of its business. 2. the             one is guilty of a crime
act of restricting or checking something         conviction /kən vkʃən/ noun an act
or making sure that something is                 of finding that someone accused of a
kept in check        under control kept          crime is guilty He has had ten convic-
in check        Expenses are kept under          tions for burglary.
tight control.      The company is try-
ing to bring its overheads back under            cooling-off period / ku lŋ ɒf
control.      out of control not kept in          pəriəd/ noun (during an industrial
check Costs have got out of control.             dispute) a period when negotiations
í verb 1.        to control a business to        have to be carried on and no action can
direct a business The business is con-           be taken by either side
trolled by a company based in Luxem-             co-op / kəυ ɒp/ noun same as
bourg. The company is controlled by              cooperative
the majority shareholder. 2. to make
                                                 co-operate /kəυ ɒpəret/ verb to
sure that something is kept in check
                                                 work together      The regional govern-
or is not allowed to develop         The
                                                 ments are co-operating in the fight
government is fighting to control in-
                                                 against piracy.     The two firms have
flation or to control the rise in the
                                                 co-operated on the computer project.
cost of living. (NOTE: controlling –
controlled)                                      co-operation         /kəυ ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/
                                                 noun the act of working together The
control group /kən trəυl          ru p/          project was completed ahead of sched-
noun a small group which is used to              ule with the co-operation of the
check a sample group                             workforce.
controlled /kən trəυld/ adjective                cooperative /kəυ ɒp(ə)rətv/ adjec-
ruled or kept in check                           tive willing to work together       The
controller /kən trəυlə/ noun 1. a per-           workforce has not been cooperative
son who controls something (especially           over the management’s productivity
the finances of a company) 2. US the             plan. í noun a business run by a group
chief accountant in a company                    of employees who are also the owners
controlling /kən trəυlŋ/ adjective              and who share the profits an indus-
to have a controlling interest in a              trial cooperative The product is mar-
company to own more than 50% of the              keted by an agricultural cooperative.
shares so that you can direct how the            They set up a workers’ cooperative to
company is run                                   run the factory.
convene /kən vi n/ verb to ask peo-              co-opt /kəυ ɒpt/ verb         to co-opt
ple to come together      to convene a           someone onto a committee to ask
meeting of shareholders to convene a             someone to join a committee without
meeting of union members                         being elected
convenience /kən vi niəns/ noun                  co-owner /kəυ əυnə/ noun a person
at your earliest convenience as soon as          who owns something with another per-
you find it possible                             son The two sisters are co-owners of
convenor /kən vi nə/ noun a trade                the property.
unionist who organises union meetings            co-ownership /kəυ əυnəʃp/ noun
convention /kən venʃən/ noun an                  an arrangement where two people own a
international agreement     the Geneva           property or where partners or employees
Convention on Human Rights                       have shares in a company
conversion of funds /kən v ʃ(ə)n                 copartner /kəυ pɑ tnə/ noun a per-
əv f ndz/ noun the act of using money            son who is a partner in a business with
which does not belong to you for a pur-          another person
pose for which it is not supposed to be          copartnership           /kəυ pɑ tnəʃp/
used                                             noun an arrangement where partners
cope                                                64                              corporation

or employees have shares in the company                  corporate hospitality / kɔ p(ə)rət
cope /kəυp/ verb to manage to do                         hɒsp t lti/ noun entertainment pro-
something The new assistant manager                      vided by an organisation, originally in-
coped very well when the manager was                     tended to help salespeople build
on holiday. The warehouse is trying to                   relationships with customers, but now
cope with the backlog of orders.                         increasingly used as an incentive for
core /kɔ / noun the central or main part                 staff and in team-building and training
                                                         exercises for employees
core skills / kɔ sklz/ noun basic
skills, which are needed by everyone                     corporate       image       / kɔ p(ə)rət
                                                          md / noun an idea which a company
core time / kɔ tam/ noun a period                       would like the public to have of it
when people working under a flexitime
system must be present at work                           corporate planning / kɔ p(ə)rət
core values /kɔ v lju z/ plural                           pl nŋ/ noun the process of planning
noun a set of concepts and ideals that                   the future work of a whole company
guide someone’s life and help them to                    corporate                restructuring
make important decisions                                 / kɔ p(ə)rət ri str ktʃərŋ/ noun a
core workers / kɔ w kəz/ plural                          fundamental change in the way in which
noun workers who are in full-time em-                    an organisation is structured that may
ployment (as opposed to part-timers or                   involve increasing or decreasing the
casual workers who are called ‘periph-                   various layers of staff between the top
eral workers’)                                           and the bottom of the hierarchy or
corporate / kɔ p(ə)rət/ adjective 1.                     re-assigning roles and responsibilities
referring to a whole company 2. refer-                   within it (NOTE: Corporate restructuring
ring to a large organisation                             has generally come to mean reorgan-
 ‘…the prime rate is the rate at which banks lend        ising after a period of unsatisfactory
 to     their    top    corporate      borrowers’        performance, and often involves the
 [Wall Street Journal]                                   closure of parts of the business and
 ‘…if corporate forecasts are met, sales will            the laying-off of personnel.)
 exceed       $50     million      next     year’
 [Citizen (Ottawa)]                                      corporate       strategy / kɔ p(ə)rət
                                                          str təd i/ noun the plans for future
corporate         climate        / kɔ p(ə)rət
                                                         action by a corporation
 klamət/ noun the general feeling and
atmosphere within an organisation that                   corporate university / kɔ p(ə)rət
is mainly created by the attitudes of its                ju n v sti/ noun an educational cen-
managers towards their work, their staff                 tre run by an organisation that offers op-
and their customers and that can affect                  portunities for training and development
such things as productivity, creativity,                 only to its own employees, especially in
and customer focus                                       skills that the organisation needs to ful-
corporate               communication                    fil its own needs
/ kɔ p(ə)rət kəmju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun                     corporate         vision      / kɔ p(ə)rət
the activities undertaken by an organisa-                 v (ə)n/ noun the overall aim or pur-
tion to pass on information both to its                  pose of an organisation that all its busi-
own employees and to its existing and                    ness activities are designed to help it
prospective customers and the general                    achieve (NOTE: An organisation’s cor-
public                                                   porate vision is usually summed up in
corporate culture / kɔ p(ə)rət                           its vision statement.)
 k ltʃə/ noun the way of managing a                      corporation / kɔ pə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a
corporation, by increasing the impor-                    large company
tance of the corporation itself, and there-
                                                          COMMENT: A corporation is formed by
fore the loyalty of the workforce to the                  registration with the Registrar of Com-
corporation                                               panies under the Companies Act (in the
corporate ethos / kɔ p(ə)rət i θɒs/                       case of public and private companies) or
noun a company’s special way of work-                     other Acts of Parliament (in the case of
ing and thinking                                          building societies and charities).
correct                                           65                 cost-of-living increase

correct /kə rekt/ adjective accurate or                cost-benefit          analysis       /kɒst
right The published accounts do not                     benft ə n ləss/ noun the process of
give a correct picture of the company’s                comparing the costs and benefits of dif-
financial position. í verb to remove                   ferent possible ways of using available
mistakes from something         The ac-                resources
counts department have corrected the                   cost centre / kɒst sentə/ noun a
invoice. You will have to correct all                  person or group whose costs can be
these typing errors before you send the                itemised and to which costs can be allo-
letter.                                                cated in accounts
correction /kə rekʃən/ noun an act of                  cost-cutting / kɒst k tŋ/ noun the
making something correct She made                      process of reducing costs        We have
some corrections to the text of the                    made three secretaries redundant as
speech.                                                part of our cost-cutting programme.
 ‘…there were fears in October that shares were
 overvalued and bears were ready to enter the          cost-effective / kɒst fektv/ adjec-
 market. This only proved to be a small                tive which gives good value when com-
 correction’ [Investors Chronicle]                     pared with the original cost We find
                                                       advertising in the Sunday newspapers
correspondence / kɒr spɒndəns/                        very cost-effective.
noun letters, emails or other messages
exchanged                                              cost-effectiveness            / kɒst     -
                                                        fektvnəs/, cost efficiency / kɒst -
correspondence course / kɒr-                           fʃənsi/ noun the quality of being
 spɒndəns kɔ s/ noun a course done by                  cost-effective      Can we calculate the
mail She learnt accountancy through                    cost-effectiveness of air freight against
a correspondence course. He is taking                  shipping by sea?
a correspondence course in company
law.                                                   cost factor / kɒst f ktə/ noun the
                                                       problem of cost
cost /kɒst/ noun the amount of money
which has to be paid for something                     costing / kɒstŋ/ noun a calculation
Computer costs are falling each year.                  of the manufacturing costs, and so the
We cannot afford the cost of two cars.                 selling price of a product The costings
to cover costs to produce enough                       give us a retail price of $2.95.       We
money in sales to pay for the costs of                 cannot do the costing until we have de-
production The sales revenue barely                    tails of all the production expenditure.
covers the costs of advertising or the ad-             costly / kɒstli/ adjective costing a lot
vertising costs. to sell at cost to sell at            of money, or costing too much money
a price which is the same as the cost of               Defending the court case was a costly
manufacture or the wholesale cost í                    process.           The mistakes were
verb 1. to have a price       How much                 time-consuming and costly.
does the machine cost?         This cloth              cost of living / kɒst əv lvŋ/ noun
costs £10 a metre. 2. to cost a prod-                  money which has to be paid for basic
uct to calculate how much money will                   items such as food, heating or rent to
be needed to make a product, and so                    allow for the cost of living in the salary
work out its selling price                             adjustments
cost accountant / kɒst ə kaυntənt/                     cost-of-living allowance / kɒst əv
noun an accountant who gives managers                   lvŋ ə laυəns/ noun an addition to
information about their business costs                 normal salary to cover increases in the
cost accounting / kɒst ə kaυntŋ/                      cost of living (NOTE: the American
noun the process of preparing special                  equivalent is COLA)
accounts of manufacturing and sales                    cost-of-living bonus / kɒst əv
costs                                                  lvŋ bəυnəs/ noun money paid to
cost analysis / kɒst ə n ləss/                        meet the increase in the cost of living
noun the process of calculating in ad-                 cost-of-living increase / kɒst əv
vance what a new product will cost                     lvŋ nkri s/ noun an increase in sal-
cost of sales                                66                                         course

ary to allow it to keep up with the in-           counter-offer / kaυntər ɒfə/ noun a
creased cost of living                            higher or lower offer made in reply to
cost of sales / kɒst əv selz/ noun               another offer Smith Ltd made an offer
all the costs of a product sold, including        of £1m for the property, and Blacks re-
manufacturing costs and the staff costs           plied with a counter-offer of £1.4m.
of the production department, before               ‘…the company set about paring costs and
                                                   improving the design of its product. It came up
general overheads are calculated                   with a price cut of 14%, but its counter-offer –
costs /kɒsts/ plural noun the expenses             for an order that was to have provided 8% of its
involved in a court case       The judge           workload next year – was too late and too
                                                   expensive’ [Wall Street Journal]
awarded costs to the defendant. Costs
of the case will be borne by the prosecu-         counterpart / kaυntəpɑ t/ noun a
tion. to pay costs to pay the expenses            person who has a similar job in another
of a court case                                   company John is my counterpart in
cottage industry / kɒtd ndəstr/                Smith’s John has the same post as I
noun the production of goods or some              have here
other type of work, carried out by peo-           counter-productive / kaυntə prə-
ple working in their own homes                     d ktv/ adjective which has the oppo-
council / kaυnsəl/ noun an official               site effect to what you expect        In-
group chosen to run something or to ad-           creasing      overtime      pay      was
vise on a problem                                 counter-productive, the workers simply
                                                  worked more slowly. The MD’s talk
counselling / kaυnsəlŋ/ noun the                 about profitability was quite counter-
act of giving professional advice to oth-         productive, as it encouraged the em-
ers on personal matters       An office is        ployees to ask for higher wages.
being set up for counselling employees
who have professional or social prob-             countersign / kaυntəsan/ verb to
lems.     Counselling helps employees             sign a document which has already been
get accustomed to their new environ-              signed by someone else           All our
ment, by offering advice and guidance.            cheques have to be countersigned by the
(NOTE: the usual US spelling is                   finance director.     The sales director
counseling)                                       countersigns all my orders.
counsellor / kaυnsələ/ noun a person              couple / k p(ə)l/ noun two things or
who gives professional advice to others           people taken together     We only have
on personal matters (NOTE: the usual              enough stock for a couple of weeks. A
US spelling is counselor)                         couple of the directors were ill, so the
counter- /kaυntə/ prefix against                  board meeting was cancelled.
counterbid / kaυntəbd/ noun a                    course /kɔ s/ noun 1. in the course
higher bid in reply to a previous bid             of during or while something is happen-
When I bid £20 she put in a counterbid            ing In the course of the discussion, the
of £25.                                           managing director explained the com-
                                                  pany’s expansion plans.      Sales have
counter-claim / kaυntə klem/ noun                risen sharply in the course of the last
a claim for damages made in reply to a            few months. 2. a series of lessons or a
previous claim Jones claimed £25,000              programme of instruction She has fin-
in damages against Smith, and Smith               ished her secretarial course.        The
entered a counter-claim of £50,000 for            company has paid for her to attend a
loss of office. The union negotiators             course for trainee sales managers.
entered a counter-claim for a reduction           Management trainees all took a
in work hours. í verb to put in a coun-           six-month course in business studies.
ter-claim     Jones claimed £25,000 in            The training officer was constantly on
damages and Smith counter-claimed                 the lookout for new courses in manage-
£50,000 for loss of office.                       ment studies. The company sent her
countermand / kaυntə mɑ nd/ verb                  on a management course. she went
to say that an order must not be carried          on a course she attended a course of
out to countermand an order                       study
court                                            67                                    creativity

court /kɔ t/ noun a place where a                     covering letter / k vərŋ      letə/,
judge listens to a case and decides le-               covering note / k vərŋ nəυt/ noun a
gally which of the parties in the argu-               letter or note sent with documents to say
ment is right       to take someone to                why you are sending them He sent a
court to tell someone to appear in court              covering letter with his curriculum vi-
to settle an argument settlement was                  tae, explaining why he wanted the job.
reached out of court, the two parties                 The job advertisement asked for a CV
reached an out-of-court settlement the                and a covering letter.
dispute was settled between the two par-              CPD noun training and education that
ties privately without continuing the                 continues throughout a person’s career
court case                                            in order to improve the skills and
court case / kɔ t kes/ noun a legal                  knowledge they use to do a job or suc-
action or trial                                       cession of jobs. Full form continuing
court hearing /kɔ t hərŋ/ noun a                    personal development
court case                                            CPF abbr Central Provident Fund
covenant / k vənənt/ noun a legal                     CPM abbr cost per mille
contract í verb to agree to pay a sum of              craft /krɑ ft/ noun traditional manu-
money each year by contract to cove-                  facture done by hand
nant to pay £10 per annum
                                                      craftsman / krɑ ftsmən/, crafts-
cover noun / k və/ something put                      woman / krɑ fts wυmən/ noun a man
over a machine, etc., to keep it clean                or woman who works in a craft
Put a cover over your PC when the of-
                                                      craftsmanship           / krɑ ftsmənʃp/
fice is being redecorated. í 1. protec-
tion guaranteed by insurance            to            noun skill in doing craft work
operate without adequate cover to op-                 craft union / krɑ ft ju njən/ noun
erate without being protected by insur-               the oldest type of trade union, for skilled
ance to ask for additional cover to                   workers in a particular craft or trade
ask the insurance company to increase                 craft worker / krɑ ft w kə/ noun a
the amount for which you are insured 2.               skilled manual worker, especially one
   to provide cover for someone to                    who has been through an apprenticeship
work in place of someone who is ill or                CRE abbr Commission for Racial
on holiday í noun / k və/ to send                     Equality
something under separate cover in a
separate envelope to send a magazine                  create /kri et/ verb to make some-
under plain cover in an ordinary enve-                thing new By acquiring small unprof-
lope with no company name printed on                  itable companies he soon created a
it í verb / k və/ 1. to put something                 large manufacturing group. The gov-
over a machine, etc., to keep it clean                ernment scheme aims at creating new
Don’t forget to cover your PC when                    jobs for young people.
                                                       ‘…he insisted that the tax advantages he
they are repainting the office. 2. to pro-             directed towards small businesses will help
tect to be fully covered to have insur-                create jobs and reduce the unemployment rate’
ance against all risks      The insurance              [Toronto Star]
covers fire, theft and loss of work.                  creation /kri eʃ(ə)n/ noun the pro-
 ‘…three export credit agencies have agreed to
 provide cover for large projects in Nigeria’
                                                      cess of making something
 [Business Times (Lagos)]                             creative director /kri etv da-
Coverdale       training / k vədel                    rektə/ noun an employee of an adver-
 trenŋ/ noun a system of training that              tising agency who is in overall charge of
concentrates on improving teamwork                    finding the right words and images to
and methods of getting a job done                     promote the product during an advertis-
(NOTE: Coverdale training often in-                   ing campaign
volves asking groups of people to act                 creativity / kri e tvti/, creative
out everyday situations and experi-                   thinking /kri etv θŋkŋ/ noun the
ment until they find the best way of                  ability to use the imagination to produce
dealing with them)                                    new ideas or things
creativity test                                68                         cultural creative

creativity test / kri e tvti test/               tion, or from internal factors such as a
noun a test designed to assess the origi-           product failure or faulty deci-
nality or imagination which someone                 sion-making, and often involve the
can apply to solving problems          Cre-         need to make quick decisions on the
ativity tests will be given to those apply-         basis of uncertain or incomplete infor-
ing for jobs in our company where new               mation.)
approaches are needed to solve old                  criterion /kra təriən/ noun the stan-
problems.      The HR manager favours               dard by which something can be judged
creativity tests instead of the more tradi-            Using the criterion of the ratio of
tional IQ tests.                                    cases solved to cases reported, the po-
crèche /kreʃ/ noun a special room or                lice force is becoming more efficient.
building on a company’s premises                    (NOTE: plural is criteria)
where babies and small children can be              critical path analysis / krtk(ə)l
looked after       The company provides              pɑ θ ə n ləss/ noun the analysis of
crèche facilities for its staff. Compare            the way a project is organised in terms
nursery                                             of the minimum time it will take to com-
credentials /kr denʃəlz/ plural noun               plete, calculating which parts can be de-
letters or documents which describe a               layed without holding up the rest of the
person’s qualities and skills The new               project. Abbr CPM
production manager has very impres-                 critical       success          factors
sive credentials.                                   / krtk(ə)l sək ses f ktəz/ plural
crème de la crème / krem də l                       noun the aspects of a business that
 krem/ noun the elite or the very best of           are considered to be most necessary
a profession It is a very exclusive re-             for it to be able to achieve its aims and
cruitment agency and only looks for the             continue to operate successfully over
crème de la crème.                                  time
criminal         record        / krmn(ə)l         criticise / krtsaz/, criticize verb to
 rekɔ d/ noun same as police record                 say that something or someone is wrong
crisis / krass/ noun a serious                    or is working badly The MD criticised
economic situation where decisions                  the sales manager for not improving the
have to be taken rapidly         a banking          volume of sales. The design of the new
crisis    The government stepped in to              catalogue has been criticised.
try to resolve the international crisis.            criticism / krtsz(ə)m/ noun words
Withdrawals from the bank have                      showing that you consider that someone
reached crisis level. The crisis in the             or something is wrong       The tribunal
mortgage banks has caused problems                  made some criticisms of the way in
for the central bank.        to take crisis         which the company had presented its
measures to take severe measures rap-               case.
idly to stop a crisis developing                    cross-functional                    /krɒs
crisis        bargaining           / krass         f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective referring to an
 bɑ nŋ/ noun collective bargaining                employee who can work at different and
under the threat of a strike deadline If            varied tasks
crisis bargaining doesn’t produce                   cross-picketing /krɒs pktŋ/
agreement on the 12% pay increase, a                noun picketing by more than one trade
strike will be called.                              union, when each claims to represent the
crisis       management            / krass        workforce      Cross-picketing damaged
 m nd mənt/ noun actions taken by                  the workers’ case by showing up the di-
an organisation to protect itself when              visions in their ranks. Cross-picketing
unexpected events or situations occur               was due to the rivalry between the two
that could threaten its success or contin-          unions rather than any real attempt to
ued operation (NOTE: Crisis situations              represent the workers’ interests.
may result from external factors such               cultural creative / k ltʃərəl kri-
as the development of a new product                  etv/ noun someone who values per-
by a competitor or changes in legisla-              sonal and spiritual development, enjoys
culture                                               69                                   cycle time

change, likes learning about new cul-                      accepted a lower salary 2. a share in a
tures and, usually, wants a simpler way                    payment She introduces new custom-
of life                                                    ers and gets a cut of the sales rep’s com-
culture / k ltʃə/ noun a way of living                     mission. í verb 1. to lower suddenly
in a society or a country                                  We are cutting prices on all our models.
                                                              to cut (back) production to reduce
culture shock / k ltʃə ʃɒk/ noun the                       the quantity of products made           The
shock when a person moves from one                         company has cut back its sales force.
type of society to another (as for emi-                    We have taken out the second telephone
grants from European countries to the                      line in order to try to cut costs. 2. to re-
USA)                                                       duce the number of something to cut
current / k rənt/ adjective referring                      jobs to reduce the number of jobs by
to the present time the current round                      making people redundant he cut his
of wage negotiations                                       losses he stopped doing something
 ‘…crude oil output plunged during the past                which was creating a loss 3. to be cut
 month and is likely to remain at its current level        out for to be very suitable for She was
 for the near future’ [Wall Street Journal]                not cut out for a post as a personal
currently / k rəntli/ adverb at the                        secretary.
present time We are currently negoti-                       ‘…state-owned banks cut their prime rates a
                                                            percentage point to 11%’ [Wall Street Journal]
ating with the bank for a loan.
                                                            ‘…the US bank announced a cut in its prime
curriculum vitae /kə rkjυləm                               from 10½ per cent to 10 per cent’
 vi ta/ noun a summary of a person’s                       [Financial Times]
work experience and qualifications sent                     ‘Opec has on average cut production by one
to a prospective employer by someone                        third since 1979’ [Economist]
applying for a job Candidates should                       cutback / k tb k/ noun a reduction
send a letter of application with a cur-                     cutbacks in government spending
riculum vitae to the HR manager. The                       cut down (on) / k t daυn ɒn/ verb
curriculum vitae listed all the candi-                     to reduce suddenly the amount of some-
date’s previous jobs and her reasons for                   thing used The government is cutting
leaving them. Abbr CV (NOTE: the plural                    down on welfare expenditure. The of-
is curriculums or curricula vitae.                         fice is trying to cut down on electricity
American English is résumé)                                consumption. We have installed net-
cushy / kυʃi/ adjective which does not                     worked computers to cut down on
involve any effort (informal )    .                        paperwork.
cushy number / kυʃi n mbə/ noun                            CV abbr curriculum vitae Please ap-
work that offers the same money for less                   ply in writing, enclosing a current CV.
effort than another similar job      He                    cybernetics / sabə netks/ plural
spends all his time looking for a cushy                    noun the study of information commu-
number. (NOTE: American English is                         nication systems and how they can be
gravy job)                                                 improved (NOTE: takes a singular verb)
customer focus / k stəmə fəυkəs/                           cycle / sak(ə)l/ noun a set of events
noun the aiming of all marketing opera-                    which happen in a regularly repeated
tions towards the customer                                 sequence
cut /k t/ noun 1. the sudden lowering                      cycle time / sak(ə)l tam/ noun the
of a price, salary or the number of jobs                   time taken to complete a job The cycle
   price cuts or cuts in prices he took                    time for the job will decrease with the
a cut in salary, he took a salary cut he                   introduction of new machinery.
daily rate                                  70                                     dated


daily rate / deli ret/ noun money              data / detə/ noun information avail-
paid for one day’s work                          able on computer, e.g. letters or figures
damaged / d md d/ adjective                        All important data on employees was
which has suffered damage or which has           fed into the computer.      To calculate
been harmed          goods damaged in            the weekly wages, you need data on
transit                                          hours worked and rates of pay. (NOTE:
                                                 takes singular or plural verb)
damages / d md z/ plural noun
money claimed as compensation for                data bank / detə b ŋk/ noun a store
harm done to claim £1000 in damages              of information in a computer
   to be liable for damages       to pay         database / detəbes/ noun a set of
£25,000 in damages to bring an ac-               data stored in an organised way in a
tion for damages against someone to              computer system We can extract the
take someone to court and claim                  lists of potential customers from our
damages                                          database.
danger / dend ə/ noun 1. the possi-             data protection / detə prə tekʃən/
bility of being harmed or killed The             noun the safeguards that protect people
old machinery poses a danger to the              whose personal details are held on com-
workforce. The red light means dan-              puters or in paper-based filing systems
ger. 2. the likelihood or possibility of         against improper use or storage of the
something there is no danger of the              data that relates to them (NOTE: The
sales force leaving it is not likely that        growing use of computers to store in-
the sales force will leave in danger of          formation about individuals has led
which may easily happen        The com-          many countries to pass laws designed
pany is in danger of being taken over.           to protect the privacy of individuals and
She is in danger of being made                   prevent the disclosure of information to
redundant.                                       unauthorised people.)
danger money / dend ə m ni/                     Data Protection Act (1984) / detə
noun extra money paid to employees in            prə tekʃən kt/ noun an Act of Parlia-
dangerous jobs        The workforce has          ment which prevents the use of details
stopped work and asked for danger                of a person which are stored in a data-
money. He decided to go to work on               base for other uses than that for which
an oil rig because of the danger money           the record was originally made
offered as an incentive.                         date /det/ noun 1. the number of a
dangerous / dend ərəs/ adjective                day, month and year I have received
which can be harmful dangerous job               your letter of yesterday’s date. date of
a job where the workers may be hurt or           receipt the date when something is re-
killed                                           ceived 2. to date up to now interest
danger zone bonus / dend ə                      to date interest up to the present time í
zəυn bəυnəs/ noun a bonus for work-              verb to put a date on a document The
ing in a particularly dangerous area             cheque was dated March 24th.          You
Danger-zone bonuses are awarded to               forgot to date the cheque.
workers employed in countries experi-            dated / detd/ adjective 1. with a date
encing civil unrest or war.                      written on it Thank you for your letter
date of birth                                71                               death duty

dated June 15th. 2. out-of-date  The              dead the telephone line suddenly
unions have criticised management for             stopped working
its dated ideas.                                  dead end /ded end/ noun a point
date of birth / det əv b θ/ noun                 where you cannot go any further for-
the day, month and year when someone              ward       Negotiations have reached a
was born                                          dead end.
date of departure / det əv d-                   dead end job / ded end d ɒb/ noun
 pɑ tʃə/, departure date /d pɑ tʃə               a job where there are no chances of
det/ noun the date on which an em-               promotion
ployee leaves the company                         deadline / dedlan/ noun the date by
day /de/ noun 1. a period of 24 hours            which something has to be done to
   There are thirty days in June. The             meet a deadline to finish something in
first day of the month is a public holi-          time      to miss a deadline to finish
day. 2. a period of work from morning             something later than it was planned
to night      she works three days on,            We’ve missed our October 1st deadline.
two days off she works for three days,            deadlock / dedlɒk/ noun a point
then has two days’ holiday to work                where two sides in a dispute cannot
an eight-hour day to spend eight hours            agree The negotiations have reached
at work each day 3. one of the days of            deadlock or a deadlock. to break a
the week                                          deadlock to find a way to start discus-
day care / de keə/ noun a provision              sions again after being at a point where
of care for small children while their            no agreement was possible í verb to be
parents are at work One of the fringe             unable to agree to continue negotiations
benefits of the job was a free day care              talks have been deadlocked for ten
centre. The excellent day care facili-            days after ten days the talks have not
ties in the area have increased the avail-        produced any agreement
ability of staff.                                 dead loss /ded lɒs/ noun a total loss
day of action / de əv kʃən/ noun                    The car was written off as a dead loss.
a day when workers do not work, but               dead season / ded si z(ə)n/ noun
take part in strikes or protests                  the time of year when there are few
day rate / de ret/ noun a payment               tourists about
system where employees are paid per               dead wood /ded wυd/ noun employ-
day worked Temporary workers are                  ees who are old or who do not work well
paid on a day rate. They receive a flat              The new management team is weed-
day rate of £100.                                 ing out the dead wood from the sales
day shift / de ʃft/ noun a shift                department.
worked during the daylight hours (from            deal /di l/ noun a business agreement,
early morning to late afternoon)                  affair or contract      The sales director
                                                  set up a deal with a Russian bank. The
day-to-day / de tə de/ adjective or-            deal will be signed tomorrow.        They
dinary or going on all the time He or-            did a deal with an American airline.
ganises the day-to-day running of the             to call off a deal to stop an agreement
company.        Sales only just cover the         When the chairman heard about the
day-to-day expenses.                              deal he called it off. to reach a deal,
day work / de w k/ noun 1. work                  to strike a deal to come to an agree-
done on the day shift 2. work done dur-           ment í verb to deal with to organise
ing a day                                         something Leave it to the filing clerk
day worker / de w kə/ noun a per-                – he’ll deal with it. to deal with a
son who works the day shift                       problem to decide how to solve a
dead /ded/ adjective 1. not alive Six
people were dead as a result of the acci-         death /deθ/ noun the act of dying
dent. The founders of the company are             death duty / deθ dju ti/, death tax
all dead. 2. not working the line went            / deθ t ks/ noun US a tax paid on the
death in service                             72                                      decrease

property left by a dead person (NOTE:             influences a decision A deciding fac-
the British equivalent is inheritance             tor in marketing our range of sports
tax)                                              goods in the country was the rising stan-
death in service / deθ n s vs/                  dard of living there.
noun an insurance benefit or pension              deciding vote /d sadŋ vəυt/ noun
paid when someone dies while em-                  a vote which decides an issue
ployed by a company                               decision /d s (ə)n/ noun a choice
deauthorisation              /di ɔ θəra-         made after thinking about what to do
 zeʃ(ə)n/, deauthorization noun US a             It took the committee some time to come
way in which unionised employees can              to a decision or to reach a decision. to
vote to determine whether or not they             put off a decision to delay deciding
want an open shop                                 something
debt collection / det kə lekʃ(ə)n/                decision-maker /d s (ə)n mekə/
noun the act of collecting money which            noun a person who takes decisions
is owed                                           decision-making               /d s (ə)n
debt collection agency / det kə-                   mekŋ/ noun the act of coming to a
 lekʃən ed ənsi/ noun a company                  decision
which collects debts for other compa-             decisive /d sasv/ adjective refer-
nies for a commission                             ring to a person who makes up their
debt collector / det kə lektə/ noun a             mind or who comes to a decision (NOTE:
person who collects debts                         the opposite is indecisive)
decentralisation           /di sentrəla-         decisiveness /d sasvnəs/ noun
 zeʃ(ə)n/, decentralization noun or-             the ability to come to a decision quickly
ganisation from various points, with lit-         (NOTE: opposites are indecision,
tle power concentrated at the centre              indecisiveness)
the decentralisation of the buying
                                                  declaration / deklə reʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                                  an official statement
decentralise /di sentrəlaz/, de-                 decline /d klan/ noun 1. a gradual
centralize verb to organise from vari-
                                                  fall the decline in the value of the dol-
ous points, with little power
                                                  lar a decline in buying power The
concentrated at the centre Formerly,
                                                  last year has seen a decline in real
the bank was decentralised, with many
                                                  wages. 2. the final stage in the life cycle
decisions being taken by branch manag-
                                                  of a product when the sales and profit-
ers. Since the company was decentral-
                                                  ability are falling off and the product is
ised, its headquarters have moved to a
                                                  no longer worth investing in í verb to
tiny office. The group has a policy of
                                                  fall slowly or decrease New job appli-
decentralised purchasing where each
                                                  cations have declined over the last year.
division has its own buying department.
                                                    The purchasing power of the currency
decentralised bargaining /di -                    declined over the decade.
 sentrəlazd bɑ nŋ/ noun separate                ‘Saudi oil production has declined by three
bargaining between management and                  quarters to around 2.5m barrels a day’
unions in different areas, not at national         [Economist]
or industry-wide level                             ‘…this gives an average monthly decline of 2.15
                                                   per cent during the period’ [Business Times
decertification /di s tf keʃ(ə)n/               (Lagos)]
noun US a vote by a group of unionised
                                                   ‘…share prices disclosed a weak tendency right
employees to take away a union’s right             from the onset of business and declined further,
to represent them in bargaining                    showing losses over a broad front’ [The Hindu]
decide /d sad/ verb to make up your             decrease noun / di kri s/ a fall or re-
mind to do something to decide on a               duction The decrease in the prices of
course of action to decide to appoint a           consumer goods is reflected in the fall in
new managing director                             the cost of living. Exports have regis-
deciding factor /d sadŋ f ktə/                 tered a decrease. Sales show a 10%
noun the most important factor which              decrease on last year. í verb /d kri s/
decruiting                                   73                                      delay

to fall or to become less Imports are             verbally by his manager. (NOTE: the
decreasing. The value of the currency             usual US spelling is defense)
has decreased by 5%.                              defend /d fend/ verb to fight to pro-
decruiting /di kru tŋ/ noun the pol-             tect someone or something which is be-
icy of replacing permanent employees              ing attacked         The company is
with temporary ones Decruiting is an              defending itself against the takeover bid.
important factor in running a young                  They hired the best lawyers to defend
industry.                                         them against the tax authorities.       to
deduct /d d kt/ verb to take money               defend a lawsuit to appear in court to
away from a total to deduct £3 from               state your case when accused of
the price to deduct a sum for expenses            something
   After deducting costs the gross mar-           defendant /d fendənt/ noun a per-
gin is only 23%. Expenses are still to            son against whom a legal action is taken
be deducted.                                      or who is accused of doing something to
deductible /d d ktb(ə)l/ adjective              harm someone (NOTE: the other side in
which can be deducted                             a case is the claimant)
deductible          expenses          /d-        defer /d f / verb to put back to a later
 d ktb(ə)l k spensz/ plural noun               date, or to postpone We will have to
expenses which can be deducted against            defer payment until January. The de-
tax                                               cision has been deferred until the next
deduction /d d kʃən/ noun the re-                meeting. (NOTE: deferring – deferred)
moving of money from a total, or the              deferred /d f d/ adjective put back
money removed from a total Net sal-               to a later date
ary is salary after deduction of tax and          deferred pension /d f d penʃən/
social security.     The deduction from           noun a pension plan where the pension
his wages represented the cost of re-             is taken late, so as to allow benefits to
pairing the damage he had caused to the           accrue
machinery. deductions from salary,
salary deductions,        deductions at           deferred retirement /d f d r-
source money which a company re-                   taəmənt/ noun retirement which
moves from salaries to give to the gov-           starts later than the statutory age
ernment as tax, national insurance                degree /d ri / noun 1. a qualifica-
contributions, etc.                               tion awarded to someone who has
deduction at source /d d kʃən ət                 passed a course of study at a university
 sɔ s/ noun (in the UK) a system of col-          or polytechnic       He has a degree in
lecting taxes in which the organisation           business studies. She has a degree in
or individual that pays somebody an in-           social work. 2. an amount or level Be-
come, e.g. an employer paying wages, a            ing promoted to a management position
bank paying interest or a company pay-            means a greater degree of responsibil-
ing dividends, is responsible for deduct-         ity. The HR director is trying to assess
ing and paying tax, not the person who            the degree of discontent among the
receives the income                               workforce.
deed /di d/ noun a legal document or              degree mill /d ri ml/ noun an es-
written agreement                                 tablishment that claims to be an educa-
defence /d fens/ noun 1. protecting              tional institution and offers to award a
someone or something against attack               qualification for little or no work, often
The merchant bank is organising the               on payment of a large sum of money (in-
company’s defence against the takeover            formal ) (NOTE: The qualifications of-

bid. (NOTE: the usual US spelling is de-          fered by degree mills are mostly
fense) 2. the act of fighting a lawsuit on        considered worthless and are not ac-
behalf of a defendant (NOTE: the usual            cepted by employers.)
US spelling is defense) 3. the explana-           delay /d le/ noun the time when
tion of actions His defence was that              someone or something is later than
the expenditure had been authorised               planned We are sorry for the delay in
delegate                                   74               demographic time-bomb

supplying your order or in replying to           ‘…spot prices are now relatively stable in the
your letter. í verb to make someone or           run-up to the winter’s peak demand’
something late The company has de-
                                                 ‘…the demand for the company’s products
layed payment of all invoices. She was           remained strong throughout the first six months
delayed because her taxi was involved            of the year with production and sales showing
in an accident.                                  significant increases’ [Business Times (Lagos)]
                                                 ‘…growth in demand is still coming from the
delegatenoun / del ət/ a person                 private rather than the public sector’
who represents others at a meeting               [Lloyd’s List]
The management refused to meet the
                                                demarcation            / di mɑ keʃ(ə)n/
trade union delegates. í verb
                                                noun a clear definition of the responsi-
/ del et/ to pass authority or respon-
                                                bilities of each employee or category of
sibility to someone else     to delegate
                                                employment        The union insisted on
authority      she cannot delegate she
                                                clear demarcation when tasks were as-
wants to control everything herself and
                                                signed to different workers. Demarca-
refuses to give up any of her responsi-
                                                tion ensures that no one does work
bilities to her subordinates
                                                which is not defined in their job
delegate conference / del ət                   description.
 kɒnf(ə)rəns/ noun a meeting of repre-          demerge /di m d / verb to separate
sentatives from each of the main                a company into several separate parts
branches of a trade union
                                                demerger /di m d ə/ noun the sep-
delegation /del eʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a             aration of a company into several sepa-
group of delegates       A Chinese trade        rate parts (especially used of companies
delegation is visiting the UK.       The        which have grown by acquisition)
management met a union delegation. 2.
an act of passing authority or responsi-        democracy /d mɒkrəsi/ noun a sys-
bility to someone else                          tem of government by freely elected
demand /d mɑ nd/ noun 1. the act               democratic management style
of asking for payment 2. asking for             / demə kr tk m nd mənt stal/
something and insisting on getting it           noun a management style in which
   the union’s list of demands       The        the managers involve the employees in
management refused to give in to union          decision-making processes (NOTE: the
demands for a meeting. to meet the              opposite is autocratic management
union’s demands to agree to what the            style)
union is asking for 3. the requirement
by a prospective purchaser for a com-           demographic / demə r fk/ adjec-
modity There was an active demand               tive referring to demography A full
for oil shares on the stock market.             demographic study of the country must
The factory had to cut production when          be done before we decide how to export
demand slackened. there is not much             there.
demand for this item not many people            demographic                         change
want to buy it this book is in great            / demə r fk tʃend / noun a change
demand, there is a great demand for             in the population which may affect the
this book many people want to buy it            working population in the future (e.g. a
to meet or fill a demand to supply what         fall in the birth rate means fewer poten-
is needed The factory had to increase           tial workers, a rise in life expectancy
production to meet the extra demand.            means more people drawing pensions)
The factory had to cut production when          demographics             /demə r fks/
demand slackened. í verb to ask for             plural noun the details of the popula-
something and expect to get it She de-          tion of a country, in particular its age
manded a refund. The suppliers are              and gender, which affect marketing
demanding immediate payment of their            (NOTE: takes a singular verb)
outstanding invoices. The shop stew-            demographic                    time-bomb
ards demanded an urgent meeting with            / demə r fk tam bɒm/ noun a cata-
the managing director.                          strophic population trend, e.g. a sharp
demography                                  75                                   deputise

increase in the number of people of pen-         shop. 3.       departure from normal
sionable age and a decrease in the num-          practice an act of doing something in a
ber of younger people of working age             different way from the usual one
demography /d mɒ rəfi/ noun the                 depend /d pend/ verb 1. to depend
study of populations and population sta-         on to need someone or something to ex-
tistics such as age, sex, income and             ist The company depends on efficient
education                                        service from its suppliers. We depend
demote /d məυt/ verb to give some-              on government grants to pay the salary
one a less important job or to reduce an         bill. 2. to happen because of something
employee to a lower rank or grade He                The success of the launch will depend
was demoted from manager to sales-               on the publicity campaign. depending
man.     Her salary was reduced when             on which varies according to something
she was demoted.                                    Depending on the circumstances, she
                                                 may be reprimanded or have the money
demotion /d məυʃən/ noun the act                docked from her pay.
of reducing an employee to a lower rank
or giving someone a less important job           dependant /d pendənt/ noun a per-
   Demotion would mean a considerable            son who depends financially on some-
drop in income. Demotion ended his               one else      He has to provide for his
dreams of becoming managing director.            family and dependants out of a very
                                                 small salary.
department /d pɑ tmənt/ noun 1. a
specialised section of a large organisa-         dependence /d pendəns/, depend-
tion     Trainee managers work for a             ency /d pendənsi/ noun the fact of be-
while in each department to get an idea          ing dependent on someone or something
of the organisation as a whole. 2. a sec-           dependence on drugs
tion of the British government contain-          dependent /d pendənt/ adjective
ing several ministries                           supported financially by someone else
departmental          / di pɑ t ment(ə)l/        Employees may be granted leave to care
adjective referring to a department              for dependent relatives. Tax relief is
                                                 allowed for dependent relatives.
departmental                 manager
/ di pɑ tment(ə)l m nd ə/ noun the              deploy /d plɔ/ verb to send staff to a
manager of a department                          certain place to carry out a certain job
Department for Education and                     deployment of personnel /d-
Skills /d pɑ tmənt fər edjυ keʃ(ə)n             plɔmənt əv p sə nel/ noun the send-
ənd sklz/ noun a British government             ing of staff to certain places to carry out
department responsible for education             certain jobs
and training. Abbr DFES                          depreciation /d pri ʃi eʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                                 a reduction in value of an asset
Department for Work and Pen-
sions /d pɑ tmənt fə w k ən                     depressed /d prest/ adjective feel-
 penʃ(ə)nz/ noun a British government            ing miserable and hopeless She was
department responsible for services to           depressed when she was not promoted.
people of working age, pensioners and            depression /d preʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a
families. Abbr DWP                               period of economic crisis with high un-
Department of Trade and Indus-                   employment and loss of trade an eco-
try /d pɑ tmənt əv tred ənd                    nomic depression The country entered
 ndəstri/ noun a British government             a period of economic depression. 2. a
department which deals with areas such           mental state in which someone feels
as commerce, international trade and the         miserable and hopeless          He suffers
stock exchange. Abbr DTI                         from bouts of depression.
departure /d pɑ tʃə/ noun 1. going              dept abbr department
away The plane’s departure was de-               deputise / depjυtaz/, deputize verb
layed by two hours. 2. a new venture or             to deputise for someone to take the
new type of business Selling records             place of someone who is absent He
will be a departure for the local book-          deputised for the chairman who was ill.
deputy                                       76                                       differ

deputy / depjυti/ noun a person who               branch on a two-week detail. í verb 1.
takes the place of another       to act as        to list in detail      The terms of the
deputy for someone or to act as some-             licence are detailed in the contract. 2. to
one’s deputy He is deputy manager of              give someone a temporary assignment
the accounts department. Her title is             Two men were detailed to deal with the
deputy managing director.                         urgent order.
derecognise /di rekə naz/ verb to                detailed / di teld/ adjective in detail
cease to recognise a union as the repre-             detailed account an account which
sentative of the workers                          lists every item
derecognition / di rekə nʃ(ə)n/                  determination of salaries /d-
noun the act of ceasing to recognise a             t mneʃ(ə)n əv s ləriz/ noun the
union as able to represent the employees          process of fixing the amount of salaries
(typical reasons are: few of the                  to be paid to different categories of
workforce actually belong to the union,           employees
or the company has changed owner)                 determine /d t mn/ verb to fix, ar-
describe /d skrab/ verb to say what             range or decide to determine prices or
someone or something is like          The         quantities       conditions still to be
leaflet describes the services the com-           determined
pany can offer. The managing direc-               develop /d veləp/ verb 1. to plan and
tor described the difficulties the                produce to develop a new product 2.
company was having with cash flow.                to plan and build an area to develop
description /d skrpʃən/ noun a de-              an industrial estate
tailed account of what something is like
                                                  DFEE abbr Department for Education
designate adjective / dez nət/ ap-               and Employment
pointed to a job but not yet working
the chairman designate (NOTE: always              DFES abbr Department for Education
follows a noun) í verb / dez net/ to
                                                  and Skills
appoint someone to a post                         diagram / daə r m/ noun a drawing
designer /d zanə/ adjective expen-              which presents information visually a
sive and fashionable designer jeans               diagram showing sales locations a di-
                                                  agram of the company’s organisational
desk /desk/ noun a writing table in an            structure      The first diagram shows
office, usually with drawers for statio-          how our decision-making processes
nery a desk diary a desk drawer a                 work.
desk light
                                                  diagrammatic / daə rə m tk/ ad-
deskilling /di sklŋ/ noun the pro-              jective in diagrammatic form in the
cess of reducing the number of skilled            form of a diagram The chart showed
jobs and replacing them with unskilled            the work flow in diagrammatic form.
                                                  diagrammatically               / daə rə-
desk pad / desk p d/ noun a pad of                 m tkli/ adverb using a diagram
paper kept on a desk for writing notes            The chart shows the sales pattern
detail / di tel/ noun 1. a small part of         diagrammatically.
a description The catalogue gives all             dialogue / daəlɒ / noun a discussion
the details of our product range. We              between two people or groups, in which
are worried by some of the details in the         views are exchanged         The manage-
contract. in detail giving many partic-           ment refused to enter into a dialogue
ulars The catalogue lists all the prod-           with the strikers.
ucts in detail. 2. the temporary
assignment of an employee to a differ-            diarise / daəraz/, diarize verb to en-
ent position for a specified time The             ter a date you have to remember in a
union is complaining that employees are           diary
being given details that were never men-          differ / dfə/ verb not to be the same as
tioned at the time of their recruitment.          something else       The two managerial
The manager was sent to another                   vacancies differ considerably – one
difference                                    77                      directive interview

deals with product design and the other            dilution agreement /da lu ʃ(ə)n ə-
with customer services.                               ri mənt/ noun agreement by which
                                                   unskilled labour can be employed when
difference / df(ə)rəns/ noun a way                skilled workers are not available The
in which two things are not the same               dilution agreement allowed for un-
What is the difference between a junior            trained administrative workers until
manager and a managerial assistant?                more qualified manpower came to the
different / df(ə)rənt/ adjective not              area.
the same Our product range is quite                dilution of labour /da lu ʃ(ə)n əv
different in design from that of our ri-            lebə/ noun the process of deskilling,
vals. We offer ten models each in six              reducing the number of skilled jobs and
different colours.                                 replacing them with unskilled jobs
differential / dfə renʃəl/ adjective              diploma /d pləυmə/ noun a docu-
which shows a difference í noun to                 ment which shows that a person has
erode wage differentials to reduce dif-            reached a certain level of skill in a sub-
ferences in salary gradually                       ject He is studying for a diploma in
differential piecework / dfərenʃəl                engineering.      The new assistant HR
 pi sw k/ noun payment for each                    manager has a diploma in human re-
piece of work completed, determined                sources management.        A diploma is
by the total number of pieces produced             awarded at the end of the two-year
over a period, with extra bonus pay-               course in accountancy.
ments for work completed more                      direct /da rekt/ verb to manage or or-
quickly The management decided that                ganise       He directs our South-East
differential piecework provided the best           Asian operations.     She was directing
balance between incentives and wage                the development unit until last year. í
security.                                          adjective straight or without interfer-
                                                   ence í adverb with no third party in-
digerati / dd ə rɑ ti/ plural noun                volved We pay income tax direct to
people who claim to have a sophisti-               the government.
cated understanding of Internet or com-
puter technology (slang)                           direct action /da rekt kʃən/ noun
                                                   a strike or go-slow by a workforce
digithead / dd t hed/ noun a per-
son who is very knowledgeable about                directed interview /da rektd
technology and mathematics but who is               ntəvju / noun an interview built
not very good at talking or relating to            round specific questions instead of an
people (slang)                                     open discussion      Directed interviews
                                                   are easier to conduct, but may fail to ex-
dilberted / dlb td/ adjective US                 tract as much as less formal methods of
badly treated by your employer, like the           interviewing.
cartoon character Dilbert (slang) (NOTE:           direction /da rekʃən/ noun 1. the
see Dilbert Principle)                             process of organising or managing He
Dilbert        principle        / dlb t           took over the direction of a multina-
 prnsp(ə)l/ noun the principle that the          tional group. 2. directions for use in-
most inefficient employees are moved               structions showing how to use
to the place where they can do the least           something
damage (NOTE: Dilbert is the main char-            directive /da rektv/ noun an order
acter in a comic strip and cartoon se-             or command to someone to do some-
ries by Scott Adams which satirises                thing (especially an order from the
office and corporate life.)                        Council of Ministers or Commission of
dilutee / dalu ti / noun an unskilled             the European Community referring to a
or semi-skilled worker who has taken a             particular problem in certain countries)
short training course, instead of a longer         directive interview /da rektv
full course, and is seen as someone who             ntəvju / noun an interview using pre-
is diluting the pool of skilled labour (in-        set questions and following a fixed
formal )
      .                                            pattern
direct line                                          78                               disciplinary

