Appendix 13 - NCP Chlorchem _Pty_ Ltd

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Appendix 13 - NCP Chlorchem _Pty_ Ltd Powered By Docstoc
					                       NCP Chlorchem (Pty) Ltd
                   Specialist Report: Characterisation and
                  Management Options for the Saline Waste
                   generated form the Effluent Treatment
                                    Plant

                                 July 2009




Report prepared for:
Praveshni Sewmohan
Environmental Consultant




D A Baldwin, Ph.D., Pr.Sci.Nat, MIWM, MSACI
Director, En-Chem Consultants cc
P O Box 10324, George, 6530
Tel: 044 874 3638; Fax: 086 689 7896
Disclaimer:

This report has been prepared by En-Chem Consultants cc, with all reasonable skill, care and
diligence within the terms of the Contract with the client, incorporating our General Terms
and Conditions of Business and taking account of the resources devoted to it by agreement
with the client.
We disclaim any responsibility to the client and others in respect of any matters outside the
scope of the above.
This report is confidential to the client and we accept no responsibility of whatsoever nature
to third parties to whom this report, or any part thereof, is made known. Any such party
relies on the report at their own risk.




 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                              1
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
 Table of Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2. Classification of the Solid Waste Stream........................................................................... 3
3. Waste Management Options for the Effluent Plant Solid Waste....................................... 6
  3.1.     Recycling, Re-use and Utilisation Options ............................................................ 6
  3.2.     Treatment ............................................................................................................... 7
  3.3.     Disposal to Landfill................................................................................................ 7
4. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 7


Appendix 1: Copies of the M and L Laboratory Services Certificates of Analysis




 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                                                       2
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
1.         Introduction
The effluent treatment plant will treat a total of 425m3/day of effluent of which 100m3/day
will be recovered from the South Dam. A solid waste will be generated from the plant that
will have to be disposed and it is estimated that the amount will be ~6.37 tons/day.
Unfortunately, no sample of the solid waste is available for analysis, so that the waste
disposal options can be determined. It was, therefore, decided that the composition would be
estimated in the following way:

(i)   A representative sample of the effluent water in the South Dam was recovered by Jones
      and Wagener Engineering Consultants and forwarded to an accredited laboratory for
      analysis.

(ii) The total composition of the sample was analysed for major and minor inorganic species
      plus volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds.

(iii) The results were converted into kilograms or grams of each species identified by the
      laboratory that would be obtained from 100m3 of the recovered effluent. It was assumed
      that the effluent treatment plant would recover 95% of the contained salt (NaCl) and that
      the remaining 5% would report to the solid waste stream.

(iv) The composition data for the effluent was then used to represent the composition of the
      total waste stream that would be obtained from the effluent treatment plant. Note that
      this is a worse case scenario as the effluent in the South Dam will definitely be of lower
      quality than the stream recovered from the manufacturing plant.

The data obtained from these calculations were then used to classify the waste stream in terms
of the 2nd edition of the Minimum Requirements for the Handling, Classification and Disposal
of Hazardous Waste.

2.         Classification of the Solid Waste Stream
The data for the inorganic species expected in the waste is presented in table 1 and that for the
organic compounds in Table 2. Also included in the two tables are the hazard rating and
acceptable risk limit (ARL) as published in the Minimum Requirements. Column 2 gives the
concentration of the species in 100m3 of the South Dam Effluent and column 3 the amount
given in mg/kg of the waste.



 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                 3
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
Table 1: Estimated Concentrations of Potential Environmental Risk Inorganic Species in the
Solid Waste Based on a Worse Case Scenario

