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Building Repair Grants Scheme

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					     Historic
Environment
                Building Repair
      Grants    Grants Scheme

                         Advisory
                     Standards of
                           Repair
                      (to be read in conjunction
                        with the ARCH1 report)
                                Revision C 2007
      1 Introduction

    Historic Buildings Repair Grant is         In order to attract grant assistance
    given to assist in the execution of a      from Historic Scotland the applicant’s
    repair scheme on site. It is important     Conservation Accredited professional
    that the repair scheme reflects the        adviser should develop repair
    cautious, studied approach set out         proposals to the highest standards
    in various international conservation      of conservation practice using the
    charters. In particular, the cultural      Historic Scotland project-specific
    significance of the building should not    ARCH1 advisory report as the basis
    be compromised and the work should         of the scheme. It is recommended
    retain as much historic and original       that the following advisory standards
    fabric as possible by minimising           of repair are adopted where indicated
    interventions. Approved repairs to         in that report. (Note, however, that
    the existing fabric should adopt the       some advisory standards are not
    traditional materials, craft skills and    grant-eligible.) It is equally important
    construction techniques found in the       that the subsequent works on site are
    original building.                         also administered to high standards.
    Applicants should note that Listed         Management of the works to meet the
    Building Consent procedures and            requirements of the Health and Safety
    repair grant procedures are entirely       legislation is the responsibility of the
    separate systems. It should be             applicant, his or her contractor(s) and
    understood that any proposals to           professional advisor(s).
    alter any part of the building may         Historic Scotland should be consulted
    require Listed Building Consent            on detailed points where repair
    and that Listed Building Consent           techniques or use of materials
    does not necessarily mean that the         affects the appearance or integrity of
    proposals qualify for repair grant.        the historic fabric. When preparing
    Changes to the fabric arising as a         the scheme of works, any conflict
    direct consequence of a conversion         between Historic Scotland guidance
    proposal or change of use is not           and emerging site or documentary
    eligible for grant assistance. Where       evidence should be drawn to Historic
    an historic building or structure is       Scotland’s attention and the way
    conterminous with a Scheduled              forward agreed in writing before
    Monument, Scheduled Monument               proceeding.
    Consent may also be required.




2   Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
      2       Documents

    A copy of the relevant tender               Scotland as they become available.
    drawings showing the proposed               Documentation submitted to Historic
    works, specification and bills of           Scotland should be kept to the
    quantities is to be submitted to            minimum commensurate with a full
    Historic Scotland for comment prior         understanding of the historic fabric
    to tender documentation being               repair work and other work in context.
    finalised. Copies of the priced             Provide a note of contract period and
    documents will be required by Historic      defects liability period.




	                     Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme        3
      3       Costs

    Tender costs should be summarised           1. Contract preliminaries
    according to the paragraphs in              2. Contingencies
    the project-specific report for the
    building and set out so that any            3. VAT on works
    future alteration to the costs (with        4. Professional fees
    explanation) can be compared
                                                5. VAT on professional fees
    directly with the tendered amount.
    Figures should also be provided for         In exceptional circumstances and
    the following costs expressed as a          where agreed in advance, specialist
    percentage of the total grant eligible      reports such as archaeological work
    costs for works identified in the           or paint analysis may be eligible for
    project-specific report:                    grant assistance at Historic Scotland’s
                                                discretion.




4    Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
          4       Scaffolding

    4.1 Scaffolding Design                          3. A strategy for the insertion
        1. When bracing scaffolding, avoid          and removal of fixings should
        the use of damaging masonry                 be devised before scaffolding is
        anchors. Consider the use of window         erected. Expanded ferrous anchor
        openings, window jamb cramps,               sockets left in masonry will cause
        raking support or fixing into mortar        staining and cracking as they rust
        joints that are sufficiently wide to        and must be removed at the end of
        prevent damage to adjacent stone            the work. Consider rubber sleeved
        arisses.                                    anchors which can be withdrawn on
                                                    completion of the works
        2. If anchors are required, they must
        not be fixed close to edges of carved
        decorative features.