direct line /da rekt lan/ noun a                        which is paid direct to the government
telephone number which goes direct to                     The government raises more money by
someone, without passing through an                       direct taxation than by indirect.
operator                                                  disability / dsə blti/ noun a condi-
directly /da rektl/ adverb 1. imme-                     tion of being unable to use your body
diately She left for the airport directly                 properly (because you are blind or can-
after receiving the telephone message.                    not walk)      The government awards
2. with no third party involved       We                  special disability allowances for handi-
deal directly with the manufacturer,                      capped people who cannot find work.
without using a wholesaler.                               disability     working       allowance
director /da rektə/ noun the person                      / dsəblti w kŋ ə laυəns/ noun a
who is in charge of a project, an official                benefit paid to people working more
institute or other organisation the di-                   than 16 hours a week who have an ill-
rector of the government research insti-                  ness or disability. Abbr DWA
tute She was appointed director of the                    disabled /ds eb(ə)ld/ adjective hav-
trade association.                                        ing a physical disability      Each com-
 ‘…the research director will manage and direct           pany is required by law to employ a
 a team of business analysts reporting on the
 latest developments in retail distribution               certain percentage of disabled staff.
 throughout the UK’ [Times]                               There are special facilities for disabled
 COMMENT: Directors are elected by
                                                          employees.      One of our managers is
 shareholders at the AGM, though they are                 disabled and cannot travel far.
 usually chosen by the chairman or chief                  disabled person /ds eb(ə)ld
 executive. A board will consist of a chair-               p s(ə)n/ noun a person who has a
 man (who may be non-executive), a chief                  physical disability
 executive or managing director and a se-
 ries of specialist directors in charge of var-
                                                          disablement            benefit       /ds-
 ious activities of the company (such as a                 eb(ə)lmənt benft/ noun a govern-
 finance director, production director or                 ment payment to a person who is
 sales director). The company secretary                   disabled
 will attend board meetings, but need not                 disadvantage            / dsəd vɑ ntd /
 be a director. Apart from the executive di-              noun something which makes you less
 rectors, who are in fact employees of the                successful It is a disadvantage for an
 company, there may be several                            HR manager to have had no experience
 non-executive directors, appointed either                of industry. to be at a disadvantage
 for their expertise and contacts, or as rep-
                                                          to be in a more awkward position than
 resentatives of important shareholders
                                                          another person       Not having taken a
 such as banks. The board of an American
 company may be made up of a large
                                                          management course puts him at a
 number of non-executive directors and                    disadvantage.
 only one or two executive officers; a Brit-              discharge noun / dstʃɑ d / 1. a pay-
 ish board has more executive directors.                  ment of debt in full discharge of a
directorate /da rekt(ə)rət/ noun a                       debt payment of a debt completely 2.
group of directors                                        carrying out of a job in discharge of
                                                          her duties as director carrying out her
director’s fees /da rektəz fi z/                         duties as director 3. dismissal from a job
plural noun money paid to a director                      í verb /ds tʃɑ d / 1. to discharge a
for attendance at board meetings                          bankrupt to release someone from
directorship /da rektəʃp/ noun the                      bankruptcy because they have has paid
post of director She was offered a di-                    their debts 2. to dismiss or to sack to
rectorship with Smith Ltd.                                discharge an employee for negligence
 ‘…what benefits does the executive derive from           disciplinary / ds plnəri/ adjective
 his directorship? In the first place compensation
 has increased sharply in recent years’                   referring to punishment
 [Duns Business Month]                                     ‘…disciplinary action is often regarded as
                                                           synonymous with dismissal, but the new ACAS
direct     taxation               t k-
                            /da rekt                      handbook takes a more positive view’
seʃ(ə)n/ noun a tax such as income tax                    [Employment Gazette]
disciplinary action                          79                                   discussion

disciplinary action / ds plnəri                calculation of forecast sales of a
   kʃən/ noun an action taken to control          product in current terms with reduc-
or punish bad behaviour by employees              tions for current interest rates
   Disciplinary action had to be taken to         discretion /d skreʃ(ə)n/ noun the
prevent further disputes between work-            ability to decide correctly what should
ers and managers.        The union com-           be done I leave it to your discretion I
plained that the disciplinary action was          leave it for you to decide what to do at
too harsh.                                        the discretion of someone according to
disciplinary board / ds plnəri                 what someone decides Membership is
bɔ d/ noun a group of people who con-             at the discretion of the committee.
duct a disciplinary interview                     discretionary /d skreʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ ad-
disciplinary interview / dsplnəri              jective which can be done if someone
 ntəvju / noun an interview between              wants      the minister’s discretionary
a manager and an employee to discuss a            powers powers which the minister
breach of discipline (the worker may be           could use if they thought it necessary
accompanied by a union representative)            discriminate /d skrmnet/ verb to
disciplinary lay-off / dsplnəri                treat people in different ways because of
 le ɒf/ noun temporary dismissal of an           class, religion, race, language, colour,
employee as a punishment                          sex, or physical or mental ability The
                                                  management appeared to discriminate
disciplinary measures / ds-                     against handicapped applicants.
 plnəri me əz/ plural noun same as
disciplinary action                               discrimination /d skrm neʃ(ə)n/
                                                  noun the practice of treating people in
discipline / dspln/         noun the           different ways because of class, reli-
self-control needed to do a job                   gion, race, language, colour or sex
Working his way up the company ladder
gave him the discipline to take on fur-           discriminatory /d skrmnət(ə)ri/
ther management responsibilities.                 adjective which shows discrimination
Lack of discipline is responsible for             The appointment of only males to the
poor attendance figures. to keep dis-             three posts was clearly discriminatory.
cipline to make sure that everyone                 ‘EEC legislation should formally recognize that
                                                   sexual harassment is discrimination on grounds
obeys the rules í verb to punish an em-            of sex’ [Personnel Management]
ployee for misconduct        Three mem-            ‘…she claimed she was a victim of sex
bers of staff were disciplined by the              discrimination but this was rejected by the
manager.                                           industrial tribunal and the Court of Appeal’
                                                   [Personnel Today]
disclosure /ds kləυ ə/ noun the act
of telling details The disclosure of the           ‘…discrimination in pensions is set to continue’
                                                   [Personnel Management]
takeover bid raised the price of the
shares.                                           discuss /d sk s/ verb to talk about a
                                                  problem      They spent two hours dis-
disclosure of information /ds-                   cussing the details of the contract.
 kləυ ər əv nfə meʃ(ə)n/ noun                   The committee discussed the question of
the giving of information to someone,             import duties on cars. The board will
such as the union representatives in              discuss wage rises at its next meeting.
collective bargaining, so that they know          We discussed delivery schedules with
all the relevant facts about a case before        our suppliers.
presenting the defence
                                                  discussion /d sk ʃ(ə)n/ noun the
discontinuous          shift    system            act of talking about a problem After
/dskən tnjuəs ʃft sstəm/ noun a               ten minutes’ discussion the board
working system where three groups of              agreed the salary increases. We spent
employees work morning, noon and                  the whole day in discussions with our
night shifts, but do not work at                  suppliers. to hold discussions to dis-
weekends                                          cuss formally Management is holding
discounted             cash         flow          discussions with representatives of the
/ dskaυntd     k ʃ    fləυ/   noun    a         union.
disease                                       80                                 distribute

disease /d zi z/ noun an illness in               disposal /d spəυz(ə)l/ noun a sale
which the body functions abnormally                a disposal of securities The company
disincentive / dsn sentv/ noun                  has started a systematic disposal of its
something which discourages, espe-                 property portfolio. lease or business
cially something which discourages                 for disposal a lease or business for sale
people from working The low salary                 dispose /d spəυz/ verb to dispose
offered was a disincentive to work.                of to get rid of or to sell cheaply to
disk /dsk/ noun a round flat object,              dispose of excess stock to dispose of
used to store information in computers             excess equipment       He is planning to
                                                   dispose of his business in the new year.
disk drive / dsk drav/ noun a part                  to dispose of day-to-day matters to
of a computer which makes a disk spin              deal with routine matters
round in order to read it or store infor-
mation on it                                       dispute /d spju t, dspju t/ noun
diskette /d sket/ noun a small floppy             disagreement dispute between two de-
disk He sent a diskette of the accounts            partments in an organisation to adju-
to his accountant.                                 dicate or mediate in a dispute to try to
                                                   settle a dispute between other parties
dismiss /ds ms/ verb 1. to dis-
miss an employee to remove an em-                  dispute benefit /d spju t benft/
ployee from a job She was dismissed                noun same as strike pay
for being late. 2. to refuse to accept             disputes procedures /d spju ts
The court dismissed the claim.                     prə si d əz/ plural noun the correct
dismissal /ds ms(ə)l/ noun the re-               actions to take to deal with disputes,
moval of an employee from a job, either            following the rules agreed between
by sacking or by not renewing a contract           management and unions
dismissal procedures /ds ms(ə)l                  disregard / dsr ɑ d/ noun the act
prə si d əz/ plural noun the correct ac-           of not paying any attention to something
tions to take in order to dismiss some-               in complete disregard of regulations
one, following the rules in the contract           without paying any attention to the reg-
of employment                                      ulations í verb to take no notice of or
disobedience / dsə bi diəns/ noun                 not to obey The workers disregarded
the act of not doing what you are told to          the instructions of the shop stewards.
do                                                 dissatisfaction /ds s ts f kʃən/
disobey / dsə be/ verb not to do                 noun the state of being discontented or
what someone tells you to do           The         not being satisfied dissatisfaction with
workers disobeyed their union’s instruc-           bad working conditions Although the
tions and held a 24-hour strike.                   work itself was interesting, there was a
                                                   lot of dissatisfaction with the organisa-
disparity /d sp rti/ noun a differ-              tion and its rules.
ence (NOTE: plural is disparities) dis-
parities      between     salary     levels        dissociate /d səυsiet/ verb           to
differences between salaries paid to dif-          dissociate oneself from a statement
ferent employees at the same level of              not to agree with what someone has said
responsibility                                     distance learning / dstəns l nŋ/
disposable /d spəυzəb(ə)l/ adjec-                 noun learning in one’s own time away
tive which can be used and then thrown             from the centre producing the course, by
away The machine serves soup in dis-               mail, radio, television or by occasional
posable paper cups.                                visits to centres
disposable             income          /d-        distribute /d strbju t/ verb 1. to
 spəυzəb(ə)l nk m/, disposable                    share out dividends Profits were dis-
personal income /d spəυzəb(ə)l                    tributed among the shareholders. 2. to
 p s(ə)nəl nk m/ noun the income                  send out goods from a manufacturer’s
left after tax and national insurance have         warehouse to retail shops       Smith Ltd
been deducted                                      distributes for several smaller compa-
distribution                                     81                                     double

nies. All orders are distributed from                 again.     He had £20 docked from his
our warehouse near Oxford.                            pay for being late.
distribution / dstr bju ʃ(ə)n/ noun                 doctor / dɒktə/ noun a specialist who
1. the act of sending goods from the                  examines people when they are sick to
manufacturer to the wholesaler and then               see how they can be made well
to retailers Stock is held in a distribu-             doctor’s certificate / dɒktəz sə-
tion centre which deals with all order                 tfkət/ noun a document written by a
processing.     Distribution costs have               doctor to say that a worker is ill and can-
risen sharply over the last 18 months.                not work He has been off sick for ten
She has several years’ experience as                  days and still has not sent in a doctor’s
distribution manager. 2. sharing some-                certificate.
thing among several people distribu-
tion of the workload sharing in a fair                documentary                   evidence
way the work which has to be done                     / dɒkjυment(ə)ri     evd(ə)ns/ noun
 ‘British distribution companies are poised to        evidence in the form of documents
 capture a major share of the European market’        dogsbody / dɒ zbɒdi/ noun a person
 [Management News]                                    who does all types of work in an office
distribution       channels / dstr-                 for very low wages (informal ).

 bju ʃ(ə)n tʃ n(ə)lz/ plural noun                     dole /dəυl/ noun money given by the
ways of sending goods from the manu-                  government to unemployed people he
facturer for sale by retailers                        is receiving dole payments, he is on
distribution of profits /dstr-                      the dole he is receiving unemployment
 bju ʃ(ə)n əv prɒfts/ noun the shar-                 benefits
ing of profits between shareholders,                  dole bludger / dəυl bl d ə/ noun
staff and other parties                               (in Australia and New Zealand) some-
distributive        bargaining        /d-            one who lives off social security pay-
 strbjυtv bɑ nŋ/ noun collective                  ments and makes no attempt to find
bargaining where the workers try to ob-               work
tain as good a share of limited resources             dole queue / dəυl kju / noun a line
as possible                                           of people waiting to collect their unem-
division /d v (ə)n/ noun 1. the main                ployment money (NOTE: the American
section of a large company the mar-                   term is dole line)
keting division      the production divi-             domicile / dɒmsal/ verb     she is do-
sion     the retail division    the hotel             miciled in Denmark she lives in Den-
division of the leisure group 2. a com-               mark officially     bills domiciled in
pany which is part of a large group                   France bills of exchange which have to
Smith’s is now a division of the Brown                be paid in France
group of companies. 3. the act of sepa-
rating a whole into parts the division                dotted-line relationships / dɒtd
of responsibility between managers                     lan r leʃ(ə)nʃps/ plural noun
                                                      relationships between managers and
divisional /d v (ə)n(ə)l/ adjective                 staff whom they supervise indirectly
referring to a division a divisional di-
                                                      rather than on a day-to-day basis (NOTE:
rector the divisional headquarters
                                                      The name comes from the fact that
divisional headquarters /d-                          these links are shown as dotted lines
 v (ə)nəl hed kwɔ tez/ plural noun                   on organisational charts.)
the main office of a division of a
company                                               double / d b(ə)l/ adjective twice as
                                                      large or two times the size Their turn-
division of labour /d v (ə)n əv                     over is double ours. to be on double
 lebə/ noun a production system where                time to earn twice the usual wages for
work is split up into clearly defined                 working on Sundays or other holidays
tasks and areas of responsibility                     to work double shifts to work with two
dock /dɒk/ verb to remove money                       shifts of workers on duty in double
from someone’s wages We will have                     figures with two figures, from 10 to 99
to dock your pay if you are late for work                Inflation is in double figures.  We
double day shift                             82            downward communication

have had double-figure inflation for              job The post was downgraded in the
some years. í verb to become twice as             company reorganisation.
big, or make something twice as big               downgrading / daυn redŋ/ noun
We have doubled our profits this year or          the act of moving an employee to a
our profits have doubled this year.               lower grade of job The reassessment
The company’s borrowings have                     of staff has led to some downgrading,
doubled.                                          which is never popular. We never re-
double day shift / d b(ə)l de ʃft/              sort to downgrading because it causes
noun a system of working two shifts               too much resentment.
during the day time (as from 8.00 a.m.            downloading / daυnləυdŋ/ noun
to 2.00 p.m, and then 2.00 p.m. to 8.00           reducing the amount of work done in a
p.m.)                                             department, factory or other place of
double dipping / d b(ə)l dpŋ/                   work
noun US the practice of receiving two             down payment / daυn pemənt/
incomes from a government, one in the             noun a part of a total payment made in
form of a pension, the other in social se-        advance We made a down payment of
curity benefits                                   $100.
double-jobbing / d b(ə)l d ɒbŋ/                  downshifting / daυnʃftŋ/ noun the
noun the practice of doing a second               process of giving up all or part of your
job, usually without paying tax                   work and income in exchange for an im-
Double-jobbing has become more im-                proved quality of life (NOTE: Down-
portant since inflation made it difficult         shifting has increased in popularity
for workers to make ends meet.                    because of rising stress in the work-
She makes thousands a year from                   place and is integral to the idea of port-
double-jobbing.          Double-jobbing           folio working, in which people opt out
meant that he spent almost no time                of a formal employment to sell their
with his family. ‘ moonlighting                   services to companies as freelances.)
double taxation / d b(ə)l t k-                    downsize / daυnsaz/ verb to reduce
 seʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of taxing the             the number of people employed in order
same income twice                                 to make a company more profitable
double       taxation       agreement             downsizing / daυnsazŋ/ noun the
/ d b(ə)l t k seʃ(ə)n ə ri mənt/,                process of reducing the size of some-
double taxation treaty / d b(ə)l t k-             thing, especially reducing the number of
 seʃ(ə)n tri ti/ noun an agreement               people employed in a company to make
between two countries that a person               it more profitable
living in one country shall not be taxed          down time / daυn tam/ noun 1. the
in both countries on the income earned            time when a machine is not working or
in the other country                              not available because it is broken or be-
double time / d b(ə)l tam/ noun a                ing mended 2. the time when a worker
time for which work is paid at twice the          cannot work because machines have
normal rate She is on double time on              broken down or because components
Sundays.                                          are not available
down /daυn/ adverb, preposition in a              down tools / daυn tu lz/ verb to
lower position or to a lower position             stop working       The entire workforce
The inflation rate is gradually coming            downed tools in protest.
down. Shares are slightly down on the             downward / daυnwəd/ adjective to-
day.     The price of petrol has gone             wards a lower position The downward
down. to pay money down, to make                  movement of shares continued during
a down payment to make a deposit                  the day.
He paid £50 down and the rest in                  downward             communication
monthly instalments.                              / daυnwəd kəmju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun
downgrade / daυn red/ verb to re-                communication from the top manage-
duce the importance of someone or of a            ment to the lower levels of employee in
downwards                                    83                                dumbsizing

an organisation More effective down-              driving licence. (NOTE: the American
ward communication will be helped by              English is driver’s license)
starting a house journal and by more in-          DTI abbr Department of Trade and
formal talks between directors and                Industry
                                                  dual / dju əl/ adjective 1. referring to
downwards / daυnwədz/ adverb to-                  two things at the same time 2. operated
wards a lower position        The com-            by two people
pany’s profits have moved downwards               dual career couple / dju əl kə rə
over the last few years.                           k p(ə)l/ noun a married couple where
drag on / dr        ɒn/ verb to continue          both husband and wife have different
slowly without ending       Negotiations          careers
dragged on into the night. (NOTE:                 dual ladder / dju əl l də/ noun two
dragging-dragged)                                 career paths in an organisation leading
draw up / drɔ       p/ verb to write a le-        to positions of equal importance and
gal document    to draw up a contract or          open to the same type of employee
an agreement    to draw up a company’s            Dual ladders attract employees who
articles  of      association     (NOTE:          want to keep their career options open.
drawing-drew)                                     dual         unionism           / dju əl
dress code / dres kəυd/ noun a pol-                ju njənz(ə)m/ noun the fact of being
icy on which type of clothes are consid-          a member of two trade unions Dual
ered suitable for a specific activity,            unionism is common in industries where
especially the clothes worn at work               the workers want to be as well repre-
The dress code is suit and tie for men or         sented as possible.
smart casual clothes on Fridays. The              due /dju / adjective 1. owed a sum
company has a strict dress code for               due from a debtor to fall or become
members of staff who meet the public.             due to be ready for payment bill due
dress-down day /dres daυn de/                    on May 1st a bill which has to be paid
noun a day on which employees are al-             on May 1st      balance due to us the
lowed to wear informal clothes to work            amount owed to us which should be
drift /drft/ noun gradual movement               paid 2. expected to arrive She is due
without any control í verb to move                to come for interview at 10.30. 3. in
gradually in a particular direction               due form written in the correct legal
Shares drifted lower in a dull market.            form a receipt in due form a con-
Strikers are drifting back to work.               tract drawn up in due form after due
                                                  consideration of the problem after
drive /drav/ noun 1. an energetic way            thinking seriously about the problem
of doing things She has a lot of drive            due to caused by The company pays
she is very energetic in business 2. a            the wages of staff who are absent due to
part of a machine which makes other               illness.
parts work í verb 1. to make a motor               ‘…many expect the US economic indicators for
vehicle go in a specific direction He              April, due out this Thursday, to show faster
was driving to work when he heard the              economic                            growth’
news on the car radio. She drives a                [Australian Financial Review]
company car. 2. She drives a hard                 dues /dju z/ plural noun regular sub-
bargain she is a difficult person to ne-          scription payments made by a union
gotiate with                                      member to the union
driver / dravə/ noun something or                duly / dju li/ adverb 1. properly
someone that provides an impetus for              duly authorised representative 2. as was
something to happen                               expected We duly received his letter
driving licence / dravŋ las(ə)ns/              of 21st October. We duly met the un-
noun the official document which                  ion representatives to discuss the
shows someone is legally allowed to               takeover.
drive a car, truck or other vehicle Ap-           dumbsizing / d msazŋ/ noun the
plicants for the job should hold a valid          process of reducing the size of a com-
duration                                        84                                      DWP

pany to such an extent that it is no lon-            duty of reasonable care / dju ti
ger profitable or efficient (slang)                  əv ri z(ə)nəb(ə)l keə/ the duty of em-
                                                     ployers to look after the safety of their
duration /djυ reʃ(ə)n/ noun the                     employees and not act negligently
length of time that something lasts the
duration of a contract of employment                 duty receptionist / dju ti r-
                                                      sepʃənst/ noun the receptionist who
The clause is binding during the dura-
                                                     is working at the time
tion of the contract.
                                                     duty roster / dju ti rɒstə/ noun a
duties / dju tiz/ plural noun specified              list of times showing when each person
tasks which have to be done The job                  is on duty at those times
description lists the duties of a direc-             duvet day / du ve de/ noun a day
tor’s secretary. His duties are oner-                on which an employer allows an em-
ous but he’s very well-paid.                         ployee to call in and say that they do not
duty / dju t/ noun 1. work which has                feel like coming to work and will be ab-
to be done       on duty doing official              sent (NOTE: Duvet days are more popu-
work which is part of your job       She             lar in the United States – where they
has been on duty all day. Two security               are called ‘personal days’ – than in the
guards were on duty at the time of the               United Kingdom. Organisations that al-
theft. 2. moral or legal obligation the              low them do not usually make them
                                                     part of written policy, limit them to two
employee’s duty to his employer He
                                                     or three per year and sometimes only
felt he had a duty to show his successor             offer them to key employees.)
how the job was done.
 ‘…the Department of Customs and Excise
                                                     DWA abbr disability working
 collected a total of N79m under the new             allowance
 advance duty payment scheme’ [Business Times        DWP abbr Department for Work and
 (Lagos)]                                            Pensions
e. & o.e.                                   85                         economic model


e. & o.e. abbr errors and omissions              signer that her earning power is very
excepted                                         large.
ear candy / ə k ndi/ noun pleasant              earnings /       nŋz/ plural noun 1. sal-
but meaningless noise or talk                    ary, wages, dividends or interest re-
early /     l/ adjective, adverb before         ceived        High earnings in top
the usual time The mail arrived early.           management reflect the heavy responsi-
   We retired early and bought a house           bilities involved.     The calculation is
in Cornwall. at an early date very               based on average earnings over three
soon í adjective at the beginning of a           years. 2. profit made by a company
                                                  ‘…the US now accounts for more than half of
period of time He took an early flight            our world-wide sales. It has made a huge
to Paris. we hope for an early re-                contribution to our earnings turnaround’
sumption of negotiations we hope ne-              [Duns Business Month]
gotiations will start again soon                  ‘…last fiscal year the chain reported a 116%
early adopter /     li ə dɒptə/ noun an           jump in earnings, to $6.4 million or $1.10 a
                                                  share’ [Barrons]
individual or organisation that is one of
the first to make use of a new                   earnings drift /      nŋz drft/ noun a
technology                                       situation where an increase in pay is
early retirement /        li r taəmənt/        greater than that of officially negotiated
noun a scheme where a company en-                rates The earnings drift is caused by a
courages employees to retire earlier than        sudden increased demand for a certain
usual, and receive financial compensa-           class of employee. (NOTE: also called
tion for this        early retirement at         salary drift or wage drift)
fifty-five He took early retirement.             earnings rule /       nŋz ru l/ noun a
The management offered some of the se-           system where retirement pensions are
nior staff early retirement.                     reduced for those who earn more than a
                                                 specified amount when working The
earn / n/ verb 1. to be paid money for           earnings rule can be considered as a
working to earn £100 a week Our                  way of compensating for salary
agent in Paris certainly does not earn           differentials.
his commission. Her new job is more
of a transfer than a promotion, since she        EAT abbr employment appeal tribunal
doesn’t earn any more. How much do               echelon / eʃəlɒn/ noun a group of
you earn in your new job? 2. to produce          people of a certain grade in an organisa-
interest or dividends a building soci-           tion the upper echelons of industry
ety account which earns interest at 10%          Communications have improved be-
   What level of dividend do these shares        tween the higher and lower echelons in
earn?                                            the company.
earning capacity /     nŋ kə p sti/            economic         cycle       / i kənɒmk
noun the amount of money someone                  sak(ə)l/ noun a period during which
should be able to earn                           trade expands, then slows down and
earning power /     nŋ paυə/ noun               then expands again
the amount of money someone should               economic model / i kənɒmk
be able to earn She is such a fine de-            mɒd(ə)l/ noun a computerised plan of
economics                                             86                                     efficient

a country’s economic system, used for                      tract which take effect, come into ef-
forecasting economic trends                                fect from January 1st terms which
economics / i kə nɒmks/ noun the                          start to operate on January 1st to re-
study of the production, distribution,                     main in effect to continue to be applied
selling and use of goods and services                         salaries are increased 10% with ef-
(NOTE: takes a singular verb) í plural                     fect from January 1st a salary increase
noun the study of financial structures to                  of 10% will apply from January 1st
show how a product or service is costed                    effective / fektv/ adjective 1. ac-
and what returns it produces I do not                      tual, as opposed to theoretical 2. which
understand the economics of the coal in-                   works or produces results Advertising
dustry. (NOTE: takes a plural verb)                        in the Sunday papers is the most effec-
 ‘…believers in free-market economics often                tive way of selling. She is an effective
 find it hard to sort out their views on the issue’        marketing manager. ‘ cost-effective
                                                           effective date of termination /-
economic tort / i kənɒmk tɔ t/                             fektv det əv t m neʃ(ə)n/ noun
noun economic harm done to one of the                      on the date at which an employee’s em-
parties in an industrial dispute (such as                  ployment ends (i.e. the date after notice,
when shops stewards induce workers to                      on which they leave the company)
take industrial action and so harm the                     effective demand / fektv d-
company’s finances)                                         mɑ nd/ noun the actual demand for a
economy / kɒnəm/ noun the quality                        product which can be paid for
of being careful not to waste money or                     effective labour market / fektv
materials                                                   lebə mɑ kt/ noun a labour market
 ‘…the European economies are being held back              from which an employer actually draws
 by rigid labor markets and wage structures, huge
 expenditures on social welfare programs and               applicants for posts, as opposed to the
 restrictions on the free movement of goods’               labour market from which the employer
 [Duns Business Month]                                     actually gets applicants
economy class / kɒnəmi klɑ s/                             effectiveness / fektvnəs/ noun the
noun a lower quality, less expensive                       quality of working or producing results
way of travelling      I travel economy                       I doubt the effectiveness of television
class because it is cheaper. I always                      advertising.     His effectiveness as a
travels first class because tourist class                  manager was due to his quick grasp of
is too uncomfortable.                                      detail. ‘ cost-effectiveness
economy drive / kɒnəmi drav/                             efficiency / fʃ(ə)nsi/ noun the abil-
noun a vigorous effort to save money or                    ity to work well or to produce the right
materials                                                  result or the right work quickly         a
economy measure / kɒnəmi                                  business efficiency exhibition The bus
 me ə/ noun an action to save money or                     system is run with a high degree of effi-
materials                                                  ciency. We called in an efficiency ex-
                                                           pert to report on ways of increasing
education / edjυ keʃ(ə)n/ noun                            profitability.
training of the mind, especially through                    ‘…increased control means improved efficiency
instruction at school or college Jobs                       in purchasing, shipping, sales and delivery’
in management require a good basic ed-                      [Duns Business Month]
ucation. People with no more than a                        efficiency        bonus       / fʃ(ə)nsi
basic education can be considered for                       bəυnəs/ noun an extra payment for ef-
manual positions.                                          ficiency in a job
educational                               leave            efficiency rating / fʃ(ə)nsi retŋ/
/ edjυkeʃ(ə)n(ə)l li v/ noun special                      noun an evaluation of an employee’s ef-
leave given to employees who want to                       ficiency in performing a job Her effi-
undertake a course of study                                ciency rating is so high she will soon be
effect / fekt/ noun 1. a result The                       promoted.
effect of the pay increase was to raise                    efficient / fʃ(ə)nt/ adjective able to
productivity levels. 2. terms of a con-                    work well or to produce the right result
efficiently                                  87                                      email

quickly the efficient working of a sys-           -elect / lekt/ suffix referring to a per-
tem     An efficient assistant is invalu-         son who has been elected but has not yet
able. An efficient new machine would              started the term of office
save time.                                        elected officer / lektd ɒfsə/
efficiently / fʃ(ə)ntli/ adverb in an           noun an official with decision-making
efficient way She organised the sales             powers, e.g. a director or union repre-
conference very efficiently.                      sentative, who is chosen by a vote of the
                                                  members or shareholders of an
effort / efət/ noun an act of using the           organisation
mind or body to do something           The
sales staff made great efforts to increase        election / lekʃən/ noun the act of
sales. Thanks to the efforts of the fi-           electing someone the election of offi-
                                                  cers of an association the election of
nance department, overheads have been
                                                  directors by the shareholders to stand
reduced. If we make one more effort,              for election to be a candidate in an
we should clear the backlog of orders.            election
e.g. / i d i / for example or such as             electronic cottage / elktrɒnk
The contract is valid in some countries            kɒtd / noun somone’s home from
(e.g. France and Belgium) but not in              which they work for a company on a
others.                                           computer, usually linked to the office
ego drive / i əυ drav/ noun a per-               via a modem
son’s ambition or motivation to succeed           electronic learning / elktrɒnk
   Ego drive is highly valued in sales             l nŋ/ noun same as e-learning
representatives                                   electronic mail / elktrɒnk mel/
eighty per cent rule / eti pə sent               noun same as email 1
ru l/ noun US the principle which states          element / elmənt/ noun a basic part
that if selection of a particular ethnic,         or the smallest unit into which some-
age or sex group is less than 80% of an-          thing can be divided the elements of a
other group, then the selection system is         settlement     Work study resulted in a
defective According to the eighty per             standard time for each job element.
cent rule our recruitment practices used          eligibility / eld  blti/ noun the fact
to be highly discriminatory.                      of being eligible The chairman ques-
elasticity / l stsəti/ noun the abil-           tioned her eligibility to stand for
ity to change easily in response to a             re-election.
change in circumstances elasticity of             eligible / eld b(ə)l/ adjective which
supply and demand changes in supply               can be chosen        She is eligible for
and demand of an item depending on its            re-election.
market price                                      eligible list / eld b(ə)l lst/ noun a
e-learning / i l nŋ/ noun learning               list of qualified applicants in an order
by means of courses or aids to study              based on the results of tests        After
provided on the Internet or an intranet           marking the candidates’ tests, they drew
(NOTE: E-learning is a development                up an eligible list.
from computer-based training and,                 eliminate / lmnet/ verb to remove
because it is Internet based, it is very             to eliminate defects in the system
flexible: it allows the learner to proceed        Using a computer should eliminate all
at their own pace and can be adapted              possibility of error. We have decided
to suit the changing needs of the com-            to eliminate this series of old products
pany. Full form is electronic learning)           from our range.
elect / lekt/ verb 1. to choose some-            email / i mel/ noun 1. a system of
one by a vote She was elected presi-              sending messages from one computer
dent of the staff club. 2. to choose to do        terminal to another, using a modem and
something      He elected to take early           telephone lines You can contact me by
retirement.                                       phone or email if you want. 2. a mes-
                                                  sage sent electronically       I had six
embezzle                                      88                 employee commitment

emails from him today. í verb to send a            twenty staff to have twenty people
message from one computer to another,              working for you    to employ twenty
using a modem and telephone lines                  new staff to give work to twenty new
She emailed her order to the warehouse.            people
  I emailed him about the meeting.                  ‘70 per cent of Australia’s labour force was
                                                    employed        in       service     activity’
embezzle /m bez(ə)l/ verb to use il-               [Australian Financial Review]
legally money which is not yours, or
which you are looking after for someone            employability /m plɔə blti/ noun
   He was sent to prison for six months            the quality of having skills that will en-
for embezzling his clients’ money.                 able you to find and keep work (NOTE:
                                                   Employability is also affected by mar-
embezzlement           /m bez(ə)lmənt/            ket demand for particular skills and by
noun the act of embezzling         He was          personal circumstances.)
sent to prison for six months for
embezzlement.                                      employed /m plɔd/ adjective in reg-
                                                   ular paid work he is not gainfully em-
embezzler /m bez(ə)lə/ noun a per-                ployed he has no regular paid work to
son who embezzles                                  be employed to be in regular paid work
emergency exit / m d (ə)nsi                       í plural noun people who are working
 e zt/ noun the special way out of a                the employers and the employed
building, used if there is a fire or other         employee /m plɔi / noun a person
emergency                                          employed by another       Employees of
emigrant / em rənt/ noun a person                 the firm are eligible to join a
who emigrates. ‘ immigrant                         profit-sharing scheme. Relations be-
emigrate / em ret/ verb to go to an-             tween management and employees are
other country to live permanently                  good.     The company has decided to
                                                   take on new employees.
emigration / em reʃ(ə)n/ noun the                 ‘…companies introducing robotics think it
act of leaving a country to go to live per-         important to involve individual employees in
manently in another country. ‘                      planning their introduction’ [Economist]
immigration                                        employee           assistance
emoluments / mɒljυmənts/ plural                   programme /m plɔi ə sst(ə)ns
noun pay, salary or fees, or the earnings           prəυ r m/ noun a programme set up
of directors who are not employees                 to help employees with personal prob-
(NOTE: American English uses the sin-              lems. Abbr EAP
gular emolument)                                   employee association /m plɔi
emotional          intelligence        /-         əsəυs eʃ(ə)n/ noun an association of
 məυʃ(ə)n(ə)l n teld əns/ noun the               employees who work for the same or-
ability to understand your own per-                ganisation, formed to promote profes-
sonal feelings and those of other people,          sional solidarity or to arrange social
to take other people’s feelings into               activities
account when reaching decisions and                employee attitude survey /m-
to respond to people’s feelings in a                plɔi     ttju d s ve/ noun a survey
restrained and thoughtful way (NOTE:               carried out among the employees of an
Emotional intelligence can greatly im-             organisation to discover what they think
prove people’s interpersonal communi-              and feel generally about the work of the
cation and people skills.)                         organisation and their role within it, or
empathy / empəθi/ noun the ability to              about some particular issue such as a
appreciate the feelings of a subordinate           new company policy
in a particular situation the need for             employee commitment /m plɔi
empathy to understand the frustration of           kə mtmənt/ noun the feeling of loy-
an employee in the wrong job She had               alty that employees have towards the or-
little empathy with less ambitious                 ganisation that they work for, which
colleagues.                                        largely depends on the extent to which
employ /m plɔ/ verb to give some-                they believe in the values and aims of
one regular paid work         to employ            the organisation and feel personally in-
employee communication                     89                             employment

volved in the task of making the organi-        the job and a description of the ideal
sation successful                               candidate for the job
employee          communication(s)              employee referral programme
/m plɔi kə mju n keʃ(ə)nz/, com-            /m plɔi r f rəl prəυ r m/ noun a
munication       with       employees           policy popular in the US that encour-
/kəmju n keʃ(ə)n wð m plɔi z/              ages employees, usually through cash
noun the process of passing information         incentives, to nominate potential candi-
to employees and receiving information          dates for various jobs as part of the re-
from employees                                  cruiting process
employee development /m plɔi                  employee representation /m-
d veləpmənt/ noun additional training           plɔi reprzen teʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact
dedicated to increasing the skills,             of having representatives of the employ-
knowledge and experience of employees           ees on committees or boards
in order to improve their performance           employee retention /m plɔi r-
employee discount /m plɔi                      tenʃən/ noun the process of keeping
 dskaυnt/ noun a reduction in the price        employees on the staff, and not losing
that employees have to pay for the              them to rival firms
goods or services produced by their             employee share ownership plan
company, offered as one of their fringe         /m plɔi ʃeə əυnəʃp pl n/, em-
benefits                                        ployee share ownership programme
employee handbook /m plɔi                     /m plɔi ʃeə əυnəʃp prəυ r m/,
 h ndbυk/ noun a book that gives em-            employee share scheme /m plɔi
ployees the information they need on             ʃeə ski m/ noun a plan which allows
the organisation that they work for and         employees to obtain shares in the com-
the job that they do (NOTE: Employee            pany for which they work. Abbr ESOP
handbooks typically describe terms
and conditions of employment, the pol-
                                                employee stock fund /m plɔi
icies and procedures of the organisa-
                                                 stɒk f nd/ noun (in the US) a fund
tion and fringe benefits.)
                                                from which money is taken to buy
                                                shares of a company’s stock for its
employee involvement /m plɔi                  employees
n vɒlvmənt/ noun a management pol-
icy that aims to increase employee com-         employer /m plɔə/ noun a person or
mitment by giving employees greater             company that has regular employees
individual responsibility for the work          and pays them
they do and a greater share in                  employer’s liability /m plɔəz
decision-making                                 laə blti/ noun the legal responsibility
employee ownership /m plɔi                    of an employer when employees suffer
 əυnəʃp/ noun ownership of all or              accidents due to negligence on the part
some of the shares in a company by the          of the employer
people who work for it (NOTE: Forms of          employers’ liability insurance
employee ownership include employee             /m plɔəz  laə blti n ʃυərəns/
share schemes, employee buy-outs,               noun insurance to cover accidents
co-operatives and employee trusts.)             which may happen at work, and for
employee participation /m plɔi                which the company may be responsible
pɑ ts peʃ(ə)n/ noun the practice of          employers’ organisation /m-
employees sharing in the company’s               plɔəz ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/, employers’
planning and decision-making (such as           association       /m plɔəz əsəυsi-
in works councils and quality circles)           eʃ(ə)n/ noun a group of employers
(NOTE:     also      called     worker          with similar interests
participation)                                  employment /m plɔmənt/ noun
employee        profile       /m plɔi         regular paid work to be without em-
 prəυfal/ noun a person specification          ployment to have no work to be in
or form of job description which gives          continuous employment to be em-
the ideal personal qualities needed for         ployed for a period of time, without
employment agency                              90                          encounter group

more than a week’s gap (holidays, sick-             employment law /m plɔmənt lɔ /
ness are not counted as gaps) She was               noun the law as referring to workers,
in continuous employment for the period             employers and their rights
1993 to 1996.                                       employment office /m plɔmənt
 ‘…the blue-collar unions are the people who         ɒfs/ noun an office which finds jobs
 stand to lose most in terms of employment          for people
 growth’ [Sydney Morning Herald]
                                                    employment opportunities /m-
employment agency /m plɔmənt                       plɔmənt ɒpə tju ntiz/ plural noun
 ed ənsi/ noun an office which finds               new jobs being available (NOTE: also
jobs for staff                                      called job opportunities)
employment appeal tribunal /m-                     employment pass /m plɔmənt
 plɔmənt ə pi l tra bju n(ə)l/ noun a             pɑ s/ noun (in South Africa) a visa is-
tribunal which deals with appeals                   sued to a citizen of a foreign country
against the decisions of industrial tribu-          who is a professional earning more than
nals. Abbr EAT                                      R1,500 per month
employment-at-will /m plɔmənt                     empower /m paυə/ verb to give
ət wl/ noun a term in common law                   someone the power to do something
that a contract of employment with no               She was empowered by the company to
specified period of service may be ter-             sign the contract.    Her new position
minated by either side without notice or            empowers her to hire and fire at will.
reason                                              empowerment /m paυəmənt/ noun
 COMMENT: This is a basic principle of US           the act of giving someone (such as an
 employment law, where employers have               employee) the power to take decisions
 the right to hire workers as they feel nec-         ‘…a district-level empowerment programme
 essary and sack them for any reason and             run in one of the government’s executive
 at any time, provided this is under the             agencies failed because middle managers
 terms of the contract of employment                 blocked it. Empowerment was officially defined
                                                     by the agency as involving delegation of
 agreed between the employer and the
                                                     responsibility and the encouragement of
 employee.                                           innovation’ [People Management]
employment         benefits     /m-                empty suit / empti su t/ noun a
 plɔmənt benfts/ plural noun ex-                 company executive who dresses very
tra items given by a company to                     smartly and follows all the procedures
workers in addition to their salaries               exactly without actually contributing
(such as company cars or private                    anything important to the company
health insurance) (NOTE: also called                (slang)
fringe benefits)                                    enc, encl abbr enclosure
employment bureau /m plɔmənt                      enclose /n kləυz/ verb to put some-
 bjυərəυ/ noun an office which finds                thing inside an envelope with a letter
jobs for people                                     to enclose an invoice with a letter I
Employment Court /m plɔmənt                       am enclosing a copy of the contract.
kɔ t/ noun a higher court in New Zea-               Please find the cheque enclosed here-
land that is responsible for settling in-           with. Please enclose a recent photo-
dustrial relations disputes, e.g. between           graph with your CV.
employers and employees or unions,                  enclosure /n kləυ ə/ noun a docu-
and for deciding on appeals referred to it          ment enclosed with a letter or package
by employment tribunals                             a letter with enclosures The enclosure
employment equity /m plɔmənt                      turned out to be a free sample of per-
 ekwti/ noun the policy of giving pref-            fume. Sales material on other prod-
erence in employment opportunities to               ucts was sent out as an enclosure.
qualified people from sectors of society            encounter group /n kaυntə ru p/
that were previously discriminated                  noun a form of group psychotherapy
against, e.g., black people, women and              which encourages people with personal
people with disabilities                            problems to express their emotions
encourage                                   91                         enterprise zone

Encounter groups are used to accustom            will relieve management of some of the
management trainees to criticism. The            administrative duties.
use of encounter groups to develop as-
sertiveness in salesmen.                         English disease / ŋ lʃ d zi z/
                                                 noun industrial and economic problems
encourage /n k rd / verb 1. to                 caused by workers continually going on
make it easier for something to happen           strike (NOTE: The term originated from
   The general rise in wages encourages          the fact that in the UK in the 1960s and
consumer spending.         Leaving your          1970s workers commonly used strikes
credit cards on your desk encourages             as a way of resolving disputes with
people to steal or encourages stealing.          management. Government legislation
   The company is trying to encourage            in the 1980s, however, made striking
sales by giving large discounts. 2. to           more difficult.)
help someone to do something by giving
advice He encouraged me to apply for             enhance /n hɑ ns/ verb to make
the job.                                         better or more attractive Working for
                                                 a German company enhances the value
encouragement /n k rd mənt/                    of her work experience.
noun the act of giving advice to some-
one to help them to succeed The de-              enquire, enquiry /n kwaə, n-
signers produced a very marketable                kwaəri/ same as inquire, inquiry
product, thanks to the encouragement of          enter / entə/ verb 1. to go in They
the sales director. My family has been           all stood up when the chairman entered
a source of great encouragement to me.           the room. The company has spent mil-
energetic / enə d etk/ adjective                lions trying to enter the do-it-yourself
with a lot of energy      The sales staff        market. 2. to write to enter a name on
have made energetic attempts to sell the         a list The clerk entered the interest in
product.                                         my bank book.
energy / enəd i/ noun a force or                 enter into / entə ntu / verb to begin
strength He hasn’t the energy to be a               to enter into relations with someone
good salesman. They wasted their en-             to enter into negotiations with a foreign
ergies on trying to sell cars in the Ger-        government        to enter into a partner-
man market. (NOTE: plural is energies)           ship with a friend The company does
                                                 not want to enter into any long-term
enforce /n fɔ s/ verb to make sure              agreement.
something is done or that a rule is
obeyed       to enforce the terms of a           enterprise / entəpraz/ noun 1. ini-
contract                                         tiative or willingness to take risks or to
                                                 take responsibility We are looking for
enforcement /n fɔ smənt/ noun the               enterprise and ambition in our top man-
act of making sure that something is             agers. 2. a system of carrying on a busi-
obeyed enforcement of the terms of a             ness 3. a business
engage /n ed / verb to arrange to              enterprise culture / entəpraz
                                                  k ltʃə/ noun a general feeling that the
employ workers or advisors If we in-
                                                 commercial system works better with
crease production we will need to en-
                                                 free enterprise, increased share owner-
gage more machinists.            He was
                                                 ship, property ownership, etc.
engaged as a temporary replacement
for the marketing manager who was ill.           enterprise          union      / entəpraz
   The company has engaged twenty new             ju njən/ noun a single union which
sales representatives.                           represents all the workers in a company
engagement /n ed mənt/ noun                    enterprise zone / entəpraz zəυn/
1. an agreement to do something 2. an            noun an area of the country where busi-
arrangement to employ workers, or to             nesses are encouraged to develop by of-
re-employ them in the same job but not           fering special conditions such as easy
necessarily under the same conditions            planning permission for buildings or a
The engagement of two new secretaries            reduction in the business rate
enterprising                                92                     equality bargaining

enterprising / entəprazŋ/ adjec-               entrust /n tr st/ verb         to entrust
tive having initiative An enterprising           someone with something, to entrust
sales rep can always find new sales              something to someone to give someone
outlets.                                         the responsibility for looking after
entertainment           / entə tenmənt/         something He was entrusted with the
noun the practice of offering meals or           keys to the office safe.
other recreation to business visitors            entry / entri/ noun 1. an item of writ-
entertainment allowance / entə-                  ten information put in an accounts led-
 tenmənt ə laυəns/ noun money                   ger (NOTE: plural is entries) to make
which managers are allowed by their              an entry in a ledger to write in details
company to spend on meals with                   of a transaction 2. the act of going into a
visitors                                         new job entry of recruits from school
entertainment expenses / entə-                   entry level job / entri lev(ə)l d ɒb/
 tenmənt k spensz/ plural noun                noun a job for which no previous expe-
money spent on giving meals to busi-             rience is needed       It is only an entry
ness visitors                                    level job, but you can expect promotion
                                                 within six months.
entice /n tas/ verb to try to persuade
someone to do something         The com-         entry level pay / entri lev(ə)l pe/
pany was accused of enticing staff from          noun pay for an entry level job
other companies by offering them                 entry requirement / entri r-
higher salaries.                                  kwaəmənt/ noun the qualifications
enticement /n tasmənt/ noun the                which a beginner needs to start a job
act of attracting someone away from              environment /n varənmənt/ noun
their job to another job which is better         1. the area in which an organisation
paid                                             works 2. internal or external surround-
entitle /n tat(ə)l/ verb to give the           ings     Trade unions demand a good
right to someone to have something               working environment for employees.
After one year’s service the employee is         environmental /n varən ment(ə)l/
entitled to four weeks’ holiday.                 adjective referring to the environment
entitlement /n tat(ə)lmənt/ noun a             environmental              audit       /n-
person’s right to something                       varənment(ə)l ɔ dt/ noun an as-
entrance / entrəns/ noun 1. a way in             sessment made by a company or organi-
   The taxi will drop you at the main en-        sation of the financial benefits and
trance. 2. going into a new job En-              disadvantages to be derived from adopt-
trance to the grade is by qualifications         ing a more environmentally sound
and several years’ experience.                   policy
entrance rate / entrəns ret/ noun a             Environmental         Health     Officer
rate of pay for employees when first             /n varənment(ə)l helθ ɒfsə/ noun
hired Though the entrance rate is very           an official of a local authority who ex-
low, the salary goes up considerably af-         amines the environment and tests for air
ter the first year.    The entrance rate         pollution, bad sanitation or noise pollu-
depends on whether the entrants are              tion etc. Abbr EHO (NOTE: also called
skilled or not.                                  Public Health Inspector)
entrant / entrənt/ noun a person who             EOC     abbr Equal Opportunities
is going into a new job There are sev-           Commission
eral highly qualified people in this             equal / i kwəl/ adjective exactly the
month’s batch of entrants.                       same     Male and female employees
entrepreneur / ɒntrəprə n / noun a               have equal pay.
person who directs a company and takes           equality / kwɒlti/ noun the state of
commercial risks                                 being equal
entrepreneurial / ɒntrəprə n riəl/               equality bargaining / kwɒlti
adjective taking commercial risks an              bɑ nŋ/ noun collective bargaining
entrepreneurial decision                         where the conditions and advantages
equality of opportunity                      93                                 establish

agreed apply to both male and female              work done (NOTE: takes a singular
employees equally                                 verb)
equality of opportunity / kwɒlti                ergonomics /          ə nɒmks/ noun
əv ɒpə tju nti/ noun a situation where           the study of the relationship between
everyone, regardless of sex, race, class,         people at work and their working condi-
etc., has the same opportunity to get a           tions, especially the machines they use
job                                               (NOTE: takes a singular verb)
equality of treatment / kwɒlti əv               ergonomist /        ɒnəmst/ noun a
 tri tmənt/ noun the practice of treating         scientist who studies people at work and
male and female employees equally                 tries to improve their working
equal opportunities / i kwəl ɒpə-                 conditions
 tju ntiz/ plural noun the practice of           erode / rəυd/ verb to wear away grad-
avoiding discrimination in employment             ually to erode wage differentials to
   Does the political party support equal         reduce gradually differences in salary
opportunities for women?                          between different grades
equal opportunities programme                     erosion / rəυ (ə)n/ noun the gradual
/ i kwəl ɒpə tju ntiz prəυ r m/                  wearing away erosion of differentials
noun a programme to avoid discrimina-
                                                  error / erə/ noun a mistake He made
tion in employment (NOTE: the Ameri-
                                                  an error in calculating the total.      I
can equivalent is affirmative action)
                                                  must have made a typing error. They
equal treatment / i kwəl tri tmənt/               made an error in calculating the tax de-
noun a principle of the European Union            ductions. in error, by error by mis-
that requires member states to ensure             take The letter was sent to the London
that there is no discrimination with re-          office in error.
gard to employment, vocational training
and working conditions
                                                  escalate / eskəlet/ verb to increase
equity / ekwti/ noun 1. a right to re-
ceive dividends as part of the profit of a        escalation / eskə leʃ(ə)n/ noun a
company in which you own shares 2.                steady increase an escalation of wage
fairness of treatment, e.g. equality of           demands The union has threatened an
pay for the same type of job Equity               escalation in strike action.
was the most important factor taken into          escalator clause / eskəletə klɔ z/
account in drawing up the new pay                 noun a clause in a contract allowing for
structure.                                        regular price increases because of in-
equivalence / kwvələns/ noun the                creased costs, or regular wage increases
condition of having the same value or of          because of the increased cost of living
being the same                                    escape / skep/ noun an act of get-
equivalent / kwvələnt/ adjective                ting away from a difficult situation
to be equivalent to to have the same              ESOP abbr employee share ownership
value as or to be the same as         Our         plan
managing director’s salary is equiva-             essay method / ese meθəd/ noun
lent to that of far less experienced em-          an evaluation method in performance
ployees in other organisations. í noun            appraisal where the evaluator writes a
a person who is the equal of someone              short description of the employee’s
else                                              performance
equivalent pension benefit /-                    establish / st blʃ/ verb to set up or
 kwvələnt penʃən benft/ noun the               to open The company has established
right of opted-out pensioners to receive          a branch in Australia.       The business
the same pension as they would have               was established in Scotland in 1823.
done under the state graduated pension            It is still a young company, having been
scheme                                            established for only four years. to es-
ergonometrics /             ənə metrks/          tablish oneself in business to become
noun a measurement of the quantity of             successful in a new business
establishment                               94                   evaluation of training

establishment           / st blʃmənt/          guaranteed standards of living both for
noun the number of people working in a           the working population as well as for re-
company to be on the establishment               tired people, etc. (There is no machinery
to be a full-time employee office with           for enforcing the Social Charter.)
an establishment of fifteen an office            European         Union / jυərəpi ən
with a budgeted staff of fifteen                  ju njən/ noun (formerly, the European
establishment          charges       /-         Economic Community (EEC), the Com-
 st blʃmənt tʃɑ d z/ plural noun               mon Market) a group of European coun-
the costs of people and property in a            tries linked together by the Treaty of
company’s accounts                               Rome in such a way that trade is more
ethic / eθk/ noun the general rules of          free, people can move from one country
conduct in society                               to another more freely and people can
                                                 work more freely in other countries of
ethnic / eθnk/ adjective belonging to           the group
a certain racial group
                                                  COMMENT: The European Community
 COMMENT: In a recent British survey,             was set up in 1957 and changed its name
 the main ethnic groups were defined              to the European Union when it adopted
 as: White, Black-Caribbean, Black-Afri-          the Single Market. It has now grown to in-
 can, Black-Other, Indian, Pakistani,             clude fifteen member states. These are:
 Bangladeshi, Chinese and Other.                  Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
ethnic minority / eθnk ma nɒrti/               France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
noun a section of the population from a           Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal,
certain racial group, which does not              Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom;
make up the majority of the population            other countries are negotiating to join.
                                                  The member states of the EU are linked
ethnic         monitoring         / eθnk         together by the Treaty of Rome in such a
 mɒnt(ə)rŋ/ noun the recording of the           way that trade is more free, money can be
racial origins of employees or customers          moved from one country to another freely,
in order to ensure that all parts of the          people can move from one country to an-
population are represented                        other more freely and people can work
ethos / i θɒs/ noun a characteristic              more freely in other countries of the
way of working and thinking                       group.

