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					Imperialism

   Ms. Phillips
February 10, 2009
  Global History
          Standards etc.
• Standards: 2,3,4,5

• Objective: Swbat describe and discuss the
  factors that contributed to Imperialism

• Motivation: Can a larger country ever be
  justified in taking over a smaller countries?
      Aim and Do Now
• Aim: What is the Age of Imperialism
  and how will it reshape the African
  continent?

• Do Now: How did the Industrial
  Revolution lead European countries
  toward colonizing Africa?
          What Is Due
• On Thursday I am collecting:

  • Industrial Revolution Packets
  • DBQ Packet
  • DBQ Essay
 Cause and Effect Packet Arrows

________   Industrial Revolution   ________

________     ______________        ________
The Age of Imperialism: 18-1900’s
 • An age when stronger industrialized
   countries seized control over smaller
   less industrialized nations to gain
   resources.
Imperialism Poem and Europe
 • Whatever happens we have got,
 The Maxim gun, and they have not.
      The Draw of Africa
• Europeans had little
  to no knowledge of
  the interior of the
  African continent.
       That was until…
• David Livingstone a missionary/explorer
  criss-crossed Africa between 1841-
  1873.
   Henry Morton Stanley
• New York journalist with one directive:
  Find Livingstone
         November 1871
• Stanley finds
  Livingstone and
  documents his
  exploration of Africa
  at the same time.

   • “Doctor Livingstone,
     I presume.”
Description of the Interior
• The interior is mostly a magnificent and
  healthy country of unspeakable richness. I
  have a small specimen of good coal, other
  minerals, such as gold, copper, iron, and
  silver are abundant. I am confident that with
  a wise and liberal expenditure of capital, one
  of the greatest systems of inland navigation
  in the world might be utilized to extend
  capitalism and gain nutmeg, coffee, sesame
  seed, oil palms, rice, wheat, cotton, all the
  productions of Southern Europe, India-
  rubber, and sugar cane. All these productions
  may be made profitable.
Motive 1: Industrialization and
          Resources
• New sources of raw materials and
  natural resources were necessary to
  continue the industrialization process.
    Valuable Resources
• 1867: Diamonds were discovered
• 1886: Gold was discovered
   Motive 2: Nationalism
• Gaining the land of others is a strong
  symbol of a nation’s pride, ability, and
  strength.
        Charles Darwin
• Scientist who believed in natural
  selection: survival was for the fittest
  members of a species.
Motive 3: Social Darwinism
• Darwin’s ideas of survival of the fittest
  are applied to societies around the
  world.
      Social Darwinism
• Used to justify European Imperialism:
  We can take over other nations by force
  and exploit their resources because we
  are stronger.
      Aim and Do Now
• Aim: How did the Age of Imperialism
  affect and restructure Africa?

• Do Now: What 3 reasons prompted
  European countries to begin
  imperializing Africa?
          What Is Due
• On Thursday I am collecting:

  • Industrial Revolution Packets
  • DBQ Packet
  • DBQ Essay
   Motive 4: Missionaries
• Christians wanted to spread their
  religion to gain as many followers as
  possible.
      African Religions
• Africa previously had numerous
  religions such as Animism, a belief
  that spirits existed in nature.
 Motive 5: Division within Africa
• Many languages,
  cultures, and tribes
  made it difficult for
  Africans to organize
  a united front
  against the
  Europeans.
Africa Before
            Map Activity
•   Great Britain
•   Belgium
•   France
•   Portugal
•   Italy
  The Scramble for Africa
• 1880-1914
• European
  competition for
  economic
  dominance and later
  direct rule over
  African territories
     Discussion Question
• What problems do you see with
  numerous Europeans rushing to claim
  territory within the African continent?
1884-1885: Berlin Conference
 • A foreign conference established to deal
   with the growing European interest in
   Africa.
   Berlin Conference Goal
• Europe would draw
  political lines or
  boundaries
  throughout the
  African continent to
  define their
  ownership.
          More realistically…
• Europe created
  countries in Africa to
  avoid conflict and war
  with one another over
  their claimed
  territories.
       Discussion Point
• Who should be invited to the Berlin
  Conference?
Who Attended the Conference
 •   Germany
 •   Belgium
 •   France
 •   Portugal
 •   Austria-Hungary
 •   Denmark
 •   Great Britain
 •   Italy
 •   Netherlands
 •   Russia
 •   Spain
 •   Sweden/Norway
 •   The Ottoman Empire
 •   United States
   Who did not Attend…
• No Africans were asked to attend the
  Berlin Conference which carved up their
  continent into countries.
Results of the Berlin Conference
 • New boundaries enclosed hundreds of
   diverse groups, with little common
   history, culture, language, or religion.
        For example: Nigeria
• Nigeria:
  • Contained over 250
    ethno-linguistic groups
               Oops Again