	                         Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme    5
      5        Roof and Rainwater Disposal

5.1 Roof Structure                                5.2 Slating
    1. Ensure the roof structure is sound.            1. Understand the original roof build-up
    Where there are significant signs of              and design the repair, including the use
    movement in the roof structure, advice            of underfelt where appropriate, to suit
    from an engineer experienced in the               the site circumstances.
    repair of historic structures may be              2. Where different types of slate have
    required. When designing remedial                 been used across building phases or
    structural repairs, adopt a minimum               ranges as part of the natural evolution,
    intervention approach and discuss the             these characteristics are to be
    proposed repair with Historic Scotland.           respected.
    2. Clear sarking of old nails and lift the        3. Re-slate using sound original slates
    lowest sarking boards to inspect the              recovered from the site together with
    rafter ends and the wall plate.                   matching slates brought in as required
    3. Inspect timbers for rot, insect                to make up the required number.
    attack and structural weakness.                   Samples of slate to make up broken
    Repair damaged timbers using new                  or unsuitable slates should be agreed
    preservative treated timbers run to the           before purchase.
    original profile and treat rot or insect          4. Slates to be laid to exactly match
    attack locally as required. Timbers               the original laying pattern using slates of
    should be spliced in-line rather than             the same shape as the originals.
    cheek bolted (see also 8.2 and 8.3
    below).                                           5. Re-used slates should not be
                                                      re-dressed as a matter of routine.
    4. Where possible, separate timber
    repairs from damp stonework with a                6. Slates should be fixed with
    DPC and allow for free ventilation where          non-ferrous nails.
    practicable.                                      7. Replacement lead flashings, secret
    5. Check the provision of ventilation             gutters, ridges and other weatherings to
    to roof voids. If additional ventilation is       be lead as described below.
    required, locate discreetly and create            8. Mortar fillets at skews may be
    using traditional materials e.g. lead.            reinforced with expanded non-ferrous
                                                      metal reinforcing lath and formed on top
                                                      of code 4 soakers.




6    Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
    5.3 Leadwork                                      5.4 Fired Clay Roof Tiles
        1. Weathering to lead flat roofs to be in         1. Understand the original roof
        new milled or cast lead as follows:               construction and repair the timber
        n    cupola astragal cover flashings              substructure - including replacement
             to be a minimum of code 5;                   felt as appropriate.

        n    flashings, secret gutters, dormer            2. Tiled roofs are normally laid on
             cheeks etc to be code 6;                     battens and counter battens (over
                                                          roofing felt).
        n    valleys to be minimum code 7;
                                                          3. Fired clay roof tiles have a limited life
        n    short gutters or small areas of              as the tile begins to delaminate, shatter
             flat roofs without foot traffic may          and break down with exposure and
             be minimum code 7;                           age. Consequently, older roofs may
        n    all other flat roofs or gutters on           require a higher proportion of new tiles.
             geotextile underlay to be code 8;            4. Replace broken or unsound tiles
        n    ridges to be code 8 and fixed with           with new tiles of the same colour,
             clips of minimum code 8 lead,                profile, size and glaze (if relevant).
             copper or terne-coated stainless
             steel.
                                                      5.5 Asphalt
        2. Lead to be laid to follow the
        recommendations of the Lead Sheet                 1. Where an asphalt roof covering is
        Association. Complex and details                  damaged and leaking this should be
        unique to the building should be drawn            lifted and replaced with new asphalt
        at a large scale sufficient to illustrate         laid in coats strictly in accordance with
        how these areas are to be constructed.            the instructions of the Mastic Asphalt
                                                          Council. Sand dusted surface is
        3. Flashings are to be inserted into              preferred.
        raggles sufficiently deep to allow the
        raggle to be pointed. Existing raggles            2. If an insulated asphalt roof is
        should be used wherever possible.                 required, solar reflective surfaces and
        Lead should be isolated from lime                 insulation are not eligible for grant
        mortar by a protective coating                    assistance. Lead overflashings to
                                                          be detailed in accordance with the
        4. The use of sacrificial flashings where         recommendations of the Lead Sheet
        slating discharges into valleys and               Association.
        parapet gutters is encouraged.
        5. On flat roofs, hollow roll joints should
        not automatically be replaced with
        wood cored roll joints, consideration
        should be given to the historical
        context, the roof pitch and any likely
        foot traffic