EU abbr European Union EU minis-                 evacuate / v kjuet/ verb to get
ters met today in Brussels. The USA is           people to leave a dangerous building, an
increasing its trade with the EU.                aircraft on fire etc. They evacuated the
                                                 premises when fire broke out in the
EU national / i ju n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l/                  basement.
noun a person who is a citizen of a
country which is a member of the EU              evacuation / v kju eʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                                 the action of getting people out of a dan-
European                 Commission              gerous building or aircraft, etc.
/ jυərəpi ən  kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun the
main executive body of the EU, made              evaluate / v ljuet/ verb to calcu-
up of members nominated by each                  late a value      to evaluate costs    We
member state (NOTE: also called the              will evaluate jobs on the basis of their
Commission       of    the    European           contribution to the organisation as a
Community)                                       whole. We need to evaluate the expe-
                                                 rience and qualifications of all the
European         Social        Charter           candidates.
/ jυərəpi ən səυʃ(ə)l tʃɑ tə/ noun a
charter for employees, drawn up by               evaluation / v lju eʃ(ə)n/ noun the
the EU in 1989, by which employees               calculation of value
have the right to a fair wage, to equal          evaluation of training /v lju-
treatment for men and women, a safe               eʃ(ə)n əv trenŋ/ noun a continuous
work environment, training, freedom of           process of analysis that evaluates the
association and collective bargaining,           training carried out by an organisation,
provision for disabled workers, freedom          defining its aims, assessing the need for
of movement from country to country,             it, finding out how people react to it and
evaluator                                       95                                        exclude

measuring its effects of the organisa-               ining the papers from the managing
tion’s financial performance                         director’s safe.
evaluator / v ljuetə/ noun a per-                  example / zɑ mpəl/ noun some-
son who carries out an evaluation                    thing chosen to show how things should
                                                     be done Her sales success in Europe
evening class / i vnŋ klɑ s/ noun                   is an example of what can be achieved
a course of study, usually for adults,               by determination.         to follow some-
organised in the evening                             one’s example to do what someone else
evening shift / i vnŋ ʃft/ noun a                  has done earlier to set a good or bad
shift which works from 6.00 p.m. to                  example to someone to work well or
10.00 or 11.00 p.m. (usually manned by               badly, and show others how the work
part-timers)                                         should or should not be done             The
evict / vkt/ verb to force someone to              foreman worked hard to set a good ex-
leave premises which they are occupy-                ample to the others.
ing They had to call in the police to                exceed /k si d/ verb to be more than
evict the squatters. The company ob-                    a discount not exceeding 15% Last
tained an injunction to evict the striking           year costs exceeded 20% of income for
workers from the factory.                            the first time. she exceeded his target
                                                     she did more than she aimed to do he
eviction / vkʃən/ noun the act of                  exceeded his powers he acted in a way
forcing someone to leave premises                    which was not allowed
which they are occupying
                                                     excellent / eksələnt/ adjective very
evidence / evd(ə)ns/ noun 1. written                good The quality of the firm’s prod-
or spoken information What evidence                  ucts is excellent, but its sales force is not
is there that the new employee is caus-              large enough.
ing all the trouble? 2. a written or spo-
ken report produced in a court of law to             except /k sept/ preposition, conjunc-
prove a fact the secretary gave evi-                 tion not including VAT is levied on all
dence against her former employer                    goods and services except books, news-
the secretary was a witness, and her re-             papers and children’s clothes. Sales
port suggested that her former employer              are rising in all markets except the Far
was guilty        the secretary gave evi-            East.
dence for her former employer the                    excepted /k septd/ adverb not
secretary was a witness, and her report              including
suggested that her former employer was               excess /k ses, ekses/ noun, adjec-
not guilty                                           tive (an amount) which is more than
ex- /eks/ prefix former an ex-director               what is allowed an excess of expendi-
of the company                                       ture over revenue Excess costs have
                                                     caused us considerable problems. in
examination             / z m neʃ(ə)n/
                                                     excess of above, more than quantities
noun 1. looking at something very care-
                                                     in excess of twenty-five kilos
fully to see if it is acceptable 2. a written
                                                      ‘…most airlines give business class the same
or oral test to see if someone has passed             baggage allowance as first class, which can save
a course He passed his accountancy                    large     sums       in    excess      baggage’
examinations. She came first in the fi-               [Business Traveller]
nal examination for the course.           He          ‘…control of materials provides manufacturers
failed his proficiency examination.                   with an opportunity to reduce the amount of
Examinations are given to candidates to               money tied up in excess materials’
test their mathematical ability. to sit               [Duns Business Month]
or to take an examination to write the               excess plan / ekses pl n/ noun a
answers to an examination test                       pension plan providing higher pensions
examine / z mn/ verb to look at                    for higher wages
someone or something very carefully                  exclude /k sklu d/ verb to keep out
Customs officials asked to examine the               or not to include The interest charges
inside of the car. The police are exam-              have been excluded from the document.
excluding                                            96                                     exempt

   Damage by fire is excluded from the                    board, which deals with policy and
policy.                                                   planning)
excluding /k sklu dŋ/ preposition                       executive chairman / zekjυtv
not including All sales staff, excluding                   tʃeəmən/ noun a title sometimes given
those living in London, can claim ex-                     to the most senior executive in an
penses for attending the sales                            organisation
conference.                                               executive coaching / zekjυtv
exclusion /k sklu (ə)n/ noun 1. the                       kəυtʃŋ/ noun regular one-to-one
act of not including something 2. cutting                 teaching or feedback sessions, designed
people off from being full members of                     to provide managers with knowledge
society, because of lack of education, al-                and skills in a particular area as part of a
coholism or drug abuse, unemployment,                     management development programme
etc.                                                      executive director / zekjυtv
exclusive /k sklu sv/ adjective                         da rektə/ noun a senior employee of
exclusive of not including      All pay-                  an organisation who is usually in charge
ments are exclusive of tax.      The in-                  of one or other of its main functions, e.g.
voice is exclusive of VAT.                                sales or human relations, and is usually,
exclusive of tax /k sklu sv əv                          but not always, a member of the board
 t ks/ noun not including tax                             of directors
excuse noun /k skju s/ a reason for                      executive officer / zekjυtv
doing something wrong         His excuse                   ɒfsə/ noun same as executive
for not coming to the meeting was that                    executive pension plan / -
he had been told about it only the day                     zekjυtv penʃən pl n/ noun a spe-
before.     the managing director re-                     cial pension plan for managers and di-
fused to accept the sales manager’s                       rectors of a company
excuses for the poor sales she refused
to believe that there was a good reason                   executive search / zekjυtv
for the poor sales í verb /k skju z/ to                  s tʃ/ noun the process of looking for
forgive a small mistake She can be ex-                    new managers for organisations, usually
cused for not knowing the French for                      by approaching managers in their exist-
‘photocopier’.                                            ing jobs and asking them if they want to
                                                          work for different companies (NOTE: a
execute / ekskju t/ verb to carry out                    more polite term for headhunting)
an order      Failure to execute orders
may lead to dismissal.       There were                   executive share option scheme
many practical difficulties in executing                  / zekjυtv ʃeər ɒpʃən ski m/ noun
the managing director’s instructions.                     a special scheme for senior managers,
                                                          by which they can buy shares in the
execution / eks kju ʃ(ə)n/ noun the                      company they work for at a fixed price
carrying out of a commercial order or                     at a later date
                                                          exemplary / zempləri/ adjective
executive / zekjυtv/ adjective                          excellent, so good it can be used as an
which puts decisions into action í noun                   example        Her behaviour has been
a person in a business who takes deci-                    exemplary.
sions, a manager or director a sales
executive a senior or junior executive                    exempt / zempt/ adjective not cov-
 ‘…one in ten students commented on the long              ered by a law, or not forced to obey a
 hours      which       executives       worked’          law Anyone over 65 is exempt from
 [Employment Gazette]                                     charges He was exempt from military
 ‘…our executives are motivated by a desire to            service in his country. exempt from
 carry out a project to the best of their ability’        tax not required to pay tax         As a
 [British Business]                                       non-profit-making organisation we are
executive board / zekjυtv bɔ d/                         exempt from tax. í verb 1. to free some-
noun a board of directors which deals                     thing from having tax paid on it
with the day-to-day running of the com-                   Non-profit-making organisations are
pany (as opposed to a supervisory                         exempted from tax. 2. to free someone
exemption                                      97                                     expenses

from having to pay tax      Food is ex-             ex parte /eks pɑ ti/ Latin phrase
empted from sales tax. 3. to free some-             meaning ‘on behalf of’ an ex parte
one from having to do a task I hope to              application application made to a court
be exempted from taking these tests.                where only one side is represented and
She was exempted from fire duty.                    no notice is given to the other side (of-
 ‘Companies with sales under $500,000 a year        ten where the application is for an in-
 will be exempt from the minimum-wage               junction). ‘ inter partes
 requirements’ [Nation’s Business]
                                                    expatriate /eks p triət/ noun, adjec-
exemption / zempʃ(ə)n/ noun the                    tive a person, who lives and works in a
act of exempting something from a con-              country which is not their own Expa-
tract or from a tax exemption from                  triate staff are paid higher rates than lo-
tax, tax exemption the fact of being                cally recruited staff. All expatriates in
free from having to pay tax          As a           the organisation have two months’ leave
non-profit-making organisation you can              a year.
claim tax exemption.                                expect /k spekt/ verb to hope that
exempt         personnel / zempt                   something is going to happen We are
p sə nel/ noun personnel who do not                 expecting him to arrive at 10.45. They
receive payment for overtime or whose               are expecting a cheque from their agent
wages are not affected by minimum                   next week.       The house was sold for
wage legislation                                    more than the expected price.
exercise / eksəsaz/ noun a use of                   ‘…he observed that he expected exports to grow
                                                     faster than imports in the coming year’
something exercise of a right the us-                [Sydney Morning Herald]
ing of a right í verb to use The chair-
woman exercised her veto to block the                ‘American business as a whole has seen profits
                                                     well above the levels normally expected at this
motion. to exercise a right to put a                 stage of the cycle’ [Sunday Times]
right into action       He exercised his
right to refuse to do tasks not listed on           expectancy theory /k spektənsi
his employment contract.                             θəri/ noun a theory that employees
                                                    will only be motivated to produce if
ex gratia /eks reʃə/ adjective done                they expect that higher performance will
as a favour                                         lead to greater personal satisfaction
ex gratia payment /eks reʃə                        expectations         / ekspek teʃ(ə)nz/
 pemənt/ noun a payment made as a                  plural noun hopes of what is to come
gift, with no other obligations                     She has great expectations of her new
exhaust / zɔ st/ verb to use up to-                job, and I hope she won’t be
tally We will go on negotiating until               disappointed.
all possible solutions have been                    expel /k spel/ verb to throw someone
exhausted.                                          out of an organisation The worker was
exit / e zt/ noun 1. the way out of a              expelled from the union for embezzle-
building The customers all rushed to-               ment. (NOTE: expelling-expelled)
wards the exits. 2. leaving a job                   expense account /k spens ə-
exit interview / e zt ntəvju /                     kaυnt/ noun an allowance of money
noun an interview with an employee                  which a business pays for an employee
when they are leaving an organisation to            to spend on travelling and entertaining
find out their views on how the organi-             clients in connection with that business
sation is run and reasons for leaving                   I’ll put this lunch on my expense
Only at his exit interview did he admit             account.
how much he had disliked working for                expenses /k spensz/ plural noun
the company.                                        money paid to cover the costs incurred
ex officio /eks ə fʃiəυ/ adjective,                by someone when doing something
adverb because of an office held The                The salary offered is £10,000 plus ex-
treasurer is ex officio a member or an ex           penses. He has a high salary and all
officio member of the finance                       his travel expenses are paid by the com-
committee.                                          pany. all expenses paid with all costs
experience                                     98                                extension

paid by the company     The company                 expiration of the lease when the lease
sent him to San Francisco all expenses              comes to an end
paid.                                               expire /k spaə/ verb to come to an
experience          /k spəriəns/     noun         end The lease expires in 2010.
knowledge or skill that comes from hav-             expiry /k spaəri/ noun the act of
ing had to deal with many different situ-           coming to an end the expiry of an in-
ations She has a lot of experience of               surance policy
dealing with German companies.             I        explain /k splen/ verb to give rea-
gained most of my experience abroad.                sons for something The sales director
Considerable experience is required for             tried to explain the sudden drop in unit
this job. The applicant was pleasant,               sales.
but did not have any relevant
experience.                                         explanation / eksplə neʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                                    a reason for something The human re-
experienced /k spəriənst/ adjec-                  sources department did not accept her
tive referring to a person who has lived            explanation for being late.
through many situations and has learnt
from them You are the most experi-                  exploding bonus /k spləυdŋ
enced negotiator I know. We have ap-                 bəυnəs/ noun a bonus, offered to re-
pointed a very experienced candidate as             cent graduates who take a job with an
sales director. Our more experienced                organisation, that encourages them to
staff will have dealt with a crisis like            make a decision as quickly as possible
this before.                                        because it reduces in value with every
                                                    day of delay (informal )

experience rating /k spəriəns                     exploit /k splɔt/ verb to use some-
 retŋ/ noun the evaluation of a person            thing to make a profit The directors
to decide on their eligibility for insur-           exploit their employees, who have to
ance coverage                                       work hard for very little pay.
experiential           learning         /k-        exploitation / eksplɔ teʃ(ə)n/ noun
 spərienʃəl l nŋ/ noun the process                the unfair use of cheap labour to get
of learning skills through practice                 work done        The exploitation of mi-
expert / eksp t/ noun a person who                  grant farm workers was only stopped
knows a lot about something an ex-                  when they became unionised.
pert in the field of electronics or an elec-        express letter /k spres letə/ noun
tronics expert The company asked a                  a letter sent very fast
financial expert for advice or asked for
expert financial advice. expert’s re-               expulsion /k sp lʃən/ noun the act
port a report written by an expert                  of being thrown out of an organisation
                                                    What is the chance of expulsion for
expertise / ekspə ti z/ noun special-               breaking house rules?
ist knowledge or skill in a particular              extend /k stend/ verb 1. to offer to
field We hired Mr Smith because of                  extend credit to a customer 2. to make
his financial expertise or because of his           longer      Her contract of employment
expertise in finance. With years of ex-             was extended for two years. We have
perience in the industry, we have plenty            extended the deadline for making the
of expertise to draw on. Lack of mar-               appointment by two weeks.
keting expertise led to low sales figures.
                                                    extension /k stenʃən/ noun 1. al-
expert system / eksp t sstəm/                      lowing a longer time for something than
noun software that applies the knowl-               was originally agreed extension of a
edge, advice and rules defined by ex-               contract of employment the act of con-
perts in a particular field to a user’s data        tinuing a contract for a further period 2.
to help solve a problem                             (in an office) an individual telephone
expiration / ekspə reʃ(ə)n/ noun the               linked to the main switchboard        The
act of coming to an end the expiration              sales manager is on extension 53. Can
of an insurance policy to repay before              you get me extension 21? Extension 21
the expiration of the stated period on              is engaged.
extensive                                  99                             eye service

 ‘…the White House refusal to ask for an        outside the company such as casual
 extension of the auto import quotas’           workers, freelancers or contract workers
 [Duns Business Month]
extensive /k stensv/ adjective very           extra / ekstrə/ adjective which is
large or covering a wide area an ex-            added or which is more than usual to
tensive network of sales outlets an ex-         charge 10% extra for postage There
tensive recruitment drive                       is no extra charge for heating. Service
                                                is extra.     We get £25 extra pay for
external /k st n(ə)l/ adjective out-           working on Sunday.
side a company
external audit /k st n(ə)l ɔ dt/              extra hours / ekstrə aυəz/ noun
noun an audit carried out by an inde-           working more hours than are normal
pendent auditor (who is not employed            She worked three hours extra.       He
by the company)                                 claimed for extra hours.
external       auditor      /k st n(ə)l        extraordinary /k strɔ dn(ə)ri/ ad-
 ɔ dtə/ noun an independent person             jective different from normal
who audits the company’s accounts               extremely /k stri mli/ adverb very
externally /k st n(ə)li/ adverb from           much It is extremely difficult to break
outside an organisation The new sales           into the US market.       Their manage-
director was recruited externally.              ment team is extremely efficient.
(NOTE: the opposite is internally)              extrinsic reward /ek strnsk r-
external recruitment /k st n(ə)l                wɔ d/ noun a financial or material re-
r kru tmənt/ noun the recruitment of           ward for work Extrinsic rewards can
employees from outside an organisation          be measured, whereas intrinsic rewards
   Internal recruitment is normally at-         cannot. Compare intrinsic reward
tempted before resorting to external            eye service / a s vs/ noun the
recruitment.                                    practice of working only when a super-
external workers /k st n(ə)l                   visor is present and able to see you
 w kəz/ plural noun workers who are             (slang)
F2F                                             100                           factory inspector


F2F abbr face-to-face (slang)                           impartial review of issues in a labour
face time / fes tam/ noun time                        dispute     A fact-finding commission
spent communicating with other people                   was set up to look into the reasons for
face-to-face as opposed to time spent                   the pay dispute.
communicating with them electronically                  factor / f ktə/ noun something which
(informal )
                                                        is important or which is taken into ac-
face validity / fes və ldti/ noun                    count when making a decision           The
the degree to which a test seems to be                  drop in sales is an important factor in
valid                                                   the company’s lower profits. Motiva-
face value / fes v lju / noun the                      tion was an important factor in drawing
value written on a coin, banknote or                    up the new pay scheme.
share certificate to take something at                  factor comparison / f ktə kəm-
face value to believe something to be                    p rs(ə)n/ noun a method of compar-
true or genuine                                         ing jobs in relation to factors such as
 ‘…travellers cheques cost 1% of their face value       training or effort
 – some banks charge more for small amounts’
 [Sunday Times]                                         factor evaluation / f ktər v lju-
facilitation /fə sl teʃ(ə)n/ noun the                 eʃ(ə)n/ noun a method of evaluating
process of helping people to do some-                   or assessing jobs in relation to factors
thing, e.g. to learn or to find a solution              such as training or effort
to a problem, without dictating how they                Factories Act / f kt(ə)riz              kt/
do it                                                   noun an Act of Parliament which gov-
facilitator /fə sltetə/ noun a person                erns the conditions in which employees
who actively encourages discussion,                     work (such as heating, lighting or toilet
new initiatives, etc.                                   facilities)
facilities /fə sltiz/ plural noun ser-                factor ranking / f ktə r ŋkŋ/
vices, equipment or buildings which                     noun a method of grading jobs in rela-
make it possible to do something                        tion to factors such as training or effort
There are no facilities for disabled visi-
tors. There are very good sports facil-
                                                        factory / f kt(ə)ri/ noun a building
ities on the company premises.                          where products are manufactured            a
                                                        car factory a shoe factory The com-
fact /f kt/ noun 1. a piece of informa-                 pany is proposing to close three of its
tion The chairman asked to see all the                  factories with the loss of 200 jobs.
facts on the income tax claim.        The
sales director can give you the facts and               factory floor / f kt(ə)ri flɔ / noun
figures about the African operation. 2.                 the main works of a factory
the fact of the matter is what is true is               factory hand / f kt(ə)ri h nd/
that                                                    noun a person who works in a factory
fact-finding / f kt fandŋ/ noun                       factory inspector / f kt(ə)ri n-
the process of looking for information                   spektə/ noun a government official
fact-finding commission / f kt                          who inspects factories to see if they are
fandŋ kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun a committee                    well run
set up by a third party to carry out an
factory inspectorate                    101                                   falsify

factory inspectorate / f kt(ə)ri            ion, but that all employees pay the union
n spekt(ə)rət/ noun all inspectors of      a share of bargaining costs as a condi-
factories                                   tion of employment           A fair share
factory work / f kt(ə)ri w k/ noun          agreement was reached, since even em-
work on the production line in a factory    ployees who were not union members
                                            benefited from bargains struck between
factory worker / f kt(ə)ri w kə/            union and management.
noun a person who works in a factory
                                            fair trading /feə tredŋ/ noun a way
fail /fel/ verb not to do something        of doing business which is reasonable
which you were trying to do         They    and does not harm the consumer
failed to agree on an agenda for the
meeting. Negotiations continued until       fair wear and tear / feə weər ən
midnight but the two sides failed to         teə/ noun acceptable damage caused
come to an agreement.                       by normal use The insurance policy
                                            covers most damage but not fair wear
failure / feljə/ noun 1. an act of         and tear to the machine.
breaking down or stopping the failure
of the negotiations 2. not doing some-      faith /feθ/ noun to have faith in
thing which you promised to do              something or someone to believe that
                                            something or a person is good or will
fair /feə/ noun same as trade fair          work well        The sales teams do not
The computer fair runs from April 1st to    have much faith in their manager. The
6th.                                        board has faith in the managing direc-
fair deal /feə di l/ noun an arrange-       tor’s judgement. to buy something in
ment where both parties are treated         good faith to buy something thinking
equally     The employees feel they did     that is of good quality, that it has not
not get a fair deal from the                been stolen or that it is not an imitation
management.                                 faith validity / feθ və ldti/ noun
fair dismissal /feə ds ms(ə)l/ noun       same as face validity
the dismissal of an employee for reasons    fall behind / fɔ l b hand/ verb to be
such as the employee’s bad conduct, e.g.    in a worse position than          we have
theft or drunkenness, failure of the em-    fallen behind our rivals we have fewer
ployee to work capably, or redundancy,      sales or make less profit than our rivals
which are regarded as valid causes
                                            falling unemployment / fɔ lŋ
fair     employment /feər m-                 nm plɔmənt/ noun unemployment
 plɔmənt/ noun employment where no         rates which are falling because more
racial, religious or sex discrimination     people are finding jobs
takes place The company has a strong
policy of fair employment.       The re-    false /fɔ ls/ adjective not true or not
cruitment of twice as many men as           correct     to make a false claim for a
women was a denial of the principle of      product
fair employment.                            false negative /fɔ ls ne ətv/ noun
fairly / feəli/ adverb 1. quite She is a    the exclusion of a suitable candidate by
fairly fast keyboarder. The company         a screening process
is fairly close to breaking even. 2. rea-   false positive /fɔ ls pɒztv/ noun
sonably or equally The union repre-         the inclusion of an unsuitable candidate
sentatives put the employees’ side of the   by a screening process False positive
case fairly and without argument.           results from recruitment tests can end in
fair representation /feə reprzen-          the selection of very unsuitable
 teʃ(ə)n/ noun representation of all       candidates.
members of a bargaining unit fairly and     falsification of accounts /fɔ lsf-
without discrimination                       keʃ(ə)n əv ə kaυnts/ noun the act of
fair share agreement /feə ʃeər ə-           making false entries in a record or of de-
  ri mənt/ noun an arrangement where        stroying a record
both management and unions agree that       falsify / fɔ lsfa/ verb to change
employees are not obliged to join a un-     something to make it wrong            They
family allowance                         102                        feather-bedding

were accused of falsifying the accounts.        The technicians are trying to correct
   to falsify accounts to change or de-      a programming fault. We think there
stroy a record                               is a basic fault in the product design.
family allowance / f m(ə)li ə-               faulty / fɔ lti/ adjective which does
 laυəns/ noun a payment to a mother, in      not work properly Faulty equipment
addition to regular wages, based on the      was to blame for the defective products.
number of dependent children in the               They installed faulty computer
family      Family allowances were in-       programs.
creased since the government had put a       favour / fevə/ noun as a favour to
limit on basic wage increases.               help or to be kind to someone           He
family        company          / f m(ə)li    asked me for a loan as a favour. í verb
 k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company where             to agree that something is right or suit-
most of the shares are owned by mem-         able     The board members all favour
bers of a family                             Smith Ltd as partners in the project.
family-friendly policy / f m(ə)li            (NOTE: the usual US spelling is favor)
 frendli pɒlsi/ noun a policy that is       favourable / fev(ə)rəb(ə)l/ adjective
designed to help employees to combine        which gives an advantage on favour-
their work with their family responsibil-    able terms on specially good terms
ities in a satisfactory way, e.g. by en-     The shop is let on very favourable terms.
abling them to work flexible hours or by     (NOTE: the     usual   US    spelling   is
helping them with childcare                  favorable)
farm out / fɑ m aυt/ verb to farm            favourable      balance      of    trade
out work to hand over work for another       / fev(ə)rəb(ə)l b ləns əv tred/,
person or company to do for you She          favourable         trade     balance
farms out the office typing to various lo-   / fev(ə)rəb(ə)l tred b ləns/ noun a
cal bureaux.                                 situation where a country’s exports are
fast track / fɑ st tr k/, fast tracking      larger than its imports
/ fɑ st tr kŋ/ noun rapid promotion         favourite / fev(ə)rət/ noun, adjec-
for able employees        He entered the     tive (something) which is liked best
company at 21, and by 25 he was on the       This brand of chocolate is a favourite
fast track.                                  with the children’s market. (NOTE: the
fatigue /fə ti / noun great tiredness        usual US spelling is favorite)
fatigue curve /fə ti k v/ noun a             favouritism / fev(ə)rətz(ə)m/ noun
curve on a chart showing how output          the practice of treating one subordinate
varies depending on how long an em-          better than the others The promotion
ployer has been working The fatigue          of an inexperienced keyboarder to su-
curve helps to determine when rest peri-     pervisor was seen as favouritism by the
ods should be allowed.        The fatigue    rest of the workforce. (NOTE: the usual
curve shows a sharp slump in output af-      US spelling is favoritism)
ter three hours’ work.                       feasibility / fi zə blti/ noun the
fat work / f t w k/ noun (in the             ability to be done to report on the fea-
printing industry) a job that offers the     sibility of a project
same money for less effort than another      feasibility        study    / fi zə blti
similar job Workers were moving to            st di/ noun the careful investigation of
more prosperous areas of the country in      a project to see whether it is worth un-
search of fat work.                          dertaking We will carry out a feasibil-
fault /fɔ lt/ noun 1. the fact of being to   ity study to decide whether it is worth
blame for something which is wrong           setting up an agency in North America.
It is the stock controller’s fault if the    feather-bedding / feðə            bedŋ/
warehouse runs out of stock.          The    noun 1. the heavy subsidising of un-
chairman said the lower sales figures        profitable industry by government 2. the
were the fault of a badly motivated sales    practice of employing more staff than
force. 2. an act of not working properly     necessary, usually as a result of union
fee                                       103                                      file

pressure Feather-bedding has raised           field of research / fi ld əv r s tʃ/
the cost of labour. Management com-           noun an area of research interest
plained that feather-bedding was hold-        field of work / fi ld əv w k/ noun
ing up the introduction of new                the type of work a person does What’s
technology.                                   his field?
fee /fi / noun 1. money paid for work         field research / fi ld r s tʃ/, field
carried out by a professional person          work / fi ld w k/ noun looking for in-
(such as an accountant, a doctor or a         formation that is not yet published and
lawyer) We charge a small fee for our         must be obtained in surveys They had
services.     The consultant’s fee was        to do a lot of fieldwork before they
much higher than we expected. 2.              found the right market for the product.
money paid for something           an en-        Field research is carried out to gauge
trance fee or admission fee a registra-       potential demand.
tion fee
                                              field review / fi ld r vju / noun a
feedback / fi db k/ noun informa-             form of employee appraisal whereby the
tion, especially about the result of an ac-   employee’s work performance is as-
tivity which allows adjustments to be         sessed at the place of work (and not in
made to the way it is done in future          the manager’s office)
The management received a lot of feed-
back on how popular the new pay               field sales manager /fi ld selz
scheme was proving.                            m nd ə/ noun the manager in charge
                                              of a group of salespeople
feeling / fi lŋ/ noun the way in which
someone reacts to something            The    field staff / fi ld stɑ f/ noun employ-
board’s insensitive attitude has created      ees who work outside the organisation’s
bad feelings or ill-feeling between the       offices
managers and the junior staff. feel-          field work / fi ld w k/ noun field
ings are running high people are get-         research They had to do a lot of field
ting angry                                    work to find the right market for the
fellow- /feləυ/ prefix meaning ‘person        product.
working with’                                 FIFO / fafəυ/ abbr first in first out
fellow-director / feləυ da rektə/            fight /fat/ verb       to fight against
noun one of the other directors               something to struggle to try to
fellow-servant doctrine / feləυ               overcome something            The unions
 s vənt/ noun a common law concept            are fighting (against) the proposed
that removes responsibility from an em-       redundancies.
ployee for an accident to another em-         file /fal/ noun 1. a cardboard holder
ployee, if the accident was caused by         for documents, which can fit in the
negligence                                    drawer of a filing cabinet      Put these
fellow-worker / feləυ w kə/ noun              letters in the customer file. Look in the
one of the other workers                      file marked ‘Scottish sales’. 2. docu-
                                              ments kept for reference         to place
fiddle / fdl/ (informal ) noun an act of
                                              something on file to keep a record of
cheating     It’s all a fiddle. he’s on       something to keep someone’s name
the fiddle he is trying to cheat í verb to    on file to keep someone’s name on a list
cheat     He tried to fiddle his tax re-      for reference 3. a section of data on a
turns. The salesman was caught fid-           computer (such as payroll, address list,
dling his expense account.                    customer accounts) How can we pro-
field /fi ld/ noun 1. an area of study or     tect our computer files? í verb to store
interest 2. in the field outside the of-      information so that it can be found eas-
fice, among the customers         We have     ily You will find the salary scales filed
sixteen reps in the field. í verb field a     by department. The correspondence is
call to answer a telephone call from          filed under ‘complaints’. to file a pe-
someone who is likely to cause prob-          tition in bankruptcy, to file for bank-
lems or make a complaint (informal ) .        ruptcy 1. to ask officially to be made
file copy                                 104                               fire alarm

bankrupt 2. to ask officially for some-      final average monthly salary
one else to be made bankrupt                 / fan(ə)l v(ə)rd m nθli s ləri/
file copy / fal kɒpi/ noun a copy of a      noun US the earnings on which most
document which is kept for reference in      defined benefit pensions are based
an office                                    final demand / fan(ə)l d mɑ nd/
                                             noun the last reminder from a supplier,
filing / falŋ/ noun documents which        after which they will sue for payment
have to be put in order There is a lot
of filing to do at the end of the week.      final salary / fan(ə)l s ləri/ noun
The manager looked through the week’s        the salary earned by an employee on the
filing to see what letters had been sent.    date of leaving or retiring
filing basket / falŋ bɑ skt/ noun         finance        company            / fan ns
same as filing tray                           k mp(ə)ni/, finance corporation
                                             / fan ns kɔ pə reʃ(ə)n/, finance
filing card / falŋ kɑ d/ noun a card       house noun a company, usually part of
with information written on it, used to      a commercial bank, which provides
classify information into the correct        money for hire-purchase
                                             financial assistance /fa n nʃəl ə-
filing system / falŋ sstəm/ noun           sstəns/ noun help in the form of
a way of putting documents in order for      money
easy reference
                                             financial incentive scheme /fa-
filing tray / falŋ tre/ noun a con-        n nʃəl n sentv ski m/ noun a
tainer kept on a desk for documents          scheme that offers share options or a
which have to be filed                       cash bonus as a reward if employees im-
fill /fl/ verb 1. to make something full    prove their performance
    We have filled our order book with       financial participation /fa n nʃəl
orders for Africa. The production de-        pɑ ts peʃ(ə)n/ noun the holding by
partment has filled the warehouse with       employees of shares in the company
unsellable products. 2. to fill a gap to     they work for
provide a product or service which is
needed, but which no one has provided        financial       penalty         /fa n nʃəl
before The new range of small cars            pen(ə)lti/ noun a penalty in the form of
fills a gap in the market.                   a fine or money deducted from wages
fill in / fl n/ verb 1. to write the re-   fine-tune /fan tju n/ verb to make
quired information in the blank spaces       small adjustments to a plan or the econ-
on a form Fill in your name and ad-          omy so that it works better
dress in block capitals. 2. to fill in for   fine-tuning /fan tju nŋ/ noun 1.
someone to do someone else’s job tem-        the making of small adjustments in ar-
porarily I’ll fill in for him while he is    eas such as interest rates, tax bands or
away at his brother’s wedding.               the money supply, to improve a nation’s
                                             economy 2. the making of small adjust-
fill out / fl aυt/ verb to write the re-    ments so that something works better
quired information in the blank spaces
on a form To get customs clearance           finished goods / fnʃt υdz/ noun
you must fill out three forms.               manufactured goods which are ready to
                                             be sold
fill up / fl p/ verb 1. to make some-
thing completely full He filled up the       fink /fŋk/ noun US a worker hired to
car with petrol.        My appointments      replace a worker who is on strike (infor-
book is completely filled up. 2. to finish   mal )

writing on a form         He filled up the   fire /faə/ noun something which burns
form and sent it to the bank.                   to catch fire to start to burn The pa-
final / fan(ə)l/ adjective last, coming     pers in the waste paper basket caught
at the end of a period to pay the final      fire.
instalment to make the final payment         fire alarm / faər ə lɑ m/ noun a bell
   to put the final details on a document    which rings if there is a fire
fire certificate                          105        fixed benefit retirement plan

fire certificate / faə sə tfkət/           first aid post /f st ed pəυst/ noun
noun a document from the local fire bri-      a special place where injured people can
gade stating that a building meets offi-      be taken for immediate attention
cial requirements as regards fire safety      first-class / f st klɑ s/ adjective,
fire door / faə dɔ / noun a special          noun 1. top quality or most expensive
door to prevent fire going from one part      he is a first-class accountant 2. (a type
of a building to another                      of travel or type of hotel which is) most
                                              expensive and comfortable        I always
fire drill / faə drl/ noun a procedure      travel first-class.    First-class travel
to be carried out to help people to es-       provides the best service. A first-class
cape from a burning building                  ticket to New York costs more than I can
fire exit / faər e zt/ noun a door          afford.      The MD prefers to stay in
which leads to a way out of a building if     first-class hotels.
there is a fire                               first-class mail / f st klɑ s mel/
fire extinguisher / faər k-                 noun a more expensive mail service, de-
 stŋ wʃə/ noun a portable device,           signed to be faster A first-class letter
usually painted red, for putting out fires    should get to Scotland in a day.
fire hazard / faə h zəd/, fire risk          first half /f st hɑ f/ noun a period of
/ faə rsk/ noun a situation or goods        six months from January to the end of
which could start a fire       That ware-     June
house full of paper is a fire hazard.         first half-year / f st hɑ f jə/ noun
fire insurance / faər n ʃυərəns/            the first six months or the second six
noun insurance against damage by fire
                                              months of a company’s accounting year
                                              first-line supervisor / f st lan
fire precautions / faə pr-                   su pəvazə/ noun a supervisor who is
 kɔ ʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun care taken to         in direct control of production workers
avoid damage or casualties by fire                The HR department will liaise with
fire risk / faə rsk/ noun            fire   first-line supervisors with regard to in-
hazard                                        dividual workers.
fire safety officer /faə           sefti    first quarter /f st kwɔ tə/ noun the
 ɒfsə/ noun a person responsible for         period of three months from January to
fire safety in a building                     the end of March The first quarter’s
                                              rent is payable in advance.
firm /f m/ noun a company, business
or partnership a manufacturing firm           five-fold system / fav fəυld
an important publishing firm She is a          sstəm/, five-point system / fav
partner in a law firm.                        pɔnt sstəm/ noun a system of grad-
                                              ing an employee or a candidate for a job
firm up / f m p/ verb to agree on fi-         fix /fks/ verb 1. to arrange or to agree
nal details We expect to firm up the             to fix a budget to fix a meeting for 3
deal at the next trade fair.                  p.m. The date has still to be fixed. 2.
first /f st/ noun a person or thing that      to mend The technicians are coming
is there at the beginning or earlier than     to fix the phone system. Can you fix
others Our company was one of the             the photocopier?
first to sell into the European market.       fixed /fkst/ adjective unable to be
first aid /f st ed/ noun help given          changed or removed
by an ordinary person to someone who          fixed automation / fkst ɔ tə-
is suddenly ill or injured, given until        meʃ(ə)n/ noun the practice of using
full-scale medical treatment can be           machines in a way which does not allow
given                                         any change in their operation
first aid kit /f st ed kt/, first aid       fixed benefit retirement plan
box /f st ed bɒks/ noun a box with           /fkst benft r taəmənt pl n/ noun
bandages and dressings kept ready to be       a pension plan where the benefits are
used in an emergency                          not related to earnings
fixed contract worker                      106            Flexible Work Regulations

fixed(-term)       contract       worker       worked flat out to complete the order on
/ fkst t m kɒntr kt w kə/ noun a              time.
worker who has a fixed-term contract
for a period of time (e.g. one year)           flat rate /fl t ret/ noun a charge
                                               which always stays the same              a
fixed day rate /fkst de ret/, fixed         flat-rate increase of 10%        We pay a
day work a pay scheme where pay for            flat rate for electricity each quarter.
the day’s work does not vary with the          He is paid a flat rate of £2 per thousand.
amount of output
                                               flexecutive /flek sekjυtv/ noun an
fixed shift /fkst ʃft/ noun a period         executive with many different skills
of work assigned to an employee for an         who is able to switch jobs or tasks easily
indefinite length of time Some work-           (slang)
ers complain that fixed shifts make for
monotony.                                      flexibility / fleks blti/ noun the
                                               ability to be easily changed There is
fixed shift system /fkst ʃft                 no flexibility in the company’s pricing
 sstəm/ noun a system where employ-           policy.
ees are given fixed hours of work under
a shift system                                 flexible / fleksb(ə)l/ adjective which
                                               can be altered or changed We try to be
fixed-term contract / fkst t m                flexible where the advertising budget is
 kɒntr kt/ noun a contract of employ-          concerned. The company has adopted
ment valid for a fixed period of time I        a flexible pricing policy.
have a fixed-term contract with the com-
pany, and no guarantee of an extension         flexible automation / fleksb(ə)l
when it ends in May.                           ɔ tə meʃ(ə)n/ noun the practice of us-
                                               ing machines in a way which allows the
flag /fl / noun 1. a piece of cloth            operator to change the operation of the
with a design on it which shows which          machine and so improve productivity
country it belongs to a ship flying a
British flag ship sailing under a flag
                                               flexible manufacturing system
                                               / fleksb(ə)l      m njυ f ktʃərŋ
of convenience a ship flying the flag of
                                                sstəm/ noun a way of manufacturing
a country which may have no ships of
                                               using computerised systems to allow
its own, but allows ships from other
                                               certain quantities of the product to be
countries to be registered in its ports 2. a
                                               made to a specific order. Abbr FMS
mark which is attached to information in
a computer so that the information can         flexible      retirement       scheme
be found easily í verb to insert marks         / fleksb(ə)l r taəmənt ski m/ noun
on information in a computer so that the       a scheme where employees can choose
information can be found easily (NOTE:         the age at which they retire (between
flagging – flagged)                            certain age limits, e.g. 55 and 65)
flagged rate /fl        d ret/ noun a         flexible        working           hours
special pay rate paid to employees             / fleksb(ə)l w kŋ aυəz/, flexible
whose positions warrant lower rates of         work / fleksb(ə)l   w k/ plural
pay     Flagged rates helped to reduce         noun a system where employees can
the pay differentials in the organisation.     start or stop work at different hours
                                               of the morning or evening provided
flat /fl t/ adjective not changing in re-      that they work a certain number of
sponse to different conditions                 hours per day or week
flat organisation / fl t ɔ əna-               Flexible     Work      Regulations
 zeʃ(ə)n/ noun an organisation with           / fleksb(ə)l w k re jυ leʃ(ə)nz/
few grades in the hierarchical structure       plural noun (in the UK) the legal right
  A flat organisation does not appeal to       for a parent with a child under the age of
those who like traditional bureaucratic        6, or with a disabled child under the age
organisations.                                 of 18, to ask that their working hours
flat out /fl t aυt/ adverb working             should be arranged to help them with
hard or at full speed         The factory      their responsibilities
flexilagger                               107                                 forecast

flexilagger / fleksi l      ə/ noun a         shows the arrangement of work pro-
company or organisation that puts too         cesses in a series
little emphasis on flexibility in its em-
ployment practices (slang)
                                              flowcharting / fləυ tʃɑ tŋ/ noun
                                              setting out the arrangement of work pro-
flexileader / fleksi li də/ noun a            cesses in the form of a chart
company or organisation that puts a
great deal of emphasis on flexibility in      flow diagram / fləυ daə r m/
its employment practices (slang)              noun same as flow chart
flexitime / fleksitam/ noun a system         fluidity /flu dti/ noun ease of move-
where employees can start or stop work        ment or change
at different hours of the morning or eve-     flying picket / flaŋ pkt/ noun a
ning, provided that they work a certain       picket who travels round the country to
number of hours per day or week We            try to stop workers going to work
work flexitime.     The company intro-        FMS abbr flexible manufacturing
duced flexitime working two years ago.        system
   Flexitime should mean that employees
work when they feel most productive.          follow up / fɒləυ p/ verb to examine
Same as flexible working hours                something further I’ll follow up your
(NOTE: American English also uses             idea of targeting our address list with a
flextime)                                     special mailing. to follow up an ini-
                                              tiative to take action once someone else
flight risk / flat rsk/ noun an em-         has decided to do something
ployee who may be planning to leave a
company in the near future (slang)            forbid /fə bd/ verb to tell someone
                                              not to do something or to say that some-
flipchart / flptʃɑ t/ noun a way of          thing must not be done        Smoking is
showing information to a group of peo-
                                              forbidden in our offices. The contract
ple by writing on large sheets of paper
                                              forbids resale of the goods to the USA.
which can then be turned over to show
                                                 Staff are forbidden to speak directly
the next sheet
                                              to the press. (NOTE: forbidding – for-
floor /flɔ / noun 1. the part of the room     bade – forbidden)
which you walk on 2. all the rooms on
one level in a building Her office is on      force /fɔ s/ noun 1. strength    to be in
the 26th floor. (NOTE: In Britain the floor   force to be operating or working The
at street level is the ground floor, but      rules have been in force since 1986. to
in the USA it is the first floor. Each        come into force to start to operate or
floor in the USA is one number higher         work The new regulations will come
than the same floor in Britain.) 3. a bot-    into force on January 1st. 2. a group of
tom limit The government will impose          people í verb to make someone do
a floor on wages to protect the low-paid.     something Competition has forced the
(NOTE: the opposite is ceiling)               company to lower its prices. After the
                                              takeover several of the managers were
floorwalker / flɔ wɔ kə/ noun an em-          forced to take early retirement.
ployee of a department store who ad-
vises customers, and supervises the shop      forced      distribution        method
assistants in a department                    / fɔ st dstr bju ʃ(ə)n meθəd/ noun
                                              a performance appraisal technique
floppy disk / flɒpi dsk/ noun a              where certain percentages of workers
small disk for storing information            are put in various categories in advance
through a computer
                                              forecast / fɔ kɑ st/ noun a descrip-
flow /fləυ/ noun a movement           the     tion or calculation of what will probably
flow of capital into a country the flow       happen in the future The chairman did
of investments into Japan í verb to           not believe the sales director’s forecast
move smoothly         Production is now       of higher turnover. í verb to calculate
flowing normally after the strike.            or to say what will probably happen in
flow chart / fləυtʃɑ t/, flow diagram         the future She is forecasting sales of
/ fləυ daə r m/ noun a chart which           £2m. Economists have forecast a fall
forecasting                              108                            fraudulent

in the exchange rate. (NOTE: forecast-       formative assessment / fɔ mətv
ing – forecast)                              ə sesmənt/ noun the appraisal of an
forecasting / fɔ kɑ stŋ/ noun the           employee, where the employee is given
process of calculating what will proba-      notes on what is wrong and what they
bly happen in the future      Manpower       should do to improve their performance
planning will depend on forecasting the      former / fɔ mə/ adjective before or at
future levels of production.                 an earlier time The former chairman
foreign           national         / fɒrn   has taken a job with a rival company.
 n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ noun a person who is a         She got a reference from her former
citizen of another country, not this one     employer.
foreign worker / fɒrn w kə/ noun            formerly / fɔ məli/ adverb at an ear-
a worker who comes from another              lier time He is currently managing di-
country                                      rector of Smith Ltd, but formerly he
                                             worked for Jones Brothers.
foreman / fɔ mən/, forewoman
/ fɔ wυmən/ noun a skilled worker in         formica parachute /fɔ makə
charge of several other workers (NOTE:        p rəʃu t/ noun unemployment insur-
plural is foremen or forewomen)              ance (slang)
for hire contract /fə haə                   forward / fɔ wəd/ adverb to date a
 kɒntr kt/ noun US a freelance               cheque forward to put a later date than
contract                                     the present one on a cheque
form /fɔ m/ noun 1. form of words            forwarding               instructions
words correctly laid out for a legal doc-    / fɔ wədŋ n str kʃənz/ plural noun
ument 2. an official printed paper with      instructions showing how the goods are
blank spaces which have to be filled in      to be shipped and delivered
with information a pad of order forms        four-fifths rule /fɔ ffθs ru l/ noun
   The reps carry pads of order forms. í     US same as eighty per cent rule
verb to start to organise The brothers
have formed a new company.                   fourth quarter /fɔ θ kwɔ tə/ noun a
formal / fɔ m(ə)l/ adjective clearly         period of three months from 1st October
and legally written to make a formal         to the end of the year
application to send a formal order           framework                 agreement
Is this a formal job offer? The factory      / fremw k ə ri mənt/ noun the draft
is prepared for the formal inspection by     of the main points of an agreement, with
the government inspector.                    further details to be added later
formality /fɔ m lti/ noun some-             franchising                 operation
thing which has to be done to obey the       / fr ntʃazŋ ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun an
law                                          operation involving selling licences to
formally / fɔ məli/ adverb in a formal       trade as a franchise
way       We have formally applied for       fraud /frɔ d/ noun an act of making
planning permission for the new shop-        money by making people believe some-
ping precinct.                               thing which is not true He got posses-
formal procedures / fɔ m(ə)l prə-            sion of the property by fraud. She was
 si d əz/ plural noun agreed written         accused of frauds relating to foreign
rules for dealing with matters such as       currency. to obtain money by fraud
grievances and dismissals                    to obtain money by saying or doing
                                             something to cheat someone
formal warning / fɔ m(ə)l wɔ nŋ/
noun a warning to an employee accord-        fraud squad / frɔ d skwɒd/ noun the
ing to formal procedures. ‘ informal         special police department which investi-
warning                                      gates frauds
formation /fɔ meʃ(ə)n/, forming             fraudulent / frɔ djυlənt/ adjective
/ fɔ mŋ/ noun the act of organising         not honest, or aiming to cheat people
the formation of a new company               a fraudulent transaction
fraudulent conversion                        109                            free worker