                               kg/100m3                            Conc., mg/l   Hazard
                                               Conc., mg/kg                                 ARL, mg/l
                                Effluent                            (TCLP)       Rating
 Total Mass inc 25% Moisture     2622
                                         Major Inorganic Species
 Ammonium as N                   0.243              92.7              4.63         Low         10
 Nitrate as N                    0.11                42               2.10       Moderate      1
 Chloride as Cl                  1067             406941             20,347        NT           -
 Sulphate as SO4                 227               86575             4,328         NT           -
 Sodium as Na                    168.8           64378.337           3,218         NT           -
 Potassium as K                 10.367             3954              197.69        Low        43.5
 Calcium as Ca                   577.5            220252             11,013        NT           -
 Magnesium as Mg                 46.29             17654              883          NT           -
 Manganese as Mn                 0.48              183.1              9.15       Moderate      0.3
                                             Trace Elements
 Antimony (Sb)                  0.0032             1.220              0.06        High        0.07
 Barium Ba                      0.0365              13.9              0.70       Moderate      7.8
 Beryllium (Be)                 0.0006              0.23              0.01       Moderate      1.2
 Cadmium Cd                    0.000425             0.16              0.01       Extreme      0.031
 Chromium Cr                    0.0038              1.45              0.07       Moderate      4.7
 Cobalt Co                      0.0026              0.99              0.05        High         6.9
 Copper (Cu)                    0.0021              0.80              0.04        High        0.10
 Fluoride as F                   0.02               7.63              0.38       Moderate      1
 Iron as Fe                      0.005              1.91              0.10       Moderate      9
 Lead Pb                        0.0019             0.725              0.04        High        0.10
 Mercury Hg                    0.0000145           0.006             0.0003      Extreme      0.022
 Molybdenum (Mo)                0.0017             0.648              0.03         Low         3.7
 Nickel Ni                      0.00485            1.850              0.09       Moderate      1.2
 Vanadium (V)                   0.0043             1.640              0.08       Moderate      1.3
 Zinc Zn                        0.0351              13.4              0.67        High         0.7




 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                        4
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
Table 2: Estimated Concentrations of Potential Environmental Risk Organic Species in the
Solid Waste Based on a Worse Case Scenario
                                    Conc.,       Conc.,    Conc., mg/l    Hazard
                                                                                     ARL, mg/l
                                   g/100m3       mg/kg       (TCLP)       Rating
 Total Mass inc 25% Moisture         2622
                                   Mono Aromatic Hydrocarbons
 Benzene                             0.08        0.031        0.0015       High         2.2
 Toluene                             0.02        0.008        0.0004      Moderate      1.3
 Styrene                             0.03        0.011        0.0006      Moderate      2.5
 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene              0.04        0.015        0.0008       High        0.772
 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene              0.01        0.004        0.0002      Moderate      5.0
                                            Phenols
 m-Cresol                            0.05        0.019         0.001       High         0.4
                                 Volatile Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
 Chloroform (Trichloromethane)      0.86           0.328        0.0164    Extreme     0.100
 1,2-Dichloroethane                  0.03          0.011        0.0006     High        1.35
 Tetrachloroethylene                0.048          0.018        0.0009    Extreme     0.1090
 Tribromomethane (Bromoform)          1.4          0.534        0.0267    Moderate      1.8
 Bromodichloromethane                0.22          0.084        0.0042    Moderate      6.1
 Dibromochloromethane                0.38          0.145        0.0072    Moderate      3.4
                                         Chlorobenzenes
 Chlorobenzene                        0.2         0.076          0.0038   Moderate       2.4
 1,2-Dichlorobenzene                 0.14         0.053          0.0027   Moderate      1.7
 1,3-Dichlorobenzene                 0.01         0.004          0.0002    High         0.78
 1,4-Dichlorobenzene                 0.29         0.111          0.0055   Moderate     3.37
 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene             0.018         0.007          0.0003    High         0.28
 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene             0.054         0.021          0.0010    High        0.132
                                         Chlorophenols
 p-Chlorophenol                    0.036          0.014          0.0007    High         0.19
 2,4/2,5-Dichlorophenol             0.14          0.053          0.0027    High         0.33
 2,6-Dichlorophenol                 0.42          0.160          0.0080    High         0.64
 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol              0.73          0.278          0.0139   Extreme      0.045
                                  Organic Chlorinated Pesticides
 4,4 -DDE                          0.007          0.003          0.0001   Extreme      0.006
 α-HCH                               0.17           0.065       0.0032    Extreme      0.002
 γ-HCH                              0.765           0.292       0.0146    Extreme      0.003
                                         Nitrogen pesticides
 Atrazine                            0.21           0.080       0.0040     High        0.45
                                   Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
 TPH C10-C16                          33           12.586       0.6293
 TPH C16-C22                          55           20.976       1.0488
                                                                            Low        >10
 TPH C22-C30                          8.1           3.089       0.1545
 TPH C30-C40                           5            1.907       0.0953