	                           Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme             7
    5.6 Thatch                                        2. Corrugated iron used as a roofing
        1. There are many types of thatch             material or wall cladding should
        and thatching techniques in Scotland          be replaced with new galvanised
        and these roofs are now a scarce              corrugated iron to the original profile
        and highly valued historic resource.          and using fixings to match the original.
        Repairing traditional thatched roofs
        requires the most careful investigation   5.8 Stone Slab Roofing
        and consideration.
                                                      1. Record existing stone slab slating
        2. A search for archival visual or            noting course heights, lap and peg
        photographic evidence of the building         fixing.
        and its thatched roof will be necessary
        before works are proposed.                    2. Carefully remove existing slabs
                                                      using best practice and lay aside
        3. Recording should include the               for re-use. Do not lever out pegs by
        building type, evidence of changes            lifting tails of slabs. Pegs should be
        in the building use, primary and              removed without splitting slabs or
        secondary roof structures including           enlarging peg holes. This may require
        connections and changes in thatch             a higher than usual level of skill and
        type.                                         workmanship.
        4. Archaeological trenching through           3. Re-grade slabs and make up
        the thatch may help to provide                differences in new stone slabs which
        invaluable information on the make            match the source, colour and texture
        up of the roof and allow the sources          of the original.
        of the thatch materials, including
        substratum layers, to be identified.          4. Re-fix using newly made seasoned
        Many thatches survive as an insulation        timber pegs of matching species
        layer under corrugated iron roofs.            (traditionally oak).
        5. Proposals for the repair of
        traditional thatched roofs should         5.9 Bitumen Felt Roof Covering
        follow the original as far as possible
        and include repair or replacement of          1. Where bitumen felt roof covering
        structure, substratum and thatch type.        was the original and historically
                                                      correct roof covering on a flat roof,
        6. Discuss proposals with Historic            modern equivalents such as single
        Scotland in advance of repair.                ply membranes may be considered
                                                      grant eligible. Perimeter details should
                                                      remain broadly the same as for the
    5.7 Metal Roofs                                   felt original. Note, however, that these
        1. Repairs to copper roofs should             membranes will not be accepted as
        replace copper trays by closely               a replacement for roofs that were
        matching the original but with details,       originally finished in lead, zinc, copper
        gauge of copper and underfelt as              or mastic asphalt.
        recommended by the Copper Sheet
        Association.


8        Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
    5.10 Rainwater Disposal                          5.11 Skylights/Ventilators
        1. Check that the existing rainwater             1. Original cast iron skylights are
        goods are adequate to control and                usually sound and should be repaired
        discharge water safely away from the             and reused rather than replaced.
        building. If not, the professional adviser       These are to be painted as outlined for
        should submit proposals for additional           rainwater goods above.
        installations. Note that alterations may         2. Where replacement rooflights are
        require Listed Building Consent.                 required, replace with new rooflights
        2. Where cast iron rainwater goods are           to the same size, detail and materials.
        sound ensure they are clear and flowing          Modern skylights of the same size
        freely.                                          and appearance but incorporating
        3. Where broken damaged, missing or              thermal breaks and alloy castings are
        in non-original materials such as uPVC,          acceptable.
        replace to match original profile and
        detail in cast iron.                         5.12 Safe Access
        4. Ensure maintenance access exists              1. The opportunity should be taken to
        at ground level.                                 ensure there is adequate safe access
        5. Ground drainage to be checked                 for maintenance and repair.
        and made fully operational to ensure             2. Where required, provide attic
        water is being conducted properly                walkways to allow safe inspection and
        away from the building. Digging                  maintenance of these spaces.
        within archaeologically sensitive areas
        such as graveyards may require an                3. Locate access ladders and roof
        archaeologist.                                   hatches discreetly.
        6. All cast-iron pipework and rhones
        to be prepared, primed and painted in        5.13 Lightning Conductors
        accordance with manufacturer’s written
                                                         1. Lightning conductor systems can
        instructions using a high performance
                                                         result in a considerable visual intrusion
        paint specification. Paint new cast
                                                         on historic structure; refer to English
        iron goods before site assembly and
                                                         Heritage design guide “Lightning
        make good joints, chips and fixings
                                                         Protection of Churches” for guidance
        immediately after fixing. The final colour
                                                         on discreet design.
        may be selected using evidence gained
        in the cleaning process or to match the          2. Fixings should be secured in joints
        background masonry.                              rather than stones and conductor lines
                                                         are to be discreetly located behind or
                                                         beside other building elements such as
                                                         downpipes or buttresses.
                                                         3. Early lightning conductors may be
                                                         retained and integrated into the new
                                                         system.