fraudulent                   conversion          free gift worth £25 to any customer buy-
/ frɔ djυlənt kən v ʃ(ə)n/ noun the              ing a washing machine.
act of using money which does not
belong to you for a purpose for which it
                                                 freelance / fri lɑ ns/ adjective, noun
                                                 (an independent worker) who works for
is not supposed to be used
                                                 several different companies but is not
fraudulently / frɔ djυləntli/ adverb             employed by any of them         We have
not honestly            goods imported           about twenty freelances working for us
fraudulently                                     or about twenty people working for us
free /fri / adjective, adverb 1. not cost-       on a freelance basis.      She is a free-
ing any money I have been given a                lance journalist. í adverb selling your
free ticket to the exhibition. A cata-           work to various firms, but not being em-
logue will be sent free on request. free         ployed by any of them He works free-
of charge with no payment to be made             lance as a designer. í verb 1. to do
2. with no restrictions 3. not busy or not       work for several firms but not be em-
occupied I shall be free in a few min-           ployed by any of them She freelances
utes. í verb to make something avail-            for the local newspapers. 2. to send
able or easy          The government’s           work out to be done by a freelancer
decision has freed millions of pounds            We freelance work out to several
for investment.                                  specialists.
 ‘American business as a whole is increasingly   freelancer / fri lɑ nsə/ noun a free-
 free from heavy dependence on manufacturing’    lance worker
 [Sunday Times]
                                                 freelance worker / fri lɑ ns w kə/
free agent /fri ed ənt/ noun a free-            noun a self-employed worker
lance worker who can offer their skills
and expertise to companies anywhere in           freely / fri li/ adverb with no restric-
the world                                        tions    Money should circulate freely
                                                 within the EU.
free collective bargaining / fri
kə lektv bɑ nŋ/ noun negotiations
                                                 free market economy /fri mɑ kt
                                                  kɒnəmi/ noun a system where the
between management and trade unions
                                                 government does not interfere in busi-
about wage increases and working
                                                 ness activity in any way
free competition / fri kɒmpə-                    free-rider /fri radə/ noun a person
                                                 who receives benefits which have been
 tʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of being free
                                                 negotiated by a union for its members,
to compete without government
                                                 even if they have not joined the union
                                                 Many union members resent free-riders
freedom / fri dəm/ noun the state of             who benefit from the recent pay in-
being free to do anything                        crease negotiated by the union.
freedom of association / fri dəm                 free sample /fri sɑ mpəl/ noun a
əv əsəυsi eʃ(ə)n/ noun the ability to           sample given free to advertise a product
join together in a group with other peo-         free trade /fri tred/ noun a system
ple without being afraid of prosecution          where goods can go from one country to
freedom of movement / fri dəm                    another without any restrictions
əv mu vmənt/ noun the ability of                 free trade area /fri tred eəriə/
workers in the EU to move from country           noun a group of countries practising
to country and obtain work without any           free trade
                                                 free worker / fri w kə/ noun a per-
free enterprise / fri entəpraz/                 son who moves frequently from one job
noun a system of business free from              or project to another, because they have
government interference                          skills and ideas that many organisations
free gift /fri      ft/ noun a present          value and prefer to work on a short-term
given by a shop to a customer who buys           contract rather than to build a career
a specific amount of goods There is a            within a single organisation
freeze                                  110                                 full day

freeze /fri z/ verb to keep something      reation facilities is one of the fringe
such as money or costs at their present    benefits of the job.
level and not allow them to rise     to    front /fr nt/ noun 1. a part of some-
freeze wages and prices      to freeze     thing which faces away from the back
credits We have frozen expenditure at      The front of the office building is on the
last year’s level. (NOTE: freezing –       High Street. There is a photograph of
froze – frozen)
                                           the managing director on the front page
frequent / fri kwənt/ adjective which      of the company report. 2. in front of
comes, goes or takes place often           before or on the front side of something
There is a frequent ferry service to          The chairman’s name is in front of all
France.     We send frequent faxes to      the others on the staff list. 3. a business
New York.        How frequent are the      or person used to hide an illegal trade
planes to Birmingham? We send fre-         His restaurant is a front for a drugs
quent telexes to New York.                 organisation.
frequently / fri kwəntli/ adverb of-       front-line management / fr nt
ten The photocopier is frequently out      lan m nd mənt/ noun managers
of use. We email our New York office       who have immediate contact with the
very frequently – at least four times a    employees
day.                                       front man / fr nt m n/ noun a per-
fresh blood /freʃ bl d/ noun new           son who seems honest but is hiding an
younger staff, employed because the        illegal trade
company feels it needs to have new         frozen / frəυz(ə)n/ adjective not al-
ideas (NOTE: also called new blood)        lowed to be changed or used Wages
friction / frkʃən/ noun small dis-        have been frozen at last year’s rates.
agreements between people in the same      fulfil /fυl fl/ verb to complete some-
office There was a lot of friction be-     thing in a satisfactory way The clause
tween the sales and accounts staff.        regarding payments has not been ful-
frictional           unemployment          filled. (NOTE: the usual US spelling is
/ frkʃ(ə)n(ə)l   nm plɔmənt/ noun       fulfill) to fulfil an order to supply the
unemployment due to unforeseen cir-        items which have been ordered           We
cumstances, such as changes in technol-    are so understaffed that we cannot fulfil
ogy, lack of labour mobility or            any more orders before Christmas.
variations in the demand and supply of     fulfilment /fυl flmənt/ noun the act
certain products                           of carrying something out in a satisfac-
Friday / frade/ noun the fifth and       tory way (NOTE: the usual US spelling
last day of the normal working week in     is fulfillment)
an office The hours of work are 9.30       full /fυl/ adjective 1. with as much in-
to 5.30, Monday to Friday.                 side it as possible The train was full of
Friday afternoon / frade ɑ ftə-          commuters.        When the disk is full,
 nu n/ noun the period after lunch on      don’t forget to make a backup copy. 2.
Fridays, when some companies stop          complete, including everything        we
work                                       are working at full capacity we are do-
                                           ing as much work as possible 3. in
Friday afternoon car / frade             full completely a full refund or a re-
ɑ ftə nu n kɑ / noun a new car with        fund paid in full       Give your full
numerous defects, presumably because       name and address or your name and
it was made on a Friday afternoon          address in full. He accepted all our
fringe benefit / frnd          benft/   conditions in full.
noun an extra item such as a company       full day /fυl de/, full working day
car or private health insurance given by   /fυl w kŋ de/, a full day’s work /ə
a company to employees in addition to a     fυl dez w k/ noun a period when a
salary The fringe benefits make up for     worker works all the hours stipulated
the poor pay. Use of the company rec-
full employment                                 111                                       funds

full employment /fυl m plɔmənt/                   The new management structure does not
noun a situation where all the people               seem to be functioning very well.
who can work have jobs                              functional / f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective 1.
full payment /fυl pemənt/ noun the                 which can function properly 2. referring
paying of all money owed                            to a job
full pension /fυl penʃən/ noun the                  functional authority / f ŋkʃən(ə)l
maximum pension allowed                             ɔ θɒrti/ noun the authority which is
full rate /fυl ret/ noun the full                  associated with a job
charge, with no reductions                          functional            job         analysis
full-scale / fυl skel/ adjective com-              / f ŋkʃən(ə)l d ɒb ə n ləss/ noun
plete or very thorough       The MD or-             an assessment of the specific require-
dered a full-scale review of credit terms.          ments of a job Functional job analysis
    The HR department will start a                  is used to identify what type of person
full-scale review of the present pay                should be appointed to fill the vacancy.
structure.                                          functionary / f ŋkʃənəri/ noun a
 ‘…the administration launched a full-scale         civil servant (slightly derogatory)
 investigation into maintenance procedures’
 [Fortune]                                          fund /f nd/ noun money set aside for a
                                                    special purpose í verb to provide
full-time / fυl tam/ adjective, adverb             money for a purpose         The company
working all the normal working time,                does not have enough resources to fund
i.e. about eight hours a day, five days a           its expansion programme. to fund a
week She’s in full-time work or She                 company to provide money for a com-
works full-time or She’s in full-time               pany to operate
employment. He is one of our full-time                ‘…the S&L funded all borrowers’ development
staff.                                                costs, including accrued interest’ [Barrons]
full-time employee / fυl tam m-                   funded / f ndd/ adjective backed by
 plɔi /, full-time worker / fυl tam               long-term loans          long-term funded
 w kə/ noun an employee who works                   capital
more than 16 hours per week for a                   funded pension plan / f ndd
company                                              penʃən pl n/, funded pension
full-time employment / fυl tam                     scheme / f ndd penʃən ski m/ noun
m plɔmənt/ noun work for all of a                 a pension plan where money is set aside
working day         to be in full-time              annually to fund employees’ pensions
employment                                          funding / f ndŋ/ noun money for
full-time equivalent / fυl tam -                  spending     The bank is providing the
 kwvələnt/ noun a notional employee                funding for the new product launch.
earning the full-time wage, used as a               funding rate / f ndŋ ret/ noun the
comparison to part-time employees                   employer’s contributions to a pension
full-time job / fυl tam d ɒb/ noun                 fund shown as a percentage of the total
a job that occupies all someone’s nor-              pensionable salaries of the employees
mal working hours                                   fund-raising / f nd rezŋ/ noun the
full-timer /fυl tamə/ noun a person                process of trying to get money for a
who works full-time                                 charity, etc. a fund-raising sale
fully / fυli/ adverb completely fully               funds / f ndz/ plural noun money
insured pension scheme a pension                    which is available for spending     The
scheme where each contributor is in-                company has no funds to pay for the re-
sured to receive the full pension to                search programme.         the company
which they are entitled                             called for extra funds the company
 ‘…issued and fully paid capital is $100 million’   asked for more money to run out of
 [Hongkong Standard]                                funds to come to the end of the money
function / f ŋkʃən/ noun a duty or                  available to convert funds to another
job í verb to work The advertising                  purpose to use money for a wrong pur-
campaign is functioning smoothly.                   pose to convert funds to your own
furlough                                     112                                     FYI

use to use someone else’s money for              pecially for military personnel, govern-
yourself.                                        ment employees or expatriates Many
 ‘…small innovative companies have been          employees resent being contacted by
 hampered for lack of funds’ [Sunday Times]      head office when on furlough.
 ‘…the company was set up with funds totalling   further education / f ðər edjυ-
 NorKr 145m’ [Lloyd’s List]                       keʃ(ə)n/ noun education after ending
furlough / f ləυ/ noun a period of               full-time education in school
unpaid leave or absence from work, es-           FYI abbr for your information
gain                                  113                          general manager


gain / en/ noun an increase or act of        to ensure that the worker paid for the
becoming larger gain in experience            damage he caused to machinery.
the act of getting more experience
gain in profitability the act of becom-       gatekeeper / et ki pə/ noun a per-
ing more profitable í verb to get or to       son who acts as a screen between a
obtain He gained some useful experi-          group and people outside the group
ence working in a bank.                       (such as an interviewer in the human re-
                                              sources department who screens job
gainful   employment / enf(ə)l               applicants)
m plɔmənt/ noun employment which
pays money                                    gear / ə/ verb to link to or to connect
                                              with salary geared to the cost of liv-
gainfully / enf(ə)li/ adverbgain-            ing salary which rises as the cost of liv-
fully employed working and earning            ing increases
                                              geared scheme / əd ski m/ noun
gainsharing / en ʃeərŋ/ noun a              a system by which payment by results
payment scheme where all the                  increases in stages rather than in direct
members of a group of employees are           proportion to increase in output
paid extra for increased productivity
    Gainsharing will be instituted to         gear up / ər p/ verb to get ready
increase motivation. Gainsharing has          The company is gearing itself up for ex-
allowed employees to identify with the        pansion into the African market.
company’s successful performance.             general / d en(ə)rəl/ adjective ordi-
galloping inflation /         ləpŋ n-       nary or not special
fleʃ(ə)n/ noun very rapid inflation          general audit / d en(ə)rəl ɔ dt/
which is almost impossible to reduce          noun a process of examining all the
Gantt chart /        nt tʃɑ t/ noun           books and accounts of a company
a type of chart used in project man-          generally / d en(ə)rəli/ adverb nor-
agement to plan and schedule work,            mally or usually The office is gener-
setting out tasks and the time periods        ally closed between Christmas and the
within which they should be completed         New Year. We generally give a 25%
(NOTE: A Gantt chart looks like a bar         discount for bulk purchases.
chart in which the bars extend side-
                                              general manager / d en(ə)rəl
                                               m nd ə/ noun a manager in charge of
gardening leave / ɑ d(ə)nŋ li v/             the administration of a company
noun a period of leave stipulated in a        General National            Vocational
contract of employment, during which          Qualifications                / d en(ə)rəl
an employee is not allowed into the            n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l vəυ keʃ(ə)n(ə)l kwɒlf-
company offices and cannot take up an-         keʃ(ə)nz/ noun a system of exami-
other job (informal )
                                              nations and qualifications in vocational
garnishment / ɑ nʃmənt/ noun                 subjects for young people who are
a procedure by which wages or salary          in full-time education, giving a
are withheld to pay off a debt   The          broard-based training in vocational sub-
company had to resort to garnishment          jects (run alongside traditional academic
general office                           114                              Girl Friday

studies and of equal value to them).         of workers to move from place to place
Abbr GNVQs                                   to find work
general office / d en(ə)rəl ɒfs/            get / et/ verb 1. to receive We got a
noun the main administrative office of a     letter from the solicitor this morning.
company                                      He gets £250 a week for doing nothing.
                                                She got £5,000 for her car. 2. to arrive
general secretary / d en(ə)rəl               at a place She finally got to the office
 sekrt(ə)ri/, General Secretary noun        at 10.30. (NOTE: getting – got)
the head official of a trade union
                                             get across / et ə krɒs/ verb to make
general store / d en(ə)rəl stɔ /             someone understand something           The
noun a small country shop which sells a      manager tried to get across to the
large range of goods                         workforce why some people were being
general strike / d en(ə)rəl strak/          made redundant.
noun a strike of all the workers in a        get ahead / et ə hed/ verb to ad-
country                                      vance in your career
general        trading        / d en(ə)rəl   get along / et ə lɒŋ/ verb 1. to man-
 tredŋ/ noun dealing in all types of       age We are getting along quite well
goods                                        with only half the staff we had before. 2.
general         union         / d en(ə)rəl   to be friendly or to work well with
 ju njən/ noun a union which recruits        someone She does not get along very
usually semi-skilled workers in all          well with her new boss.
industries                                   get back / et b k/ verb to receive
generic /d ə nerk/ adjective which          something which you had before I got
is shared by a group, and does not refer     my money back after I had complained
to one individual                            to the manager. He got his initial in-
                                             vestment back in two months.
generic skills /d ə nerk sklz/
plural noun skills which are applicable      get on / et ɒn/ verb 1. to work or
in various types of work and can be          manage      How is your new assistant
transferred from one job to another          getting on? 2. to succeed My son is
                                             getting on well – he has just been
generous / d en(ə)rəs/ adjective re-         promoted.
ferring to an amount that is larger than
usual or expected She received a gen-        get on with / et ɒn wð/ verb 1. to
erous redundancy payment. The staff          be friendly or work well with someone
contributed a generous sum for the              She does not get on with her new boss.
manager’s retirement present.                2. to go on doing work The staff got
                                             on with the work and finished the order
genuine / d enjun/ adjective true or        on time.
real a genuine Picasso a genuine
leather purse                                get out / et aυt/ verb to produce
                                             something      The accounts department
genuine          material         factor     got out the draft accounts in time for the
/ d enjun mə təriəl    f ktə/ noun         meeting.
an acceptable reason for a difference        get through / et θru / verb 1. to
in salary between a male and a female        speak to someone on the phone I tried
employee (such as longer experience)         to get through to the complaints depart-
genuine occupational qualifica-              ment. 2. to be successful         She got
tions / d enjun ɒkjυ peʃ(ə)n(ə)l           through her exams, so she is now a
kwɒlf keʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun a situa-      qualified engineer. 3. to try to make
tion where a person of a certain sex or      someone understand        I could not get
racial background is needed for a job,       through to her that I had to be at the air-
and this can be stated in the job adver-     port by 2.15.
tisement. Abbr GOQs                          Girl Friday / l frade/ noun a fe-
geographical mobility /d i ə-                male employee who does various tasks
   r fk(ə)l məυ blti/ noun the ability    in an office. ‘ Man Friday (NOTE:
Girobank                               115                         going concern

Sometimes Person Friday is used in         they find it difficult to break through the
job advertisements to avoid sexism.)       glass ceiling and become members of
Girobank / d arəυb ŋk/ noun a             the board.
bank in a giro system         a National   GMP abbr guaranteed minimum
Girobank account She has her salary        pension
paid into her National Girobank            GNVQs abbr General National Voca-
account.                                   tional Qualifications
giro system / d arəυ sstəm/ noun         go / əυ/ verb 1. to move from one
a banking system in which money can        place to another The cheque went to
be transferred from one account to an-     your bank yesterday. The plane goes
other without writing a cheque (the        to Frankfurt, then to Rome. He is go-
money is first removed from the payer’s    ing to our Lagos office. She went on a
account and then credited to the payee’s   management course. 2. to be placed
account; as opposed to a cheque pay-       The date goes at the top of the letter.
ment, which is credited to the payee’s     (NOTE: going – went – gone)
account first and then claimed from the
payer’s account)                           go-ahead / əυ əhed/ noun          to give
                                           something the go-ahead to approve
give / v/ verb 1. to pass something to    something or to say that something can
someone as a present The office gave       be done My project got a government
him a clock when he retired. 2. to pass    go-ahead. The board refused to give
something to someone She gave the          the go-ahead to the expansion plan. í
documents to the accountant. Do not        adjective energetic or keen to do well
give anybody personal details about        He is a very go-ahead type. She works
staff members. Can you give me some        for a go-ahead clothing company.
information about the new computer
system? 3. to organise The company         goal / əυl/ noun something which you
gave a party on a boat to say goodbye to   try to achieve     Our goal is to break
the retiring sales director. (NOTE: giv-   even within twelve months. The com-
ing – gave – given)                        pany achieved all its goals. to achieve
                                           your goal to do what you set out to do
give back / v b k/ verb to hand           to set someone goals to give someone
something back to someone                  objectives to aim at Bonus payments
give-back / v b k/ noun US a de-          are motivating employees to achieve
mand by management that the employ-        company goals. One of the HR man-
ees accept less favourable terms of        ager’s goals was a fair payment scheme.
employment        The give-back was in-       Our goal is to break even within
sisted on by management because of the     twelve months.
high costs of labour.                      go back on / əυ b k ɒn/ verb not
give in to / v n tu / verb to yield      to do what has been promised         Two
or to surrender to give in to pressure     months later they went back on the
from the strikers                          agreement.
give up / v p/ verb to hand some-         go-between / əυ b twi n/ noun a
thing over to someone        Workers re-   person who acts as an intermediary in
fused to give up any of their rights.      the negotiations between two others
give way to / v we tu / verb to          The head of the workers’ committee was
make concessions or to agree to de-        the effective go-between in the dispute.
mands      to give way to the union’s      gofer / əυfə/ noun US same as
wage demands                               gopher
glad-hand / l d h nd/ verb to              going / əυŋ/ adjective active or busy
shake hands with and greet people at a     going concern / əυŋ kən s n/
business party or meeting                  noun a company that is actively trading
glass ceiling / lɑ s si lŋ/ noun a        (and making a profit) sold as a going
mysteriously invisible barrier to promo-   concern sold as an actively trading
tion Women managers complain that          company
go into business                       116            government organisation

go      into business / əυ ntə            good industrial relations / υd n-
 bzns/ verb to start in business He       d striəl r leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun a sit-
went into business as a car dealer.        uation where management and employ-
She went into business in partnership      ees understand each others’ problems
with her son.                              and work together for the good of the
goldbricker / əυldbrkə/ noun US a         company
lazy employee who attempts to get away     goods / υdz/ plural noun items which
with doing the least possible amount of    can be moved and are for sale
work (slang)                               goodwill / υd wl/ noun 1. good feel-
gold-bricking / əυld brkŋ/ noun          ing towards someone To show good-
the practice of regulating production by   will, the management increased the
not claiming production achieved on        terms of the offer. 2. the good reputation
some days so as to be able to carry it     of a business, which can be calculated as
over and so allow employees to take        part of a company’s asset value, though
time off work on other days                separate from its tangible asset value
Gold-bricking has reduced production       (the goodwill can include the trading
by half.                                   reputation, the patents, the trade names
gold-circle rate / əυld s k(ə)l            used, the value of a ‘good site’, etc., and
ret/ noun US a rate of pay that exceeds   is very difficult to establish accurately)
the maximum rate of an employee’s             He paid £10,000 for the goodwill of
evaluated pay level      The gold-circle   the shop and £4,000 for the stock.
rate is resented by some employees who     goon / u n/ noun US a person who
see it as an unmerited bonus.              deliberately provokes disputes between
golden / əυld(ə)n/ adjective made of       employers and employees (slang)
gold or like gold                          go out of business / əυ aυt əv
golden          formula       / əυld(ə)n    bzns/ verb to stop trading The firm
 fɔ mjυlə/ noun the rule that unions are   went out of business last week.
immune from prosecution if their action    gopher / əυfə/ noun an employee
is taken in pursuance of a trade dispute   who carries out simple menial duties
golden handcuffs / əυld(ə)n                such as fetching and carrying things for
 h ndk fs/ plural noun a contractual       a manager or another employee (NOTE:
arrangement to make sure that a valued     the usual US spelling is gofer)
member of staff stays in their job, by     GOQs abbr genuine occupational
which they are offered special financial   qualifications
advantages if they stay and heavy penal-
ties if they leave                         go-slow / əυ sləυ/ noun the slowing
                                           down of production by workers as a pro-
golden hello / əυld(ə)n hə ləυ/            test against the management A series
noun a cash inducement paid to some-       of go-slows reduced production.
one to encourage them to change jobs
and move to another company                go up / əυ p/ verb to rise NI con-
                                           tributions are going up 3% next month.
golden parachute / əυld(ə)n
 p rəʃu t/,        golden       umbrella   government                   contractor
/ əυld(ə)n m brelə/ noun a large,          /  v(ə)nmənt kən tr ktə/ noun a
usually tax-free sum of money given to     company which supplies the govern-
an executive who retires from a com-       ment with goods by contract
pany before the end of their service       government economic indica-
contract                                   tors  / v(ə)nmənt i kə nɒmk
good / υd/ adjective 1. not bad 2. a        ndketəz/ plural noun statistics
good deal (of) a large amount (of) We      which show how the country’s economy
wasted a good deal of time discussing      is going to perform in the short or long
the arrangements for the meeting. a        term
good many very many A good many            government                organisation
staff members have joined the union.       /   v(ə)nmənt          ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/
government pension                        117                                  graph

noun an official body run by the              graduate entry / r d uət entri/
government                                    noun the entry of graduates into em-
                                              ployment with a company the gradu-
government                      pension       ate entry into the civil service
/    v(ə)nmənt penʃən/ noun a pen-
sion paid by the state                        graduate recruitment / r d uət
                                              r kru tmənt/ noun the recruitment of
grade / red/ noun a level or rank            graduates for traineeships in a company
   to reach the top grade in the civil
service í verb to make something rise         graduate trainee / r d uət tre-
in steps according to quantity                 ni / noun a person in a graduate train-
                                              ing scheme
graded hourly rate / redd aυəli             graduate       training       scheme
 ret/ noun a pay scale where piece-          / r d uət      trenŋ ski m/ noun a
workers receive different rates per piece     training scheme for graduates
completed according to their appraisal
ratings                                       grand / r nd/ adjective important
                                              grand plan, grand strategy a major
grading / redŋ/ noun an assess-             plan They explained their grand plan
ment of an employee’s performance by          for redeveloping the factory site. í
giving a certain grade or mark        The     noun one thousand pounds or dollars
company has adopted a new grading             (informal )
                                                       .      They offered him fifty
system for appraisals.                        grand for the information. She’s earn-
gradual / r d uəl/ adjective slow             ing fifty grand plus car and expenses.
and regular The company saw a grad-           grandfather clause / r nfɑ ðə
ual return to profits.      Her CV de-        klɔ z/ noun a clause in an insurance
scribes her gradual rise to the position      policy that exempts a category of in-
of company chairman.                          sured employee from meeting new stan-
gradually       / r d uəli/       adverb      dards The grandfather clause exempts
slowly and steadily The company has           the older employees from the retraining
gradually become more profitable.             scheme.
She gradually learnt the details of the       grandfather system / r nfɑ ðə
import-export business.                        sstəm/ noun an appraisal system
gradual retirement / r d uəl r-              where the manager’s appraisals of em-
 taəmənt/ noun same as phased                ployees are sent for review to the man-
retirement                                    ager’s superior
graduate / r d uət/ noun a person             grand total / r nd təυt(ə)l/ noun
who has obtained a degree                     the final total made by adding several
graduated / r d uetd/ adjective             grant / rɑ nt/ noun money given by
changing in small regular stages              the government to help pay for some-
graduated            income           tax     thing     The government has allocated
/ r d uetd nk m t ks/ noun a               grants towards the costs of the scheme.
tax which rises in steps (each level of in-   í verb to agree to give someone some-
come is taxed at a higher percentage)         thing to grant someone three weeks’
graduated           pension          plan     leave of absence
/ r d uetd penʃən pl n/, gradu-             grant-aided scheme / rɑ nt edd
ated pension scheme / r d uetd              ski m/ noun a scheme which is funded
 penʃən ski m/ noun a pension scheme          by a government grant
where the contributions are calculated        grapevine / repvan/ noun an un-
on the salary of each person in the           official communications network in an
scheme                                        organisation I heard on the grapevine
graduated wages / r d uetd                  that the managing director has been
 wed z/ plural noun wages which in-         sacked.
crease in accordance with established         graph / rɑ f/ noun a diagram which
pay levels                                    shows the relationship between two sets
graphologist                              118                                         gross

of quantities or values, each of which is     and enable them to inspire their follow-
represented on an axis A graph was            ers and win their loyalty
used to show salary increases in rela-        green ban / ri n b n/ noun a ban
tion to increases in output. According        imposed by unions on work that they
to the graph, as average salaries have        consider to be a threat to the natural en-
risen so has absenteeism. We need to          vironment or to an area of historical
set out the results of the questionnaire in   significance
a graph.
                                              green card / ri n kɑ d/ noun 1. a
graphologist / r fɒləd st/ noun a            special British insurance certificate to
person who studies handwriting, and           prove that a car is insured for travel
can identify the writer’s characteristics     abroad 2. an identity card and work per-
from it Some companies ask for job            mit for a person going to live in the
applications to be handwritten, so that       USA
they can be shown to a consultant
graphologist.                                 green circle rate / ri n s k(ə)l
                                              ret/ noun US a rate of pay which is be-
graphology / r fɒləd i/ noun the              low the minimum rate
study of handwriting, which is believed
to show the writer’s characteristics          grid / rd/ noun a system of numbered
graph paper / rɑ f pepə/ noun a
special type of paper with many little        grid method / rd meθəd/ noun a
squares, used for drawing graphs              two-dimensional method of job evalua-
                                              tion based on breadth and depth of re-
grass ceiling / rɑ s si lŋ/ noun the         sponsibility Some jobs score high on
social and cultural factors that make it      the grid method since they involve many
difficult for women to use games of golf      different tasks and a lot of
as an opportunity to do business (slang)      decision-making.
grassroots / rɑ s ru ts/ plural noun          grid structure / rd str ktʃə/
the basic ordinary members of a union,        noun a structure based on a grid
political party or of society in general
                                              grievance / ri v(ə)ns/ noun a com-
gratia ex gratia                              plaint made by an employee or trade un-
gratuity / rə tju ti/ noun a tip,            ion to the management
money given to someone who has                  ‘ACAS has a legal obligation to try and resolve
helped you        The staff are instructed      industrial grievances before they reach
not to accept gratuities.                       industrial tribunals’ [Personnel Today]
graveyard shift / revjɑ d ʃft/              grievance interview / ri v(ə)ns
noun a night shift in a continuous shift       ntəvju / noun a meeting between
system, starting around midnight (infor-      management and an employee or group
mal )
    .                                         of employees where the managers listen
gravy / revi/ noun something which           to the employee’s complaints and try to
does not involve effort (informal )
                                              find a solution to the problem
gravy job / revi d ɒb/ noun US a             grievance procedure / ri v(ə)ns
job which that offers the same money          prə si d ə/ noun a way of presenting
for less effort than another similar job      and settling complaints from a trade un-
Workers were moving to more prosper-          ion to the management
ous areas of the country in search of         gross / rəυs/ adjective 1. total or with
gravy jobs. (NOTE: in British English         no deductions 2. very serious      gross
also called cushy number)                     negligence í adverb with no deduc-
gravy train / revi tren/ noun               tions My salary is paid gross. í verb
means of getting money easily                 to make a gross profit        He grosses
                                              £500 a week.         The group grossed
great man theory / ret m n                   £25m in 1999.
 θəri/ noun the idea that leaders are          ‘…gross wool receipts for the selling season to
people who are born with special quali-         end June appear likely to top $2 billion’
ties that distinguish them from others          [Australian Financial Review]
gross earnings                          119                  group pension plan

gross earnings / rəυs nŋz/ plu-            group certificate / ru p sə tfkət/
ral noun total earnings before tax and      noun (in Australia and New Zealand ) a.

other deductions                            document provided by an employer that
gross income / rəυs nk m/ noun             records an employee’s income, income
salary before tax is deducted               tax payments and contributions to a pen-
                                            sion fund during the previous financial
gross misconduct / rəυs ms-                year
 kɒnd kt/ noun very bad behaviour by
an employeer, which is a fair reason for    group discussion / ru p d-
dismissal (such as drunkenness or theft)     sk ʃ(ə)n/ noun a survey method in
     He was dismissed for gross             which a focus group is brought together
misconduct.                                 to discuss informally a market-research
                                            question     The group discussion was
gross         negligence          / rəυs    taken over by one or two strong person-
 ne ld əns/ noun the act of showing        alities. A sample of young people took
very serious neglect of duty towards        part in a group discussion on the new
other people                                shampoo.
gross salary / rəυs s ləri/ noun            group dynamics / ru p da-
salary before tax is deducted                n mks/ plural noun the behaviour
ground / raυnd/ noun            to gain     patterns typical of groups, including the
ground to start to win against an oppo-     effects that members of a group have on
nent     to give ground to give way         each other, the personal relationships
against an opponent                         that they form and the ways that groups
groundless / raυndləs/ adjective            form, function and break up (NOTE:
with no real reason       The complaint     Takes a singular verb. Group dynam-
was proved to be groundless.                ics is an important aspect of successful
                                            teamwork and can influence the out-
grounds / raυndz/ plural noun basic         come of any group activity, for exam-
reasons Does she have good grounds          ple a training course.)
for complaint? There are no grounds
on which we can be sued. What are           group incentive / ru p n sentv/
the grounds for the demand for a pay        noun an incentive payment made to a
rise?                                       group, rather than to an individual
group / ru p/ noun 1. several things
or people together A group of manag-        group incentive scheme / ru p
ers has sent a memo to the chairman         n sentv ski m/, group incentive
complaining about noise in the office.      plan / ru p n sentv pl n/ noun a
The respondents were interviewed in         scheme whereby payment by results is
groups of three or four, and then singly.   based on the output of all the employees
2. several companies linked together in     in an organisation
the same organisation         the group     group insurance / ru p n-
chairman or the chairman of the group        ʃυərəns/ noun an insurance scheme
   group turnover or turnover for the       where a group of employees is covered
group the Granada Group                     by one policy
group appraisal / ru p ə prez(ə)l/         group life assurance / ru p laf
noun the appraisal of an employee by a      n ʃυərəns/ noun a life assurance pol-
group of other employees                    icy that covers a number of people, e.g.,
                                            the members of an association or club,
group      capacity      assessment         or a group of employees at a company
/ ru p kə p sti ə sesmənt/ noun the
use of work measurement techniques          group        outplacement          / ru p
such as activity sampling to assess the      aυtplesmənt/ noun a situation where
work done by clerical, administrative       several employees are dealt with to-
and other employees not directly in-        gether in being given help to find other
volved in the production process as a       jobs after being made redundant
group and to establish optimum perfor-      group pension plan / ru p
mance levels for them                        penʃən pl n/, group pension
group results                           120                                  guilty

scheme / ru p penʃən ski m/ noun a          work well for twelve months, and will
life insurance plan which provides a        mend it free of charge if it breaks down
number of employees with a retirement       guaranteed annuity / rənti d
pension                                     ə nju ti/ noun an arrangement in a
group results / ru p r z lts/ plural       pension scheme by which a final lump
noun the results of a group of compa-       sum is used to purchase a fixed annuity
nies taken together                         guaranteed              employment
group selection / ru p s lekʃən/           /    rənti d m plɔmənt/ noun an
noun a method of recruitment in which       arrangement that protects employees in
candidates are assessed in groups rather    situations where there is a shortage of
than individually (NOTE: Group selec-       work, by guaranteeing that they will be
tion should not be confused with a          paid a minimum wage for a specified
panel interview.)                           number of days or hours during which
group selection methods / ru p              they have no work (NOTE: also called
                                            guaranteed week)
s lekʃən     meθədz/ plural noun
methods of assessing the ability of         guaranteed minimum pension
individuals to work with others Group       /   rənti d mnməm penʃən/ noun
selection methods are being introduced      a minimum pension which must be pro-
to complement individual intelligence       vided by an occupational pension
and personality tests.                      scheme. Abbr GMP
group training / ru p trenŋ/              guaranteed week / rənti d
noun a training method where a group         wi k/ noun same as guaranteed
trains together and so learns from each     employment
other                                       guard / ɑ d/ noun a person who pro-
growth / rəυθ/ noun an increase in          tects someone or a building
size                                        guided          interview   / add
growth industry / rəυθ ndəstri/                ntəvju / noun same as directed
noun an industry that is expanding or       interview
has the potential to expand faster than     guideline / adlan/ noun an unoffi-
other industries                            cial suggestion from the government as
growth rate / rəυθ ret/ noun the           to how something should be done The
speed at which something grows              government has issued guidelines on in-
                                            creases in salaries and prices.
guarantee / rən ti / noun a legal           guideline        method        / adlan
document in which the producer agrees
                                             meθəd/ noun a job evaluation tech-
to compensate the buyer if the product is
                                            nique which takes into account attitudes
faulty or becomes faulty before a spe-
                                            to the job in the industry as a whole
cific date after purchase a certificate
                                            The HR manager justified the guideline
of guarantee or a guarantee certificate
                                            method as adapting to the laws of sup-
   The guarantee lasts for two years. It
                                            ply and demand.
is sold with a twelve-month guarantee.
   the car is still under guarantee the     guild / ld/ noun an association of
car is still covered by the maker’s guar-   merchants or shopkeepers         a trade
antee í verb 1. to give a promise that      guild the guild of master bakers
something will happen to guarantee a        guilty / lti/ adjective referring to a
debt to promise that you will pay a debt    person who has done something wrong
made by someone else 2. the product            He was found guilty of libel. The
is guaranteed for twelve months the         company was guilty of not reporting the
manufacturer says that the product will     sales to the auditors.
hack                                    121                                 handover


hack /h k/ noun an ordinary worker              handicap     / h ndik p/ noun 1.
(informal )
         .    a hack copywriter                 something which prevents someone
haggle / h (ə)l/ verb to discuss                from doing something She found that
prices and terms and try to reduce them         her lack of qualifications was a great
   to haggle about or over the details of       handicap to getting her first job. 2.
a contract     After two days’ haggling         disability (NOTE: term now generally
the contract was signed.                        unacceptable in sense 2 and replaced
                                                by disability)
half pay /hɑ f pe/ noun half your
normal salary                                   handicapped / h ndik pt/ adjec-
halo effect / heləυ  fekt/ noun a             tive without the advantage of something
crude and over-simple classification of            She is handicapped by not having a
employees into ‘good’ and ‘bad’ on the          recognised qualification.
basis of superficial characteristics such       handicapped person / h ndik pt
as personal rapport or a pleasant manner         p s(ə)n/ noun a person with a disabil-
halo error / heləυ erə/ noun a mis-            ity (NOTE: term now generally unac-
take made by promoting the wrong per-           ceptable and replaced by disabled
son because of the halo effect                  person)
hand /h nd/ noun 1. the part of the             hand in / h nd n/ verb to deliver a
body at the end of each arm to shake            letter by hand he handed in his notice
hands to hold someone’s hand when               or resignation he resigned
meeting to show you are pleased to meet         handle / h nd(ə)l/ verb to deal with
them, or to show that an agreement has          something or to organise something
been reached       The two negotiating          The accounts department handles all the
teams shook hands and sat down at the           cash. We can handle orders for up to
conference table. to shake hands on             15,000 units.    They handle all our
a deal to shake hands to show that a            overseas orders.
deal has been agreed 2. by hand using
the hands, not a machine These shoes            hand-operated /h nd ɒpəretd/
are made by hand. to send a letter by           adjective worked by hand, not automati-
hand to ask someone to carry and de-            cally a hand-operated machine
liver a letter personally, not sending it       hand over / h nd əυvə/ verb to pass
through the post 3. a worker to take            something to someone          She handed
on ten more hands                               over the documents to the lawyer. she
handbook / h ndbυk/ noun a book                 handed over to her deputy she passed
which gives instructions on how to use          her responsibilities to her deputy
something The handbook does not say
how you open the photocopier.                   handover / h ndəυvə/ noun the
                                                passing of responsibilities to someone
handcuffs / h n(d) k fs/ plural                 else The handover from the old chair-
noun golden handcuffs                           man to the new went very smoothly.
hand-hold / h nd həυld/ verb to re-             When the ownership of a company
assure a nervous client or colleague            changes, the handover period is always
(slang) (NOTE: hand-holding – hand –            difficult.   There was a smooth hand-
held)                                           over to the new management team.
hand-picked                                    122                               hazardous

hand-picked / h nd pkt/ adjective                 mise with the other side 2. difficult It
carefully selected a hand-picked sales             is hard to get good people to work on
team                                               low salaries. 3. solid 4. after weeks
hands-on / h ndz ɒn/ adjective in-                 of hard bargaining after weeks of diffi-
volving direct contact with the working            cult discussions í adverb with a lot of
of a system or organisation We need a              effort    The sales team sold the new
hands-on manager who will supervise                product range hard into the supermar-
operations closely.      More hands-on             kets. If all the workforce works hard,
management means we will have to in-               the order should be completed on time.
crease the technical input in our man-             hard bargain /hɑ d bɑ n/ noun a
agement training schemes.                          bargain with difficult terms to drive a
hands-on experience / h ndz ɒn                     hard bargain to be a difficult negotia-
k spəriəns/ noun the direct experi-              tor to strike a hard bargain to agree
ence of a system                                   a deal where the terms are favourable to
handwriting / h ndratŋ/ noun
writing done by hand send a letter of              hard disk / hɑ d dsk/ noun a com-
application in your own handwriting                puter disk which has a sealed case and
send a letter of application written by            can store large quantities of information
                                                     ‘…hard disks help computers function more
you with a pen, and not typed                        speedily and allow them to store more
handwritten / h nd rtn/ adjective                   information’ [Australian Financial Review]
written by hand, not typed It is more              hard drive noun same as hard disk
professional to send in a typed rather             harden / hɑ dn/ verb to become more
than a handwritten letter of application.          fixed or more inflexible The union’s
happy / h pi/ adjective very pleased               attitude to the management has hard-
   The human resources director was                ened since the lockout.
not at all happy to receive the union’s            hardship / hɑ dʃp/ noun bad condi-
new demands.       We will be happy to             tions which make someone suffer
supply you at 25% discount. The MD
was not at all happy when the sales fig-           hardship allowance / hɑ dʃp ə-
ures came in.     The workforce seems               laυəns/ noun additional pay for an em-
quite happy with the new offer from the            ployee who accepts an assignment in
management.                                        difficult conditions
                                                   hardware / hɑ dweə/ noun machines
happy camper / h pi k mpə/                         used in data processing, including the
noun a person who has no grievances
                                                   computers and printers, but not the
against their employer (slang)                     programs
harass / h rəs, hə r s/ verb to                    hard-working / hɑ d w kŋ/ adjec-
worry or to bother someone, especially             tive referring to a person who works
by continually checking on them or                 hard
making sexual approaches
                                                   hassle / h s(ə)l/ noun bother or trou-
harassment / h rəsmənt, hə-                        ble (informal ) Dealing with these peo-
 r smənt/ noun the act of harassing                ple is too much of a hassle.
 ‘EEC legislation should formally recognize that
                                                   hatchet man / h tʃt m n/ noun a
 sexual harassment is discrimination on grounds    recently appointed manager, whose job
 of sex’ [Personnel Management]                    is to make staff redundant and reduce
harassment                      procedure          expenditure (informal ).

