ISSP RESEARCH SESSION 2005 by wanghonghx


Mexico City, Sunday 3 April 2005, 2-5 p.m.

1. Yang-chih Fu
Academia Sinica, Taiwan

“Daily Contact as A Proxy Measure of Personal Networks: Data from 46 Surveys
in Nine Societies”

This paper evaluates a straightforward proxy measure of personal networks -- daily
contact, which can be used as a stand-alone survey item and further extended to explore
general network issues. Using six ordinal response categories, the item asks for an
approximate number of people the respondent usually has contact with in a typical day.
Based on data from 46 surveys in nine societies over the past decade (n > 60,000),
including 8 ISSP supplemental or pilot surveys, the paper shows that this single item has
been so easy to administer that it has resulted in very few missing cases. Its responses
are normally distributed in most of these surveys. More importantly, the item
differentiates respondents well, corresponds with other measures of personal networks
and social capital, and helps explain various substantial research issues.

2. Franz Höllinger
Institute of Sociology, University of Graz, Austria

“Social Networks – a Comparison of ISSP 1986 and ISSP 2001”

The patterns of kin and non-kin relationships in 1986 and 2001 will be compared for
those countries which have participated in both Social Network modules. The results will
be discussed and interpreted both from substantive and methodological points of view:
Which trends in regard to the frequency of social contacts, number of friends etc. can be
observed? To what extent do the observed differences indicate effective changes of
behaviour and attitudes, to what extent are they “produced” by different question

3. Petr Matěju
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, the Czech Republic
Anna Vitásková
Anglo-American College in Prague, the Czech Republic

”Trust and Reciprocity Networks: two distinctive dimensions of social capital”

There are at least two significantly different approaches to the conceptualization of social
capital. Advocates of the most influential stream define social capital primarily as an
attribute of societies, as an innate characteristic of social environment based on the high
degree of interpersonal and institutional trust facilitating people's cooperation. Adherents
of the other stream define social capital in terms of mutually beneficial exchanges based
on social connections and informal networks allowing individuals to achieve their own
particular goals. The former approach prevails in "western" countries, while the latter one
prevails in the study of social change in post-communist societies where social capital
drawing from interpersonal trust seems to be rather low. The aim of this paper is to
contribute to the conceptualization and measurement of social capital with a special
emphasis on its role in post-communist societies. Authors attempt to develop a
measurement model for the two distinct dimensions of social capital, one defined
primarily as an attribute of societies conducive to the development of people's
cooperation, the other one as a capacity of an individual to participate in informal
networks based on mutually beneficial exchanges. Measurement model for the two
dimensions of social capital is developed and tested by confirmatory factor analysis.
Authors continue by testing the hypothesis according to which social capital defined as
trust is only weakly linked to social stratification, while social capital defined as person‟s
involvement in mutually beneficial exchanges shows significant variation among groups
defined by relevant stratification variables. The analysis was performed on the data from
Social Networks survey carried out in the Czech Republic in 2001 under the International
Social Survey Programme. The results presented in the paper highlight the continuing
need for conceptualizing and measuring different forms of social capital and for analyses
assessing what role they play in different societies.

4. Phil Gendall
Department of Marketing, Massey University, New Zealand

“A Problem in Questionnaire Design”

For the first question of the 2003 National Identity module, the proportion of respondents
that did not answer the question correctly in countries with self-completion surveys
ranged from 65% in New Zealand, to 53% in Norway, 20% in Sweden, and between 3%
and 5% in Australia. In this paper I will discuss the different question formats that lead
to these differences in the proportions of missing cases. Then I will present analyses of
New Zealand data that show how New Zealand respondents answered the question and
suggest why this question was a problem for many of them.

5. Ann Carton
Ministry of the Flemish Community (Belgium)
Planning and Statistics Administration

“Evaluation of the follow-up procedure of the ISSP 2004 drop-off questionnaire
in relation to the data quality”

Since 1996, the Planning and Statistics Administration of the Ministry of the Flemish
Community (MVG – APS) has been conducting an annual face-to-face survey on „Socio-
cultural changes in the Flemish and Brussels Capital Regions‟ (N=about 1,500 18 to 85
year old Dutch-speaking respondents) by government order. In 2002 and 2004, the ISSP
module was part of Flanders‟ survey. The questionnaire was delivered by an interviewer
and to be returned by post by the respondent.
The follow-up of the drop-off questionnaire was organised by the MVG - APS. Two
questions will be dealt with using the 2004 data:
- How effective was this follow-up procedure in relation to socio-demographic
    background variables and some attitudinal variables of the different response groups
    (return spontaneously; after 1st reminder; after 2nd reminder; no return or completed
    by someone else)?
- How effective was the follow-up procedure in relation to the item-non-response on
    the drop-off questionnaire?