	                          Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme           9
       6 Masonry

6.1 Structural Condition                          of colour, texture, porosity, crushing
     1. Where significant structural              strength and weathering properties.
     movement, settlement cracking or other       Advice on suitable new stone to match
     evidence of a compromised structure          existing can be obtained from the
     is identified, advice from an engineer       British Geological Survey.
     experienced in the repair of historic        4. Remove any redundant fixings,
     structures may be required. Discuss the      surface-mounted cables, television
     proposed remedial works with Historic        aerials and extraneous ferramenta
     Scotland                                     - including redundant drainage branch
                                                  pipework. Where services cables or
                                                  aerials are required, discreetly route
6.2 Masonry Repair                                them behind internal finishes. This
     1. Carefully remove any vegetation           services-related work is not grant-
     while avoiding damage to the masonry.        eligible.
     2. From the scaffolding, brush down          5. Exposed surfaces of new stone
     loose stone (with bristle brushes, not       should be hand dressed to match the
     wire) and tap the existing surface to        original face or tooling. Avoid the use
     ensure the face of the stone is sound.       of power tools on any exposed surface
     Where the stone face is eroded or            of stone. Cut replacement stone on
     crumbly but this does not pose a threat      the correct geological bed for the
     to the weathering function (eg cills), the   circumstances of its use in different
     structural integrity or the architectural    elements of the building. Lay on a full
     interpretation of the building, it is        mortar bed, grout behind and point fully
     advisable to leave the stone in place for    to ensure loads are taken by the new
     attention at some time in the future.        stone. Indented face stone should have
                                                  a minimum bed depth of 150 mm. New
     3. Where soft, cracked or crumbly
                                                  stone should not be distressed or toned
     stones are identified as a threat
                                                  down to match original.
     to the structure or weathering, or
     significantly detracting from the            6. Avoid the use of restoration mortars
     architectural composition and integrity      on face work or margins. Mortar made
     of the building, they may be carefully       from lime, sand and graded matching
     cut out and indented with a matching         stone, may be acceptable for fine
     stone that respects the existing stone       cracks or small “pocket” repairs in
     joint pattern. Where it is necessary         otherwise sound stone and where lying
     to replace missing, broken, cracked          water and subsequent frost damage
     or eroded stones with new stone,             may be considered a risk.
     ensure that the new stone is a suitable
     replacement for the original in terms




10    Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
6.3 Joints in Ashlar Masonry                        working back into this space. Pointing
    1. Where ashlar masonry is quite tight          should be raked out to a minimum
    with few open joints, avoid re-pointing         depth of 35 mm and the joint flushed
    this masonry.                                   clean.

    2. Re-point open ashlar joints by raking
    out loose or crumbly mortar by hand         6.5 Joints in Rubble Masonry
    with a hacksaw blade or similar and             1. Where mortar joints in rubble
    hose joint clean. Angle grinders and            masonry are loose or crumbly, carefully
    power drills must not be used.                  rake out to a minimum of 35 mm using
    3. Wet joints and re-point using putty          tools narrower than the joint to avoid
    lime mortar and fine light coloured             damaging the stone.
    sand.                                           2. Thoroughly flush clean the joint and
    4. Take care to protect the arrises to          re-point with the mortar mix informed
    avoid staining on the ashlar.                   by analysis (see below). Pointing to be
    5. Brush off any loose mortar. Ensure           well packed into the joint and finished to
    stones are not stained by water used to         match the original and suit the style of
    sponge off any mortar residue. Protect          masonry construction, including, where
    pointing while it is curing in accordance       appropriate, the correct number of
    with best practice.                             pinning stones to maintain the mortar/
                                                    stone ratio of the wall indicated in the
    6. Do not point open joints which               original build.
    were originally dry built such as some
    harbour walls or dry-stane dykes.               3. Stones used for pinning repair in
                                                    rubble masonry should have the same
                                                    colour, surface treatment and edge
6.4 Removal of Cementitious                         dressing as the surrounding masonry.
    Pointing
    1. As it can be damaging to the             6.6 Brick
    adjacent stone arrises to remove
    well-adhered cement mortar, it is               1. All brickwork repairs to accurately
    often better to avoid removing sound            follow the original build, using brick
    cementitious pointing.                          of accurately matching colour, size,
                                                    hardness and porosity.
    2. Where cracked and open or
    separating from the stone, carefully            2. Following brickwork repair, re-point
    remove cementitious mortar by the use           using a pointing tool and application
    of fine masonry chisels. Power tools            technique similar to that used originally
    should not be used.                             with a mortar specification suiting the
                                                    age of the building and the strength of
    3. When free space has been created,            the brick.
    mortar may be freed from the stone by