/ h rəsmənt prə si d ə/ noun written               haulage contractor / hɔ ld kən-
and agreed rules as to how cases of                 tr ktə/ noun a company which trans-
harassment should be dealt with in a               ports goods by contract
company                                            hazard / h zəd/ noun danger
hard /hɑ d/ adjective 1. strong, not               hazardous / h zədəs/ adjective dan-
weak to take a hard line in trade un-              gerous      hazardous equipment    haz-
ion negotiations to refuse to compro-              ardous occupations
hazard pay                              123                          health insurance

hazard pay / h zəd pe/ noun addi-          head up / hed p/ verb to be in
tional pay for dangerous work All the       charge of He has been appointed to
construction workers received hazard        head up our European organisation.
pay. Hazard pay has to be pretty high         ‘…reporting to the deputy managing director,
to attract workers to this type of work.      the successful candidate will be responsible for
                                              heading up a team which provides a full
head /hed/ adjective most important or        personnel service’ [Times]
main Ask the head waiter for a table.       headway / hedwe/ noun progress in
í noun 1. the most important person 2.      a difficult situation to make headway
a person Representatives cost on av-        to go forward or make progress We
erage £25,000 per head per annum. 3.        are not making any headway in our
the top part or first part      Write the   negotiations.
name of the company at the head of the
list. í verb to be the manager, to be the   health /helθ/ noun being fit and well,
most important person We are looking        not ill
                                              ‘…the main US banks have been forced to pull
for someone to head our sales depart-         back from international lending as nervousness
ment. He is heading a buying mission          continues about their financial health’
to China.                                     [Financial Times]
                                              ‘…financial health, along with a dose of
head clerk /hed klɑ k/ noun the               independence, has largely sheltered Japan’s
most important clerk                          pharmaceutical companies from a global wave
headcount / hedkaυnt/ noun the to-            of consolidation. Those assets, however, are
                                              expected to soon lure foreign suitors too
tal number of employees who work for          powerful to resist’ [Nikkei Weekly]
an organisation
                                            health and safety / helθ ən sefti/
headed paper / hedd pepə/ noun            noun the area of policy and the law that
notepaper with the name of the com-         deals with the well-being of employees
pany and its address printed on it (NOTE:   at work and is intended to protect them
American English is letterhead)             against accidents and risks to their
headhunt / hedh nt/ verb to look for        health (NOTE: Health and safety within
managers and offer them jobs in other       an organisation is often co-ordinated
companies she was headhunted she            by a particular person, but it is the re-
was approached by a headhunter and of-      sponsibility of all employees.)
fered a new job                             Health and Safety at Work Act
headhunter / hedh ntə/ noun a per-          (1974) / helθ ən sefti ət w k kt/
son or company whose job is to find         noun an Act of Parliament which rules
suitable top managers to fill jobs in       how the health of employees should be
companies                                   protected by the companies they work
headhunting / hedh ntŋ/ noun               Health and Safety Commission
same as executive search                    / helθ ən sefti kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun a
heading / hedŋ/ noun the words at          government body set up to see that the
the top of a piece of text    Items are     provisions of the Health and Safety at
listed under several headings. Look at      Work Act are obeyed, e.g. employers
the figure under the heading ‘Costs         must report fatal accidents or
2001–02’.                                   work-related diseases. Abbr HSC
head of department / hed əv d-             Health and Safety Executive
 pɑ tmənt/ noun a person in charge of a     / helθ ən     sefti  zekjυtv/ noun
department                                  the executive committee of the Health
                                            and Safety Commission
headquarters /hed kwɔ təz/ plural
noun the main office, where the board       health hazard / helθ h zəd/ noun a
of directors meets and works        The     danger to the health of a person
company’s headquarters are in New           health insurance / helθ n ʃυərəns/
York. Abbr HQ to reduce headquar-           noun insurance which pays the cost of
ters staff to have fewer people working     treatment for illness, especially when
in the main office                          travelling abroad
Health Register                          124                                   highly

Health Register / helθ red stə/             factory. She hesitated for some time
noun a list kept by a company of medi-       before accepting the job.
cal examinations given to employees
who handle hazardous substances
                                             hidden agenda / hdn ə d endə/
                                             noun a secret plan which one party to
(NOTE: no plural)
                                             discussions has, which the other party
health screening / helθ skri nŋ/            does not know about
noun the checking of employees’ health
to ensure that they are fit for work         hierarchical /haə rɑ kk(ə)l/ adjec-
(NOTE: Health screening can take             tive referring to an organisation which
place after a new employee has been          has several levels The company has a
appointed, but before they start work,       very traditional hierarchical structure.
but it may also be a regular procedure       hierarchy / haərɑ ki/ noun an or-
especially where the work people do          ganisational structure with several lev-
involves hazardous substances or diffi-      els of responsibility or authority      At
cult conditions.)                            the bottom of the hierarchy are the un-
hearing / hərŋ/ noun a case which is       skilled workers.
being heard by a committee or tribunal       high /ha/ adjective 1. tall          The
or court of law, or by an official body      shelves are 30 cm high. The door is
heavy hitter / hevi htə/ noun an ex-        not high enough to let us get the ma-
ecutive or company that performs ex-         chines into the building.       They are
tremely well (slang)                         planning a 30-storey-high office block.
                                             2. large, not low High overhead costs
heavy industry / hevi ndəstri/              increase the unit price. They are bud-
noun an industry which deals in heavy        geting for a high level of expenditure.
raw materials such as coal or makes          High interest rates are crippling small
large products such as ships or engines      businesses.      high taxation taxation
helicopter view / helkɒptə vju /            which imposes large taxes on incomes
noun a general or broad view of a prob-      or profits     highest tax bracket the
lem as a whole, which does not go into       group which pays the most tax
details (slang)                              high achiever /ha ə tʃi və/ noun a
help /help/ noun a thing which makes         person who achieves more than they
it easy to do something The company          expect
was set up with financial help from the      high day rate /ha de ret/ noun a
government. Her assistant is not much        payment system where high rates of pay
help – he can’t type or drive. í verb to     are paid to skilled employees for time
make it easy for something to be done        worked
(NOTE: you help someone or some-
thing to do something)                       higher education / haər edjυ-
                                              keʃ(ə)n/ noun education at university
helping interview / helpŋ ntə-
 vju / noun an interview which uses a        high-grade / ha red/ adjective of
sympathetic approach to achieve its          very good quality high-grade petrol
ends Helping interviews are effective        high-grade trade delegation a delega-
in getting nervous candidates to relax.      tion made up of very important people
The management finds regular helping         high-level / ha lev(ə)l/ adjective
interviews with employees improves           very important high-level decision a
relations.                                   decision taken by the most important
helpline / helplan/ noun a telephone        person or group high-level meeting
number which links people to services        or delegation a meeting or delegation of
that can give them specialist advice, or a   the most important people (such as min-
similar service offered by shops to their    ister or managing directors)
customers. Also called careline              highly / hali/ adverb very she is
hesitate / heztet/ verb not to be sure     highly thought of by the managing di-
what to do next The company is hesi-         rector the managing director thinks she
tating about starting up a new computer      is very competent
highly-paid                             125                          holding company

highly-paid / hali ped/ adjective         hiring / haərŋ/ noun the act of em-
earning a large salary                      ploying new staff Hiring of new per-
highly-placed           / hali   plest/   sonnel has been stopped.
adjective occupying an important post       hiring and firing / haərŋ ən
   The delegation met a highly-placed        faərŋ/ noun the practice of hiring
official in the Trade Ministry.             new employees and dismissing them in
high official / ha ə fʃ(ə)l/,             quick succession
high-ranking official / ha r ŋkŋ          hiring rate / haərŋ ret/ noun the
ə fʃ(ə)l/ noun an important person in a    rate of pay for employees when first
government department                       hired Though the hiring rate is low,
                                            pay goes up rapidly during the first
high-powered / ha paυəd/ adjec-            year.     The hiring rate depends on
tive very capable and intelligent, and at   whether the entrants are skilled or not.
the same time very energetic and
forceful                                    histogram / hstə r m/ noun a chart
                                            or diagram with bars set on a base-line,
high pressure /ha preʃə/ noun a            the length of each bar expressing the
strong insistence that somebody should      quantity of an item or unit
do something       working under high
pressure working with a manager tell-       hold /həυld/ verb 1. to own or to keep
ing you what to do and to do it quickly,       They hold 10% of the company’s
or with customers asking for supplies       shares. you should hold these shares
urgently                                    – they look likely to rise you should
                                            keep these shares and not sell them 2. to
high season /ha si z(ə)n/ noun the         contain Each box holds 250 sheets of
period when there are most travellers       paper. 3. to make something happen
and tourists                                to hold a meeting or a discussion The
high unemployment / ha nm-                receiver will hold an auction of the com-
 plɔmənt/ noun a level of unemploy-        pany’s assets.      Board meetings are
ment which is high compared to previ-       held in the boardroom. 4. hold the
ous figures                                 line please (on the telephone) please
                                            wait The chairman is on the other line
hike /hak/ US noun an increase í           – will you hold? 5. to have a certain job
verb to increase      The union hiked its   or status     He holds the position of
demand to $5 an hour.                       chairman. (NOTE: holding- held)
hip shooter / hp ʃu tə/ noun an ex-          ‘…as of last night, the bank’s shareholders no
ecutive who follows their immediate in-       longer hold any rights to the bank’s shares’
stinct when responding to a question or       [South China Morning Post]
problem rather than considering it ratio-   hold back / həυld b k/ verb to wait,
nally (slang)                               not to go forward payment will be
hire / haə/ noun to work for hire to       held back until the contract has been
work freelance í verb 1. to employ          signed payment will not be made until
someone new to work for you 2. to           the contract has been signed she held
hire out cars, to hire out equipment,       back from signing the contract until
to hire out workers to lend cars, equip-    she had checked the details she de-
ment or workers to customers who pay        layed signing the contract until she had
for their use                               checked the details
hire car / haə kɑ / noun a car which       hold down / həυld daυn/ verb 1. to
                                            keep at a low level      We are cutting
has been rented He was driving a hire
                                            margins to hold our prices down. 2. to
car when the accident happened.
                                            hold down a job to manage to do a dif-
hired gun / haəd          n/ noun US a     ficult job
person, often with special expertise,         ‘…real wages have been held down; they have
who works freelance and is brought in         risen at an annual rate of only 1% in the last two
on a short-term contract to do a particu-     years’ [Sunday Times]
lar job or work on a particular project     holding       company       / həυldŋ
(slang)                                       k mp(ə)ni/ noun 1. a company which
hold out for                            126         horizontal job enlargement

owns more than 50% of the shares in an-     home /həυm/ noun the place where a
other company 2. a company which ex-        person lives Please send the letter to
ists only or mainly to own shares in        my home address, not my office.
subsidiary companies (NOTE: the Ameri-      home address /həυm ə dres/ noun
can English for this is a proprietary       the address of a house or flat where a
company)                                    person lives      Please send the docu-
hold out for / həυld aυt fɔ / verb to       ments to my home address.
wait and ask for you should hold out        home run / həυm r n/ noun the jour-
for a 10% pay rise do not agree to a        ney home at the end of the working day
pay rise of less than 10%                   (informal )

hold over / həυld əυvə/ verb to post-       homeworker / həυmw kə/ noun a
pone or put back to a later date Dis-       person who works at home for a
cussion of item 4 was held over until the   company
next meeting.                               homeworking / həυmw kŋ/ noun
hold to / həυld tu / verb not to allow      a working method where employees
something to change we will try to          work at home on computer terminals,
hold him to the contract we will try to     and send the finished material back to
stop him going against the contract         the central office by modem. Also called
the government hopes to hold wage           networking, teleworking
increases to 5% the government hopes        hon abbr honorary
that wage increases will not be more        honorarium / ɒnə reəriəm/         noun
than 5%                                     money paid to a professional person
hold up / həυld p/ verb 1. to stay at       such as an accountant or a lawyer when
a high level Sales held up during the       a specific fee has not been requested
tourist season. 2. to delay     Payment     (NOTE: plural is honoraria)
will be held up until the contract has      honorary / ɒnərəri/ adjective not
been signed. The strike will hold up        paid a salary for the work done for an
dispatch for some weeks. The workers        organisation     She is honorary secre-
are holding up production as a form of      tary of the tennis club. He is honorary
protest against poor conditions.            president of the translators’ association.
hold-up / həυld p/ noun a delay             honorary         member          / ɒnərəri
The bad weather caused hold-ups in the       membə/ noun a member who does not
dispatch of goods.                          have to pay a subscription
holiday / hɒlde/ noun a period when       hooking / hυkŋ/ noun US the prac-
an employee does not work, but rests,       tice of persuading an employee to watch
goes away and does things for pleasure      what other union members are doing or
   When is the manager taking his holi-     saying and to report back to
days? My assistant is off on holiday        management
tomorrow. He is going away on holi-         horizontal / hɒr zɒnt(ə)l/ adjective
day for two weeks.      the job carries     at the same level or with the same status
five weeks’ holiday one of the condi-          Her new job is a horizontal move into
tions of the job is that you have five      a different branch of the business.
weeks’ holiday (NOTE: American Eng-
lish is vacation)                           horizontal       job     enlargement
                                            / hɒrzɒnt(ə)l d ɒb n lɑ d mənt/,
holiday entitlement / hɒlde n-           horizontal     job      enrichment
 tat(ə)lmənt/ noun the number of           / hɒrzɒnt(ə)l  d ɒb n rtʃmənt/
days’ paid holiday which an employee        noun the process of expanding a job
has the right to take She has not used      to include new activities, skills or
up all her holiday entitlement.             responsibilities, but still at the same
holiday pay / hɒlde pe/ noun a           level in the organisation       We have
salary which is still paid during the       implemented horizontal job enlarge-
holiday                                     ment to increase individual workloads
                                            while at the same time making the work
horizontal organisation                  127                                        HRIS

more interesting. Compare vertical job       an eight-hour day we work for eight
enlargement                                  hours a day, e.g. from 8.30 to 5.30 with
horizontal       organisation /hɒr-         one hour for lunch 2. sixty minutes of
 zɒnt(ə)l ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun same         work He earns £14 an hour. We pay
as flat organisation                         £16 an hour. to pay by the hour to
                                             pay people a fixed amount of money for
horse trading / hɔ s tredŋ/ noun           each hour worked 3. outside hours,
hard bargaining which ends with some-        out of hours when the office is not open
one giving something in return for a            He worked on the accounts out of
concession from the other side               hours.
hostile / hɒstal/ adjective unfriendly,     hourly / aυəli/ adjective, adverb per
showing dislike       hostile work envi-     hour
ronment working surroundings which             ‘…despite the Fed’s long-standing fears that
are unfriendly                                 low unemployment will raise wage costs,
hot /hɒt/ adjective 1. very warm               average hourly earnings grew by just 3.6 per
Switch off the machine if it gets too hot.     cent    in    the     year  to   November’
                                               [Investors Chronicle]
   The staff complain that the office is
too hot in summer and too cold in win-       hourly-paid / aυəli ped/ adjective
ter. 2. not safe, very bad        to make    paid at a fixed rate for each hour worked
things hot for someone to make it diffi-     hourly rate / aυəli ret/, hourly
cult for someone to work or to trade         wage / aυəli wed / noun the amount
Customs officials are making things hot      of money paid for an hour worked
for drug smugglers. she is in the hot        hours of work / aυəz əv w k/
seat her job involves making many dif-       plural noun the time when the staff
ficult decisions                             of an office are working Our hours of
hot cargo provision /hɒt kɑ əυ               work are 9.30 to 5.30, with an hour off
prə v (ə)n/ noun a clause in a contract     for lunch.
that allows employees to refuse to han-      house /haυs/ noun a company the
dle products from another factory where      largest London finance house a brok-
there is an industrial dispute in progress   ing house a publishing house
hot-desking / hɒt deskŋ/ noun a             house journal / haυs d n(ə)l/,
flexible working practice that enables       house magazine / haυs m ə zi n/
employees to occupy any vacant               noun a magazine produced for the em-
workspace instead of sitting at a desk       ployees or shareholders in a company to
that they think of as their own (NOTE:       give them news about the company
Organisations that use a hot-desking
system usually have standardised             house party / haυs pɑ ti/ noun a
workspaces all equipped with informa-        method of interviewing candidates in
tion and communications technologies,        which they are invited to spend a few
and though employees may have lim-           days in a hotel or other centre, where
ited personal storage space in the form      they are given tests and monitored for
of a filing cabinet or locker, most of       interpersonal relations
their work and information will be           house union / haυs ju njən/ noun a
stored electronically. The system is         union representing employees in one
usually adopted on the grounds that          company only
conventional offices are only full for a     housing / haυzŋ/ noun houses and
fraction of the time they are open, be-      flats for living in The company pro-
cause of sickness, holidays or               vides housing for senior staff.
teleworking, and hot-desking enables
expensive office space to be fully uti-      housing benefit / haυzŋ benft/
lised.)                                      noun a local government benefit paid to
                                             people who cannot pay their rent
hour /aυə/ noun 1. a period of time
lasting sixty minutes    to work a           HR abbr human resources
thirty-five hour week to work seven          HRIS abbr human resource information
hours a day each weekday we work             system
HRM                                      128          human resources manager

HRM         abbr    human      resources     that deals with social relations in the
management                                   workplace and gave rise to a philosophy
HRP abbr human resource planning             and style of management that stresses
                                             teamwork and the importance of moti-
HR service centre / etʃ ɑ s vs             vating employees, communicating with
 sentə/ noun a central office that deals     them and giving them opportunities for
with routine administration and answers      personal growth and development in
inquiries from managers and staff            their work (NOTE: takes a singular verb)
throughout an organisation on matters
relating to human resources                  human relations management
HSC abbr Health and Safety                   / hju mən r leʃ(ə)nz m nd mənt/
Commission                                   noun management based on the im-
                                             portance of ensuring good relations and
human / hju mən/ adjective referring         cooperation in an organisation
to people
                                             human        resource        accounting
humanagement                      /hju -     / hju mən r zɔ s ə kaυntŋ/ noun
 m nd mənt/ noun a style of                 same as human capital accounting
management that emphasises the em-
powerment of employees                       human resource information
                                             system / hju mən r zɔ s nfə-
human         asset        accounting         meʃ(ə)n sstəm/ noun an informa-
/ hju mən     set ə kaυntŋ/   noun          tion system, usually a computerised one,
same as human capital accounting             which assists managers in making stra-
human         capital     / hju mən          tegic and operational decisions in the
 k pt(ə)l/ noun the employees of an         field of human resources management.
organisation, and their skills, knowledge    Abbr HRIS
and experience, considered one of the        human        resource(s)        planning
organisation’s assets                        / hju mən r zɔ sz pl nŋ/ noun the
human        capital       accounting        planning of the future needs of a com-
/ hju mən k pt(ə)l ə kaυntŋ/ noun          pany as regards employees, arranging
an attempt to place a financial value on     for interviews for candidates, organising
the knowledge and skills possessed by        training, etc. Abbr HRP
the employees of an organisation (NOTE:      human resources / hju mən r-
also called human asset accounting,
                                              sɔ sz/ plural noun the employees
human resource accounting)
                                             which an organisation has available
human error / hju mən erə/ noun a            Our human resources must be looked
mistake made by a person, not by a           after and developed if we are to raise
machine                                      productivity successfully. Abbr HR
human        factors      engineering        (NOTE: also called personnel)
/ hju mən f ktəz end  nərŋ/, hu-            ‘…effective use and management of human
man factor engineering / hju mən               resources hold the key to future business
                                               development and success’ [Management Today]
 f ktər end  nərŋ/ noun the work
of designing workplace activities, facili-   human resources department
ties and systems on the basis of an anal-    / hju mən r zɔ sz d pɑ tmənt/
ysis of human capabilities and needs so      noun a section of the company which
that the workplace can be fitted to the      deals with the staff
worker and employee performance opti-        human resources management
mised (NOTE: Human factors engineer-         / hju mən r zɔ sz m nd mənt/
ing also tries to reduce risk by raising     noun responsibility for an organisa-
safety levels.)                              tion’s productive use of and con-
human-machine                 interface      structive dealings with its employees.
/ hju mən mə ʃi n ntəfes/ noun a           Abbr HRM
point of contact between a person and a      human         resources         manager
machine such as a computer                   / hju mən r zɔ sz m nd ə/ noun a
human relations / hju mən r-                person who is responsible for an organi-
 leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun a field of study     sation’s productive use of its employees
human resources officer                129               hygienic management

  She was appointed human resources        laws relating to human rights,
manager because of her experience in       anti-discrimination, privacy and social
manpower planning and recruitment.         justice
human         resources        officer     hurry sickness / h ri sknəs/ noun
/ hju mən r zɔ sz      ɒfsə/ noun a     a state of anxiety caused by the feeling
person who deals with the staff in         that you do not have enough time in the
a company especially interviewing can-     day to achieve everything that is
didates for new posts                      required
human rights / hju mən rats/              hygiene / had i n/ noun the qual-
plural noun the rights of individual men   ity of being clean or being careful
and women to basic freedoms, such as       that everything is clean and conditions
freedom of speech and freedom of           are healthy
association                                hygienic /ha d i nk/ adjective clean
Human Rights            and Equal          and healthy
Opportunities           Commission         hygienic       management          /ha-
/ hju mən rats ənd i kwəl ɒpə-             d i nk m nd mənt/ noun a man-
 tju ntiz kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun a body         agement theory that good working con-
set up by the Australian federal gov-      ditions encourage hard work and
ernment in 1986 to administer the          productivity
Icarus factor                            130                                  immediate


Icarus factor / kərəs f ktə/ noun               having the permission of the govern-
the tendency of managers or executives           ment to do so
to embark on projects which are too am-
bitious and consequently fail (NOTE: In          illegality / li     lti/ noun the fact of
Greek mythology, Icarus tried to es-             being illegal
cape from Crete using wings made of              illegally / li əli/ adverb against the
wax and feathers, but flew too near the          law He was accused of illegally im-
sun and drowned in the sea after the             porting arms into the country.
wax melted.)                                     illegal strike / li (ə)l strak/ noun
ID card /a di kɑ d/, identity card              a strike which violates an existing law
/a dentti kɑ d/ noun a plastic card            or that violates an agreement between
which carries details of the person it be-       employers and unions
longs to                                         ill-feeling /l fi lŋ/ noun bad feeling
idea hamster /a də h mstə/ noun                or a feeling of being upset The man-
someone who appears to have an end-              agement’s attitude created a lot of
less supply of new ideas (slang)                 ill-feeling among the junior employees.
identification /a dentf keʃ(ə)n/             illness / lnəs/ noun the state of being
noun the act of showing who someone              ill or of not being well
is    visitors must produce proof of             ILM abbr internal labour market
identification they must prove who
they are                                         ILO abbr International Labour
idle / adl/ adjective 1. not working
2,000 employees were made idle by the            image / md / noun the general idea
recession. 2.     idle machinery, ma-            that the public has of a product, brand or
chines lying idle machinery not being            company They are spending a lot of
used                                             advertising money to improve the com-
                                                 pany’s image.         The company has
idle capital / adl k pt(ə)l/ noun              adopted a down-market image.             to
capital not being used productively              promote a corporate image to publi-
idle time / adl tam/ noun the time             cise a company so that its reputation is
for which employees are paid although            improved
they are unable to work because of fac-          imaginisation                / m d na-
tors beyond their control Idle time in            zeʃ(ə)n/ noun an approach to creativ-
January was attributed to the temporary          ity originated by Gareth Morgan in
closing down of one of the company’s             1993, that is concerned with improving
factories.     Workers were laid off to          people’s ability to see and understand
avoid excessive idle time.                       situations, with finding new ways of or-
illegal / li (ə)l/ adjective not legal or       ganising, with creating shared under-
against the law                                  standing and personal empowerment,
illegal       immigrant         / li (ə)l       and with developing a capability for
 m rənt/, illegal alien / li (ə)l             continuing self-organisation
 eliən/ noun a person who enters a              immediate / mi diət/ adjective hap-
country to live permanently without              pening at once We wrote an immedi-
immediate dismissal                      131                              important

ate letter of complaint.     Your order      impaired /m peəd/ adjective refer-
will receive immediate attention.            ring to a sense or function harmed in
immediate dismissal / mi diət               such a way that it does not work
ds ms(ə)l/, summary dismissal              properly
/ s məri ds ms(ə)l/ noun a dismissal       impaired vision /m peəd v (ə)n/
without giving the employee any notice       noun eyesight which is not fully clear
(usually caused by a crime committed         impairment /m peəmənt/ noun a
by the employee, or drunkenness or vio-      condition in which a sense or function is
lent     behaviour     towards     other     harmed so that it does not work properly
employees)                                      His hearing impairment does not af-
immigrant / m rənt/ noun a person          fect his work.
who enters a country to live and work        impartial /m pɑ ʃ(ə)l/ adjective not
There is a large immigrant population        biased or not prejudiced The arbitra-
working without work permits. The in-        tion board’s decision is completely
flux of immigrants is due to high unem-      impartial.
ployment in their own countries. ‘           impersonal /m p s(ə)n(ə)l/ adjec-
emigrant                                     tive without any personal touch or as if
immigrant        worker / m rənt           done by machines an impersonal style
 w kə/ noun a worker who has entered         of management
the country as a potential immigrant, be-    impingement pay /m pnd mənt
fore finding work                            pe/ noun extra pay paid to an employee
immigration / m reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.          for working when they should be on
the act of coming to live and work in a      holiday
country 2. an office at an airport or port   implement noun / mplmənt/ a tool
of entry, where government officials in-     or instrument used to do some work
spect the papers of people entering the      We don’t have the right implements for
country She was held up at Immigra-          this type of work. í verb to put into ac-
tion, because her visa was not in order.     tion to implement an agreement to
‘ emigration                                 implement a decision
Immigration Laws / m reʃ(ə)n              implementation              / mplmen-
lɔ z/ plural noun legislation regarding       teʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of putting
immigration into a country                   into action the implementation of new
Immigration           Service       / m-   rules
   reʃ(ə)n s vs/ noun a government         implicit knowledge /m plst
department which deals with allowing          nɒld / noun knowledge that is kept in
immigrants to enter and settle in a coun-    a person’s mind without necessarily be-
try The Immigration Service is trying        ing expressed in words and is often
to cope with thousands of applications       acted on instinctively
from potential immigrants.                   implied /m plad/ adjective which is
immobility /mə blti/ noun not             presumed to exist implied terms and
moving from one place to another             conditions terms and conditions which
immobility of labour /mə blti əv          are not written in a contract, but which
 lebə/, immobility of the workforce         are legally taken to be present in the
/mə blti əv ðə w kfɔ s/ noun little       contract
movement of workers from one area of         importance /m pɔ tns/ noun con-
the country to another                       siderable value or significance      The
immunity / mju nti/ noun protec-           bank attaches great importance to the
tion against arrest     immunity from        deal.
prosecution not being liable to be pros-     important /m pɔ tnt/ adjective
ecuted immunity from legal action            which matters a lot He left a pile of
not being liable to be sued (e.g. employ-    important papers in the taxi. She has
ees who strike cannot be sued for breach     an important meeting at 10.30. I was
of their contract of employment)             promoted to a more important job.
impossible                                      132                              incentive drift

 ‘…each of the major issues on the agenda at this   in-basket test / n bɑ skt test/,
 week’s meeting is important to the                 in-tray test / n tre test/ noun a
 government’s success in overall economic
 management’ [Australian Financial Review]          method of testing management potential
                                                    by asking the candidate to deal with a
impossible /m pɒsb(ə)l/ adjective                 set of problems The candidates for the
which cannot be done Getting skilled                management post had to pass a series of
staff is becoming impossible. Govern-               in-basket tests.
ment regulations make it impossible for
us to export.                                       incapability /n kepə blti/ noun
                                                    the fact of being incapable of working
improve /m pru v/ verb to make                     properly because of illness or
something better or to become better                incompetence
We are trying to improve our image                    COMMENT: In the case of incompetence,
with a series of TV commercials. They                 if the employee’s work does not improve
hope to improve the company’s market                  after they have been given time to im-
share. We hope the cash flow position                 prove, incapability can be a reason for
will improve or we will have difficulty in            dismissal.
paying our bills.
 ‘…we also invest in companies whose growth
                                                    incapacity / nkə p sti/ noun 1. the
 and profitability could be improved by a           fact of not being able to do something
 management buyout’ [Times]                         one’s incapacity for the job where one
                                                    is shown to be too incompetent or too
improved        /m pru vd/ adjective               ill, or one does not have the right skills,
better   an improved offer                          to do a job 2. the fact of being unable to
improvement /m pru vmənt/ noun                     work because of illness or disability
1. the process of getting better There              incapacity benefit / nkə p sti
is no improvement in the cash flow situ-             benft/ noun a benefit paid to people
ation. Sales are showing a sharp im-                who are unable to work because of ill-
provement over last year. Employees                 ness or disability
have noticed an improvement in the
working environment. 2. something                   incentive /n sentv/ noun something
which is better an improvement on                   which encourages a customer to buy or
an offer an act of making a better offer            employees to work better
                                                      ‘…some further profit-taking was seen
 ‘…the management says the rate of loss-making
                                                      yesterday as investors continued to lack fresh
 has come down and it expects further
                                                      incentives   to    renew buying activity’
 improvement in the next few years’
                                                      [Financial Times]
 [Financial Times]
                                                      ‘…a well-designed plan can help companies
improvement               notice           /m-       retain talented employees and offer enticing
 pru vmənt nəυts/ noun an order                      performance incentives – all at an affordable
from the Health and Safety Executive,                 cost’ [Fortune]
requiring a company to do something to                ‘…the right incentives can work when used
improve working conditions where                      strategically’ [Management Today]
there has been a breach of the Health                 ‘…an additional incentive is that the Japanese
and Safety at Work Act                                are prepared to give rewards where they are due’
                                                      [Management Today]
improve on /m pru v ɒn/ verb to do
better than she refused to improve on               incentive ceiling /n sentv si lŋ/
her previous offer she refused to make              noun a limit on how much can be paid
a better offer                                      on the basis of results     An incentive
improver /m pru və/ noun an em-                    ceiling was introduced to limit bonuses
ployee working for very low wages in                and the possibility of resentment among
return for learning by work experience              workers.
   The management has a policy of em-               incentive drift /n sentv drft/
ploying improvers where possible so as              noun a decrease in the gap between ef-
to cut down on salaries. Three months               fort and output in production      Short
as an improver gave me the necessary                cuts were found to increase productivity
confidence to find a better paid position.          and thus cause incentive drift.
incentive plan                          133                    in-company training

incentive plan /n sentv pl n/,            income before tax / nk m bfɔ
incentive scheme /n sentv ski m/,          t ks/ noun gross income before tax
incentive programme /n sentv              has been deducted
 prəυ r m/ noun a scheme which              income bracket / nk m br kt/
encourages better work by paying            noun a group of people earning roughly
higher commission or bonuses          In-   the same income
centive schemes are boosting produc-
tion.     The new bonus scheme gives        incomes policy / nk mz pɒlsi/
the workers more incentive to achieve       noun the government’s ideas on how in-
production targets.                         comes should be controlled
                                            income          statement        / nk m
incentive stock option /n sentv            stetmənt/ noun US a statement of
 stɒk ɒpʃən/ noun (in the United            company expenditure and sales which
States) a plan that gives each qualifying   shows whether the company has made a
employee the right to purchase a spe-       profit or loss (NOTE: the British equiva-
cific number of the corporation’s shares    lent is profit and loss account)
at a set price during a specific time pe-
riod (NOTE: Tax is only payable when        income support / nk m sə pɔ t/
the shares are sold.)                       noun a government benefit paid to
                                            low-income earners who are working
incentivize /n sentvaz/ verb US          less than 16 hours per week, provided
same as motivate                            they can show that they are actively
incidental / ns dent(ə)l/ adjective       looking for jobs. Abbr IS
which is not important, but connected       income tax / nk m t ks/ noun 1.
with something else                         the tax on a person’s income (both
incidental expenses / nsdent(ə)l          earned and unearned) 2. the tax on the
k spensz/ plural noun small amounts       profits of a corporation
of money spent at various times in addi-      ‘…there is no risk-free way of taking regular
tion to larger amounts                        income from your money much higher than the
                                              rate of inflation’ [Guardian]
incidentals / ns dent(ə)lz/ plural
noun same as incidental expenses            income tax allowance / nk m
                                            t ks ə laυəns/ noun an amount of in-
include /n klu d/ verb to count some-      come that a person does not have to pay
thing along with other things        The    income tax on
charge includes VAT.         The account
                                            income tax form / nk m t ks
covers services up to and including the     fɔ m/ noun a form to be completed
month of June.                              which declares all income to the tax
inclusive /n klu sv/ adjective which      office
counts something in with other things       income tax return / nk m t ks r-
inclusive of tax not inclusive of VAT        t n/ noun a form used for reporting
the conference runs from the 12th to        how much income you have earned and
the 16th inclusive it starts on the morn-   working out how much tax you have to
ing of the 12th and ends on the evening     pay on it
of the 16th
                                            incoming / nk mŋ/ adjective 1.
inclusive        charge       /n klu sv   incoming call a phone call coming into
 tʃɑ d /, inclusive sum /n klu sv         the office from someone outside in-
 s m/ noun a charge which includes all      coming mail mail which comes into an
items or costs                              office 2. referring to someone who has
income / nk m/ noun money which            recently been elected or appointed the
a person receives as salary or dividends    incoming chairman         the incoming
   lower income bracket, upper in-          board of directors the new board
come bracket the groups of people who       which is about to start working
earn low or high salaries considered for    in-company            training      / n
tax purposes                                k mp(ə)ni trenŋ/ noun training pro-
                                            vided by an external organisation which
incompatible                             134                                   indentures

specialises in running training courses        ‘…turnover has the potential to be increased to
for the employees of a particular com-         over 1 million dollars with energetic
                                               management      and    very    little   capital’
pany only, and which is usually spe-           [Australian Financial Review]
cially adapted to the company’s needs. ‘
                                               ‘…competition is steadily increasing and could
public training programme (NOTE:               affect profit margins as the company tries to
See also public training programmes)           retain its market share’ [Citizen (Ottawa)]
incompatible        / nkəm p tb(ə)l/       increment / ŋkrmənt/ noun a regu-
adjective not able to live or work to-       lar automatic increase in salary an an-
gether Her views and those of the de-        nual increment salary which rises in
partment manager were incompatible.          annual increments of £1000 each year
The manager’s paternalistic approach         the salary is increased by £1000
was incompatible with the company’s          incremental / ŋkr ment(ə)l/ adjec-
more democratic approach.                    tive which rises automatically in stages
incompetence           /n kɒmpt(ə)ns/      incremental                         increase
noun the fact of being unable to do a job    / ŋkrment(ə)l nkri s/ noun an in-
well The clerk was fired for gross in-       crease in salary according to an agreed
competence. Much of the sales team’s         annual increment
incompetence is due to lack of training.
                                             incremental              salary          scale
incompetent /n kɒmpt(ə)nt/ ad-             / ŋkrment(ə)l s ləri skel/ noun a
jective unable to work effectively The       salary scale with regular annual salary
sales manager is incompetent.      The       increases
company has an incompetent sales
director.                                    incremental scale / ŋkrment(ə)l
                                              skel/ noun a salary scale with regular
incorrect       / nkə rekt/    adjective    annual salary increases
wrong       The minutes of the meeting
were incorrect and had to be changed.        incumbent /n k mbənt/ noun a
                                             person currently filling a position
incorrectly / nkə rektli/ adverb
wrongly The package was incorrectly          incur /n k / verb to make yourself
addressed.                                   liable to     to incur the risk of a
                                             penalty to make it possible that you risk
increase noun / nkri s/ 1. an act of        paying a penalty
becoming larger There have been sev-           ‘…the company blames fiercely competitive
eral increases in tax or tax increases in      market conditions in Europe for a £14m
the last few years. There is an auto-          operating loss last year, incurred despite a
matic 5% increase in price or price in-        record turnover’ [Financial Times]
crease on January 1st. Profits showed        indecision / nd s (ə)n/ noun the
a 10% increase or an increase of 10%         fact of not being able to decide The
on last year. increase in the cost of        employees protested to the management
living a rise in the annual cost of living   about the indecision over relocation.
2. a higher salary increase in pay or
pay increase      The government hopes       indecisive / nd sasv/ adjective
to hold salary increases to 3%. she          not able to make up one’s mind or to de-
had two increases last year her salary       cide on something important He is too
went up twice í verb /n kri s/ 1. to        indecisive to be a good manager.
grow bigger or higher Profits have in-       indecisiveness         / nd sasvnəs/
creased faster than the increase in the      noun the quality of being indecisive
rate of inflation.     Exports to Africa     indenture /n dentʃə/ verb to con-
have increased by more than 25%.
The price of oil has increased twice in      tract with an apprentice who will work
the past week. to increase in price to       for some years to learn a trade He was
cost more to increase in size or in          indentured to a builder.
value to become larger or more valuable      indentures /n dentʃəz/ plural noun
2. the company increased her salary          a contract by which an apprentice works
to £20,000 the company gave her a rise       for a master for some years to learn a
in salary to £20,000                         trade
independent                                       135                          individualism

independent / nd pendənt/ adjec-                    indirect / nda rekt/ adjective not
tive not under the control or authority of            direct
anyone else                                           indirect compensation / ndarekt
independent audit / ndpendənt                       kɒmpən seʃ(ə)n/ noun a non-financial
 ɔ dt/ noun an audit carried out by an               benefit given by a company to its em-
auditor who is independent and not em-                ployees (such as sports facilities, a com-
ployed by the company                                 pany car or health insurance)
independent                         company           indirect costs / ndarekt kɒsts/
/ ndpendənt  k mp(ə)ni/ noun a                      plural noun costs which are not directly
company which is not controlled by an-                related to the making of a product (such
other company                                         as cleaning, rent or administration)
independent                       contractor          indirect               discrimination
/ ndpendənt       kɒntr ktə/ noun a                 / ndarekt dskrm neʃ(ə)n/ noun
self-employed person who works for a                  discrimination that takes place when,
company, and is paid a fee for providing              although people seem to be being
a service, but is not paid a salary                   treated equally, there is actually some
                                                      special condition attached to getting a
independent trader / ndpendənt                      job, which rules out some of the people
 tredə/,        independent         shop             who are qualified to apply for it and
/ ndpendənt ʃɒp/ noun a shop which                  which cannot be justified under
is owned by an individual proprietor,                 anti-discrimination laws
not by a chain
                                                      indirect labour / ndarekt lebə/
in-depth study / n depθ st di/                       noun employees who are not directly re-
noun a thorough painstaking study                     lated to the production of the product
index / ndeks/ noun 1. a list of                     indirect labour costs / ndarekt
items classified into groups or put in                 lebə kɒsts/ plural noun the cost of
alphabetical order 2. a regular statistical           paying employees not directly involved
report which shows rises and falls in                 in making a product such as cleaners or
prices, values or levels í verb to link a             canteen staff. Such costs cannot be allo-
payment to an index salaries indexed                  cated to a cost centre.
to the cost of living
                                                      indirect taxation / ndarekt t k-
indexation / ndek seʃ(ə)n/ noun                      seʃ(ə)n/ noun taxes (such as sales tax)
the linking of something to an index                  which are not paid direct to the govern-
indexation of wage increases                          ment       The government raises more
/ ndekseʃ(ə)n əv wed nkri sz/                    money by indirect taxation than by
noun the linking of wage increases to                 direct.
the percentage rise in the cost of living             individual / nd vd uəl/ noun one
index-linked / ndeks lŋkt/ adjec-                   single person a savings plan tailored
tive which rises automatically by the                 to the requirements of the private indi-
percentage increase in the cost of living             vidual í adjective single or belonging
   index-linked government bonds In-                  to one person a pension plan designed
flation did not affect her as she has an              to meet each person’s individual
index-linked pension.                                 requirements
 ‘…two-year index-linked savings certificates         individual      incentive      scheme
 now pay 3 per cent a year tax free, in addition to   / ndvd uəl n sentv ski m/ noun a
 index-linking’ [Financial Times]
                                                      payment scheme whereby an individual
indicator / ndketə/ noun some-                     is rewarded for improvements in their
thing which indicates                                 work
 ‘…we may expect the US leading economic              individualism / nd vd uəlz(ə)m/
 indicators for April to show faster economic         noun the belief that society flourishes if
 growth’ [Australian Financial Review]
                                                      each individual is responsible only for
indifference /n df(ə)rəns/              range       themselves and their family (NOTE: the
of indifference                                       opposite is collectivism)
individual relations                           136                industrial psychology

individual relations / ndvd uəl                 ganisation or industry, in particular,
r leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun relations be-            where the employees have a role in the
tween employers and individual                     decision-making processes, and can
employees                                          veto proposals by the management In-
inducement /n dju smənt/ noun                     dustrial democracy was part of the po-
something which helps to persuade                  litical party’s manifesto.
someone to do something        They of-            industrial       development          /n-
fered her a company car as an induce-               d striəl d veləpmənt/ noun the plan-
ment to stay.                                      ning and building of new industries in
 COMMENT: Inducement can be a tort, if,            special areas
 say, a union official induces members to
 take industrial action in contravention of
                                                   industrial disease /n d striəl d-
 their contracts of employment.
                                                    zi z/, occupational disease /ɒkjυ-
                                                    peʃ(ə)n(ə)l d zi z/ noun a disease
induction /n d kʃən/ noun an intro-               which is caused by the type of work or
duction to a new organisation or a new             the conditions in which someone works
job                                                (such as disease caused by dust or
induction course /n d kʃən kɔ s/,                 chemicals in a factory)
induction       training     /n d kʃən            industrial dispute /n d striəl d-
 trenŋ/ noun a programme intended to              spju t/ noun an argument between
help a person entering an organisation             management and employees
or starting a new job The company is
organising a two-day induction course              industrial espionage /n d striəl
for new employees.        The induction             espiənɑ / noun the practice of trying
course spelt out the main objectives and           to find out the secrets of a competitor’s
procedures of the organisation.                    work or products, usually by illegal
industrial /n d striəl/ adjective re-
ferring to manufacturing work to take              industrial health /n d striəl helθ/,
industrial action to go on strike or               industrial      hygiene       /n d striəl
go-slow                                             had i n/ noun a branch of medicine
 ‘…indications of renewed weakness in the US       dealing with the health of people at
 economy were contained in figures on industrial   work Standards of industrial hygiene
 production for April’ [Financial Times]           are improving in line with developments
industrial       accident /n d striəl             in general medicine. The development
    ksd(ə)nt/ noun an accident which              of industrial health has meant better
takes place at work                                protection against lung disease in the
industrial        action       /n d striəl        mining industry.
    kʃən/ noun steps taken by employees            industrial injuries disablement
to strengthen their position in making             benefit /n d striəl nd əriz ds-
demands on employers                                eb(ə)lmənt benft/ noun a benefit
Industrial Arbitration Court /n-                  paid to a worker who has been injured
 d striəl ɑ b treʃ(ə)n kɔ t/ noun a              or disabled at work
special court that is responsible for set-         industrial injuries insurance /n-
tling industrial disputes                           d striəl nd əriz n ʃυərəns/ noun a
industrial arbitration tribunal /n-               government insurance scheme for work-
 d striəl ɑ b treʃ(ə)n tra bju n(ə)l/           ers who have accidents at work
noun a court which decides in industrial           industrial practices /n d striəl
disputes                                            pr ktsz/ plural noun ways of man-
industrial court /n d striəl kɔ t/                aging or working in business, industry
noun a court which can decide in indus-            or trade (NOTE: also called trade
trial disputes if both parties agree to ask        practices)
it to judge between them                           industrial psychology /n d striəl
industrial democracy /n d striəl                  sa kɒləd i/ noun a study of human be-
d mɒkrəsi/ noun a concept where                   haviour and mental health in the
power is shared by employees in an or-             workplace
industrial relations                           137                    in flagrante delicto

industrial     relations /n d striəl              industry-wide wage increases for ma-
r leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun relations                chinists of 10%.
between management and employees
The company has a history of bad
                                                   industry-wide         strike / ndəstri
                                                   wad strak/ noun a strike which af-
labour relations.
 ‘Britain’s industrial relations    climate   is
                                                   fects a whole industry and not just indi-
 changing’ [Personnel Today]                       vidual firms
industrial relations audit /n-                    ineffective time / nfektv tam/
 d striəl r leʃ(ə)nz ɔ dt/ noun a re-           noun the time spent by an operator
view of all relations between manage-              which does not contribute to production
ment and employees in a company                       The dramatic fall in productivity was
Industrial Relations Court of                      due to an increase in ineffective time.
Australia /n d striəl r leʃ(ə)nz                The poor profit figures can be put down
kɔ t əv ɒ streliə/ noun a superior                to too much ineffective time and wast-
court in Australia which is responsible            age of raw materials.
for enforcing decisions made by a court            inefficiency / n fʃ(ə)nsi/ noun the
of arbitration, deciding on claims for un-         fact of not being able to work quickly
fair dismissal and ruling on points of in-         and correctly The report criticised the
dustrial law                                       inefficiency of the sales staff.
industrial sociology /n d striəl                  inefficient / n fʃ(ə)nt/ adjective
səυsi ɒləd i/ noun the study of em-                not doing a job well or unable to work
ployees and their attitudes to work and            efficiently and correctly an inefficient
management                                         sales director        Inefficient workers
Industrial Training Board /n-                     waste raw materials and fail to com-
 d striəl trenŋ bɔ d/ noun a                     plete tasks on schedule.
regional     government        organisation        ineligibility /n eld  blti/ noun
whose responsibility is to provide                 the fact of being ineligible
training facilities for industry
                                                   ineligible /n eld b(ə)l/ adjective
industrial tribunal /n d striəl tra-             not eligible
 bju n(ə)l/ noun a court which can de-
cide in disputes about employment                  inequality / n kwɒlti/ noun the
 ‘ACAS has a legal obligation to try and solve     state of not being equal The workforce
 industrial grievances before they reach           has complained about the inequalities of
 industrial tribunals’ [Personnel Today]           the pension scheme.
industrial unrest /n d striəl        n-           inequity /n ekwti/ noun unfairness
 rest/ noun action by employees (such              of treatment, e.g. unequal pay for the
as protest meetings, strikes or                    same type of job Inequity has caused
walk-outs) against pay or working                  much resentment in the organisation,
conditions                                         especially when younger staff are being
industry / ndəstri/ noun 1. all facto-            paid more than their seniors for the
ries, companies or processes involved in           same type of work.
the manufacturing of products All sec-             inexperienced           / nk spəriənst/
tors of industry have shown rises in out-          adjective referring to a person who does
put. 2. a group of companies making the            not have much experience The negoti-
same type of product or offering the               ating team was quite inexperienced in
same type of service the aircraft in-              dealing with management negotiators.
dustry the food-processing industry                    They have appointed an inexperi-
the petroleum industry the advertising             enced young man as workshop
industry                                           manager.
 ‘…with the present overcapacity in the airline
 industry, discounting of tickets is widespread’   in flagrante delicto /n flə r nti
 [Business Traveller]                              d lktəυ/ Latin phrase meaning ‘in the
industry-wide       / ndəstri wad/               act of doing something’ The clerk was
adjective affecting all companies in               caught in flagrante delicto pocketing the
one industry       We are expecting                petty cash.
inflated salary                                   138                 information overload

inflated salary /n fletd s ləri/                   infoholic / nfəυ hɒlk/ noun a per-
noun a salary which is increased with-                son who is obsessed with obtaining in-
out any reason                                        formation, especially on the Internet
inflation /n fleʃ(ə)n/ noun a greater               (slang)
increase in the supply of money or                    inform /n fɔ m/ verb to tell someone
credit than in the production of goods                officially    We are pleased to inform
and services, resulting in higher prices              you that you have been selected for in-
and a fall in the purchasing power of                 terview.     We have been informed by
money we have 3% inflation, infla-                    the Department that new regulations
tion is running at 3% prices are 3%                   are coming into force.
higher than at the same time last year
to take measures to reduce inflation                  informal /n fɔ m(ə)l/ adjective not
High interest rates tend to increase                  official or not formal
inflation.                                            informally         /n fɔ məli/ adverb
 ‘…the decision by the government to tighten          unofficially
 monetary policy will push the annual inflation
 rate above the year’s previous high’
                                                      informal warning /n fɔ m(ə)l
 [Financial Times]                                     wɔ nŋ/ noun a spoken warning to an
                                                      employee, which is not recorded and
 ‘…the retail prices index rose 0.4 per cent in the
 month, taking the annual headline inflation rate     cannot be taken into account if the
 to 1.7 per cent. The underlying inflation rate,      worker is disciplined later. ‘ formal
 which excludes mortgage interest payments,           warning
 increased to an annual rate of 3.1 per cent’
 [Times]                                              information / nfə meʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                                      details which explain something          to
 COMMENT: The inflation rate in the UK is
                                                      disclose a piece of information to an-
 calculated on a series of figures, including
 prices of consumer items; petrol, gas and
                                                      swer a request for information I en-
 electricity; interest rates, etc. This gives         close this leaflet for your information.
 the ‘underlying’ inflation rate which can be         For further information, please write to
 compared to that of other countries. The             Department 27. disclosure of confi-
 calculation can also include mortgage in-            dential information the act of telling
 terest and local taxes which give the                someone information which should be
 ‘headline’ inflation figure; this is higher          secret
 than in other countries because of these
 extra items. Inflation affects businesses,
                                                      information agreement /nfə-
 in that as their costs rise, so their profits         meʃ(ə)n ə ri mənt/ noun an agree-
 may fall and it is necessary to take this            ment between management and a union
 into account when pricing products.                  regarding the information about the
                                                      company which management agrees to
inflation accounting /n fleʃ(ə)n                    pass to the union on a regular basis
ə kaυntŋ/ noun an accounting system,
where inflation is taken into account                 information management /nfə-
when calculating the value of assets and               meʃ(ə)n m nd mənt/ noun the
the preparation of accounts                           task of controlling information and the
                                                      flow of information within an organisa-
inflationary /n fleʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ adjec-               tion, which involves acquiring, record-
tive which tends to increase inflation                ing, organising, storing, distributing and
inflationary trends in the economy the                retrieving it (NOTE: Good information
economy is in an inflationary spiral                  management has been described as
the economy is in a situation where
                                                      getting the right information to the right
price rises encourage higher wage de-
                                                      person in the right format at the right
mands which in turn make prices rise
 ‘…inflationary expectations fell somewhat this
 month, but remained a long way above the             information         overload        /nfə-
 actual inflation rate, according to figures           meʃ(ə)n əυvələυd/ noun the act of
 released yesterday. The annual rate of inflation
 measured by the consumer price index has been
                                                      burdening someone with too much
 below 2 per cent for over 18 months’                 information
 [Australian Financial Review]
information retrieval                   139                             insolvency

information          retrieval     /nfə-   computer í verb to input informa-
 meʃ(ə)n r tri v(ə)l/ noun the finding    tion to put data into a computer
of stored data in a computer                inquire /n kwaə/ verb to ask ques-
information system /nfə meʃ(ə)n           tions about something He inquired if
 sstəm/ noun a system of storing infor-    anything was wrong.        She inquired
mation either manually or by computer       about the mortgage rate.         ‘inquire
   The information system is so bad that    within’ ask for more details inside the
details on staff cannot be found easily.    office or shop
information technology /nfə-               inquire into /n kwaər ntu / verb
 meʃ(ə)n tek nɒləd i/ noun working         to investigate or try to find out about
with data stored on computers (IT).         something We are inquiring into the
Abbr IT                                     background of the new supplier.
infringement /n frnd mənt/ noun           inquiry /n kwaəri/ noun 1. an offi-
an act of breaking a law or a rule in-      cial question I refer to your inquiry of
fringement of the company’s rules           May 25th. All inquiries should be ad-
                                            dressed to this department. 2. an official
in-house /n haυs/ adverb, adjective        investigation      a government inquiry
done by someone employed by a com-          into trading practices (NOTE: plural is
pany on their premises, not by an out-      inquiries)
side contractor      the in-house staff
We do all our data processing in-house.     in-service      training / n s vs
                                             trenŋ/ noun the training of staff
in-house training / n haυs                 while they are employed by an organisa-
 trenŋ/ noun training given to em-        tion Management trainees will draw
ployees at their place of work              full salaries during the period of their
initiative / nʃətv/ noun the decision    in-service training. Abbr INSET
to start something to take the initia-      inside /n sad/ adjective, adverb in,
tive to decide to do something to lack      especially in a company’s office or
initiative not to be enterprising or        building We do all our design work
go-ahead The manager will have to be        inside. í preposition in       There was
replaced – she lacks initiative.            nothing inside the container. We have
injunction /n d ŋkʃən/ noun a              a contact inside our rival’s production
court order telling someone not to do       department who gives us very useful
something He got an injunction pre-         information.
venting the company from selling his        insider /n sadə/ noun a person who
car.                                        works in an organisation and therefore
injure / nd ə/ verb to hurt someone        knows its secrets
Two workers were injured in the fire.       insider buying /n sadə baŋ/, in-
injury / nd əri/ noun hurt caused to a     sider dealing /n sadə tredŋ/, in-
person                                      sider trading /n sadə tredŋ/ noun
                                            the illegal buying or selling of shares by
injury benefit / nd əri benft/           staff of a company or other persons who
noun money paid to an employee who          have secret information about the com-
has been hurt at work                       pany’s plans
inland / nlənd/ adjective inside a         inside work / nsad w k/, internal
country                                     work /n t n(ə)l w k/ noun the work
innovation / nə veʃ(ə)n/ noun the         that an operator can do within the period
development of new products or new          that the machine is working
ways of selling                             inside worker / nsad w kə/ noun
input / npυt/ noun what is contrib-        an employee who works in an office or
uted to an activity or project        The   factory (not someone who works in the
amount of staff input in the company        open air or visits customers)
magazine is small. input of informa-        insolvency /n sɒlvənsi/ noun the
tion, computer input data fed into a        fact of not being able to pay debts the
insolvency practitioner                           140                                instruct

company was in a state of insolvency                 me əz/ noun a government official
it could not pay its debts                          who inspects weighing machines and
 ‘…hundreds of thrifts found themselves on the      goods sold in shops to see if the quanti-
 brink of insolvency after a deregulation           ties and weights are correct
 programme prompted them to enter dangerous
 financial waters’ [Times]                          install /n stɔ l/ verb 1. to put a ma-
insolvency           practitioner           /n-    chine into an office or into a factory
 sɒlvənsi pr k tʃ(ə)nə/ noun a person              We are planning to install the new ma-
who advises insolvent companies                     chinery over the weekend. They must
                                                    install a new data processing system be-
insolvent /n sɒlvənt/ adjective not
                                                    cause the old one cannot cope with the
able to pay debts The company was
declared insolvent. (NOTE: see note at              mass of work involved. 2. to set up a
                                                    new computer system so that it fits the
                                                    user’s requirements 3. to configure a
 COMMENT: A company is insolvent when
                                                    new computer program to the existing
 its liabilities are higher than its assets; if
 this happens it must cease trading.
                                                    system requirements
insourcing / nsɔ sŋ/ noun the use                 installation / nstə leʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
of an organisation’s or a department’s              the act of putting new machines into an
own employees and resources to meet                 office or a factory to supervise the in-
its need for specific services (NOTE:               stallation of new equipment 2. ma-
compare outsourcing)                                chines, equipment and buildings
                                                    Harbour installations were picketed by
inspect /n spekt/ verb to examine in               striking dockers.       The fire seriously
detail to inspect a machine or an in-               damaged the oil installations. 3. setting
stallation The gas board is sending an              up a new computer system
engineer to inspect the central heating
system. Inspectors from the DTI have                instalment /n stɔ lmənt/ noun a
come to inspect the accounts. to in-                part of a payment which is paid regu-
spect products for defects to look at               larly until the total amount is paid The
products in detail to see if they have any          first instalment is payable on signature
defects                                             of the agreement. (NOTE: the usual US
                                                    spelling is installment) the final in-
inspection /n spekʃən/ noun the
                                                    stalment is now due the last of a series
close examination of something          to
                                                    of payments should be paid now to
make an inspection or to carry out an
                                                    pay £25 down and monthly instal-
inspection of a machine or an installa-
tion     the inspection of a product for            ments of £20 to pay a first payment of
defects to issue an inspection order                £25 and the rest in payments of £20
to order an official inspection                     each month to miss an instalment not
                                                    to pay an instalment at the right time
inspector /n spektə/ noun an offi-
cial who inspects The inspectors will               institute / nsttju t/ noun a society
soon be round to make sure the building             or organisation which represents a par-
is safe.                                            ticular profession or activity the Insti-
                                                    tute of Chartered Accountants           the
inspectorate /n spekt(ə)rət/ noun                  Chartered Institute of Personnel and
all inspectors                                      Development í verb to start a new cus-
inspector of factories /n spektər                  tom or procedure        to institute a new
əv f kt(ə)riz/ noun a government of-                staff payment scheme
ficial who inspects factories to see if             institution / nst tju ʃ(ə)n/ noun an
they are safely run                                 organisation or society set up for a par-
inspector of taxes /n spektər əv                   ticular purpose
 t ksz/ noun an official of the Inland
Revenue who examines tax returns and                instruct /n str kt/ verb 1. to give an
decides how much tax people should                  order to someone to instruct some-
pay                                                 one to do something to tell someone of-
                                                    ficially to do something He instructed
inspector of weights and mea-                       the credit controller to take action.
sures /n spektər əv wets ən
instruction                               141                         intelligence test