The Minimum Requirements requires that all waste samples are classified using the
procedures given in the Minimum Requirements, i.e. a representative sample must be leached

 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                5
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
(TCLP). As no sample is available, it has been assumed using a worse case scenario approach
that all the waste will dissolve in the TCLP extraction procedure. Since the TCLP uses
2000ml of solution to 100g of sample the liquid: solid ratio is 20:1. The concentrations
present in the waste will be decreased by 20 fold based on the assumption that it will all
dissolve in the extractant. The estimated concentrations in the TCLP leach solution are,
therefore, given in column 4 of tables 1 and 2: these solution concentrations should then be
compared to the Minimum Requirements’ limits, i.e. the acceptable risk limits, given in
column 6.

The results show that:

(i)    The waste could possibly leach manganese, Mn, and nitrate, NO3-, at concentrations
       above their acceptable risk limits. Mn is classified as a high hazard and nitrate as a
       moderate hazard.

(ii) The waste could possibly leach alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and gamma-
       hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) at concentrations above their acceptable risk limit: they
       are both classified as extreme hazard compounds.

(iii) The waste is classified according to the highest rating of the individual compounds in the
       waste that are above their acceptable risk limits and, therefore, classifies as an extreme
       hazard.

(iv) The concentrations of the α- and γ-HCH compounds would be expected to be
       significantly lower than calculated as they will definitely not be present in the effluent
       from the manufacturing plant. Assuming that 325m3 of manufacturing plant effluent and
       100m3 of the South Dam effluent will be processed then the concentrations in table 3
       must be reduced by76.5%, i.e. to 0.0008 mg/l and 0.0033 mg/l for the α- and γ-HCH
       respectively. The value for the γ-HCH is just over its acceptable risk limit, formally the
       waste will still classify as an extreme hazard.

3.          Waste Management Options for the Effluent Plant Solid Waste
3.1.        Recycling, Re-use and Utilisation Options

The effluent plant waste contains no further valuable salts or heavy metals that can be
recovered, so there are no waste recycling, re-use or utilisation options that are available.

 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                 6
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
Many inorganic wastes can be used in the construction industry, e.g. in the manufacture of
bricks, but the very high salt content of the effluent plant waste will seriously effect the
quality of any brick or other product if used at any reasonable concentrations.

3.2.      Treatment

The treatment of highly saline wastes such as that, which will be produced by the proposed
new effluent treatment plant, is difficult. The waste contains insignificant amounts of
hazardous organic compounds and has no calorific value, so thermal treatment is not
appropriate.

The waste could be stabilised by solidification, e.g. by forming a solid bulk material using
cement or other proprietary product. The amount of cement or stabilising agent used has to be
high for saline waste, e.g. 35 to 50%, and this makes the treatment expensive. In addition,
because salt waste decreases the polozzanic properties of cement, the physical stability of the
final product is low and the only option is to dispose this material to landfill.

Because the waste will have limited buffer capacity and will almost certainly leach Mn above
its acceptable risk limit, treatment with a small amount of burnt lime, say 2.5%, would ensure
that a more stable pH above 9.5 is maintained and would reduce the leachability of any
bivalent heavy metals such as Mn.

3.3.      Disposal to Landfill

The Minimum Requirements require that any waste classified as an extreme hazard must be
disposed to an HH landfill site. In addition, because highly saline wastes can re-dissolve into
the leachate within a landfill site, they are usually disposed only to H sites because they have
a leachate management system, which should include an efficient leachate treatment plant. It
should be noted that the effluent plant waste will have a moisture content of between 20 and
30% and this can also impact on the amount of leachate generated by the landfill.