• Congo:
Over 6,000
 chiefdoms
existed here
 Implications of the Scramble

• By 1914 only
Liberia and Ethiopia
were independent or
free from colonial rule.
Imperialism in perspective
• 10,000 African polities are combined
  into 40 European led colonies.
       Aim and Do Now
• Aim: How were African countries
  impacted by the Age of Imperialism?

• Do Now: What is the Scramble for
  Africa and what were the characteristics
  of it?
        Rudyard Kipling
• Wrote a poem called, “The White Man’s
  Burden,” in an attempt to point out the
  suffering of native Africans under
  European rule.
The White Man’s Burden
The White Man’s Burden
The Effects of Imperialism
• The effects varied by country but many
  effects included the exploitation of
  natural resources, human beings, and
  labor.
The Congo
King Leopold II: King of Belgium
 • “We must obtain a slice of this
   magnifique gateau Africain.”
Belgium
  Belgium and the Congo
• If Belgium gained control of the Congo
  in 1885, what two events must they
  have participated in?
    Belgium’s resources:
• Ivory, Palm-oil, rubber, timber, copper,
  and 10 million people.
       Heart of Darkness
• Joseph Conrad wrote:
  • “The vilest scramble for loot that ever
    disfigured the history of human conscience…”
        Belgium’s Gain
• Ivory was the most cherished natural
  resource that Belgium offered at first.
    Resource 2: Rubber
• Rubber grows in trees and vines in the
  Jungles of the Congo.
      The pneumatic tire
• Invented by
  Edouard Michelin:
  Used for bicycles
  and later vehicles.
        Belgium’s View
• Local populations should collect wild
  rubber in lieu of paying taxes to the
  ruling government.
      Aim and Do Now
• Aim: How did Belgium and King Leopold
  II affect or impact the Congo?

• Do Now: What are two ways to view the
  White Man’s Burden? Why did King
  Leopold II of Belgium claim the Congo as
  his colony?
Rubber Quotas
• An amount of rubber
  that you must fulfill
  in a specific length
  of time.
  • Congo: 5 kilos of
    dry rubber per night.
Punishment
 • Villagers who fell behind their quotas
   were whipped, imprisoned, or shot.
King Leopold’s Ghost
by: Adam Hochschild
            Right Hands
• Right hands were
  chopped off by
  Belgian soldiers to
  prove that they
  were not wasting
  bullets hunting
  animals.
         The Smoker
• In order to stop the bleeding the arm
  would be dipped in oil or something
  flammable and then lit on fire.
       Congolese Profits
King Leopold II used his profits to build
  the country…his country, Belgium.
Lasting Impacts
Imperialism leaves a
lasting mark on the
various countries of
Africa.
Effect: Decreased Population
• An estimated 20,000,000 people lived in
  the Congo when the Europeans arrived.
In 1911…
 • Only 8.5 million
   people remained in
   Belgium’s Congo.
   King Leopold’s Journal
• As King Leopold II of Belgium, how
  would rationalize (explain) your
  treatment of the native Congolese?

				
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