The foreman will instruct the men to          surance scheme should be provided for
stop working. 2. to teach                     the employees?
instruction /n str kʃən/ noun an or-         insurance        policy      /n ʃυərəns
der which tells what should be done or         pɒlsi/ noun a document which shows
how something is to be used He gave           the conditions of an insurance contract
instructions to his stockbroker to sell the   insure /n ʃυə/ verb to have a contract
shares immediately. to await instruc-         with a company where, if regular small
tions to wait for someone to tell you         payments are made, the company will
what to do to issue instructions to tell      pay compensation for loss, damage, in-
everyone what to do in accordance             jury or death to insure someone’s life
with, according to instructions as the          He was insured for £100,000. to in-
instructions show                             sure against loss of earnings
instructor /n str ktə/ noun a person         insurer /n ʃυərə/ noun a company
who shows how something is to be done         which insures (NOTE: for life insurance,
   Two new instructors are needed for         British English prefers to use assurer)
the training courses. Distance learn-
ing can be carried out without                intangible /n t nd b(ə)l/ adjective
instructors.                                  which cannot be touched
insubordination              / nsəbɔ d-     intangible       fixed assets /n-
 neʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of refusing to do      t nd b(ə)l fkst sets/ plural noun
what a person in authority tells you to       assets which have a value, but which
do                                            cannot be seen (such as goodwill, copy-
                                              rights, patents or trademarks)
insurable /n ʃυərəb(ə)l/ adjective
which can be insured                          integrate / nt ret/ verb to link
                                              things together to form one whole group
insurance /n ʃυərəns/ noun an
agreement that in return for regular pay-     integration / nt reʃ(ə)n/ noun the
ments (called ‘premiums’), a company          act of bringing several businesses to-
will pay compensation for loss, damage,       gether under a central control
injury or death to take out insurance           COMMENT: In a case of horizontal inte-
   Repairs will be paid for by the insur-       gration, a large supermarket might take
                                                over another smaller supermarket chain;
ance. the damage is covered by the
                                                on the other hand, if a supermarket takes
insurance the insurance company will            over a food packaging company the inte-
pay for the damage        Repairs will be       gration would be vertical.
paid for by the insurance.
                                              integration       test / nt reʃ(ə)n
insurance         agent       /n ʃυərəns
                                              test/ noun a test to show if a person is
 ed ənt/, insurance broker /n-
                                              an employee or a freelancer (by seeing
 ʃυərəns brəυkə/ noun a person who
                                              if the work done is an integral part of the
arranges insurance for clients
                                              company’s operations or simply an ad-
insurance company /n ʃυərəns                 ditional help to the company)
 k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company whose              integrative                  bargaining
business is insurance                         / nt retv bɑ nŋ/, integrative
insurance contract /n ʃυərəns                negotiation / nt retv n əυʃi-
 kɒntr kt/ noun an agreement by an             eʃ(ə)n/ noun bargaining to reach a so-
insurance company to insure                   lution which is beneficial to both sides
insurance cover /n ʃυərəns k və/             intelligence quotient /n teld əns
noun protection guaranteed by an insur-        kwəυʃ(ə)nt/ noun a measure of mental
ance policy        Do you have cover          ability according to a comparative scale
against theft?                                   The intelligence test showed he had
insurance plan /n ʃυərəns pl n/,             only an average IQ. Abbr IQ
insurance scheme /n ʃυərəns ski m/           intelligence test /n teld əns test/
noun a set of conditions which make up        noun a test to assess someone’s intellec-
an insurance package What type of in-         tual ability
inter-                                   142                      internal alignment

inter-     /ntə/ prefix between             ference time.      Interference time was
inter-company dealings dealings be-          caused by having a lot of machines
tween two companies in the same group        worked by one machinist.
    inter-company comparisons com-           interim / ntərm/ noun statement of
paring the results of one company with       interim profits or dividends
those of another in the same product           ‘…the company plans to keep its annual
area                                           dividend unchanged at 7.5 per share, which
                                               includes     a    3.75   interim    payout’
interaction / ntər kʃən/ noun a               [Financial Times]
contact between individuals or groups
There is very little interaction between     interim agreement / ntərm ə-
office staff and manual workers.               ri mənt/ noun an agreement in col-
                                             lective bargaining, which is designed to
interactive learning / ntər ktv            keep a strike off while a more long-term
 l nŋ/ noun learning through a com-         agreement is being worked out         The
puter teaching package, where the stu-       interim agreement helped provide
dent is helped by the course and is          breathing space while the two sides re-
taught by making responses to the            considered their positions.
                                             interim        manager         / ntərm
interactive skills / ntər ktv               m nd ə/ noun an experienced man-
 sklz/ plural noun skills used when         ager who is brought in to work tempo-
communicating with other people (such        rarily for an organisation, usually to fill
as passing information, giving orders or     a vacancy or to coordinate a particular
discussing problems)                         project
inter-bank loan / ntə b ŋk ləυn/            interim        payment         / ntərm
noun a loan from one bank to another          pemənt/ noun a payment of part of a
interest group / ntrəst ru p/ noun          dividend
a group of people who share the same         interim relief / ntərm r li f/ noun
interests (such as sport, animal welfare     an order from an industrial tribunal tell-
or owning shares in the same company)        ing an employer to continue an em-
interface / ntəfes/ noun 1. the link       ployee’s contract of employment (or to
between two different computer systems       re-employ them) until a decision has
or pieces of hardware 2. a point where       been made on a complaint for unfair
two groups of people come into contact       dismissal
í verb to meet and act with The office       intermediary / ntə mi diəri/ noun a
PCs interface with the computer at head      person who is the link between parties
office.                                      who do not agree or who are negotiating
interfere /ntə fə/ verb to get in-            He refused to act as an intermediary
volved in or try to change something         between the two directors.
which is not your concern                      COMMENT: Banks, building societies and
interference /ntə fərəns/ noun the           hire purchase companies are all types of
act of interfering     The sales depart-       financial intermediaries.
ment complained of continual interfer-       intern / nt n/ noun a person who is
ence from the accounts department.           undergoing on-the-job training
interference pay /ntə fərəns pe/          internal /n t n(ə)l/ adjective 1. in-
noun pay made to pieceworkers who            side a company we decided to make
have not had enough work because             an internal appointment we decided to
other workers making parts have been         appoint an existing member of staff to
moved to other jobs                          the post, and not bring someone in from
interference time /ntə fərəns              outside the company 2. inside a country
tam/ noun the time during which a ma-       or a region
chine is waiting for the operator’s atten-   internal alignment /n t n(ə)l ə-
tion while they are doing something else      lanmənt/ noun the relationship be-
   The production manager will calcu-        tween positions in an organisation in
late how much time is lost through inter-    terms of rank and pay
internal audit                        143                                      Internet

internal audit /n t n(ə)l      ɔ dt/    internal     promotion /n t n(ə)l
noun an audit carried out by a depart-    prə məυʃ(ə)n/ noun the promotion of
ment inside the company                   someone working in the company al-
internal audit department /n-            ready (as opposed to bringing in a new
 t n(ə)l ɔ dt d pɑ tmənt/ noun          employee from outside)
a department of a company which           internal recruitment /n t n(ə)l r-
examines the internal accounting con-      kru tmənt/ noun the process of filling
trols of that company     She is the      vacancies by recruiting staff from inside
manager of the internal audit             the company
department.                               Internal Revenue Service /n-
internal auditor /n t n(ə)l ɔ dtə/       t n(ə)l revənju s vs/ noun US
noun a member of staff who audits a       a government department which deals
company’s accounts                        with tax. Abbr IRS
                                          internal telephone /n t n(ə)l
internal communication /n-                telfəυn/ noun a telephone which is
 t n(ə)l kə mju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun
                                          linked to other telephones in an office
communication between employees or
departments of the same organisation      international / ntə n ʃ(ə)nəl/ ad-
(NOTE: Internal communication can         jective working between countries
take various forms such as team brief-    international call / ntən ʃ(ə)nəl
ings, interviewing, employee or works      kɔ l/ noun a telephone call to another
councils, meetings, memos, an             country
intranet,    newsletters,  suggestion     international          (dialling)       code
schemes, the grapevine, and reports.)     / ntən ʃ(ə)nəl daəlŋ kəυd/ noun
internal     consultant /n t n(ə)l       the part of a telephone number used for
kən s ltənt/ noun an employee with        dialling to another country
special knowledge and expertise who       International Labour Organisa-
offers advice or business solutions to    tion (ILO) / ntən ʃ(ə)nəl lebər
another department within the same        ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ a section of the
organisation                              United Nations which tries to improve
internal consulting /n t n(ə)l           working conditions and workers’ pay in
kən s ltŋ/ noun the work done by an      member countries
internal consultant                       international                          union
                                          / ntən ʃ(ə)nəl ju njən/ noun US a
internal growth /n t n(ə)l rəυθ/
noun the development of a company by
                                          parent union composed of affiliated un-
growing its existing business with its    ions, known as ‘locals’
own finances, as opposed to acquiring     Internet / ntənet/ noun 1. interna-
other businesses (called ‘external        tional network linking thousands of
growth’)                                  computers using telephone links
                                          Much of our business is done on the
internal labour market /n t n(ə)l        Internet.    Internet sales form an im-
 lebə mɑ kt/ noun the workforce         portant part of our turnover.         He
already employed in a group, which can    searched the Internet for information on
be redeployed to other jobs inside the    cheap tickets to the USA. 2. the global,
group. Abbr ILM                           public network of computers and tele-
internally /n t n(ə)l/ adverb inside    phone links that houses websites, allows
a company       The job was advertised    email to be sent and is accessed with the
internally.                               aid of a modem (NOTE: The Internet
                                          uses the Internet Protocol (IP) as a
internal       market       /n t n(ə)l
                                          communication standard.)
 mɑ kt/ noun a way of operating a          ‘…they predict a tenfold increase in sales via
large organisation, where each manager      internet or TV between 1999 and 2004’
becomes a separate entrepreneurial unit     [Investors Chronicle]
which is run as if totally independent      ‘…in two significant decisions, the Securities
from the rest of the group                  and Exchange Board of India today allowed
internship                                       144                               introduce

 trading of shares through the Internet and set a   terviewee at ease.      The interviewees
 deadline for companies to conform to norms for     were all nervous as they waited to be
 good corporate governance’ [The Hindu]
                                                    called into the interview room.
internship /n t nʃp/ noun US a
probationary period of on-the-job train-            interviewer / ntəvju ə/ noun the
ing for newly qualified employees under             person who is conducting an interview
the guidance of experts During his in-              interviewing / ntəvju ŋ/ noun the
ternship he learnt the practical aspects            practice of asking other people ques-
of the job.                                         tions in order to gain information from
interpersonal        / ntə p s(ə)n(ə)l/            or about them, or to assess their abilities
adjective between people                            or to decide on their suitability for a par-
interpersonal           communication               ticular job or position
/ ntəp s(ə)n(ə)l kəmju n keʃ(ə)n/                intimidation /n tm deʃ(ə)n/ noun
noun any kind of communication that                 a threat to harm someone if they do not
takes place between individual people               do what you want
or between the members of a group                   intranet / ntrənet/ noun a network of
interpersonal                      relations        computers and telephone links that uses
/ ntəp s(ə)n(ə)l r leʃ(ə)nz/ plural              Internet technology but is accessible
noun relations, communications and                  only to the employees of a particular or-
dealing with people                                 ganisation (NOTE: An intranet that is ex-
interpersonal                           skills      tended beyond the employees of an
/ ntəp s(ə)n(ə)l sklz/ plural noun                organisation to include, for example,
skills used when communicating with                 suppliers, customers or distributors, it
other     people,    especially     when            is called an extranet.)
negotiating                                         in tray / n tre/ noun a basket on a
intervene / ntə vi n/ verb to try to               desk for letters or memos which have
make a change in a system to inter-                 been received and are waiting to be
vene in a dispute to try to settle a                dealt with
dispute                                             in-tray learning / n tre l nŋ/
intervention / ntə venʃən/ noun 1.                 noun a training exercise in which the
acting to make a change in a system                 trainee plays the role of a manager and
the government’s intervention in the la-            has to deal with the contents of an in
bour dispute 2. an action taken by an               tray within a set period of time
outside agent to change the structure of            in-tray test / n tre test/, in-tray ex-
a large company                                     ercise / n tre eksəsaz/ noun a
interview / ntəvju / noun 1. a meet-               method of testing management potential
ing in order to talk to a person who is             by asking the candidate to deal with a
applying for a job to find out whether              set of problems
they are suitable for it We called six
people for interview. I have an inter-
                                                    intrinsic motivation /n trnsk
                                                    məυt veʃ(ə)n/ noun the motivation of
view next week or I am going for an in-
                                                    staff by satisfying their deepest personal
terview next week. 2. a meeting in order
to ask a person questions as part of an
opinion poll 3. a meeting in order to talk          intrinsic reward /n trnsk r wɔ d/
to an employee about matters related to             noun a non-material reward of working
their job During my appraisal inter-                in a job (such as status, job satisfaction
view my boss and I agreed some targets              or human interest)       The intrinsic re-
for the next few months. í verb to talk             wards of the job more than compensated
to a person applying for a job to see if            for the low pay. Comradeship is one
they are suitable We interviewed ten                of the intrinsic rewards in this job.
candidates, but found no one suitable.              Compare extrinsic reward
interviewee / ntəvju i / noun the                  introduce / ntrə dju s/ verb to make
person who is being interviewed The                 someone get to know somebody or
interviewer did everything to put the in-           something       to introduce a client to
introduction                                  145                           itinerant worker

bring in a new client and make them               invite /n vat/ verb to ask someone to
known to someone                                  do something or to ask for something
introduction / ntrə d kʃən/ noun                 to invite someone to an interview to
the act of bringing into use the intro-           invite someone to join the board to in-
duction of new technology putting new             vite tenders for a contract
machines (usually computers) into a               IOU noun ‘I owe you’; a signed docu-
business or industry                              ment promising that you will pay back
invalidity / nvə ldti/ noun the con-           money borrowed          to pay a pile of
dition of being disabled                          IOUs      I have a pile of IOUs which
                                                  need paying.
invalidity      benefit / nvə ldti
 benft/ noun money paid by the gov-             ipsative test / psətv test/ noun a
ernment to someone who is permanently             test where the candidate has to choose
disabled                                          between various alternative answers (as
                                                  in a multiple-choice test)
inventory / nvənt(ə)ri/ noun 1. (es-             IRA / arə/ abbr US Individual Retire-
pecially US) all the stock or goods in a
                                                  ment Account
warehouse or shop to carry a high in-
ventory to aim to reduce inventory 2.             irrecoverable         / r k v(ə)rəb(ə)l/
US a comprehensive list of particular             adjective which cannot be recovered
items The human resources inventory               irrecoverable             debt       /r-
helped decide how many new employees               k v(ə)rəb(ə)l det/ noun a debt which
were needed.                                      will never be paid
 ‘…a warehouse needs to tie up less capital in    irregular / re jυlə/ adjective not cor-
 inventory and with its huge volume spreads out
 costs over bigger sales’ [Duns Business Month]   rect or not done in the correct way
                                                  This procedure is highly irregular.
inverse seniority / nv s si ni-
 ɒrti/ noun a scheme which allows for            irregularities / re jυ l rtiz/ plural
longest-serving employees to be laid off          noun things which are not done in the
before those most recently recruited              correct way and which are possibly
inverted appraisal /n v td ə-                     ‘…the group, which asked for its shares to be
 prez(ə)l/ noun an appraisal where a               suspended last week after the discovery of
subordinate appraises their manager                 accounting irregularities, is expected to update
                                                    investors about its financial predicament by the
investigate /n vest et/ verb to ex-              end of this week’ [Times]
amine something which may be wrong
   The Serious Fraud Office has been              irregularity / re jυ l rti/ noun not
asked to investigate his share dealings.          being regular     the irregularity of the
                                                  postal deliveries
investigation           /n vest eʃ(ə)n/
noun an examination to find out what is
                                                  IRS abbr US Internal Revenue Service
wrong They conducted an investiga-                issue / ʃu / noun a problem being dis-
tion into petty theft in the office.              cussed      To bring up the question of
                                                  VAT will only confuse the issue.       to
Investor in People /n vestə n                   have issues around to be concerned
 pi p(ə)l/ noun a national programme              about something (informal )
for employee development sponsored

by the UK government (NOTE: Organi-               IT abbr information technology
sations that meet the required stan-              item validity / atəm və ldti/ noun
dards in helping their employees to               the extent to which a test item measures
improve their existing skills or learn            what it is supposed to test
new ones are awarded the status of an             itinerant worker / tnərənt w kə/
‘Investor in People’.)                            noun a worker who moves from place to
invitation / nv teʃ(ə)n/ noun an act           place, looking for work Most of the
of asking someone to do something to              workers hired during the summer are
issue an invitation to someone to join            itinerant workers.     Much of the sea-
the board They advertised the invita-             sonal work on farms is done by itinerant
tion to tender for a contract.                    workers.
janitor                                   146                                      jobclub


janitor / d     ntə/ noun US a person            to be considered for a job, usually in
who looks after a building, making sure           writing to give up your job to resign
it is clean and that the rubbish is cleared       from your work to lose your job to be
away (NOTE: British English is                    sacked or made redundant to retire
caretaker)                                        from your job to leave work and take a
Japanese                 management               pension to have a steady job to be in
/d    pəni z m nd mənt/ noun a                   a good job, with no chance of being
combination of management styles that             made redundant
emphasises human relations and                     ‘…he insisted that the tax advantages he
                                                   directed toward small businesses will help
teamworking and advanced manufactur-               create jobs’ [Toronto Star]
ing techniques such as just-in-time pro-
duction and total quality management              job       application / d ɒb          pl-
which is credited with bringing about              keʃ(ə)n/ noun asking for a job in
the Japanese economic miracle that be-            writing
gan in the 1960s (NOTE: Japanese man-             job application form / d ɒb pl-
agement practices were studied in the              keʃ(ə)n fɔ m/ noun a form to be filled
rest of the world in the hope that other          in when applying for a job You have
countries could imitate Japan’s eco-              to fill in a job application form.
nomic success, but the downturn in the            jobbing / d ɒbŋ/ noun the practice of
Japanese economy that began in the                doing small pieces of work
1990s has forced the Japanese them-
selves to reassess them.)                         jobbing printer / d ɒbŋ prntə/
                                                  noun a person who does small printing
JIT production abbr just-in-time                  jobs
production                                        job ceiling / d ɒb si lŋ/ noun the
job /d ɒb/ noun 1. a piece of work to             maximum number of employees em-
do a job of work to be given a job of             ployed at a given time The recession
work to do to do odd jobs to do vari-             has lowered the job ceilings in many
ous pieces of work He does odd jobs               companies in this area.        Raising the
for us around the house. to be paid by            job ceiling will enable many less quali-
the job to be paid for each piece of              fied workers to find jobs.
work done 2. an order being worked on             job centre / d ɒb sentə/ noun a
   We are working on six jobs at the mo-          government office which lists jobs
ment.      The shipyard has a big job             which are vacant        There was a long
starting in August. 3. regular paid work          queue of unemployed people waiting at
   He is looking for a job in the com-            the job centre.
puter industry. He lost his job when
the factory closed. She got a job in a            job classification / d ɒb kl sf-
factory. He is going to apply for a job            keʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of describ-
in an office. Thousands of jobs will be           ing jobs listed in various groups
lost if the factories close down.     to          jobclub / d ɒbkl b/ noun an organi-
look for a job to try to find work to             sation which helps its members to find
be out of a job to have no work to                jobs Since joining the jobclub she has
change jobs to resign from one job and            improved her interview techniques and
take another to apply for a job to ask            gained self-confidence.
job cuts                                       147                              jobseeker

job cuts / d ɒb k ts/ plural noun re-              job loading / d ɒb ləυdŋ/ noun the
ductions in the number of jobs                     act of assigning a job a greater degree of
job cycle / d ɒb sak(ə)l/ noun the                responsibility    Job loading increases
time taken to complete a particular job            the self-esteem of workers whose jobs
                                                   had seemed unimportant before.
job description / d ɒb d skrpʃən/
noun a description of what a job con-              job        measurement             / d ɒb
sists of and what skills are needed for it          me əmənt/ noun the act of establish-
    The letter enclosed an application             ing the time necessary for the perfor-
form and a job description.                        mance of tasks by a skilled employee
job design / d ɒb d zan/ noun a                  job offer / d ɒb ɒfə/, offer of a job
decision on what a job should consist of           / ɒfər əv ə d ɒb/ noun a letter from an
                                                   employer, offering a job
job dissatisfaction / d ɒb ds ts-
 f kʃən/ noun an employee’s feeling of             job opening / d ɒb əυp(ə)nŋ/
not being satisfied with their job                 noun a job which is empty and needs
                                                   filling We have job openings for office
job enlargement / d ɒb n-                         staff.
 lɑ d mənt/ noun the expansion of a
job by adding further tasks or                     job opportunities / d ɒb ɒpə-
responsibilities                                    tju ntiz/ plural noun new jobs being
job enrichment / d ɒb n rtʃmənt/                 available The increase in export or-
noun the process of making a job more              ders has created hundreds of job oppor-
satisfying for the person doing it                 tunities.     (NOTE:      also      called
                                                   employment opportunites)
job factor / d ɒb f ktə/ noun an as-
pect of a job which can be examined and            job performance / d ɒb pə-
to which scores can be given in job eval-           fɔ məns/ noun the degree to which a
uation One of the most significant job             job is done well or badly
factors considered in the evaluation was           job posting / d ɒb pəυstŋ/ noun a
the danger involved.                               system of advertising posts internally al-
job family / d ɒb f m(ə)li/ noun a                 lowing employees to apply for other
group of jobs having similar require-              jobs within the same organisation
ments in terms of personnel                        job production / d ɒb prə d kʃən/,
job freeze / d ɒb fri z/ noun an act               jobbing production / d ɒbŋ prə-
of stopping the recruitment of staff in an          d kʃən/ noun a production system
organisation The recession has led to              where different articles are produced
a general job freeze in the area.                  each to individual specifications
job grading / d ɒb redŋ/ noun                    job profile / d ɒb prəυfal/ noun a
the process of arranging jobs in a certain         description of a job
order of importance Job grading re-                job ranking / d ɒb r ŋkŋ/ noun a
sulted in certain jobs being relegated to          method of assessment where jobs to be
a lower grade.                                     assessed are each compared with all the
job holder / d ɒb həυldə/ noun a                   others and a final score for each ob-
person who has a certain job                       tained (NOTE: also called paired
job hopper / d ɒb hɒpə/ noun a per-
son who changes jobs often                         job     requirement / d ɒb r-
                                                    kwaəmənt/ noun the qualifications or
job hunting / d ɒb h ntŋ/ noun the                experience needed to start a job
process of looking for employment
He bought a guide to job hunting show-             job rotation / d ɒb rəυ teʃ(ə)n/
ing how to write a good CV.                        noun the moving of workers from one
                                                   job to another systematically Job ro-
jobless / d ɒbləs/ plural noun people              tation was instituted to make the work
with no jobs, the unemployed (NOTE:                less monotonous.
takes a plural verb)
 ‘…the contradiction between the jobless figures   jobseeker / d ɒbsi kə/ noun a person
 and latest economic review’ [Sunday Times]        who is looking for a job
job-share                                148                                   judge

job-share / d ɒb ʃeə/ noun a form of         the dismissal through some sort of
employment in which two or more peo-         pressure
ple share a single job, each person work-    joint /d ɔnt/ adjective 1. carried out
ing part-time and being paid an amount       or produced together with others      a
proportionate to the number of hours         joint undertaking 2. one of two or more
they work                                    people who work together or who are
job simulation exercise / d ɒb               linked She and her brother are joint
smjυ leʃ(ə)n eksəsaz/ noun a test         managing directors.
where candidates are put through a sim-      joint and several liability / d ɔnt
ulation of the real job                      ən sev(ə)rəl laə blti/ noun a situa-
jobs market / d ɒbz mɑ kt/ noun             tion where someone who has a claim
the number of jobs available                 against a group of people can sue them
job specification / d ɒb spesf-            separately or together as a group
 keʃ(ə)n/ noun a very detailed descrip-     joint commission /d ɔnt kə-
tion of what is involved in a job             mʃ(ə)n/ noun a group with equal num-
job squeeze / d ɒb skwi z/ noun a            bers of members from two or more
process of reducing the numbers of peo-      groups They set up a joint manage-
ple employed, because of financial           ment/union commission.
restrictions                                 joint   commission        of    inquiry
job study / d ɒb st di/ noun an              /d ɔnt kə mʃ(ə)n əv n kwaəri/
analysis of all aspects of a job which       noun a commission or committee with
may affect performance                       representatives of various organisations
                                             on it
job ticket / d ɒb tkt/ noun a docu-
ment which records when a particular         joint consultation / d ɔnt kɒnsəl-
job was started (it is passed from worker     teʃ(ə)n/ noun established channels for
to worker as the job progresses)             discussion between management and
                                             employees where management keeps
job title / d ɒb tat(ə)l/ noun the          control by disclosing plans to the em-
name given to a person in a certain job      ployee representatives and then asking
   Her job title is ‘Chief Buyer’.           them to help put them into practice
job vacancy / d ɒb vekənsi/ noun            Joint consultation helps to reduce the
a job which is empty and needs               possibility of industrial action.
someone to do it                             joint discussions /d ɔnt d-
Johari         window          /d əυ hɑ ri    sk ʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun discussions be-
 wndəυ/ noun a technique used to ana-       tween management and employees
lyse how someone gives and receives          joint ownership /d ɔnt əυnəʃp/
information and how interpersonal com-       noun the owning of a property by sev-
munication works (NOTE: The Johari           eral owners
window is usually represented by a
square divided into four sections by a       joint venture /d ɔnt ventʃə/ noun
cross, each section representing a           a situtation where two or more compa-
type of communication in which a per-        nies join together for one specific large
son has differing degrees of aware-          business project
ness of the impact they are making on        journal / d n(ə)l/ noun 1. a book
the other person and of the impact the       with the account of sales and purchases
other person is making on them)              made each day 2. a magazine
join /d ɔn/ verb to join a firm to          journeyman / d nimən/ noun US
start work with a company she joined         a skilled craftsman who has completed
on January 1st she started work on Jan-      his apprenticeship
uary 1st                                     judge /d d / noun a person who de-
joinder / d ɔndə/ noun a situation          cides in a legal case The judge sent
where a union or person is brought in as     him to prison for embezzlement. í verb
a party to unfair dismissal proceedings      to make an assessment about someone
if such a party has been instrumental in     or something to judge an employee’s
judgement                              149                        juvenile labour

managerial potential        He judged it   2. people in less important positions in a
was time to call an end to the             company
discussions.                               just /d st/ adjective fair and reason-
judgement / d d mənt/, judgment            able The employees don’t expect mir-
noun a legal decision or official deci-    acles, but they do want a just settlement
sion of a court to pronounce judge-        of the dispute. Everyone respected the
ment, to give your judgement on            foreman for his just handling of the
something to give an official or legal     affair.
decision about something                   justice / d sts/ noun 1. fair treat-
judgment debtor / d d mənt                 ment in law       The employee lost her
 detə/ noun a debtor who has been or-      case for unfair dismissal and felt that
dered by a court to pay a debt             justice had not been done. 2. fairness
judicial /d u dʃ(ə)l/ adjective refer-    and reasonableness The union negoti-
ring to the law                            ators impressed on the management the
                                           justice of their demands.
judicial processes /d u dʃ(ə)l
 prəυsesz/ plural noun the ways in        justify / d stfa/ verb to give an ex-
which the law works                        cuse for or to give a reason for The
                                           employees’ representatives produced a
junior / d u niə/ adjective younger or     mass of documents to justify their wage
lower in rank                              claim. The HR manager was asked to
junior clerk / d u niə klɑ k/ noun a       justify the dismissal before the indus-
clerk, usually young, who has lower sta-   trial tribunal. (NOTE: justifies – justi-
tus than a senior clerk                    fying – justified)
junior management / d u niə                just-in-time production / d st n
 m nd mənt/ noun the managers of           tam prə d kʃən/ noun the practice of
small departments or deputies to depart-   making goods to order just before they
mental managers                            are needed, so as to avoid having too
junior partner / d u niə pɑ tnə/           many goods in stock. Abbr JIT
noun a person who has a small part of      juvenile / d u vənal/ adjective,
the shares in a partnership                noun young (person)
junior staff / d u niə stɑ f/ noun 1.      juvenile labour / d u vənal lebə/
younger members of staff (NOTE: staff      noun children and other young people
refers to a group of people and so is      employed under special conditions (e.g.
often followed by a verb in the plural)    in films)
K                                              150                        knowledge worker


K abbr one thousand     ‘salary: £20K+’                knock off / nɒk ɒf/ verb to stop work
salary more than £20,000 per annum                       We knocked off at 3p.m. on Friday.
keen /ki n/ adjective eager or active                  knock-on effect / nɒk ɒn  fekt/
keen competition strong competition                    noun the effect which an action will
We are facing some keen competition                    have on other situations The strike by
from European manufacturers.                           customs officers has had a knock-on ef-
Keogh plan / ki əυ pl n/ noun US a                     fect on car production by slowing down
private pension system allowing                        exports of cars.
self-employed businesspeople and pro-                  know /nəυ/ verb 1. to learn or to have
fessionals to set up pension and retire-               information about something        Does
ment plans for themselves                              she know how long it takes to get to the
key /ki / adjective important a key                    airport?      The managing director’s
factor key industries key personnel                    secretary does not know where he is.
   a key member of our management                      He knows the African market very well.
team She has a key post in the organi-                    I don’t know how a computer works.
sation. We don’t want to lose any key                  2. to have met someone Do you know
staff in the reorganisation. í verb to                 Ms Jones, our new sales director?
key in data to put information into a                  (NOTE: knowing – knew – known)
computer                                               know-how / nəυ haυ/ noun knowl-
 ‘…he gave up the finance job in September to
 devote more time to his global responsibilities       edge or skill in a particular field to ac-
 as chairman and to work more closely with key         quire computer know-how             If we
 clients’ [Times]                                      cannot recruit staff with the right
key job /ki d ɒb/ noun a very impor-                   know-how, we will have to initiate an
tant job                                               ambitious training programme.
key-person           insurance       / ki              knowledge / nɒld / noun what is
p s(ə)n n ʃυərəns/ noun an insurance                  known
policy taken out to cover the costs of re-             knowledge-based           assessment
placing an employee who is particularly                / nɒld   best ə sesmənt/ noun the
important to an organisation if they die               appraisal of an employee based on
or are ill for a long time                             how much they know as opposed to
kickback / kkb k/ noun an illegal                     the ability they have to put their
commission paid to someone, especially                 knowledge into practice. Compare per-
a government official, who helps in a                  formance-based assessment
business deal                                          knowledge       worker     / nɒld
kiss up to /ks p tυ/ verb US to at-                    w kə/ noun an employee whose value
tempt to win the favour of someone who                 to an organisation lies in the informa-
is in a position of power by flattering                tion, ideas and expertise that they
and being very attentive to them (infor-               possess
mal )
laboratory                               151                             labour grading


laboratory /lə bɒrət(ə)ri/ noun a                islation laws relating to the employment
place where scientific research is carried       of workers (NOTE: the American spell-
out The product was developed in the             ing is labor)
company’s laboratories. All products
are tested in our own laboratories.              labour      agreement / lebər ə-
(NOTE: plural is laboratories)
                                                   ri mənt/, labour contract / lebə
                                                  kɒntr kt/ noun a legal document
laboratory        technician        /lə-         which is negotiated between the union
 bɒrət(ə)ri tek nʃ(ə)n/ noun a person           and the employer After intensive bar-
who deals with practical work in a               gaining a labour agreement was drawn
laboratory                                       up.    The new labour contract allows
laboratory training /lə bɒrət(ə)ri               for a higher rate of pay.
 trenŋ/ noun a form of group training          labour charges / lebə tʃɑ d z/
method for management trainees, de-              plural noun the cost of the workers em-
signed to improve social skills and              ployed to make a product (not including
self-confidence through counselling,             materials or overheads)
role-playing and simulation exercises            labour dispute / lebə d spju t/
Laboratory training has been important           noun a conflict or disagreement be-
in improving self-confidence in future           tween employer and employees or be-
sales staff.   Laboratory training will          tween the groups who represent them
be used to complement our training in
accountancy and marketing.                       labourer / lebərə/ noun a person who
                                                 does heavy work
Labor Day / lebə de/ noun an
American national holiday celebrated on          labour force / lebə fɔ s/ noun all
the first Monday in September                    the workers in a company or in an area
                                                    We are opening a new factory in the
labor union / lebə jυnjən/ noun                 Far East because of the cheap local la-
US an organisation which represents              bour force.
employees who are its members in dis-             ‘70 per cent of Australia’s labour force is
cussions about wages and conditions of            employed in service activity’ [Australian
work with management (NOTE: British               Financial Review]
English is trade union)
                                                 labour force participation rate
labour / lebə/ noun 1. heavy work               / lebə fɔ s pɑ ts peʃ(ə)n ret/ noun
to charge for materials and labour to            the proportion of people in the labour
charge for both the materials used in a          force who are working
job and also the hours of work involved
   labour is charged at £5 an hour each          labour force survey / lebə fɔ s
hour of work costs £5 2. workers, the             s ve/ noun a survey carried out four
workforce       We will need to employ           times a year in the United Kingdom to
more labour if production is to be in-           gain information about such topics as
creased. The costs of labour are ris-            unemployment and hours of work
ing in line with inflation.      labour          labour grading / lebə redŋ/, la-
shortage, shortage of labour a situa-            bour ranking / lebə r ŋkŋ/ noun
tion where there are not enough workers          the process of arranging jobs in order of
to fill jobs 3. labour laws, labour leg-         importance in an organisation, and
labour injunction                         152                         last in first out

therefore the pay which is suitable for       labour turnover / lebə t nəυvə/,
each job                                      turnover of labour / t nəυvə əv
labour injunction / lebər n-                 lebə / noun the movement of employ-
 d ŋkʃən/ noun a court order requir-          ees with some leaving their jobs and
ing an individual or group in an industry     others joining
to stop certain actions considered dam-       labour wastage / lebə westd /
aging to another                              noun the loss of employees over a pe-
labour-intensive / lebər n tensv/          riod of time      Labour wastage in the
adjective referring to an industry which      last five years has been rising owing to
needs large numbers of employees or           an increase in people taking early
where labour costs are high in relation       retirement.
to turnover     As the business became        lack /l k/ noun the fact of not having
more labour-intensive, so human re-           enough í verb not to have enough of
sources management became more im-            something The industry lacks skilled
portant.     With computerisation, the        staff.
business has become much less                 lack of incentive / l k əv n-
labour-intensive.                              sentv/ noun not having enough
labour laws / lebə lɔ z/ plural noun         incentive
laws concerning the employment of             ladder / l də/ noun 1. a series of steps
workers                                       made of wood or metal which can be
labour market / lebə mɑ kt/ noun            moved about, and which you can climb
the number of people who are available           You will need a ladder to look into the
for work 25,000 school-leavers have           machine. 2. a series of different levels
just come on to the labour market.            through which an employee may
 ‘European economies are being held back by   progress
 rigid labor markets and wage structures’
 [Duns Business Month]                        large /lɑ d / adjective very big or im-
                                              portant     Our company is one of the
labour mobility / lebə məυ blti/,          largest suppliers of computers to the
mobility of labour /məυ blti əv             government. Why has she got an of-
lebə/ noun a situation in which people       fice which is larger than mine?
agree to move from one place to another
to get work, or change skills within the      largely / lɑ d li/ adverb mainly or
same organisation       Acute unemploy-       mostly      Our sales are largely in the
ment dramatically increased mobility of       home market.          They have largely
labour.                                       pulled out of the American market.
labour relations / lebə r leʃ(ə)nz/        large-scale / lɑ d skel/ adjective
plural noun relations between manage-         involving large numbers of people or
ment and employees         The company        large amounts of money large-scale
has a history of bad labour relations.        investment in new technology
                                              large-scale redundancies in the con-
labour reserve / lebə r z v/ noun           struction industry
the people in the labour force who are
not working                                   last /lɑ st/ adjective, adverb 1. coming
                                              at the end of a series Out of a queue of
labour-saving / lebə sevŋ/ adjec-          twenty people, I was served last. This
tive avoiding the need for work by            is our last board meeting before we
someone Costs will be cut by the in-          move to our new offices. We finished
troduction of labour-saving devices.          the last items in the order just two days
labour stability index / lebə stə-           before the promised delivery date. 2.
 blti ndeks/ noun an index showing         most recent or most recently Where is
the percentage of employees who have          the last batch of invoices? The last ten
been in their jobs for more than one year     orders were only for small quantities.
labour tourist / lebə tυərst/ noun          last in first out /lɑ st n f st aυt/
someone who lives in one country but          noun a redundancy policy using the
works in another                              principle that the people who have been
last quarter                             153                                 leadership

most recently appointed are the first to     warded will be repeated Payment by
be made redundant. Abbr LIFO                 results was designed to put the law of ef-
last quarter /lɑ st kwɔ tə/ noun a           fect into practice.
period of three months at the end of the     law of supply and demand / lɔ r
financial year                               əv sə pla ən d mɑ nd/ noun a general
last week /lɑ st wi k/, last month           rule that the amount of a product which
/lɑ st m nθ/, last year /lɑ st jə/          is available is related to the needs of po-
noun the week or month or year before        tential customers
this one     Last week’s sales were the      lawsuit / lɔ su t/ noun a case brought
best we have ever had. The sales man-        to a court to bring a lawsuit against
agers have been asked to report on last      someone to tell someone to appear in
month’s drop in unit sales. Last year’s      court to settle an argument to defend
accounts have to be ready in time for the    a lawsuit to appear in court to state your
AGM.                                         case
lateral / l t(ə)rəl/ adjective at the        lawyer / lɔ jə/ noun a person who has
same level or with the same status           studied law and practises law as a
Her transfer to Marketing was some-          profession
thing of a lateral move.                     lay /le/ verb to put to lay an em-
lateral relations / l t(ə)rəl r-            bargo on trade with a country to for-
 leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun relations            bid trade with a country (NOTE: laying –
between people of the same grade in          laid)
an organisation         The struggle for     lay off / le ɒf/ verb to dismiss em-
promotion has soured lateral relations.      ployees for a time (until more work is
lateral        transfer        / l t(ə)rəl   available) The factory laid off half its
 tr nsf / noun an act of moving an           workers because of lack of orders.
employee to another job at the same            ‘…the company lost $52 million last year, and
level in the organisation I was pleased        has laid off close to 2,000 employees’
with my new job, even though it was a          [Toronto Star]
lateral transfer and not a promotion.        lay-off / le ɒf/ noun 1. an act of tem-
law /lɔ / noun 1. the law all the laws       porarily dismissing an employee for a
of a country taken together to take          period of more than four weeks The
someone to law to tell someone to ap-        recession has caused hundreds of
pear in court to settle an argument in-      lay-offs in the car industry. 2. US same
side or within the law obeying the laws      as redundancy
of a country against or outside the          lazy / lezi/ adjective referring to a per-
law not according to the laws of a coun-     son who does not want to work She is
try The company is possibly operating        too lazy to do any overtime. He is so
outside the law. to break the law to         lazy he does not even send in his ex-
do something which is not allowed by         pense claims on time.
law He is breaking the law by trading        leader / li də/ noun a person who
without a licence. 2. a general rule         manages or directs others the leader
law courts / lɔ kɔ ts/ plural noun a         of the construction workers’ union or
place where a judge listens to cases and     the construction workers’ leader
decides who is right legally                 leaderless discussion / li dələs
law of diminishing returns / lɔ r            d sk ʃ(ə)n/ noun a way of assessing
əv d mnʃŋ r t nz/ noun a general        candidates for a post, by putting them
rule that as more factors of production      together in a group and asking them to
such as land, labour and capital are         discuss a problem, without appointing
added to the existing factors, so the        one of them as chairman
amount they produce is proportionately       leadership / li dəʃp/ noun 1. a qual-
smaller                                      ity that enables a person to manage or
law of effect / lɔ əv  fekt/ noun the       administer others Employees showing
principle that behaviour which is re-        leadership potential will be chosen for
leading                                   154                learning organisation

management training. 2. a group of peo-       the official chain of command
ple who manage or administer an or-           Leap-frogging caused much resentment
ganisation          The elections have        among middle managers who felt left
changed the composition of the union          out of decisions.
leadership. (NOTE: no plural)                 learning / l nŋ/ noun the process of
leading / li dŋ/ adjective most impor-       receiving and assimilating information
tant Leading industrialists feel the end      or skills The learning of new skills is
of the recession is near. They are the        hard for our senior employees who are
leading company in the field.                 nearing retirement.     The trainees all
leading           indicator       / li dŋ    had different learning potentials.
 ndketə/ noun an indicator (such as        Learning and Skills Council
manufacturing order books) which              / l nŋ ən sklz kaυnsəl/ noun a
shows a change in economic trends ear-        governement organisation responsible
lier than other indicators                    for the education and training of people
lead partner / li d pɑ tnə/ noun the          over the age of 16
organisation that takes the leading role      learning by doing / l nŋ ba
in an alliance                                 du ŋ/ noun the gaining of knowledge
lead time / li d tam/ noun 1. the time       or skills through direct experience of
between deciding to place an order and        carrying out tasks, usually under super-
receiving the product      The lead time      vision and as part of a training or induc-
on this item is more than six weeks. 2.       tion process
the time between the start of a task and      learning curve / l nŋ k v/ noun
its completion                                1. a diagram or graph that represents the
leak /li k/ verb to pass on secret infor-     way in which people gain knowledge or
mation       Information on the contract      experience over time (NOTE: A steep
was leaked to the press. They discov-         learning curve represents a situation
ered an employee was leaking informa-         where people learn a great deal in a
tion to a rival company.                      short time; a shallow curve represents
                                              a slower learning process. The curve
leaky reply / li ki r pla/ noun a re-
                                              eventually levels out, representing the
ply by email that is accidentally sent to
                                              time when the knowledge gained is be-
the wrong person and causes embarrass-
                                              ing consolidated.) 2. the decrease in the
ment to the sender (slang)
                                              effort required to produce each single
lean /li n/ adjective slim and efficient      item when the total number of items
   After the cutbacks in staff, the com-      produced is doubled (NOTE: The con-
pany is leaner and hungrier.                  cept of the learning curve has its origin
lean           management             /li n   in productivity research in the aircraft
 m nd mənt/ noun a style of manage-          industry of the 1930s, when it was dis-
ment, where few managers are em-              covered that the time and effort
ployed, allowing decisions to be taken        needed to assemble an aircraft de-
rapidly                                       creased by 20% each time the total
lean production /li n prə d kʃən/,            number produced doubled.)
lean operation /li n ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/            learning        difficulty       / l nŋ
noun a production method which re-             dfk(ə)lti/ noun a condiiton which
duces excessive expenditure on staff          prevents someone from learning basic
and concentrates on efficient low-cost        skills or assimilating information as eas-
manufacturing                                 ily as other people (NOTE: plural is
leap-frogging / li p frɒ ŋ/ ad-              learning difficulties)
jective     leap-frogging pay demands         learning      organisation / l nŋ
pay demands where each section of             ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun an organisation
employee asks for higher pay to do            whose employees are willing and eager
better than another section, which then       to share information with each other, to
asks for further increases in turn í          learn from each other, and to work as a
noun communication which by-passes            team to achieve their goals
learning relationship                      155                                  leisure

learning relationship / l nŋ r-              ask a lawyer to advise about a legal
 leʃ(ə)nʃp/ noun a relationship be-          problem
tween a supplier and a customer in             legal adviser / li (ə)l əd vazə/
which the supplier changes and adapts a        noun a person who advises clients about
product as it learns more about the cus-       the law
tomer’s requirements
learning style / l nŋ stal/ noun             Legal Aid / li (ə)l ed/, Legal Aid
                                               scheme / li (ə)l ed ski m/ noun a
the way in which someone approaches
the task of acquiring knowledge and            British government scheme where a per-
skills (NOTE: There are commonly               son with very little money can have le-
thought to be four main types of               gal representation and advice paid for
learner: the activist, who likes to get in-    by the state
volved in new experiences and enjoys           Legal Aid Centre / li (ə)l ed
change; the theorist, who likes to ques-        sentə/ noun a local office giving ad-
tion established assumptions and               vice to clients about applications for Le-
methods and learns best when there is          gal Aid and recommending clients to
time to explore links between ideas            solicitors
and situations; the pragmatist, who            legal costs / li (ə)l kɒsts/, legal
learns best when there is a link be-           charges / li (ə)l tʃɑ d z/, legal ex-
tween the subject matter and the job in        penses / li (ə)l k spensz/ plural
hand and they can try out in practice          noun money spent on fees to lawyers
what they have learned; and the reflec-
                                               The clerk could not afford the legal ex-
tor, who likes to take time and think
                                               penses involved in suing his boss.
things through, and who learns best
from activities where they can observe         legally / li əli/ adverb according to
how tasks are carried out.)                    the law directors are legally respon-
leave /li v/ noun permission to be             sible the law says that the directors are
away from work six weeks’ annual               responsible
leave six weeks’ holiday each year to          legal profession / li (ə)l prə-
go or be on leave to be away from work          feʃ(ə)n/ noun all qualified lawyers
   She is away on sick leave or on mater-      legislation / led  sleʃ(ə)n/ noun
nity leave. í verb 1. to go away from          laws
He left his office early to go to the meet-
ing. The next plane leaves at 10.20. 2.        legitimate /l d tmət/ adjective al-
to resign He left his job and bought a         lowed by law        He has a legitimate
farm. (NOTE: leaving – left)                   claim to the property.
leave of absence / li v əv bsəns/              legitimate grievance /l d tmət
noun permission to be absent from work            ri v(ə)ns/ noun an employee’s griev-
   He asked for leave of absence to visit      ance based on an actual violation of a
his mother in hospital.                        contract of employment The employee
                                               received no compensation since he had
leaver / li və/ noun a person who has          no legitimate grievance.      The human
left                                           resources department considered that
leaver’s         statement          / li vəz   the treatment of employees should be
 stetmənt/ noun an official document          such that no legitimate grievance could
given to someone who is leaving a com-         be claimed.
pany and has recently received statutory       leisure / le ə/ noun time free from
sick pay                                       work or other obligations The organi-
ledger / led ə/ noun a book in which           sation is trying to encourage construc-
accounts are written                           tive leisure pursuits.      The company
legal / li (ə)l/ adjective 1. according        provides many leisure facilities such as
to the law or allowed by the law The           tennis courts and a swimming pool.
company’s action in sacking the ac-            Too much work and not enough leisure
countant was completely legal. 2. refer-       had an adverse effect on his family life.
ring to the law to take legal advice to
leisure activities                       156                         leveraged buyout

leisure activities / le ər k tvtiz/        letter of complaint / letər əv kəm-
plural noun what you do in your spare         plent/ noun a letter in which someone
time                                         complains
leisure time / le ə tam/ noun a time        letter of dismissal / letər əv ds-
when you are not at work, used for            ms(ə)l/ noun an official letter notify-
amusement, hobbies, etc. (NOTE: also         ing someone that they have been
called spare time)                           dismissed
length /leŋθ/ noun a measurement of          letter of introduction / letər əv
how long something is                        ntrə d kʃən/ noun a letter making
                                             someone get to know another person
length of service / leŋθ əv s vs/           I’ll give you an introduction to the MD –
noun the number of years someone has         he’s an old friend of mine.
                                             letter of offer / letər əv ɒfə/ noun a
leniency / li niənsi/ noun the quality       letter which offers someone a job
of not being strict in dealing with subor-
dinates     Given the employee’s good
                                             letter of recommendation / letər
                                             əv rekəmen deʃ(ə)n/ noun a letter in
work record, she was treated with le-
                                             which the writer recommends someone
niency by her superior.
                                             for a job
leniency bias / li niənsi baəs/             letter of reference / letər əv
noun an unjustifiably high rating of an       ref(ə)rəns/ noun a letter in which an
employee’s job performance Leniency          employer recommends someone for a
bias works against objectivity in perfor-    new job
mance appraisal.
                                             letter of resignation / letər əv
let go /let əυ/ verb to make some-           rez neʃ(ə)n/ noun a letter in which
one redundant or to sack someone (eu-        an employee resigns from their job
phemism) (NOTE: letting – let)
                                             level / lev(ə)l/ noun the position of
letter / letə/ noun 1. a piece of writing    something compared to others to raise
sent from one person or company to an-       the level of employee benefits a deci-
other to ask for or to give information 2.   sion taken at the highest level a deci-
   to acknowledge receipt by letter to       sion taken by the most important person
write a letter to say that something has     or group low-level not very important
been received 3. a written or printed            a low-level delegation      high-level
sign (such as A, B, C, etc.) Write your      very important a high-level meeting
name and address in block letters or in        ‘…employers having got their staff back up to a
capital letters.                               reasonable level are waiting until the scope for
                                               overtime working is exhausted before hiring’
letter box / letə bɒks/ noun a place           [Sydney Morning Herald]
where incoming mail is put                   level playing field / lev(ə)l pleŋ
letter heading / letə hedŋ/ noun            fi ld/ noun a situation in which the same
the name and address of a company            rules apply for all competitors and none
printed at the top of a piece of notepaper   of them has any special advantage over
letter of acknowledgement / letər            the others
əv ək nɒld mənt/ noun a letter which        leverage / li vərd / noun 1. an influ-
says that something has been received        ence which you can use to achieve an
                                             aim      He has no leverage over the
letter of application / letər əv
                                             chairman. 2. borrowing money at fixed
  pl keʃ(ə)n/ noun a letter in which
                                             interest which is then used to produce
someone applies for a job
                                             more money than the interest paid
letter of appointment / letər əv ə-          leveraged buyout / li vərd d
 pɔntmənt/ noun a letter in which            baaυt/,      leveraged        takeover
someone is appointed to a job                / li vərd d tekəυvə/ noun an act of
letter of attorney / letər əv ə t ni/        buying all the shares in a company by
noun a document showing that someone         borrowing money against the security of
has power of attorney                        the shares to be bought. Abbr LBO
levy                                           157                        lifelong learning