	                      Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme        11
 6.7 Flue Terminals                               6.9 Harl/Render
     1. Chimney pots to be replaced to                1. Harl or render coats should be
     match the original form indicated by             applied in accordance with traditional
     documentary or site evidence. Where              harling (or throwing) techniques.
     there is no evidence of the original,            Samples of the original harl should be
     use pots that are in use on buildings of         analysed to clearly identify the various
     similar period in the vicinity.                  constituents eg shell, aggregate, lime
     2. Ensure that the number of pots                proportions etc. The new harl should
     accurately reflects the number of flues.         have a wide range of aggregate
                                                      grading and replicate any local mix or
     3. Chimneys not in use should be                 application traditions.
     cleared of debris and then terminated
     with a vented weathered top to match             2. Quality and appearance of work to
     the pot and a vent at the bottom of              be determined by sample panels.
     the flue to allow free air circulation.          3. Harling/rendering to be applied
                                                      using a lime mortar mix in 2 or 3
                                                      coats.
 6.8 Concrete
                                                      4. Site operations should ensure
     1. Commission an independent                     that flashings, rainwater goods and
     investigative specialist report on the           external joinery are fitted at the
     condition of the concrete and repair             appropriate time in order to ensure a
     the structure accordingly. The report            good finish to the harl/render.
     should include such techniques as
     use of a cover-meter to establish the            5. Where a lined out “ashlar”
     depth of cover to the reinforcement              appearance is to be made, the surface
     and include core samples at strategic            should be pressed flat and the lining
     locations to enable analysis of the              out undertaken to a pre-determined
     depth of carbonation, chloride content           pattern of joints. The ruling tool is to
     and quality of concrete.                         be appropriately shaped in order to
                                                      provide lines of the correct depth,
     2. Remedial works may include                    consistency and cross-section.
     treatment with corrosion inhibitors
     and repair of spalling by breaking out
     poor concrete, cleaning or replacing         6.10 Lime Mortars for Building,
     reinforcement and repairing concrete              Pointing and Harling.
     to match the original finish. Consider           1. Lime mortars have significantly
     treating repair locally with corrosion           different working properties to cement
     inhibitor to prevent localised sacrificial       mortars. Advice on procedures and
     corrosion.                                       suitable mixes can be obtained from
                                                      the Scottish Lime Centre Trust.




12   Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
        2. All works to be undertaken by fully         not eligible for grant assistance.
        trained masons with experience of              It should be recognised, however,
        historic building work.                        that biocide is unlikely to have a
        3. Lime mortar mix for indenting or            long-lasting effect and may damage
        pointing should match the original             the masonry. Consequently, the use
        mortar and be informed by careful              of biocide should not form part of a
        analysis of original build mortar              regular maintenance regime.
        samples. It should be prepared in
        advance to achieve maturity and may        6.12 Removal of Paint and Graffiti
        require a hydraulic content to achieve          from Masonry
        a predicable set and avoid lime
        leaching. Pozzolanic materials may             1. The use of a paint remover is
        be added to putty lime mortars to aid          acceptable in a grant aided scheme
        setting.                                       but is not eligible for grant
                                                       assistance.
        4. Where evidence of the original
        mix does not exist, lime and sand              2. It is necessary to analyse the paint
        for the mix is to be carefully selected        type to establish the least damaging
        to ensure the mix has a suitable self          paint removal method. 2.
        colour, even if it is to be limewashed.        Paint and graffiti removal should be
                                                       tested and approved for use on that
        5. Ensure lime mortar work is                  particular stone type before approval
        undertaken in appropriate weather              to proceed is given.
        conditions and protect lime mortar
        from sun, rain and frost until cured in        3. Chemicals used on stone are to be
        accordance with best practice.                 neutralised immediately after use as
                                                       recommended in the manufacturer’s
        6. Earth mortar exists in some early           written instructions.
        or rural buildings. Care should be
        taken to identify, analyse and carefully
        reproduce where repair is required.        6.13 Removal of Invasive Vegetation
                                                        from Masonry and Immediate
                                                        Vicinity
    6.11 Removal of Algae from Masonry
                                                       1. The main vegetation trunks are to
        1. Where water has caused moss                 be cut and roots treated with suitable
        and algal growth on masonry, the area          systemic weed killer in accordance
        is to be scraped clean with wooden             with the manufacturer’s instructions.
        spatulas and cleaned down to remove            Larger growths of surface vegetation
        all organic debris and soil prior to           may be cut into smaller areas (creating
        re-pointing. The source of moisture            a grid) prior to treatment. This will
        encouraging such growth must be                identify areas where growth persists
        addressed in order to prevent re-              and allow subsequent treatment to
        growth.                                        be more selective. More than one
        2. The use of a biocide is acceptable          treatment may be necessary over a
        within a grant aided scheme but is             period of time.