6. Haya Stier and Noah Lewin-Epstein
Tel-Aviv University, Israel

“Market and Policy Effects on the Division of Housework”

The paper examines on the effect of work-family policies on household's division of
unpaid work in 25 countries. It is commonly argued that work-family policies affect the
incorporation of women into paid employment and their prospects in the labor market.

Yet, it is not entirely clear whether they have changed the household division of labor or
have reduced inequalities within the family. In most countries women -- in or out of the
labor force -- still do the major share of housework and child-care. Nonetheless,
considerable country variation exists in the amount of time allocated to unpaid work and
the extent to which men participate in housework. We examine whether and to what
extent different institutional arrangements, especially work-family policies are related to
this variation. We argue that in general policies which encourage women's employment
promote equality in housework, primarily as a result of employed women spending less
time in housework. However, some policies might at the same time contribute to the
reproduction of gender relations in the family since they do not seriously challenge the
unequal distribution of family responsibilities between men and women. The study
utilizes data from the ISSP survey on Gender Roles, conducted in 2002, and employs
Hierarchical Linear Modeling to determine individual and country level factors affecting
the division of housework.

7. Sang-Wook Kim
Survey Research Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., South Korea

“Work Values, Work Rewards, and Work Orientations: A Comparison among
Korea, Japan, the United States, and Sweden”

The research provides cross-cultural explanations on the multiplicative interrelationships
among work values, work rewards, and work orientations. Most of the previous studies, it
is argued, suffer from the inconsistent and often conflicting research findings due mostly
to the specificity of their samples to certain groups of workers in a certain society. In
order to resolve this problem, the ISSP work orientation module survey data are utilized
in answering to a series of questions concerning the relationships among the three
variables in Korea, Japan, the U.S. and Sweden. Analysis of data indicates several salient
findings: Asian workers are less positively oriented to their work than their counterparts
in the West; extrinsic rewards are particularly important determinants of work
orientations in Korea, whereas intrinsic rewards are so in the West; Korean workers
experience the largest amount of disparities between the valuation and actual provision
of work rewards; a substantial amount of interactions upon work orientations exist
between the valuation and provision of work rewards throughout the countries.
Implications stemming the findings are discussed and interpreted with suggesting some
contextual explanations.

8. Wolfgang Jagodzinski
Central Archive for Empirical Social Research, University Cologne, Germany
Kazufumi Manabe
Kwansei Gakuin University, School of Sociology, Japan

“The Measurement of Interpersonal Trust in Comparative Surveys”

Trust in general and interpersonal trust in particular have become sociological key
concepts during the last two decades. In the tradition of Putnam trust is seen as a
component of the social capital of a society. Theories of value change and of social
capital predict that interpersonal trust will increase with economic wealth, the age of
market economies, and the age of democracies. The same should hold for volunteering
as another component of the social capital. It is consistent with these theories that
interpersonal trust is by and large higher in old than in new democracies, and higher in
economically developed than in developing countries. It is less consistent with these
theories that we observe a considerable decline of interpersonal trust and institutional
confidence in countries like the USA.

A more sophisticated empirical test of social capital theories would require suitable
measurement instruments, however. While the measurement problems of volunteering
have been extensively discussed, little so far has been done to improve the measurement
of interpersonal trust. This paper compares the measurement instruments of the
International Social Survey Program, the European Values Survey and the European
Social Survey and makes suggestions for further improvement.

9. Petra Rakušanová
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, the Czech Republic

“Internal and External Efficacy and Trust: The Case of the Czech Republic”

The paper deals with the questions which were added to the ISSP 2004 Citizenship as an
additional module – the relations between the perception of efficacy (both internal and
external) of the political system and trust (institutional as well as interpersonal). Both of
the issues are related to the very basic notion of legitimacy of political system – as the
modern democracies are able to function within the paradox of support for democracy as
a principal, but dissatisfaction with its everyday functioning (e.g. Rose et al. 1998). The
result of this dissatisfaction however, is growing distrust towards politicians as well as
institutions, resulting in decrease of political participation and forms a threat to
successful embedding of civil society (Sztompka 1994, Fuchs, Roller 1998). This issue is
further relevant in the transformation countries as citizens of post-authoritarian countries
have very limited experience with the functioning of the democratic institutions and thus
their evaluation is often based on other factors such as subjective evaluation of
respondent‟s economic status (Inglehart 1988, 2000).

10. Hiroshi Aramaki
NHK, Japan

“The Japanese Supplement to the ISSP”

The ISSP is conducted as a stand-alone survey in Japan, and several modules include
nation-specific questions. There are not very many of these questions, but they are
added to supplement the content of the questionnaire and will be useful for interested
researchers. Because ISSP data sets don‟t include the Japan-specific questions, we
created a data set with English labels which can be merged into ISSP data set. The data
of Japan-specific questions will be provided via Japanese Consortium for Comparative
Research, which will be established in the near future.


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