4.        Conclusions
Using a worse case scenario approach, the saline waste generated by the new effluent
treatment plant could classify as an extreme hazard due to the presence of low concentrations
of α- and γ-HCH or possibly as a high hazard due to the presence of leachable Mn. In terms of
the Minimum Requirements and because the waste is highly saline, it should be disposed to
the Holfontein HH Landfill. The waste could be solidified, e.g. by treatment with cement or

 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                7
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
some proprietary stabilising agent, or, alternatively, treated with about 2.5% burnt lime before
disposal. Note that treatment with lime to reduce the leachability of heavy metals is frequently
done at the Holfontein Landfill to minimise leaching of heavy metals and reduce the total load
of these pollutants on the site.




 En-Chem Consultants cc                                                                8
 P O Box 10324, George, 6530
Appendix : Copies of the Eurofins Analytico Laboratory Certificates of Analysis
     Jones & Wagener Pty (Ltd)
     Attention John Glendinning
     59A Bevan Road
     2128 RIVONIA
     SOUTH AFRICA




     Certificate of analysis
     Date: 07-24-2009




     Please find enclosed the analytical results of the following analysis.

     Certificate number                               2008178982
     Your project number                              B768
     Your project name                                NCP CHLOORCHEM
     Your order number                                B768/LP/16108
     Samples received on                              11-24-2008

     This Certificate of Analysis may only be used in its entirety.
     Additional information concerning this Certificate of Analysis can be found in the Analytico document
     'Specifications of Methods of Analysis'. Copies are available from our Customer Service department.

     Soil samples will be stored under controlled conditions for a period of 6 weeks and water samples for a period of
     2 weeks after receipt of the samples at our laboratory. Without any additional request, samples will be disposed
     when the above periods have expired. If you require Analytico to store the samples for a longer period, please
     complete this page and return it to Analytico at least one week before the period is due to expire. The costs of
     prolonged storage periods may be found in our fees overview.



     Storage period:
     Date:                                    Name:                                      Signature:




     We trust that we have performed the order in accordance with your expectations. If you have any remaining
     questions concerning this Certificate of Analysis, please don't hesitate to contact our Customer Service.




     Yours sincerely,

     Eurofins Analytico B.V.


                                                                                                                          Ing. A. Veldhuizen
                                                                                                                          Laboratory Manager


Eurofins Analytico B.V.


Gildeweg 44-46            Tel. +31 (0)34 242 63 00    ABN AMRO 54 85 74 456   Eurofins Analytico B.V. is ISO 9001: 2000 certified by Lloyd's RQA and
3771 NB Barneveld         Fax +31 (0)34 242 63 99     VAT/BTW No.             qualified by the Flemish Region (OVAM and Dep. LNE), the Brussels
P.O. Box 459              E-mail info@analytico.com   NL 8043.14.883.B01      Region (IBGE/BIM), the Walloon Region (DGRNE-OWD) and by the
3770 AL Barneveld NL      Site www.analytico.com      KvK No. 09088623        Governments of France and Luxembourg (MEV).
     Certificate of analysis

     Your project number                   B768                                                        Certificate number            2008178982
     Your project name                     NCP CHLOORCHEM                                              Start date                    11-24-2008
     Your order number                     B768/LP/16108                                               Report date                   12-02-2008/17:48
     Date sampling                         11-19-2008                                                  Enclosure                     A,B,C
     Sampled by                            Steven Gumbi                                                Page                          6/53


     Analysis                                                     Unit              3 2)

     Sample Pre-treatment
Q    Version number                                                            5.22

     Mono Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Q    Toluene                                                      µg/L           0.2

     Characteristics
Q    pH                                                                          7.3
Q    pH-measuring temperature                                       °C         19.1
Q    Measuring temperature (EC)                                     °C         19.1
Q    Electric conductivity (25°C)                                mS/m         10000
     EC-temp. corr. factor (mathematical)                                     1.000