 ‘…the offer came after management had offered     ment by which a patent owner or copy-
 to take the company private through a leveraged   right owner allows a company to manu-
 buyout for $825 million’ [Fortune]
                                                   facture something and pay a fee for this
levy / levi/ noun money which is de-               license / las(ə)ns/ noun US spelling
manded and collected by the govern-                of licence í verb to give someone offi-
ment í verb to demand payment of a                 cial permission to do something for a
tax or an extra payment and to collect it          fee, e.g. when a company allows another
   to levy a duty on the import of luxury          company to manufacture its products
items The government has decided to                abroad      licensed to sell beers, wines
levy a tax on imported cars.                       and spirits      to license a company to
 ‘…royalties have been levied at a rate of 12.5%   manufacture spare parts           She is li-
 of full production’ [Lloyd’s List]
                                                   censed to run an employment agency.
liability / laə blti/ noun 1. a legal           lieu /lju / noun in lieu of instead of
responsibility for damage, loss or harm            she was given two months’ salary in
   The two partners took out insurance             lieu of notice she was given two
to cover employers’ liability. to ac-              months’ salary and asked to leave
cept liability for something to agree              immediately
that you are responsible for something
to refuse liability for something to re-           life /laf/ noun 1. the period of time for
fuse to agree that you are responsible for         which something or someone exists
something 2. someone or something                  for life for as long as someone is alive
which represents a loss to a person or             His pension gives him a comfortable in-
organisation The sales director is an              come for life. 2. being alive
alcoholic and has become a liability to            life annuity / laf ə nju ti/ noun an-
the company.                                       nual payments made to someone as long
liability insurance / laə blti n-              as they are alive
 ʃυərəns/ noun insurance that protects a           life assurance / laf ə ʃυərəns/
person or organisation against the finan-          noun insurance which pays a sum of
cial consequences of being held legally            money when someone dies, or at a cer-
responsible for something, e.g. for caus-          tain date if they are still alive
ing an accident                                    life assured /laf ə ʃυəd/ noun the
liable / laəb(ə)l/ adjective       liable         person whose life has been covered by
for legally responsible for The chair-             the life assurance
man was personally liable for the com-             life cover / laf k və/ noun same as
pany’s debts. The garage is liable for             life assurance
damage to customers’ cars.                         life expectancy /laf k spektənsi/
liaison /li ez(ə)n/ noun the process of           noun the number of years a person is
keeping someone informed of what is                likely to live
happening                                          life insurance / laf n ʃυərəns/
liaison officer /li ez(ə)n ɒfsə/                 noun same as life assurance
noun a person whose job it is to keep              life insured /laf n ʃυəd/ noun same
someone else informed of what is hap-              as life assured
pening      The human resources man-               life-long employment / laf lɒŋ
ager was appointed liaison officer with            m plɔmənt/ noun the concept
the unions over relocation.                        (common in Japan) that an employee
licence / las(ə)ns/ noun 1. an official           who enters a company when young will
document which allows someone to do                be guaranteed employment by that com-
something 2.       goods manufactured              pany for the rest of their working life
under licence goods made with the per-             lifelong learning / laf lɒŋ l nŋ/
mission of the owner of the copyright or           noun a process of gaining knowledge
patent (NOTE: the American spelling is             and skills which continues throughout a
license)                                           person’s life (NOTE: Lifelong learning
licence agreement / las(ə)ns ə-                   occurs through formal and informal ed-
  ri mənt/ noun a contractual agree-               ucation systems, both within and out-
life policy                               158                                     livery

side the workplace, and is seen as a              to drop someone a line to send
key element in CPD and an important           someone a note 5. the line is bad it is
tool in maintaining a person’s employ-        difficult to hear clearly what someone is
ability in a rapidly changing business        saying the line is engaged the person
environment.)                                 is already speaking on the phone to be
life policy / laf pɒlsi/ noun a life        on the line to someone to be telephon-
assurance contract                            ing someone
life skills / laf sklz/ plural noun         line authority / lan ɔ θɒrəti/ noun
skills used in dealing with other people      the power to direct others and make de-
LIFO / lafəυ/ abbr last in first out         cisions regarding the operations of the
light industry / lat ndəstri/ noun
an industry making small products such        line        management            / lan
as clothes, books or calculators               m nd mənt/, line organisation
                                              / lan ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun the
lightning strike / latnŋ strak/            organisation of a company where each
noun a strike which is called suddenly
                                              manager is responsible for doing what
and only lasts a short time
                                              their superior tells them to do
limit / lmt/ noun the point at
which something ends or the point             line manager / lan m nd ə/ noun
where you can go no further to set            a manager responsible to a superior, but
limits to imports, to impose import           with authority to give orders to other
limits to allow only a specific amount of     employees
imports í verb to restrict the number or      line of business / lan əv bzns/
amount of something                           noun a type of business or work
limited / lmtd/ adjective restricted       line organisation / lan ɔ əna-
limited        company           / lmtd     zeʃ(ə)n/ noun same as line
 k mp(ə)ni/, limited liability com-           management
pany / lmtd laə blti k mp(ə)ni/         liquidation / lkw deʃ(ə)n/ noun
noun a company where each share-              the winding up or closing of a company
holder is responsible for repaying the        and selling of its assets
company’s debts only to the face value
of the shares they own (NOTE: short-          list /lst/ noun several items written
ened to Ltd)                                  one after the other They have an at-
                                              tractive list of products or product list.
limited liability / lmtd laə blti/         I can’t find that item on our stock list.
noun a situation where someone’s lia-            Please add this item to the list. She
bility for debt is limited by law             crossed the item off her list.
limited        partnership        / lmtd   listed company / lstd k mp(ə)ni/
 pɑ tnəʃp/ noun a registered business        noun a company whose shares can be
where the liability of the partners is lim-   bought or sold on the Stock Exchange
ited to the amount of capital they have
each provided to the business and where       litigant / lt ənt/ noun a person who
the partners may not take part in the run-    brings a lawsuit against someone
ning of the business                          litigate / lt et/ verb to go to law or
line /lan/ noun 1. a row of letters or       to bring a lawsuit against someone to
figures on a page 2. a series of things,      have a dispute settled
one after another       to be in line for     litigation / lt eʃ(ə)n/ noun the
promotion to be the next to be pro-           bringing of a lawsuit against someone
moted to bring someone into line to
make someone do the same as the others        litigious /l td əs/ adjective referring
3. US a row of people waiting one after       to a person who likes to bring lawsuits
the other (NOTE: British English is           against other people
queue)       to be on the breadline, on       livery / lvəri/ noun a company’s own
the poverty line to be so poor as to have     special design and colours, used e.g. on
hardly enough to live on 4. a short letter    uniforms, office decoration and vehicles
living                                   159                        long-standing

living / lvŋ/ noun      she does not       it cannot be opened The manager for-
earn a living wage she does not earn         got to lock the door of the computer
enough to pay for essentials such as         room.      The petty cash box was not
food, heat and rent to make a living         locked.
to earn enough to pay for your living ex-    lock out / lɒk aυt/ verb to lock out
penses He makes a good living from           workers to shut the factory door so that
selling secondhand cars.                     workers cannot get in and so force them
living expenses / lvŋ k spensz/          not to work until the conditions imposed
plural noun money spent on rent, food,       by the management are met
etc., which may be paid by the company       lockout / lɒkaυt/ noun an industrial
if the worker has been asked to live         dispute where the management will not
away from home                               let the workers into the factory until
loading / ləυdŋ/ noun the process of        they have agreed to the management’s
assigning work to workers or machines        conditions
   The production manager has to en-         lodge /lɒd / verb to lodge a com-
sure that careful loading makes the best     plaint against someone to make an of-
use of human resources.                      ficial complaint about someone
lobby / lɒbi/ noun a group of people         log of claims / lɒ əv klemz/ noun
who try to influence MPs, members of         a type of document used in industrial
town councils, etc. the energy-saving        negotiations that lists the demands made
lobby people who try to persuade MPs         by employees on an employer or by an
to pass laws to save energy                  employer on employees
local adjective / ləυk(ə)l/ located in or    long /lɒŋ/ adjective for a large period
providing a service for a restricted area    of time in the long term over a long
í noun US a branch of a national trade       period of time
union                                        long-distance call / lɒŋ dstəns
local authority / ləυk(ə)l ɔ θɒrti/          kɔ l/ noun a telephone call to a number
noun an elected section of government        which is not near
which runs a small area of the country       longhand / lɒŋh nd/ noun handwrit-
local     collective       bargaining        ing where the words are written out in
/ ləυk(ə)l kə lektv bɑ nŋ/ noun           full and not typed or in shorthand Ap-
collective bargaining which takes place      plications should be written in longhand
in the factory or office, and not at na-     and sent to the human resources
tional level                                 manager.
Local Commissioner / ləυk(ə)l kə-            long-range / lɒŋ rend / adjective
 mʃ(ə)nə/, Local Government Om-             for a long period of time in the future
budsman       / ləυk(ə)l         vənmənt     long-range economic forecast a fore-
 ɒmbυdzmən/ noun an official who in-         cast which covers a period of several
vestigates complaints against local          years
authorities                                  long service award /lɒŋ s vs
local labour / ləυk(ə)l lebə/ noun          ə wɔ d/, award for long service
workers who are recruited near a fac-        /ə wɔ d fə lɒŋ s vs/ noun a gift or
tory, and are not brought there from a       some other form of recognition given to
distance                                     an employee who has worked for the
locally / ləυk(ə)li/ adverb in the area      same organisation for a great many
near where an office or factory is based     years
   We recruit all our staff locally.         long-service leave /lɒŋ s vs li v/
lock /lɒk/ noun a device for closing a       noun a period of paid leave given by
door or box so that it can be opened only    some employers to staff who have com-
with a key The lock is broken on the         pleted several years of service
petty cash box.     I have forgotten the     long-standing / lɒŋ st ndŋ/ ad-
combination of the lock on my briefcase.     jective which has been arranged for a
í verb to close a door with a key, so that   long time a long-standing agreement
long-term                                160                              lying time

long-term / lɒŋ t m/ adjective for a         lower / laυə/ adjective smaller or less
long time ahead          The management      high a lower rate of interest Sales
plans are made on a long-term basis.         were lower in June than in May.
Sound long-term planning will give the       lower earnings limit / ləυər nŋz
company more direction. It is in the          lmt/ noun a minimum earnings level
company’s long-term interests to have a      at which an employee has to pay Na-
contented staff. long-term objectives        tional Insurance contributions
aims which will take years to achieve
                                             lower limit / ləυə lmt/ noun the
long-term disability / lɒŋ t m               bottom limit
dsə blti/ noun a disability which lasts
or is likely to last a very long time        lower-paid staff / ləυə ped stɑ f/
                                             noun staff who are paid less than others
Long-Term Disability Plan / lɒŋ
t m dsə blti pl n/ noun an insur-         lower ranks / ləυə r ŋks/ plural
ance scheme that pays insured employ-        noun employees in less important jobs
ees a proportion of their wages in the       low-level / ləυ lev(ə)l/ adjective not
event of disablement                         very important      A low-level meeting
long-term planning / lɒŋ t m                 decided to put off making a decision.
 pl nŋ/ noun planning for a long time       low-paid staff / ləυ ped stɑ f/
in advance (such as in five years)           noun staff on low salaries
loose /lu s/ adjective not packed            loyal / lɔəl/ adjective 1. always buy-
                                             ing the same brand or using the same
loose rate / lu s ret/ noun a rate ap-      shop The aim of the advertising is to
plied to an employee earning above the       keep the customers loyal. 2. referring to
rate earned by other employees in simi-      an employee who supports the company
lar jobs requiring similar skills            they work for (NOTE: you are loyal to
lose /lu z/ verb 1. not to have some-        someone or something)
thing any more to lose one’s job to be       loyalty / lɔəlt/ noun being faithful
made redundant or to be sacked He
lost his job in the reorganisation. She      Ltd abbr limited company
lost her job when the factory closed.        lump /l mp/ noun the Lump, Lump
number of days lost through strikes          labour self-employed workers who are
the number of days which are not             paid a lump sum for a day’s work or for
worked when employees are on strike 2.       the amount of work completed (often
to have less money He lost £25,000 in        with a view to avoiding tax)
his father’s computer company. (NOTE:        lump sum /l mp s m/ noun money
losing – lost)                               paid in one single amount, not in several
loss /lɒs/ noun not having something         small sums a lump-sum bonus She
any more loss of an order not getting        sold her house and invested the money
an order which was expected loss of          as a lump sum.
one’s job being made redundant
                                             luncheon         voucher       / l nʃtən
lost time /lɒst tam/ noun the time           vaυtʃə/ noun a ticket given by an em-
during which an employee does not            ployer to an employee in addition to
work, through no fault of their own          their wages, which can be exchanged for
Better logistics will help cut down lost     food in a restaurant
                                             lunch time / l ntʃ tam/ noun a time
low /ləυ/ adjective not high or not          in the middle of the day when people
much We try to keep our wages bill           have lunch (for most British offices,
low.                                         from about 12.30 to 1.30pm, or from 1
low achiever /ləυ ə tʃi və/ noun a           to 2 p.m.)
person who does not do as well as            lying time / laŋ tam/ noun the time
expected                                     between the end of a period of work and
                                             the date on which you are paid for it
MA                                       161                      maintenance factors


MA abbr maternity allowance                      main /men/ adjective most important
Maastricht Treaty / mɑ strxt                       Our main office is in Birmingham.
 tri ti/ noun a treaty signed in 1992            The main building houses our admin
which sets out the principles for a Euro-        and finance departments. One of our
pean Union and the convergence criteria          main customers has gone into
for states wishing to join the EMU               receivership.
machine /mə ʃi n/ noun a device                  main office /men ɒfs/ noun an of-
which works with power from a motor              fice building where the board of direc-
copying machine a machine which                  tors works and meets
makes copies of documents, a                     maintain /men ten/ verb 1. to keep
photocopier                                      something going or working We try to
machinery /mə ʃi nəri/ noun 1. ma-               maintain good relations with the em-
chines 2. an organisation or a system            ployees’ representatives 2. to keep
the administrative machinery of a uni-           something working at the same level
versity     the machinery for awarding           The company has maintained the same
government contracts                             volume of business in spite of the reces-
                                                 sion. to maintain a dividend to pay
machinery         guard        /mə ʃi nəri       the same dividend as the previous year
  ɑ dz/ noun a piece of metal to prevent
workers from getting hurt by the mov-            maintenance / mentənəns/ noun 1.
ing parts of a machine                           the process of keeping things going or
                                                 working     Maintenance of contacts is
machine shop /mə ʃi n ʃɒp/ noun a                important for a sales rep It is essen-
place where working machines are                 tial to ensure the maintenance of sup-
placed                                           plies to the factory. 2. the process of
machine tool /mə ʃi n tu lz/ noun a              keeping a machine in good working or-
tool worked by a motor, used to work on          der      We offer a full maintenance
wood or metal                                    service.
                                                  ‘…responsibilities include the maintenance of
machinist /mə ʃi nst/ noun a person              large computerized databases’ [Times]
who operates a machine
                                                  ‘…the federal administration launched a
Madam          Chairman         / m dəm           full-scale investigation into the airline’s
 tʃeəmən/, Madam Chairwoman                       maintenance procedures’ [Fortune]
/ m dəm tʃeəwυmən/ noun a way of                 maintenance                      contract
speaking to the female chairman of a             / mentənəns kɒntr kt/ noun a con-
committee or meeting                             tract by which a company keeps a piece
magazine /m ə zi n/ noun a paper,                of equipment in good working order
usually with pictures and printed on             maintenance                        factors
glossy paper, which comes out regu-              / mentənəns     f ktəz/ plural noun
larly, every month or every week                 elements at work which create em-
mail box / mel bɒks/ noun 1. one of             ployee dissatisfaction when they are not
several boxes where incoming mail is             adequately provided      The reason for
put in a large building 2. a box for putt-       the strike was the lack of maintenance
ing letters                                      factors such as decent rest periods.
maintenance of membership                162              management accountant

maintenance        of    membership          Make-whole remedies are often consid-
/ mentənəns əv membəʃp/ noun               ered insufficient by aggrieved workers.
US a requirement that employees who          make-work practices / mek w k
are union members must remain so for          pr ktsz/ plural noun methods of cre-
the full duration of their employment in     ating work for people who would other-
an organisation                              wise have no work             Make-work
major / med ə/ adjective important          practices are boosting morale in areas
There is a major risk of fire.               badly hit by the recession. Make-work
 ‘…a client base which includes many major   practices at least provide practical work
 commercial organizations and nationalized   experience.
 industries’ [Times]
                                             man /m n/ noun a male worker, espe-
majority /mə d ɒrti/ noun 1. more           cially a manual worker without special
than half of a group the board ac-           skills or qualifications     All the men
cepted the proposal by a majority of         went back to work yesterday. í verb to
three to two three members of the            provide the workforce for something
board voted to accept and two voted          It takes six workers to man a shift. We
against 2. the number of votes by which      need volunteers to man the exhibition on
a person wins an election        He was      Sunday.       The exhibition stand was
elected shop steward with a majority of      manned by three salesgirls. (NOTE:
three hundred.                               manning – manned. Note also to
majority vote /mə d ɒrti vəυt/,             man does not mean only using men)
majority decision /mə d ɒrti d-            manage / m nd / verb 1. to direct
 s (ə)n/ noun a decision made after a       or to be in charge of to manage a de-
vote according to the wishes of the larg-    partment to manage a branch office
est group                                    A competent and motivated person is re-
make /mek/ noun a brand or type of          quired to manage an important depart-
product manufactured           Japanese      ment in the company. 2. to manage to
makes of cars        a standard make of      to be able to do something Did you
equipment What make is the new com-          manage to see the head buyer? She
puter system or What’s the make of the       managed to write six orders and take
new computer system? í verb 1. to pro-       three phone calls all in two minutes.
duce or to manufacture The workers             ‘…the research director will manage and direct
spent ten weeks making the table. The          a team of graduate business analysts reporting
factory makes three hundred cars a day.        on consumer behaviour throughout the UK’
2. to do an action to make a bid for
something to offer to buy something          management / m nd mənt/ noun
to make a payment to pay to make a           1. the process of directing or running a
deposit to pay money as a deposit 3. to      business She studied management at
earn he makes £50,000 a year or £25          university. Good management or effi-
an hour 4. to increase in value The          cient management is essential in a large
shares made $2.92 in today’s trading.        organisation. a management graduate
make good / mek υd/ verb 1. to              or a graduate in management          Bad
repair The company will make good            management or inefficient management
the damage. 2. to be a success 3. to         can ruin a business. 2. a group of man-
compensate for something        to make      agers or directors     The management
good a loss                                  has decided to give everyone a pay in-
                                             crease. (NOTE: Where management
make up / mek p/ verb to compen-            refers to a group of people it is some-
sate for something to make up a loss         times followed by a plural verb.)
or difference to pay extra so that the         ‘…the management says that the rate of
loss or difference is covered                  loss-making has come down and it expects
make-whole remedy / mek həυl                  further improvement in the next few years’
                                               [Financial Times]
 remədi/ noun a way of compensating
an employee for their bad treatment in       management                     accountant
violation of employment legislation          / m nd mənt ə kaυntənt/ noun an
management audit                         163                               manager

accountant who prepares financial infor-     training course       The management
mation for managers so that they can         game run on a computer, demanded de-
take decisions                               cisions in marketing strategy.
management audit / m nd mənt                management            of       change
 ɔ dt/ noun a listing of all the managers   / m nd mənt əv tʃend / noun the
in an organisation with information          process of managing the way changes in
about their skills and experience The        the working environment are imple-
management audit helped determine            mented and how they affect the
how many more managers needed to be          workforce
recruited.                                   management ratio / m nd mənt
management buyin / m nd mənt                 reʃiəυ/ noun the number of manag-
 ban/ noun the purchase of a subsid-       ers for every hundred employees in
iary company by a group of outside di-       an organisation    There was a very
rectors. Abbr MBI                            high management ratio since there was
management                      buyout       more planning and less manual work
/ m nd mənt      baaυt/ noun the           than in most companies.
takeover of a company by a group of          management                     science
employees, usually senior managers and       / m nd mənt saəns/ noun the study
directors. Abbr MBO                          of the skill and knowledge which can be
management            by     objectives      applied to management        He studied
/ m nd mənt ba əb d ektvz/ noun           management science at a university.
a way of managing a business by plan-        management style / m nd mənt
ning work for the managers to do and         stal/, style of management / stal əv
testing if it is completed correctly and      m nd mənt/ the way in which man-
on time                                      agers work, in particular the way in
management by walking around                 which they treat their employees
/ m nd mənt ba wɔ kŋ ə raυnd/             management team / m nd mənt
noun a way of managing where the             ti m/ noun a group of all the managers
manager moves round the office or shop       working in the same company
floor, discusses problems with the staff
and learns from them. Abbr MBWA              management                  technique
                                             / m nd mənt tek ni ks/ noun a way
management                   committee       of managing a business
/ m nd mənt kə mti/ noun a com-
mittee which manages something such          management                      trainee
as a club or a pension fund                  / m nd mənt tre ni / noun a young
                                             member of staff being trained to be a
management                      course       manager
/ m nd mənt kɔ s/ noun a training
course for managers                          management                     training
                                             / m nd mənt       trenŋ/ noun the
management                 development       process of training staff to be managers,
/ m nd mənt d veləpmənt/ noun
                                             by making them study problems and
the selection and training of potential
                                             work out solutions
management                   education       manager / m nd ə/ noun 1. the
/ m nd mənt edjυ keʃ(ə)n/ noun             head of a department in a company
formal education in the principles and       She’s a department manager in an engi-
techniques of management and related         neering company. Go and see the hu-
subjects that leads to a qualification       man resources manager if you have a
                                             problem.      The production manager
management                     function      has been with the company for only two
/ m nd mənt       f ŋkʃən/ noun the         weeks. Our sales manager started as
duties of being a manager                    a rep in London.        All new trainees
management game / m nd mənt                 must report to the departmental man-
  em/ noun a problem which is given to      ager. 2. the person in charge of a branch
trainee managers to solve as part of a       or shop Mr Smith is the manager of
manageress                                    164                              manpower

our local Lloyds Bank. The manager                  beyond the mandatory retirement age of 60
of our Lagos branch is in London for a              years’ [Nikkei Weekly]
series of meetings.                               mandatory                    injunction
 ‘…the No. 1 managerial productivity problem in   / m ndət(ə)ri n d      ŋkʃən/ noun an
 America is managers who are out of touch with    order from a court which compels some-
 their people and out of touch with their         one to do something
 customers’ [Fortune]
manageress / m nd ə res/ noun a                  mandatory issues / m ndət(ə)ri
                                                   ʃu z/ plural noun bargaining issues
woman who runs a shop or a department
                                                  that directly affect employees’ jobs
managerial / m nə d əriəl/ adjec-                Man Friday /m n frade/ noun a
tive referring to managers        All the
                                                  male employee who does a variety of
managerial staff are sent for training
                                                  tasks in an office. ‘ Girl Friday (NOTE:
every year. Managerial staff have a
                                                  Sometimes person Friday is used in
special canteen. to be appointed to a
                                                  job advertisements to avoid sexism.)
managerial position to be appointed a
manager decisions taken at manage-                man-hour / m n aυə/ noun work
rial level decisions taken by managers            done by one employee in one hour
managerial grid /m n d əriəl                    One million man-hours were lost
   rd/ noun a type of management train-          through industrial action. There are
ing in which trainees attempt to solve a          two hundred man-hours of work still to
number of problems in groups, and                 be done, which will take ten workers
thereby discover their individual                 twenty hours to complete.
strengths and weaknesses                          manifest / m nfest/ noun a list of
managerial obsolescence /m n-                    goods in a shipment í adjective obvi-
 d əriəl ɒbsə les(ə)ns/ noun a situa-            ous or apparent
tion where managers cannot keep up                manifest       content      / m nfest
with the latest technology or are not as           kɒntent/ noun an apparent meaning of
well-qualified as more junior staff               words used by one person to another
managership / m nd əʃp/ noun                    The manifest content of the director’s
the job of being a manager After six              talk to us was congratulatory, but read-
years, she was offered the managership            ing between the lines, we could tell she
of a branch in Scotland.                          was angry.
managing change / m nd ŋ                        manned /m nd/ adjective with some-
 tʃend / noun the process of managing            one working on it The switchboard is
the way changes in the working envi-              manned twenty-four hours a day. The
ronment are implemented and how they              stand was manned by our sales staff.
affect the workforce                              (NOTE: manned does not mean only
                                                  using men)
managing director / m nəd ŋ
da rektə/ noun the director who is in            manning / m nŋ/ noun people who
charge of a whole company. Abbr MD                are needed to do a work process (NOTE:
                                                  manning does not mean only men)
mandate /m n det/ verb to give in-
structions to someone who will repre-             manning agreement / m nŋ ə-
sent you in negotiations                            ri mənt/ noun an agreement between
                                                  the company and the employees about
mandating /m n detŋ/ noun the                   how many employees are needed for a
act of giving instructions to a                   certain job
                                                  manning levels / m nŋ lev(ə)lz/
mandatory / m ndət(ə)ri/ adjective                plural noun the number of people re-
which everyone must obey Wearing a                quired in each department of a company
suit is mandatory for all managerial              to do the work efficiently
staff. mandatory meeting a meeting
which all staff have to attend                    manpower / m npaυə/ noun the
 ‘…the wage talks are focusing on employment      number of employees in an organisa-
 issues such as sharing of work among             tion, industry or country (NOTE: man-
 employees and extension of employment            power does not mean only men)
manpower audit                          165                                      marzipan

manpower           audit / m npaυər           ‘…profit margins in the industries most exposed
 ɔ dt/ noun a listing of all the employ-     to foreign competition – machinery,
                                              transportation equipment and electrical goods –
ees in an organisation with details of        are    significantly   worse      than    usual’
their skills and experience A complete        [Australian Financial Review]
manpower audit was needed to decide         marginal      / mɑ d n(ə)l/ adjective
what recruitment or training should be      hardly worth the money paid
carried out to meet future requirements.
                                            marginal cost / mɑ d n(ə)l kɒst/
manpower                  forecasting       noun the cost of making a single extra
/ m npaυə       fɔ kɑ stŋ/ noun the        unit above the number already planned
process of calculating how many em-
ployees will be needed in the future, and   marital status / m rt(ə)l stetəs/
how many will actually be available         noun the condition of being married or
manpower planning / m npaυə
 pl nŋ/ noun the process of planning       market / mɑ kt/ noun 1. a place, of-
to obtain the right number of employees     ten in the open air where farm produce
in each job                                 and household goods are sold The fish
                                            market is held every Thursday.        The
manpower reductions / m npaυə               open-air market is held in the central
r d kʃənz/ plural noun reductions in       square. Here are this week’s market
the number of employees                     prices for sheep. 2. the possible sales of
manpower               requirements         a specific product or demand for a spe-
/ m npaυə r kwaəmənts/, man-              cific product    There’s no market for
power needs / m npaυə ni dz/ plural         word processors The market for home
noun the number of employees needed         computers has fallen sharply.          We
manpower shortage / m npaυə                 have 20% of the British car market.
                                              ‘…market analysts described the falls in the
 ʃɔ td / noun a lack of employees            second half of last week as a technical
man-to-man ranking / m n tə                   correction to a market which had been pushed
m n r ŋkŋ/ noun the arrangement of           by demand to over the 900 index level’
                                              [Australian Financial Review]
employees in order according to their
                                              ‘…market leaders may benefit from scale
skills or other criteria (NOTE: does not      economies or other cost advantages; they may
only refer to men)                            enjoy a reputation for quality simply by being at
manual / m njυəl/ adjective done by           the top, or they may actually produce a superior
                                              product that gives them both a large market
hand or done using the hands í noun a         share and high profits’ [Accountancy]
book of instructions, showing what pro-
cedures to follow                           marketing       manager / mɑ ktŋ
                                             m nd ə/ noun a person in charge of a
manual labour / m njυəl lebə/,             marketing department The marketing
manual work / m njυəl w k/ noun             manager has decided to start a new ad-
heavy work done by hand                     vertising campaign.
manual         labourer        / m njυəl    market rate / mɑ kt ret/ noun the
 lebərə/ noun a person who does heavy      normal price in the market We pay the
work with their hands                       market rate for secretaries or We pay
manufacture /m njυ f ktʃə/ verb             secretaries the market rate.
to make a product for sale, using ma-         ‘…after the prime rate cut yesterday, there was a
chines       The company manufactures         further fall in short-term market rates’
                                              [Financial Times]
spare parts for cars. í noun the making
of a product for sale, using machines       married / m rid/ adjective joined as
                                            husband and wife
manufactured goods / m nju-
 f ktʃəd υdz/ plural noun items             married couple / m rid k p(ə)l/
which are made by machine                   noun a husband and wife
margin / mɑ d n/ noun 1. the differ-       married staff / m rid stɑ f/ noun
ence between the money received when        staff who have wives or husbands
selling a product and the money paid for    marzipan / mɑ z p n/ adjective be-
it 2. extra space or time allowed           longing to the level of management im-
mass                                    166                         maturity curve

mediately below the top executives          who accepts their views           Master-
(slang)                                     minding resulted in interviews revealing
mass /m s/ noun 1. a large group of         little of the real discontent on the shop
people 2. a large number We have a          floor.
mass of letters or masses of letters to     Master of Business Administra-
write.                                      tion / mɑ stər əv bzns ədmn-
mass meeting /m s mi tŋ/ noun a              streʃ(ə)n/ noun full form of MBA
meeting attended by most or all of the      maternity /mə t nti/ noun the act of
members of a trade union at a particular    becoming a mother
workplace at which they reach decisions     maternity allowance /mə t nti ə-
on important issues, e.g. whether or not     laυəns/ noun a government benefit
to take industrial action                   paid to women on maternity leave who
mass-produce / m s prə dju s/               are not eligible for statutory maternity
verb to manufacture identical products      pay. Abbr MA
in large quantities      to mass-produce    maternity leave /mə t nti li v/
cars                                        noun a period when a woman is away
mass production /m s prə-                   from work to have a baby but is often
 d kʃən/ noun the manufacture of large      still paid
quantities of identical products            maternity pay period /mə t nti
mass redundancies /m s r-                  pe pəriəd/ noun a period of eighteen
 d ndənsiz/ plural noun many jobs be-       weeks when statutory maternity pay is
ing lost and a large number of employ-      paid. Abbr MPP
ees being made redundant at the same        matrix management / metrks
time                                         m nd mənt/ noun management that
mass unemployment / m s nm-                operates both through the hierarchical
 plɔmənt/ noun unemployment of             chain of command within the organisa-
large numbers of people                     tion, and through relationships at the
master / mɑ stə/ adjective main or          same level with other managers working
original master budget a budget pre-        in other locations or on different prod-
pared by amalgamating budgets from          ucts or projects
various profit and cost centres such as     matrix organisation / metrks
sales, production, marketing or adminis-    ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun a flexible or-
tration in order to provide a main budget   ganisation structure where authority de-
for the whole company         the master    pends on the expertise needed for a
copy of a file the main copy of a com-      particular task and overall responsibility
puter file, kept for security purposes      is shared between several people
the law of master and servant employ-
ment law í noun 1. a skilled worker,
                                            matters arising / m təz ə razŋ/
                                            plural noun the business of a meeting
qualified to train apprentices a master
                                            which refers back to items discussed at a
craftsman 2. further university degree
                                            previous meeting
master and servant / mɑ stər ən
 s vənt/ noun an employer and               maturity /mə tʃυərti/ noun the third
employee                                    stage in a product life cycle when a
                                            product is well established in the market
master          contract         / mɑ stə   though no longer enjoying increasing
 kɒntr kt/ noun an industry-wide con-       sales, after which sooner or later it will
tract between a group of employers and      start to decline amount payable on
the relevant unions                         maturity amount received by the in-
mastermind / mɑ stəmand/ verb 1.           sured person when the policy becomes
to have the main ideas behind a scheme      mature
2. to be in charge of a project             maturity curve /mə tʃυərti k v/
masterminding / mɑ stəmandŋ/              noun a rate of pay increases based on
noun a type of interview where the in-      age and length of service        Maturity
terviewer influences the interviewee        curves are not a feature of our pay
maximisation                            167                              mediation

structure since seniority is no guarantee   formance is good or bad 2. a type of ac-
of real contribution.                       tion     to take measures to prevent
maximisation                 / m ksma-    something happening to act to stop
 zeʃ(ə)n/, maximization noun the pro-      something happening to take crisis,
cess of making something as large as        emergency measures to act rapidly to
possible profit maximisation or maxi-       stop a crisis developing í verb 1. to find
misation of profit                          out the size or quantity of something or
                                            to be of a certain size or quantity to
maximise / m ksmaz/, maximize             measure the size of a package a pack-
verb to make as large as possible Our       age which measures 10cm by 25cm or a
aim is to maximise profits.          The    package measuring 10cm by 25cm 2.
co-operation of the workforce will be       to measure the department’s perfor-
needed if we are to maximise produc-        mance to judge how well the depart-
tion. He is paid on results, and so has     ment has done
to work flat out to maximise his
earnings.                                   measured day work / me əd de
maximum / m ksməm/ noun the                w k/ noun a payment scheme where
largest possible number, price or quan-     payment for a day’s work depends on a
tity It is the maximum the insurance        specified level of output being achieved
company will pay. up to a maximum           measured performance / me əd
of £10 no more than £10 í adjective         pə fɔ məns/ noun work performance
largest possible 40% is the maximum         which is measured in quantitative terms
income tax rate or the maximum rate of      mechanic /m k nk/ noun a person
tax. The maximum load for the truck         who works with engines or machines
is one ton. Maximum production lev-         He got a job as a car mechanic before
els were reached last week.                 going to college.
MBA / em bi e/ noun a degree               mechanical /m k nk(ə)l/ adjective
awarded to graduates who have com-          worked by a machine         a mechanical
pleted a further course in business stud-   pump
ies. Full form Master of Business
Administration                              mechanism / mekənz(ə)m/ noun 1.
                                            the way in which something works
MBO abbr management buyout                  the company’s salary review mechanism
MBWA abbr management by walking             2. the action of a machine or system a
around                                      mechanism to slow down inflation
MD abbr managing director She was           mechanistic / mekə nstk/ adjec-
appointed MD of a property company.         tive very formal and structured It is a
means /mi nz/ noun a way of doing           typical mechanistic organisation with
something Do we have any means of           rigid rules and procedures.
copying all these documents quickly?        mediate / mi diet/ verb to try to
Bank transfer is the easiest means of       make the two sides in an argument come
payment. í plural noun money or re-         to an agreement The human resources
sources The company has the means           director said she would try to mediate
to launch the new product.       Such a     between the manager and his staff.
level of investment is beyond the means     The government offered to mediate in
of a small private company. (NOTE: plu-     the dispute.
ral is means)
                                            mediation / mi d eʃ(ə)n/ noun an
means test / mi nz test/ verb to find       attempt by a third party to make the two
out how much money someone has in           sides in an argument agree The em-
savings and assets All applicants will      ployers refused an offer of government
be means-tested.                            mediation.      The dispute was ended
measure / me ə/ noun 1. a way of            through the mediation of union officials.
calculating size or quantity as a mea-         Mediation by some third party is the
sure of the manager’s performance as        only hope for ending the dispute.
a way of judging if the manager’s per-
medical                                  168        memorandum of association

medical / medk(ə)l/ adjective refer-        meetings room / mi tŋz ru m/
ring to the study or treatment of illness    noun a special room in which meetings
he resigned for medical reasons he re-       are held
signed because he was too ill to work        member / membə/ noun 1. a person
medical certificate / medk(ə)l sə-          who belongs to a group, society or or-
 tfkət/ noun a certificate from a doc-     ganisation Committee members voted
tor to show that an employee has been        on the proposal.      They were elected
ill                                          members of the board.         Every em-
medical cover / medk(ə)l k və/              ployer is a member of the employers’
noun same as medical insurance               federation. 2. an organisation which be-
                                             longs to a society the member compa-
medical examination / medk(ə)l              nies of a trade association
 z m neʃ(ə)n/ noun an examination           ‘…it will be the first opportunity for party
of a person by a doctor to find out their      members and trade union members to express
state of health      All members of staff      their    views    on    the   tax   package’
have to have an annual medical                 [Australian Financial Review]
examination.                                 membership / membəʃp/ noun 1.
medical insurance / medk(ə)l n-            the fact of belonging to a group, society
 ʃυərəns/ noun insurance which pays          or organisation membership qualifica-
the cost of medical treatment especially     tions     conditions of membership
when travelling abroad                       membership card        to pay your mem-
                                             bership or your membership fees
medical profession / medk(ə)l               Membership of a trade union is not
prə feʃ(ə)n/ noun all doctors                compulsory, but is strongly encouraged
medical report / medk(ə)l r pɔ t/          on the shop floor. membership of a
noun a report by a doctor on the medical     pension scheme the fact of belonging to
condition of an employee                     a pension scheme 2. all the members of
medium-term / mi diəm t m/ ad-               a group      The union membership was
jective referring to a point between short   asked to vote for the new president.
term and long term                             ‘…the bargaining committee will recommend
                                               that its membership ratify the agreement at a
meet /mi t/ verb 1. to come together           meeting called for June’ [Toronto Star]
with someone Union leaders came to           membership group / membəʃp
meet the negotiating committee.         We     ru p/ noun a group of which a certain
met the agent at his hotel.       The two    person is a member
sides met in the lawyer’s office. 2. to be
satisfactory for We must have a prod-
                                             memo / meməυ/ noun a short mes-
                                             sage sent from one person to another in
uct which meets our requirements. to
                                             the same organisation       She wrote a
meet the demand for a new product to
                                             memo to the finance director.        The
fill the demand for a product to meet
                                             sales manager is going to send a memo
the conditions of an agreement to ful-
                                             to all the sales representatives. I sent
fil the conditions of an agreement to
                                             the managing director a memo about
meet the union’s demands to agree to
                                             your complaint.
what the union is asking for 3. to pay for
    The company will meet your expenses.     memo pad / meməυ p d/ noun a
(NOTE: meeting – met)                        pad of paper for writing short notes
meeting / mi tŋ/ noun 1. the coming         memorandum              /memə r ndəm/
together of a group of people 2. to          noun same as memo
hold a meeting to organise a meeting of      memorandum (and articles) of
a group of people The meeting will be        association /memə r ndəm ənd
held in the committee room. to open a         ɑ tik(ə)lz əv əsəυsi eʃ(ə)n/ noun le-
meeting to start a meeting to conduct        gal documents setting up a limited com-
a meeting to be in the chair for a meet-     pany and giving details of its name,
ing to close a meeting to end a meet-        aims, authorised share capital, conduct
ing to address a meeting to speak to a       of meetings, appointment of directors
meeting                                      and registered office
mental handicap                          169                                 minimum

mental   handicap     / ment(ə)l             middle         manager         / md(ə)l
h ndik p/ noun same as learning               m nd ə/ noun a manager of a depart-
difficulty (NOTE: term now generally         ment in a company, answerable to a se-
unacceptable)                                nior manager or director
mentally handicapped / ment(ə)li             mid-month / md m nθ/ adjective
 h ndik pt/ noun having a learning           which happens in the middle of the
difficulty (NOTE: term now generally         month mid-month accounts
unacceptable)                                mid-week / md wi k/ adjective
mentee /men ti / noun a less experi-         which happens in the middle of a week
enced employee who is offered special          the mid-week lull in sales
guidance and support by a respected and      migrant / ma rənt/ noun a person
trusted person with more experience          who moves from one place or country to
mentor / mentɔ / noun a person who           another, usually to work
is respected and trusted by a less experi-   migrant worker / ma rənt w kə/
enced employee and offers special guid-      noun a worker who moves from place to
ance and support to them                     place looking for work Migrant work-
mentoring / mentərŋ/ noun a form            ers were working illegally without work
of training or employee development in       permits.     During the summer thou-
which a trusted and respected person         sands of migrant workers cross the bor-
with a lot experience—the mentor—of-         der to work on the harvest.
fers special guidance, encouragement         migration /ma reʃ(ə)n/ noun mov-
and support to a less experienced            ing from one place or country to an-
employee                                     other, usually to work
merit / mert/ noun a quality which          military leave / mlt(ə)ri li v/ noun
deserves reward                              US unpaid leave or absence from work
merit award / mert ə wɔ d/, merit           by employees who are in the armed
bonus / mert bəυnəs/ noun extra             forces or who have to do their military
money given to an employee because           service
they have worked well A merit bonus          milk round / mlk raυnd/ noun the
can encourage the better workers, but        visiting of universities and colleges by
will discourage those who feel they can-     employers, in order to find promising
not reach the required level.                new employees
meritocracy / mer tɒkrəsi/ noun a             ‘…as the annual milk round gets under way,
society or organisation where advance-         many students are more interested in final
ment is based on a person’s natural abil-      exams      than     in    job      hunting’
                                               [Personnel Management]
ity rather than on their background
method / meθəd/ noun a way of do-            minimal / mnm(ə)l/ adjective the
                                             smallest possible There was a mini-
ing something       They devised a new
                                             mal quantity of imperfections in the
method of sending data. What is the
                                             batch. The head office exercises mini-
best method of payment? His organis-
                                             mal control over the branch offices.
ing methods are out of date.
method study / meθəd st di/ noun             minimise / mnmaz/, minimize
                                             verb 1. to make something seem to be
a study of the way in which something
                                             very small and not very important 2. to
is done
                                             make something as small as possible
mid- /md/ prefix middle from mid            The company is attempting to minimise
2001 from the middle of 2001          The    its labour costs by only hiring workers
factory is closed until mid-July.            when they are needed. Unemployment
mid-career crisis / md kə rə               was minimised by giving more people
 krass/ noun a point in the middle of      part-time work.
someone’s career when they have to de-       minimum / mnməm/ noun smallest
cide what to do in the future                possible quantity, price or number to
middle / md(ə)l/ adjective in the cen-      keep expenses to a minimum to reduce
tre or between two points                    the risk of a loss to a minimum (NOTE:
minimum age                              170                          mobile phone

plural is minima or minimums) í ad-          court or decision which goes against the
jective smallest possible   minimum          rights of a party in a case, in such a way
payment      the   smallest  payment         that the decision may be reversed on
necessary                                    appeal
minimum age / mnməm               ed /    misconduct /ms kɒnd kt/ noun an
noun the lowest age at which someone         illegal action by an employee, or an ac-
can be employed (13 in a few types of        tion which can harm someone, e.g. dis-
employment, but 16 is the legal              obeying instructions
minimum)                                     misdemeanour / msd mi nə/ noun
minimum pay / mnməm pe/,                  a minor crime        to commit a misde-
minimum wage / mnməm wed /                meanour (NOTE: the usual US spelling
noun the lowest hourly wage which a          is misdemeanor)
company can legally pay its employees        mismanage /ms m nd / verb to
minimum           salary      / mnməm      manage badly The company had been
 s ləri/ noun the lowest amount of           badly mismanaged under the previous
money that an employee is guaranteed         MD.
to earn, i.e. their basic pay, which may     mismanagement                        /ms-
be increased if an employee qualifies for     m nd mənt/ noun bad management
a bonus by performing well                       The company failed because of the
minor / manə/ adjective less impor-         chairman’s mismanagement.
tant    Items of minor expenditure are       misrepresentation / msreprzen-
not listed separately.         The minor      teʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of making a
shareholders voted against the pro-          wrong statement in order to persuade
posal.     minor official a person in a      someone to enter into a contract such as
low position in a government                 one for buying a product or service 2.
department                                   the act of wrongly reporting facts
minority /ma nɒrti/ noun 1. a num-         mistake /m stek/ noun an act or de-
ber or quantity which is less than half of   cision which is wrong to make a mis-
the total A minority of board members        take to do something wrong The shop
opposed the chairman. A minority of          made a mistake and sent the wrong
the union members opposed the motion.        items. There was a mistake in the ad-
   to be in the minority to be one of a      dress. He made a mistake in address-
group that is a small part of a larger       ing the letter.
group 2. a section of the population         misunderstanding               / ms ndə-
from a specific racial group, which does      st ndŋ/ noun an act of not under-
nor make up the majority of the              standing something correctly         There
population                                   was a misunderstanding over the pay
minutes / mnts/ plural noun notes          deal.
of what happened at a meeting, written       misuse noun /ms ju s/ a wrong use
by the secretary to take the minutes            the misuse of funds or of assets í verb
to write notes of what happened at a             to misuse funds to use funds in a
meeting                                      wrong way (especially funds which do
misappropriate / msə prəυpriet/            not belong to you)
verb to use illegally money which is not     misuse of authority /ms ju s əv
yours, but with which you have been          ɔ θɒrti/ noun the use of one’s author-
trusted                                      ity in a wrong way
misappropriation / msəprəυpri-              mobile / məυbal/ adjective which
 eʃ(ə)n/ noun the illegal use of money      can move about        mobile workforce
by someone who is not the owner but          employees who move from place to
who has been trusted to look after it        place to get work
miscarriage            of        justice     mobile phone / məυbal fəυn/
/ msk rd əv d     sts/ noun a deci-       noun a small portable phone which can
sion wrongly or unjustly reached by a        be used away from home or the office
mobile worker                            171                                  morale

mobile worker / məυbal w kə/                money    purchase   pension
noun an employee who does not have           scheme / m ni p tʃs penʃən
one fixed place of work (NOTE: Mobile        ski m/ noun (in the United Kingdom) a
workers, such as teleworkers, are usu-       pension plan in which the fund that is
ally linked to a central base by tele-       built up from a person’s contributions is
phone and computer)                          used to buy an annuity, and the retire-
mobility /məυ blti/ noun the ability       ment income that the beneficiary re-
to move from one place to another            ceives depends on the amount of their
                                             contributions, the performance of the in-
mobility allowance /məυ blti ə-            vestments bought with those contribu-
 laυəns/ noun an addition to normal sal-     tions, the annuity rates and the type of
ary paid to an employee who is willing       annuity purchased at retirement
to travel to different places of work
                                             monitor / mɒntə/ noun a screen on a
model / mɒd(ə)l/ noun 1. a small copy        computer He brought up the informa-
of something made to show what it will       tion on the monitor. í verb to check or
look like when finished They showed          to examine how something is working
us a model of the new office building. 2.    How do you monitor the performance of
something which can be copied          the   the sales reps?
Swedish model of industrial relations í      month /m nθ/ noun one of twelve pe-
adjective which is a perfect example to      riods which make a year bills due at
be copied a model agreement                  the end of the current month          She
moderate adjective / mɒd(ə)rət/ 1.           earns £2,000 a month. paid by the
not too large The trade union made a         month paid once each month to give
moderate claim. The government pro-          a customer two months’ credit to al-
posed a moderate increase in the tax         low a customer to pay not immediately,
rate. 2. not holding very extreme views      but after two months
   a moderate trade union leader í verb      month end /m nθ end/ noun the end
/ mɒdəret/ to make less strong or less      of a calendar month, when accounts
large The union was forced to moder-         have to be drawn up The accounts de-
ate its claim.                               partment are working on the month-end
modification            / mɒdf keʃ(ə)n/   accounts.
noun a change The board wanted to            monthly / m nθli/ adjective happen-
make or to carry out modifications to        ing every month or which is received
the plan. The client pressed for modi-       every month We get a monthly state-
fications to the contract.                   ment from the bank.           She makes
modify / mɒdfa/ verb to change or          monthly payments to the credit card
to make something fit a different use        company. My monthly salary cheque
The management modified its proposals.       is late. í adverb every month          He
   This is the new modified agreement.       asked if he could pay monthly by direct
(NOTE: modifies       –   modifying     –    debit.      The account is credited
modified)                                    monthly.
momentum /məυ mentəm/ noun a                 moonlight / mu nlat/ verb to do a
movement forwards to gain or lose            second job for cash (often in the eve-
momentum to move faster or more              ning) as well as a regular job (informal )

slowly                                       moonlighter / mu nlatə/ noun a
Monday          morning          feeling     person who moonlights
/ m nde mɔ nŋ fi lŋ/ noun a feel-         moonlighting / mu nlatŋ/ noun
ing of being slightly ill or miserable on    the practice of doing a second job He
going to work on Monday morning              makes thousands a year from
money purchase pension / m ni                moonlighting.
 p tʃs penʃən/ noun a pension plan          morale /mə rɑ l/ noun a feeling of
to which both employer and employee          confidence or satisfaction       Employee
make contributions                           morale is low due to the threat of unem-
morning shift                                   172              multiple hurdle selection

ployment. to boost morale to increase              down movements in the money mar-
the employees’ feelings of confidence              kets     cyclical movements of trade
morning shift / mɔ nŋ ʃft/ noun a                free movement of labour within the
shift which works during the morning               EU the principle that workers from any
(typically from 7.00 or 8.00 a.m. to               country of the EU can move to another
lunchtime)                                         country to obtain work 2. a group of
                                                   people working towards the same aim
motion / məυʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of              the labour movement       the free trade
moving about 2. a proposal which will              movement the trade union movement
be put to a meeting to be voted on to
speak against or for a motion         Mr           mover and shaker / mu vər ən
Brown will propose or move a motion                 ʃekə/ noun an influential and dynamic
congratulating the board on the results.           person within an organisation or group
   The meeting voted on the motion.                of people who makes things happen (in-
The motion was carried or was defeated             formal ).