	                         Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme         13
     2. The vegetation adhering to the               3. Limewash should be screened
     masonry is to be left until dead, and           from rapid drying in accordance with
     then carefully removed by gently                best practice. Where the limewash
     teasing the mat away from the                   is exposed to drying winds or
     building taking care to sever roots             temperature, repeated wetting of the
     that penetrate the masonry. Larger              screens will be necessary.
     vegetation should be removed by                 4. Layers of limewash should not be
     hand weeding ensuring that all roots            applied if the appropriate attendance
     are removed to avoid leaving potential          to control rapid drying is not possible.
     open paths for water ingress as they
     decay                                           5. Regular maintenance coats will be
                                                     required over subsequent years.
     3. Stones that are found to be loose
     are to be held in place by wooden
     wedges until consolidation work is           6.15 DPC
     undertaken.
                                                     1. Installation of new chemical DPCs
                                                     are not considered grant eligible and
 6.14 Limewash                                       should not feature in a grant eligible
                                                     scheme as the long term effect of
     1. Historic limewash can have several           chemicals on the masonry is not
     constituents ranging from natural               known.
     pigments, tallow and other organic
     additives. As with mortars, analysis            2. Appropriate DPCs may be
     and sample panels should be carried             considered for situations such as
     out before the specification is finalised.      under copes etc. Lead-cored sanded
                                                     bitumen DPC’s may be preferable to
     2. Limewash should be applied to a              avoid slip planes.
     pre-wetted surface. Multiple coats will
     be required as it should be applied in
     sufficiently thin coats (the consistency
     of skimmed milk) to allow carbonation.




14   Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
       7 Windows and Doors

    7.1 Leaded Glazing and Zinc                          installed with adequate ventilation
        Camed Glazing                                    at top and bottom. Clear sheet
        1. Before beginning a repair to                  used without mesh gives unsightly
        leaded or zinc camed windows, a                  reflections.
        report should be commissioned from
        a glass specialist to schedule the           7.3 Joinery
        works required to bring the window
        construction into a good state of                1. Windows should be overhauled
        repair. This report should be sufficiently       and repaired wherever possible by
        detailed to give an outline of the               carefully splicing in new matching
        works proposed with the associated               timber to follow accurately the original
        costs and give a brief outline of the            profile using traditional techniques and
        importance of the glazing and identify           glue.
        any unique attributes that may require           2. Where new replacement windows
        more in-depth investigation.                     are required they should be single
                                                         glazed and manufactured from
                                                         matching timber sections accurately
    7.2 Leaded Glass Protection                          following the original design and
        1. Remove any inappropriate window               profiles.
        protection and make new window                   3. Reuse original ironmongery
        protection in woven or welded non-               where possible. Where necessary
        ferrous or stainless steel wire mesh             select historically appropriate new
        with a pitch and strength designed               ironmongery that meets the modern
        to meet the risk. Meshes should                  requirements of security and exit, yet
        be made by a skilled wireworker to               is of an appropriate style and quality.
        accurate templates.                              Use only slot headed screws.
        2. Protection should follow the glass
        line and not cover stone tracery. It
        should be fixed using non-ferrous            7.4 Original Glass
        fixings into joints in the masonry ingo,         1. Original historic glass (crown,
        back from the outside stone face but             cylinder, plate, patterned or coloured
        suitably spaced away from the glass              glass or glass with seeds, reams
        to give maximum protection.                      or other notable impurities) should
        3. To increase protection in highly              be saved for re-use. The use of
        vulnerable areas, consider safety glass          a proprietary putty lamp can be
        or where weight is an issue, clear               valuable in removing old putty without
        polycarbonate. Clear sheet material              damaging the glass.
        should be fitted behind mesh but                 2. Modern cylinder, Vauxhall, crown,
        not against the leaded glass and be              float glass or horticultural glass may