     Metals
Q    Antimony (Sb)                                                µg/L            32 51)
Q    Barium (Ba)                                                  µg/L          350 41)
Q    Cadmium (Cd)                                                 µg/L           2.7 56)
Q    Cobalt (Co)                                                  µg/L            24 23)
Q    Copper (Cu)                                                  µg/L            21 24)
Q    Mercury (Hg)                                                 µg/L         0.23
Q    Molybdenum (Mo)                                              µg/L            17 32)
Q    Nickel (Ni)                                                  µg/L            56 54)
Q    Vanadium (V)                                                 µg/L            43 57)

     Volatile chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Q    Trichloromethane                                             µg/L           5.7
Q    Tribromomethane                                              µg/L            14
Q    Bromodichloromethane                                         µg/L           2.1
Q    Dibromochloromethane                                         µg/L           4.4

     Organic Chlorinated Pesticides
Q    4,4 -DDE                                                     µg/L         0.07
Q    alfa-HCH                                                     µg/L           1.7
Q    gamma-HCH                                                    µg/L           2.3
Q    Sum 4 HCH-compounds                                          µg/L           4.0

     Nitrogen pesticides

No. Sample description                                                                                                                                 Analytico-#
3 South Dam                                                                                                                                               4327090




                                                                              Q: Dutch Accreditation Council (RvA) accredited operation
                                                                              A: AP04 accredited operation
                                                                              S: AS3000 accredited operation
Eurofins Analytico B.V.                                                       This certificate shall not be reproduced except in full.


Gildeweg 44-46            Tel. +31 (0)34 242 63 00    ABN AMRO 54 85 74 456   Eurofins Analytico B.V. is ISO 9001: 2000 certified by Lloyd's RQA and
3771 NB Barneveld         Fax +31 (0)34 242 63 99     VAT/BTW No.             qualified by the Flemish Region (OVAM and Dep. LNE), the Brussels
P.O. Box 459              E-mail info@analytico.com   NL 8043.14.883.B01      Region (IBGE/BIM), the Walloon Region (DGRNE-OWD) and by the               TESTING
3770 AL Barneveld NL      Site www.analytico.com      KvK No. 09088623        Governments of France and Luxembourg (MEV).                                RvA L010
     Certificate of analysis

     Your project number                   B768                                                        Certificate number            2008178982
     Your project name                     NCP CHLOORCHEM                                              Start date                    11-24-2008
     Your order number                     B768/LP/16108                                               Report date                   12-02-2008/17:48
     Date sampling                         11-19-2008                                                  Enclosure                     A,B,C
     Sampled by                            Steven Gumbi                                                Page                          7/53


     Analysis                                                     Unit              3 2)
Q    Atrazin                                                      µg/L           2.1

     Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
     TPH C10-C16                                                  µg/L          330
     TPH C16-C22                                                  µg/L          550
     TPH C22-C30                                                  µg/L            81
Q    TPH (sum C10-C40)                                            µg/L          990 34)




No. Sample description                                                                                                                                 Analytico-#
3 South Dam                                                                                                                                               4327090




                                                                              Q: Dutch Accreditation Council (RvA) accredited operation
                                                                              A: AP04 accredited operation
                                                                              S: AS3000 accredited operation
Eurofins Analytico B.V.                                                       This certificate shall not be reproduced except in full.


Gildeweg 44-46            Tel. +31 (0)34 242 63 00    ABN AMRO 54 85 74 456   Eurofins Analytico B.V. is ISO 9001: 2000 certified by Lloyd's RQA and
3771 NB Barneveld         Fax +31 (0)34 242 63 99     VAT/BTW No.             qualified by the Flemish Region (OVAM and Dep. LNE), the Brussels
P.O. Box 459              E-mail info@analytico.com   NL 8043.14.883.B01      Region (IBGE/BIM), the Walloon Region (DGRNE-OWD) and by the               TESTING
3770 AL Barneveld NL      Site www.analytico.com      KvK No. 09088623        Governments of France and Luxembourg (MEV).                                RvA L010

				
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