by 220 votes to 196.                               MPP abbr maternity pay period
motion study / məυʃ(ə)n st di/                     Mr Chairman / mstə tʃeəmən/
noun a study of the movements of em-               noun a way of speaking to the male
ployees performing tasks in order to im-           chairman of a committee meeting
prove efficiency                                   multi-employer                  bargaining
motivate / məυtvet/ verb to encour-              / m lti m plɔə bɑ nŋ/ noun cen-
age someone to do something, espe-                 tralised bargaining about pay, usually
cially to work or to sell        highly            between employer’s associations repre-
motivated sales staff sales staff who              senting all the employers in a particular
are very eager to sell                             industry in a country or region and the
 ‘…creative people aren’t necessarily motivated    relevant trade unions
 by money or titles, they may not want a larger    multinational                  corporation
 office or more work, they don’t often want more   / m ltin ʃ(ə)n(ə)l   kɔ pə reʃ(ə)n/
 responsibility. They want to see their ideas
 implemented’ [Nation’s Business]                  noun a company which has branches or
                                                   subsidiary       companies        in    several
motivation / məυt veʃ(ə)n/ noun                  countries
1. an encouragement to staff 2. eager-
ness to work well or sell large quantities         multiple / m ltp(ə)l/ adjective many
of a product the sales staff lack moti-            í  noun a company with stores in sev-
vation the sales staff are not eager               eral different towns
                                                      ‘…many independents took advantage of the
enough to sell                                        bank holiday period when the big multiples
motivational / məυt veʃ(ə)n(ə)l/                    were closed’ [The Grocer]
adjective referring to motivation                     ‘…the multiple brought the price down to £2.49
                                                      in some stores. We had not agreed to this deal
motivational          factor       / məυt-           and they sold out very rapidly. When they
 veʃ(ə)n(ə)l f ktə/ noun an aspect of                reordered we would not give it to them. This
a job or an organisation which encour-                kind of activity is bad for the brand and we
ages employees to work hard A bonus                   cannot afford it’ [The Grocer]
system based on production targets was             multiple chain promotion plan
a strong motivational factor. A high               / m ltp(ə)l tʃen prə məυʃ(ə)n pl n/
commission should be a strong motiva-              a system of linking each position in an
tional factor for the sales force.                 organisation to several others from
mouse /maυs/ noun small moveable                   which promotion may be made, or to
device attached to a personal computer             which employees may be promoted
and used to move or select items on the            multiple-employer               bargaining
screen (NOTE: plural is mouses or                  / m ltp(ə)l m plɔə bɑ nŋ/ noun
mice)                                              same as multi-employer bargaining
 ‘…you can use a mouse to access pop-up menus      multiple           hurdle          selection
 and a keyboard for a word-processor’ [Byte]       / m ltp(ə)l h d(ə)l s lekʃən/, mul-
movement / mu vmənt/ noun 1. an                    tiple hurdle system / m ltp(ə)l
act of changing position or going up or             h d(ə)l sstəm/ noun a method of se-
multiple management                     173                                    MYOB

lecting candidates for a job by requiring   are going right, they will inevitably start
that they should pass a series of tests     to go wrong
The multiple hurdle system very effi-
ciently eliminates a large number of
                                            mushroom job / m ʃru m d ɒb/
                                            noun US a job which is unpleasant
multiple management / m ltp(ə)l
 m nd mənt/ noun a management              mutuality / mju tʃu lti/ noun the
system where committees of middle           right of a trade union to bargain on be-
managers advise top management on           half of its members and so take a part in
company policy                              the running of the company
multiskilling / m lti sklŋ/ noun a        mutuality agreement / mju tʃu-
system of working where employees are          lti ə ri mənt/ noun an agreement
trained to work in various types of job,    between management and union, by
and none are kept on the same type of       which the management agrees not to
work for very long, so as to allow flexi-   make changes to the conditions of work
bility in the deployment of the             without consulting the union
workforce                                   Myers-Briggs         type      indicator
multitasking / m lti tɑ skŋ/ noun          / maəz br z tap ndketə/ noun a
1. performing several different tasks at    test designed to indicate what type of
the same time 2. running several differ-    personality a person has on the basis of
ent software programs at the same time      the preferences they show with regard to
Murphy’s law / m fiz lɔ / noun              four paired opposites: extraversion and
law, based on wide experience, which        introversion; sensing and intuition;
says that in commercial life if some-       thinking and feeling; judging and
thing can go wrong it will go wrong, or     perceiving
that when you are thinking that things      MYOB abbr mind your own business
narrative                               174                                    natural


narrative / n rətv/ noun a descrip-            nationality /n ʃə n lti/ noun the
tion of something as a story                    state of being a citizen of a particular
narrative appraisal / n rətv ə-                country he is of British nationality
 prez(ə)l/ noun a type of performance          he is a British citizen
appraisal where the employee’s perfor-          National Occupational Health
mance is described with illustrations of        and     Safety   Commission
specific points about it                        / n ʃ(ə)nəl ɒkjυ peʃ(ə)n(ə)l helθ ən
nation / neʃ(ə)n/ noun a country and            sefti kə mʃ(ə)n/ noun a government
the people living in it                         agency in Australia that is responsible
                                                for coordinating efforts to prevent in-
national / n ʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective refer-          jury, disease, and deaths occurring in
ring to the whole of a particular country       the workplace
í noun a person who is a citizen of a
state                                           national        union       / n ʃ(ə)nəl
                                                 ju njən/ noun a central union organi-
national agreement / n ʃ(ə)nəl ə-               sation which coordinates local branches
   ri mənt/ noun an agreement between
employers and a union at national level         National Vocational Qualifica-
(i.e. covering the whole country)               tion / n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l vəυ keʃ(ə)nəl
                                                kwɒlf keʃ(ə)n/ noun a qualification
National Council for Voca-                      awarded in the United Kingdom when a
tional Qualifications / n ʃ(ə)nəl               person successfully completes a course
kaυnsəl fə vəυ keʃ(ə)n(ə)l kwɒləf-            vocational training. Abbr NVQ (NOTE:
keʃənz/ noun full form of NCVQ                 National Vocational Qualifications are
national executive (committee)                  based on standards developed by
/ n ʃ(ə)nəl  zekjυtv kə mti/ noun            leading organisations in the industrial
the main committee running a trade              and commercial sectors, defining the
union                                           skills or competences required in par-
National Insurance / n ʃ(ə)nəl n-              ticular occupations.)
 ʃυərəns/ noun state insurance in the           national       wage       agreement
United Kingdom, organised by the gov-           / n ʃ(ə)nəl wed      ə ri mənt/ noun
ernment, which pays for medical care,           an agreement reached through collective
hospitals, unemployment benefits, etc.          bargaining between trade unions and
Abbr NI                                         employers, which sets national rates of
national      insurance       benefits          pay within particular industries or for
/ n ʃ(ə)nəl    n ʃυərəns benfts/             particular jobs
plural noun various benefits which are          nationwide / neʃənwad/ adjective
dependent on having paid NI contribu-           all over a country We offer a nation-
tions (such as retirement pension)              wide delivery service. The new car is
National Insurance contribu-                    being launched with a nationwide sales
tions / n ʃ(ə)nəl n ʃυərəns kɒntr-            campaign.
 bju ʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun a proportion of        natural / n tʃ(ə)rəl/ adjective 1.
income paid each month by an em-                found in the earth      The offices are
ployee and the employee’s company to            heated by natural gas. 2. normal      It
the National Insurance. Abbr NIC                was only natural that the shopkeeper
natural wastage                          175                                negotiation

should feel annoyed when the hyper-          from an employer which could mislead
market was built close to his shop. It       another employer about an employee
was natural for the workers to feel ag-      negligible / ne ld b(ə)l/ adjective
grieved when production methods were         very small
changed without consultation.
                                             negotiable /n əυʃiəb(ə)l/ adjective
natural       wastage        / n tʃ(ə)rəl    1. which can be transferred from one
 westd / noun the process of losing        person to another or exchanged for cash
employees because they resign or retire,     2. which can be discussed so that an
not because they are made redundant or       agreement is reached The employer’s
are sacked The company is hoping to          offer was not negotiable, so when it was
avoid redundancies and reduce its staff      turned down a strike seemed inevitable.
by natural wastage.                             All parts of the offers are negotiable,
NAV abbr net asset value                     with the exception of the new manning
NCVQ noun a government body set up           levels.     The salary for the job is
to validate the system of national quali-    negotiable.
                                               ‘…initial salary is negotiable around $45,000
fications in vocational subjects. Abbr of      per annum’ [Australian Financial Review]
National Council for Vocational
Qualifications                               negotiate /n əυʃiet/ verb to ne-
                                             gotiate with someone to discuss a prob-
needs /ni dz/ plural noun things that        lem or issue formally with someone, so
are necessary                                as to reach an agreement to negotiate
needs      assessment / ni dz ə-             terms and conditions or a contract to
 sesmənt/, assessment of needs /ə-           discuss and agree the terms of a contract
 sesmənt əv ni dz/ noun an analysis            to go back to the negotiating table to
of an organisation’s manpower require-       start negotiations again after a break
ments which can form the basis of train-     The two sides discussed the proposals,
ing plans Needs assessment pointed to        and, a week later, the management ne-
a level of manpower requirements             gotiators returned to the negotiating ta-
which the company could not finance.         ble with improved proposals.
negative / ne ətv/ adjective mean-            ‘…many of the large travel agency chains are
                                               able to negotiate even greater discounts’
ing ‘no’                                       [Duns Business Month]
neglect /n lekt/ noun the act of not        negotiating         committee        /n-
doing a duty í verb to neglect to do            əυʃietŋ kə mti/ noun a group of
something to forget or omit to do some-      representatives of management and un-
thing which has to be done         He ne-    ions who negotiate a wage settlement
glected to return his income tax form.
                                             negotiating team /n əυʃietŋ
neglected /n lektd/ adjective not          ti m/ noun a group which negotiates for
well looked after                            one party in negotiations      The union
neglected business /n lektd                negotiating team asked for further time
 bzns/ noun a company which has not        to     consider     the    management’s
been actively run by its owners and          proposals.
could therefore do better                    negotiation /n əυʃi eʃ(ə)n/ noun
negligence / ne ld əns/ noun 1. a           the discussion of terms and conditions
lack of proper care or not doing a duty      in order to reach an agreement con-
(with the result that a person or property   tract under negotiation a contract
is harmed) 2. the act of not doing a job     which is being discussed a matter for
properly when one is capable of doing it     negotiation something which must be
negligent / ne ld ənt/ adjective not        discussed before a decision is reached
taking appropriate care                      to enter into or to start negotiations to
                                             start discussing a problem to resume
negligently / ne ld ənt(ə)li/ ad-           negotiations to start discussing a prob-
verb in a way which shows negligence         lem again, after talks have stopped for a
negligent reference / ne ld ənt             time to break off negotiations to stop
 ref(ə)rəns/ noun a written reference        discussing a problem to conduct ne-
negotiator                                         176                           news agency

gotiations to negotiate negotiations                   that are usually observed when commu-
broke down after six hours discus-                     nicating on the Internet (NOTE: The term
sions stopped because no agreement                     derives from the word ‘etiquette’.)
was possible breakdown in negotia-                     netizen / netz(ə)n/ noun a regular
tions a halt in talking because no agree-              user of the Internet (slang)
ment has been reached, after
negotiations have been in progress for                 net margin /net mɑ d n/ noun the
some time       resumption of negotia-                 percentage difference between received
tions a restarting of negotiations, after              price and all costs, including overheads
talks have stopped for a time                          net pay /net pe/ noun same as
 ‘…after three days of tough negotiations, the         take-home pay
 company reached agreement with its 1,200
 unionized workers’ [Toronto Star]                     net salary /net s ləri/ noun the sal-
                                                       ary which is left after deducting tax and
negotiator /n əυʃietə/ noun a per-                   National Insurance contributions
son who discusses a problem with the
aim of achieving agreement between                     network / netw k/ noun a system
different people or groups of people                   which links different points together í
experienced union negotiator a mem-                    verb to link together in a network
ber of a union who has a lot of experi-                networking / netw kŋ/ noun 1. a
ence of discussing terms of employment                 working method where employees work
with management                                        at home on computer terminals, and
nepotism / nepətz(ə)m/ noun the                       send the finished material back to the
practice of giving preferential treatment              central office by email 2. the practice of
to someone who is a relative or friend                 keeping in contact with former col-
(especially giving a job to a member of                leagues, school friends, etc., so that all
the family who is less well qualified                  the members of the group can help each
than other candidates) The staff talked                other in their careers
about nepotism when the training offi-                 neurolinguistic         programming
cer selected her nephew for manage-                    /nju rəυlŋ wstk       prəυ r mŋ/
ment training.                                         noun a theory of behaviour and commu-
net /net/ adjective referring to a price,              nication based on how people avoid
weight, pay, etc., after all deductions                change and how to help them to change.
have been made net profit before tax                   Abbr NLP
the profit of a company after expenses                 neutrality laws /nju tr lti lɔ z/
have been deducted but before tax has                  plural noun US laws relating to discrim-
been paid í verb to make a true profit                 ination which must be observed by
to net a profit of £10,000 (NOTE: netting              organisations
– netted) í adverb after deductions
have been made         His salary is paid              new /nju / adjective recent or not old
net.                                                   under new management with a new
 ‘…out of its earnings a company will pay a            owner
 dividend. When shareholders receive this it will      newbie / nju bi/ noun a person who is
 be net, that is it will have had tax deducted at 30   new to using the Internet (slang)
 per cent’ [Investors Chronicle]
net asset value /net        set v lju /                new blood /nju bl d/ same as fresh
noun the total value of a company after
deducting the money owed by it (it is                  new broom /nju         bru m/ noun a
the value of shareholders’ capital plus                manager or director brought into a com-
reserves and any money retained from                   pany to change existing practices and
profits). Abbr NAV                                     possibly remove old-established staff
nethead / nethed/ noun somebody                        news /nju z/ noun information about
who is obsessed with the Internet                      things which have happened
(slang)                                                news agency / nju z ed ənsi/
netiquette / netket/ noun the rules                   noun an office which distributes news to
for proper procedure and good manners                  newspapers and television stations
newsletter                               177            non-directive counselling

newsletter / nju zletə/ noun          com-   nominal          group         technique
pany newsletter a printed sheet or           / nɒmn(ə)l      ru p tek ni k/ noun a
small newspaper giving news about a          group method of drawing out ideas from
company                                      people on a specific topic       Nominal
newssheet / nju zʃi t/ noun a leaflet        group methods are used when represen-
distributed by an organisation, giving       tatives from all the sales and production
the latest news about itself                 departments are considering new prod-
                                             uct ideas.
next of kin / nekst əv kn/ noun the
nearest member of the family (to be          nominate / nɒmnet/ verb to suggest
contacted if an employee dies or is in-      someone for a job to nominate some-
volved in an accident)                       one to a post to appoint someone to a
                                             post without an election
NI abbr National Insurance
                                             nomination / nɒm neʃ(ə)n/ noun
NIC       abbr     National     Insurance    the act of nominating someone for a
contributions                                position
nice guys finish last / nas az             nominee / nɒm ni / noun 1. a person
 fnʃ lɑ st/ phrase a saying used in        who is nominated, especially someone
business to suggest that people should       who is appointed to deal with financial
think about themselves first                 matters on your behalf 2. a person who
nice-to-haves / nas tə h vz/ noun           is nominated for a job (NOTE: a person
the benefits of a job, such as free park-    may be nominated to a position without
ing or subsidised meals, which are good      any other candidates being consid-
to have but not essential (informal )
                                   .         ered, or without the post being adver-
night /nat/ noun a period of time from      tised; the word implies a personal
evening to morning                           choice, rather than selection by a com-
                                             mittee. In other cases, it is better to
night duty / nat dju ti/ noun a pe-         use the words appoint, appointment,
riod of work during the night                appointee)
night shift / nat ʃft/ noun a shift          COMMENT: Shares can be purchased
which works at night There are thirty          and held in nominee accounts so that the
men on the night shift.                        identity of the owner of the shares cannot
                                               be discovered easily.
nightwork / natw k/ noun work
done at night                                non- /nɒn/ prefix not
NLP abbr neurolinguistic programming         non-analytical job             evaluation
                                             /nɒn      nə ltk(ə)l d ɒb v lju-
No., No abbr number                           eʃ(ə)n/ noun a way of evaluating a
no-attention job /nəυ ə tenʃən               job, by giving each job a rank within the
d ɒb/ noun a job that can be done with       organisation (as opposed to the analyti-
minimal concentration         No-attention   cal system, where each job is evaluated
jobs create stress because of the bore-      according to a points system)
dom they produce.                            non-conformance            /nɒn     kən-
no-claims bonus /nəυ klemz                   fɔ məns/ noun the act of not con-
 bəυnəs/ noun 1. a reduction of premi-       forming        He was criticised for
ums on an insurance policy because no        non-conformance with the regulations.
claims have been made 2. a lower pre-        non-contributory pension plan
mium paid because no claims have been        /nɒn kən trbjυt(ə)ri penʃən pl n/,
made against the insurance policy            non-contributory pension scheme /
nomadic        worker /nəυ m dk             /nɒn kən trbjυt(ə)ri penʃən ski m/
 w kə/ noun same as mobile worker            noun a pension scheme where a com-
nominal / nɒmn(ə)l/ adjective (of a         pany, not the employee, pays all contri-
payment) very small They are paying          butions The company pension scheme
a nominal rent.         The employment       is non-contributory.
agency makes a nominal charge for its        non-directive counselling /nɒn
services.                                    da rektv kaυns(ə)lŋ/ noun the giv-
non-directive interview                 178                      normal working

ing of professional advice to others on     American English        is   non-profit
personal matters, without following a       corporation.)
fixed form, but rather through open dis-
cussion of problems                         non-resident / nɒn rezdənt/ noun a
                                            person who is not considered a resident
non-directive interview /nɒn da-           of a country for tax purposes He has a
 rektv ntəvju /, non-directed inter-      non-resident bank account.
view /nɒn da rektd ntəvju / noun
an interview in which the questions are     non-taxable /nɒn t ksəb(ə)l/ ad-
not set in advance and no fixed pattern     jective which is not subject to tax
is followed     Non-directed interviews     non-taxable income Lottery prizes are
give candidates a good chance to show       non-taxable.
their creative potential.                   non-union labour /nɒn ju njən
non-disclosure agreement /nɒn                lebə/ noun employees who do not be-
ds kləυ ər ə ri mənt/ noun a legally       long to trade unions employed by a
enforceable agreement that stops present    company
or past employees from revealing com-       non-union member /nɒn ju njən
mercially sensitive information belong-      membə/ noun a person who does not
ing to their employer to anybody else       belong to a trade union
non-disparagement agreement                 non-verbal communication /nɒn
/nɒn d sp rd mənt ə ri mənt/               v b(ə)l kə mju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
noun an agreement intended to stop          the communicating of a message using
present or past employees from              facial expressions or body language, but
criticising their employers in public       without speaking In negotiations, in-
(NOTE: Non-disparagement agree-             terpreting non-verbal communication is
ments are relatively new and it is not      just as important as listening to what
yet clear whether the courts will accept    people say. 2. any form of communica-
them as legally binding.)                   tion that is not expressed in words
non-executive director /nɒn  -             (NOTE: Non-verbal communication,
 zekjυtv da rektə/ noun a director        which includes, for example, body lan-
who attends board meetings and gives        guage, silence, failure or slowness to
advice, but does not work full-time for     respond to a message and lateness in
the company                                 arriving for a meeting, is estimated to
non-exempt employee /nɒn  -                make up 65–90% of all communica-
 zempt m plɔi / noun a person whose       tion.)
wages are subject to minimum wage           norm /nɔ m/ noun the usual quantity
legislation                                 or the usual rate The output from this
non-financial incentive scheme              factory is well above the norm for the
/nɒn fa n nʃəl n sentv ski m/ noun       industry or well above the industry
a scheme that provides an incentive to      norm.
employees to work harder or perform         normal / nɔ m(ə)l/ adjective usual or
better that takes some other form than      which happens regularly Normal de-
money                                       liveries are made on Tuesdays and Fri-
non-profit-making organisation              days.      Now that supply difficulties
/nɒn     prɒft     mekŋ ɔ əna-          have been resolved we hope to resume
 zeʃ(ə)n/, non-profit organisation         normal service as soon as possible.
/nɒn prɒft ɔ əna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun
an organisation (such as a club) which is   normally / nɔ m(ə)li/ adverb in the
not allowed by law to make a profit         usual way       The production line is
Non-profit-making organisations are         working normally again after the
exempted from tax. (NOTE: Non-profit        stoppage.
organisations include charities, pro-       normal working / nɔ m(ə)l w kŋ/
fessional associations, trade unions,       noun working in the usual way Nor-
and religious, arts, community, re-         mal working will be resumed as soon as
search, and campaigning bodies. The         the men return to work on Monday.
normal working week                    179                                    NVQ

normal working week / nɔ m(ə)l             The bank manager will not see anyone
 w kŋ wi k/ noun the usual number         at short notice.
of hours worked per week            Even   noticeboard / nəυtsbɔ d/ noun a
though she is a freelance, she works a     board fixed to a wall where notices can
normal working week.                       be put up Did you see the new list of
normative / nɔ mətv/ adjective be-        prices on the noticeboard?
lieving that everything should be agreed   notice of appearance / nəυts əv
in writing and should then be binding on   ə pərəns/ noun the lodging by an em-
all parties                                ployer of a document to confirm their
norms /nɔ mz/ plural noun the values       intention to defend an application by an
of an organisation or of society The       employee to an industrial tribunal
induction period will familiarise work-    notice of maternity absence
ers with the norms of the organisation.    / nəυts əv mə t nti       bsəns/ noun
no-smoking office /nəυ sməυkŋ             a statutory notice given by an employee
 ɒfs/ noun an office where smoking is     that she is going to be absent from work
not allowed                                to have a baby
no-strike agreement /nəυ strak            notice period / nəυts pəriəd/,
                                           period of notice / pəriəd əv nəυts/
ə ri mənt/, no-strike clause /nəυ
                                           noun the time stated in the contract of
 strak klɔ z/ noun (a clause in) an
agreement where the employees say that     employment which the employee or
they will never strike                     company has to allow between resign-
                                           ing or being fired and the employee ac-
notary public / nəυtəri p blk/            tually leaving their job (an employee
noun a lawyer who has the authority to     has to give at least one week’s notice
witness documents and spoken state-        and an employer has to give between
ments, making them official (NOTE: plu-    one week and twelve weeks’ notice, de-
ral is notaries public)                    pending on the employee’s length of
notch /nɒtʃ/ noun an increment on a        service)
salary scale                               notification / nəυtf keʃ(ə)n/ noun
notice / nəυts/ noun 1. a piece of        the act of informing someone of
written information The company sec-       something
retary pinned up a notice about the pen-   notify / nəυtfa/ verb         to notify
sion scheme. 2. an official warning that   someone of something to tell someone
a contract is going to end or that terms   something formally The management
are going to be changed until further      were notified of the union’s decision.
notice until different instructions are    nuisance / nju s(ə)ns/ noun some-
given You must pay £200 on the 30th        thing which causes harm or inconve-
of each month until further notice.        nience to someone or to property
without notice with no warning with-       numerical order /nju merk(ə)l
out prior notice with no advance warn-      ɔ də/ noun an arrangement by numbers
ing     to give advance notice of to         Put these invoices in numerical order.
inform someone officially that some-
thing will happen several weeks in the     nursery / n s(ə)ri/ noun a special
future 3. official written information     room or building where babies and
that an employee is leaving their job on   small children can be looked after (not
a certain date she gave in or handed       necessarily on the company’s premises)
in her notice she resigned 4. the time        The company offers nursery provision
allowed before something takes place       to its staff. Compare crèche
We require three months’ notice       at   NVQ abbr National Vocational
short notice with very little warning      Qualification
O&M                                     180                                    obsolete


O & M abbr organisation and methods             something to feel it is your duty to do
OAP abbr old age pensioner                      something
object /əb d ekt/ verb to refuse to do          obligatory /ə bl ət(ə)ri/ adjective
                                                necessary according to the law or rules
something or to say that you do not ac-
                                                   Each member of the sales staff has to
cept something (NOTE: you object to
                                                pass      an      obligatory      medical
objection /əb d ekʃən/ noun            to       observance /əb z v(ə)ns/ noun do-
raise an objection to something to ob-          ing what is required by a law         The
ject to something The union delegates           company’s observance of the law con-
raised an objection to the wording of the       cerning discrimination.
                                                observation / ɒbzə veʃ(ə)n/ noun
objective /əb d ektv/ noun some-               the act of noticing what is happening
thing which you hope to achieve The
company has achieved its objectives.            observational method /ɒbzə-
We set the sales forces specific objec-          veʃ(ə)n(ə)l meθəd/ noun a way of
tives. Our recruitment objectives are           evaluating the performance of employ-
to have well-qualified and well-placed          ees, by watching them work and observ-
staff. long-term or short-term objec-           ing their conduct with others
tive an aim which you hope to achieve           observe /əb z v/ verb 1. to obey a
within a few years or a few months to           rule or law Failure to observe the cor-
achieve one’s objectives to do what             rect procedure will be punished. Res-
you set out to do     The company has           taurants are obliged to observe the local
achieved almost all its objectives. í ad-       fire regulations. 2. to watch or to notice
jective considered from a general point         what is happening Officials have been
of view rather than from that of the per-       instructed to observe the conduct of the
son involved You must be objective in           ballot for union president.
assessing the performance of the staff.         observer /əb z və/ noun a person
They have been asked to carry out an            who observes Two official observers
objective survey of the market. (NOTE:          attended the election meeting.
the opposite is subjective)
                                                obsolescence / ɒbsə les(ə)ns/ noun
objective       setting /əb d ektv             the process of a product going out of
 setŋ/ noun the process of planning tar-       date because of progress in design or
gets (e.g. for negotiations). ‘ manage-         technology, and therefore becoming less
ment by objectives                              useful or valuable
objective test /əb d ektv        test/         obsolescent / ɒbsə les(ə)nt/ adjec-
noun a test where each question has             tive becoming out of date
only one possible answer (NOTE: the op-         obsolete / ɒbsəli t/ adjective no lon-
posite is subjective test)                      ger used          Computer technology
obligation / ɒbl eʃ(ə)n/ noun a               changes so fast that hardware soon be-
duty to do something There is no obli-          comes obsolete.
gation to help out in another department         COMMENT: A product or asset may be-
   to be under an obligation to do               come obsolete because it is worn out, or
obstacle                                        181                               odd jobs

 because new products have been devel-              occupational                    illness
 oped to replace it.                                / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl lnəs/ noun an illness
obstacle / ɒbstək(ə)l/ noun some-                   associated with a particular job (NOTE:
thing which prevents you from doing                 Occupational illnesses include lung
something                                           disease, which can affect miners, re-
                                                    petitive strain injury, which can affect
obstruct /əb str kt/ verb to get in the
                                                    keyboard users, and asbestosis, which
way or to stop something progressing
                                                    is caused by working with asbestos.)
occupation / ɒkjυ peʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
the act of living or staying in a place 2. a        occupational                     injury
                                                    / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl nd əri/ noun an in-
job or type of work What is her occu-
pation? His main occupation is house                jury which is caused by a certain type of
building.       It is not a well paid               work
occupation.                                         occupational                  mobility
 ‘…the share of white-collar occupations in total   / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl məυ blti/ noun the
 employment rose from 44 per cent to 49 per         extent to which people can move from
 cent’ [Sydney Morning Herald]                      one type of occupation to another Oc-
occupational / ɒkjυ peʃ(ə)nəl/ ad-                 cupational mobility is increasing be-
jective referring to a job                          cause of rising unemployment in some
occupational                       accident         areas.
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl      ksd(ə)nt/ noun an            Occupational Pensions Board
accident which takes place at work                  / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl penʃənz bɔ d/ noun
occupational association /ɒkjυ-                     a government body set up to oversee
 peʃ(ə)nəl əsəυsi eʃ(ə)n/ noun an                 and validate occupational pension
organisation which represents people                schemes. Abbr OPB
doing a certain type of work and de-                occupational pension scheme
fends their interests                               / ɒkjυ peʃ(ə)nəl penʃən ski m/ noun
occupational                      deafness          pension scheme where the worker gets a
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl defnəs/ noun deaf-                 pension from a fund set up by the com-
ness caused by noise at work (as by                 pany he or she has worked for, which is
someone using a pneumatic drill)                    related to the salary he or she was earn-
                                                    ing (NOTE: also called company pen-
occupational disease /ɒkjυ-                         sion scheme)
 peʃ(ə)nəl d zi z/ noun a disease
which affects people in certain jobs                occupational              psychology
                                                    / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl sa kɒləd i/ noun the
occupational                           family       study of the behaviour of people at work
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl      f m(ə)li/ noun a
group of jobs having the same personnel             occupational           sick         pay
requirements For jobs in certain oc-                / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl sk pe/ noun extra
cupational families, finding qualified              payments made by an employer to a
staff is going to be difficult.                     member of staff who is sick, above the
                                                    statutory sick pay. Abbr OSP
occupational                           group
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl     ru p/ noun a cate-             occupational                   therapy
gory of job or profession                           / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl  θerəpi/ noun light
                                                    work or hobbies used as a means of
occupational                          hazard        treatment for an illness, condition or
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl h zəd/ noun a dan-                 disability
ger which applies to certain jobs
Heart attacks are one of the occupa-                occupy / ɒkjυpa/ verb to occupy a
tional hazards of directors.                        post to be employed in a job
occupational                           health       odd-job-man /ɒd d ɒb m n/ noun
/ ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl helθ/, occupational                a person who does various pieces of
hygiene / ɒkjυpeʃ(ə)nəl had i n/                  work
noun a branch of medicine dealing with              odd jobs /ɒd d ɒbz/ plural noun
the health of people at work (NOTE: also            small pieces of work, not connected to
called industrial health)                           each other and paid for individually
odd number                               182                                 official

We have a number of odd jobs needing         office / ɒfs/ noun 1. a set of rooms
doing, but nothing adding up to full-time    where a company works or where busi-
employment.                                  ness is done 2. a room where someone
odd number /ɒd n mbə/ noun a                 works and does business         Come into
                                             my office. The human resources man-
number which cannot be divided by
                                             ager’s office is on the third floor. 3. a
two, e.g. 17 or 33 Buildings with odd
                                             post or position She holds or performs
numbers are on the south side of the
                                             the office of treasurer to take office to
street                                       start to work in a certain position
off /ɒf/ adverb not working or not in        office-bearer / ɒfs beərə/ noun a
operation      The agreement is off.         person who holds an office, especially
They called the strike off. It’s my day      on a union council
off tomorrow. to take three days off
We give the staff four days off at Christ-   office block / ɒfs blɒk/ noun a
mas. í preposition away from work            building which contains only offices
to take time off work                        office boy / ɒfs bɔ/ noun a young
offence /ə fens/ noun a crime or act         man who works in an office, usually
which is against the law           to be     taking messages from one department to
charged with an offence to be accused        another He worked his way up from
formally of having committed a crime         office boy to general manager in ten
The manager was charged with three           years.
serious offences.     to commit an of-       office-free / ɒfs fri / adjective refer-
fence to carry out a crime (NOTE: the        ring to an employee whose job does not
usual US spelling is offense)                require them to work in an office
offender /ə fendə/ noun a person who         office hours / ɒfs aυəz/ plural noun
breaks a law or regulation When we           the time when an office is open Do
investigated who was making private          not make private phone calls during of-
calls during the working hours, the          fice hours.
worst offender was the human resources       office job / ɒfs d ɒb/ noun a job in
manager.                                     an office
offer / ɒfə/ noun a statement that you       office junior / ɒfs d u niə/ noun a
are willing to give or do something, es-     young man or woman who does all
pecially to pay a specific amount of         types of work in an office
money to buy something to make an            Office of Fair Trading / ɒfs əv feə
offer for a company We made an offer          tredŋ/ noun a government depart-
of £10 a share. £1,000 is the best offer     ment which protects consumers against
I can make. to make someone an of-           unfair or illegal business. Abbr OFT
fer to propose something to someone
The management made the union an im-
                                             officer / ɒfsə/ noun 1. a person who
                                             has an official position, especially an
proved offer. to make someone an of-
                                             unpaid one in a club or other association
fer they can’t refuse to make an offer          The election of officers takes place
to someone which is so attractive that       next week. 2. someone holding an offi-
they cannot turn it down to accept or        cial position, usually unpaid, of a club
take up an offer to say ‘yes’ or to agree    or society, etc. the election of officers
to an offer to turn down an offer to         of the association takes place next week
refuse something which has been of-
fered í verb to say that you are willing     office staff / ɒfs stɑ f/ noun people
to do something to offer someone a           who work in offices
job to tell someone that they can have a     office work / ɒfs w k/ noun work
job in your company She was offered          done in an office
a directorship with Smith Ltd. offer of      office worker / ɒfs w kə/ noun a
employment, offer of a job a letter          person who works in an office
from an employer saying that someone
can have a job with them                     official /ə fʃ(ə)l/ adjective 1. from a
                                             government department or organisation
official dispute                           183                                              on

   She went to France on official busi-        rid of our old computer system and in-
ness. He left official documents in his        stall a new one.
car. She received an official letter of        old age /əυld ed / noun a period
explanation. speaking in an official           when a person is old
capacity speaking officially         to go
through official channels to deal with         old age pensioner / əυld ed
officials, especially when making a re-         penʃ(ə)nə/ noun a person who receives
quest 2. done or approved by a director        the retirement pension. Abbr OAP
or by a person in authority This must          old boy network / əυld bɔ
be an official order – it is written on the     netw k/ noun the practice of using
company’s headed paper. This is the            long-standing key contacts to appoint
union’s official policy. í noun a person       people to jobs or to get a job or to do
working in a government department             business. ‘ networking
Government officials stopped the import        older worker / əυldə w kə/ noun
licence.     minor official person in a        an employee who is above a particular
low position in a government depart-           age, usually the age of 50
ment Some minor official tried to stop         old-fashioned / əυld f ʃ(ə)nd/ ad-
my request for building permission.            jective out of date or not modern He
official dispute /ə fʃ(ə)l d spju t/         still uses an old-fashioned typewriter.
noun an industrial action approved by a        ombudsman / ɒmbυdzmən/ noun 1.
trade union                                    a management employee who is given
officialese /ə fʃə li z/ noun the lan-        the freedom to move around the work-
guage used in government documents             place to locate and remedy unfair prac-
which can be difficult to understand           tices (NOTE: plural is ombudsmen) 2.
officially /ə fʃ(ə)li/ adverb according       an official who investigates complaints
to what is said in public Officially he        by the public against government de-
knows nothing about the problem, but           partments or other large organisations
                                                 ‘…radical changes to the disciplinary system,
unofficially he has given us a lot of ad-        including appointing an ombudsman to review
vice about it.                                   cases where complainants are not satisfied with
official       mediator           /ə fʃ(ə)l     the outcome, are proposed in a consultative
                                                 paper the Institute of Chartered Accountants
 mi dietə/ noun a government official           issued last month’ [Accountancy]
who tries to make the two sides in an in-
                                                 COMMENT: There are several ombuds-
dustrial dispute agree
                                                 men: the main one is the Parliamentary
official receiver /ə fʃ(ə)l r si və/           Commissioner, who is a civil servant and
noun a government official who is ap-            investigates complaints against govern-
pointed to run a company which is in fi-         ment departments. The Banking Ombuds-
nancial difficulties, to pay off its debts       man, the Investment Ombudsman, the
as far as possible and to close it down          Building Societies Ombudsman, the Pen-
The company is in the hands of the               sions Ombudsman and the Insurance
offical receiver.                                Ombudsman are independent officials
                                                 who investigate complaints by the public
off the books / ɒf ðə bυks/ adjec-               against banks, financial advisers, building
tive US not declared to the tax authori-         societies, pension funds or insurance
ties Some of the staff are paid off the          companies. They are all regulated by the
books.                                           Financial Services Authority.
off-the-job training / ɒf ðə d ɒb              omnibus agreement / ɒmnbəs ə-
 trenŋ/ noun training given to em-              ri mənt/ noun an agreement which
ployees away from their place of work          covers many different items
(such as at a college or school)               omnibus test / ɒmnbəs test/ noun
off-topic /ɒf tɒpk/ noun irrelevant           a test which covers various subjects
or off the subject                             on /ɒn/ preposition 1. being a member
old /əυld/ adjective having existed for        of a group to sit on a committee She
a long time The company is 125 years           is on the boards of two companies. We
old next year. We have decided to get          have 250 people on the payroll. She is
on call                                            184                                         open

on our full-time staff. 2. in a certain way              may make them more popular as consumers
   on a commercial basis He is still on                  become more experienced online shoppers’
                                                         [Financial Times]
probation.     She is employed on very
                                                         ‘…a survey found that even among experienced
generous terms. 3. at a time We work                     users – those who shop online at least once a
7 hours a day on weekdays. The whole                     month – about 10% abandoned a planned
staff has the day off on May 24th. 4. do-                purchase because of annoying online delays and
ing something The director is on holi-                   procedures’ [Financial Times]
day. She is in the States on business.                   ‘…some online brokers failed to foresee the
   The switchboard operator is on duty                   huge increase in private dealing and had
                                                         problems coping with the rising volume. It has
from 6 to 9.                                             been the year when private investors were able
on call /ɒn kɔ l/ adverb ready to be                     to trade online quickly, cheaply, and on the
called to work at any time We must                       whole, with little bother’ [Financial Times]
have an engineer on call twenty-four                   online training / ɒnlan trenŋ/
hours a day.                                           noun computer-based training that is de-
on-call pay /ɒn kɔ l pe/ noun pay                     livered over the Internet or through a
for being on call outside normal work-                 company intranet
ing hours      The on-call pay was not                 o.n.o. abbr or near offer
enough to compensate for being on call                 on-target earnings /ɒn tɑ t
all night.                                                nŋz/ plural noun the amount earned
on-call time /ɒn kɔ l tam/ noun                       by people who work on commission
time outside normal working hours                      when they achieve the targets set for
when an employee is standing by, ready                 them. Abbr OTE
for work                                               on-the-job training / ɒn ðə d ɒb
one-man business / w n m n                              trenŋ/ noun training given to em-
 bzns/, one-man firm / w n m n                       ployees at their place of work
 f m/, one-man company / w n                           on the side /ɒn ðə sad/ adverb sep-
m n k mp(ə)ni/ noun a business run                     arate from your normal work, and hid-
by one person alone with no staff or                   den from your employer He works in
partners                                               an accountant’s office, but he runs a
one-off / w n ɒf/ adjective done or                    construction company on the side.
made only once one-off item one-off                    Her salary is too small to live on, so the
deal one-off payment a one-off pay-                    family lives on what she can make on
ment a single payment, made once only                  the side.
and not repeated                                       on the understanding that /ɒn ðə
one-off       payment          /w n      ɒf              ndə st ndŋ ðət/ conjunction on con-
 pemənt/ noun a single payment, made                  dition that, provided that We accept
once only and not repeated                             the terms of the contract, on the under-
onerous / əυnərəs/ adjective heavy,                    standing that it has to be ratified by our
needing a lot of effort or money                       main board.
one-sided /w n sadd/ adjective                       OPB abbr Occupational Pensions
which favours one side and not the other               Board
in a negotiation                                       open / əυpən/ adjective 1. at work or
on-going /ɒn əυŋ/ adjective which                     not closed       The store is open on
is continuing on-going discussions                     Sunday mornings.         Our offices are
                                                       open from 9 to 6. They are open for
online /ɒn lan/ adjective, adverb                     business every day of the week. 2. ready
linked directly to a mainframe computer                to accept something we will keep the
   The sales office is online to the ware-             job open for a month we will not give
house. We get our data online from                     the job to anyone else for a month job
the stock control department.                          is open to all applicants anyone can ap-
 ‘…there may be a silver lining for                    ply for the job í verb 1. to start a new
 ‘clicks-and-mortar’ stores that have both an
 online and a high street presence. Many of these      business She has opened a shop in the
 are accepting returns of goods purchased online       High Street.        We have opened a
 at their traditional stores. This is a service that   branch in London. 2. to start work or to
open ad                                        185                                      operation

be at work The office opens at 9 a.m.              which make them give reasons for ac-
   We open for business on Sundays. 3.             tions, show their feelings, etc.
to begin to open negotiations to be-               opening / əυp(ə)nŋ/ noun 1. the act
gin negotiating   She opened the dis-              of starting a new business the opening
cussions with a description of the                 of a new branch 2. an opportunity to do
product.     The chairman opened the               something
meeting at 10.30.
                                                   open learning / əυpən l nŋ/ noun
 ‘…after opening at 79.1 the index touched a
 peak of 79.2 and then drifted to a low of 78.8’
                                                   a system of flexible training courses
 [Financial Times]                                 which a trainee can start at any time, and
                                                   which do not require a teacher Open
open ad / əυpən d/ noun an adver-                  learning can be fitted round the em-
tisement for a job where the applicant             ployee’s work schedule.
can apply to the employer directly, with-          openness / əυpənəs/ noun the qual-
out having to go through a third party             ity of being honest and not hiding any-
such as an agency Open ads can be                  thing openness in discussing company
used for recruitment when additional               problems with staff
staff are required urgently.
                                                   open-plan office / əυpən pl n
open-collar worker / əυpən kɒlə                     ɒfs/ noun a large room divided into
 w kə/ noun a person who works from                smaller working spaces with no fixed
home (slang)                                       divisions between them
open communication / əυpən                         open shop / əυpən ʃɒp/ noun a
kəmju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun freedom of                 workplace where employees can be em-
people to communicate what they like to            ployed whether they are members of a
whoever they like within an organisa-              union or not
tion The policy of open communica-
tion is an aid to decision-making as it            open system / əυpən sstəm/ noun
creates a wider source of expertise to be          a flexible type of organisation, which al-
tapped.                                            lows employees freedom to work in
                                                   their own way An open system can al-
open day / əυpən de/ noun a day                   low employees to choose their own
when an organisation is open to inter-             working hours.
ested candidates who may wish to in-               open union / əυpən ju njən/ noun a
spect the organisation and discuss career          union which accepts members from a
possibilities    I went to the charity’s           wide range of jobs
open day to see what training they de-
manded for fund-raising work. At the               operate / ɒpəret/ verb 1. to be in
open day last week, preliminary inter-             force     The new terms of service will
views were held with candidates to see if          operate from January 1st. The rules
their backgrounds were right for the               operate on inland postal services only.
company.                                           2. to make something work or function
                                                      to operate a machine to make a ma-
open-door system / əυpən dɔ                        chine work He is learning to operate
 sstəm/ noun a system in which super-             the new telephone switchboard. 3. to do
visors are always available at work to             business
talk to employees                                    ‘…the company gets valuable restaurant
open-ended / əυpən endd/ adjec-                     locations which will be converted to the
                                                     family-style restaurant chain that it operates and
tive with no fixed limit or with some                franchises throughout most parts of the US’
items not specified      They signed an              [Fortune]
open-ended agreement. The candidate
was offered an open-ended contract                 operation / ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a
with a good career plan. (NOTE: Ameri-             business organisation and work       the
can English is open-end)                           company’s operations in West Africa 2.
                                                     to put a plan into operation to start a
open-ended      interview / əυpən                  plan working
endd ntəvju / an interview where the               ‘…a leading manufacturer of business,
candidate is asked general questions,                industrial and commercial products requires a
operational                                     186                                ordinary

 branch manager to head up its mid-western          oppose /ə pəυz/ verb to try to stop
 Canada operations based in Winnipeg’               something happening; to vote against
 [Globe and Mail (Toronto)]
                                                    something A minority of board mem-
operational / ɒpə reʃ(ə)nəl/ adjec-                bers opposed the motion. We are all
tive 1. referring to how something                  opposed to the takeover. A minority of
works 2. working or in operation the                union members opposed the deal.
system became operational on June                   opposite number / ɒpəzt n mbə/
1st the system began working on June                noun a person who has a similar job in
1st                                                 another company John is my oppo-
operational budget / ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl                  site number in Smith’s John has the
 b d t/ noun a forecast of expenditure             same job in Smith’s as I have here
on running a business                               optional / ɒpʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective not
operations review / ɒpəreʃ(ə)nz                    necessary according to rules        Atten-
r vju / noun an act of examining the               dance at staff meetings is optional, al-
way in which a company or department                though the management encourages
works to see how it can be made more                employees to attend.
efficient and profitable                            opt out / ɒpt aυt/ verb to decide not
operative / ɒp(ə)rətv/ adjective op-               to do something
erating or working       The new system             oral / ɔ rəl/ adjective referring to
has been operative since June 1st to                speech, as opposed to writing
become operative to start working í
noun a person who operates a machine                oral warning / ɔ rəl wɔ nŋ/ noun
which makes a product A skilled oper-               the first stage of disciplinary measures,
ative can produce 250 units per hour.               where an employee is told by the super-
                                                    visor that their work is unsatisfactory
operator / ɒpəretə/ noun 1. a person               and must be improved          After being
who works a machine a keyboard op-                  given his second oral warning he knew
erator a computer operator 2. a per-                he would be fired for absenteeism. Af-
son who works a telephone switchboard               ter an oral warning from her supervisor,
   switchboard operator       to call the           she received a written warning from the
operator or to dial the operator       to           human resources director.
place a call through or via the operator
3. a person who runs a business                     order / ɔ də/ noun 1. an arrangement
                                                    of records such as filing cards or in-
opinion-leader /ə pnjən li də/                     voices in order of merit the placing
noun a person or organisation whose
                                                    of employees in order according to their
opinions influence others in society A              qualities 2. working arrangement ma-
pop-star is the ideal opinion-leader if             chine in full working order a machine
the product is aimed at the teenage                 which is ready and able to work prop-
                                                    erly the telephone is out of order the
opportunistic / ɒpətju nstk/ ad-                  telephone is not working        is all the
jective done when the opportunity arises            documentation in order? are all the
   opportunistic thefts in offices thefts           documents valid and correct? 3. an in-
committed when valuables are left lying             struction í verb 1. to instruct to order
around                                              twenty filing cabinets to be delivered to
opportunity /ɒpə tju nti/ noun a                   the warehouse 2. to put in a certain way
chance to do something successfully                    The address list is ordered by country.
to seize an opportunity to take advan-                 That filing cabinet contains invoices
tage of an opportunity as soon as it ap-            ordered by date.
pears to miss out on an opportunity