	                          Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme             15
     be used for replacements depending              2. Lime mortar pointing placed
     on the original glass type to be found          against a suitable backing stop. Where
     on the building. These may vary on a            a building is harled/rendered the use
     single building or elevation.                   of lime mortar to fill this joint will allow
     3. Match glass type to original                 the harl/render to be brought up to
     examples on site or to date of building         the joinery. This should be placed after
     construction. Any patterns established          joinery fascias have been decorated to
     as a result of evolution of the building        ensure good protection of the fascia.
     should be respected.                            3. For late twentieth century metal
                                                     windows that are a feature of the
                                                     original design, polysulphide mastic
 7.5 Secondary Glazing (not                          may be used. Proprietary glazing
     generally eligible for grant)                   putty is available for glazing twentieth
     1. Secondary glazing may be fitted              century metal windows.
     on the inside but this should follow the
     glazing divisions of the window and
     not foul or damage any shutters or the      7.7 Painting of external joinery
     opening of the window.                          1. Paint external joinery, using
     2. Secondary glazing is not grant               traditional methods and using good
     eligible unless an historic installation.       quality oil-based paint including
                                                     preparation as recommended in
                                                     the paint manufacturer’s written
 7.6 Abutment Pointing                               instructions.
     The joint between joinery and masonry           2. Ensure paint is not spread onto
     is to be pointed with either of the             adjacent masonry.
     following:                                      3. Window colour to be as original
     1. A traditional site mixed mastic              from scrapes, or off-white. Avoid
     comprising burnt mastic sand and                brilliant white for pre-1920 buildings.
     boiled linseed oil placed against a             4. Consider the use of traditional lead
     suitable backing stop.                          paints on grade "A" listed buildings.
     or




16    Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
          8 Internal

    8.1 Plaster repairs                                   8.4 Decoration (not generally
        1. Plaster should be in lime plaster to               eligible for grant)
        match the original as determined by                   1. Decoration is only grant eligible where
        analysis of the existing.                             it forms part of a historically significant
        2. In rooms where lath and plaster                    decorative scheme. The proposed
        exists, repairs should be carried out in              inclusion of a decorated paint scheme
        matching materials.                                   should be agreed with Historic Scotland
        3. Repairs to rooms or buildings where                in advance.
        the existing lath is lost entirely, may be            2. Conduct a historically researched
        undertaken in modern materials but this               study of the interior. The colour scheme
        is not grant eligible.                                should meticulously follow the research
                                                              findings in colour, decoration, and paint
                                                              type.
    8.2 Joinery work repairs                                  3. Where interiors are of recognised
        1. Carefully record, using profile gauges,            historic significance and are sensitive to
        the original size and form of original                UV light, avoid using UV film on historic
        internal joinery.                                     window glass as this cannot be removed
        2. Where it is necessary to repair or                 easily without risk of damage to the
        replace internal joinery sections, profile            glass. Use UV blinds where possible.
        new timber of suitable species and                    Blinds may be grant eligible but should
        quality to the original profile, cut and fix in       be discussed with Historic Scotland in
        accordance with best practice.                        advance.


    8.3 Rot works                                         8.5 Services Installations

        1. Locate the reason for moisture                     1. Heating installations within the
        getting into the fabric and successfully              envelope of the building will be eligible for
        prevent this happening. Remove rot and,               grant at 25% of the grant-eligible cost.
        where time permits, allow fabric to dry               2. To reduce the risk of electrical
        out                                                   fires, ensure that the scheme of
        2. Seek expert advice on methods of                   works includes testing of the electrical
        treatment adopting green principles                   installation and any upgrading found to
        wherever possible.                                    be necessary as a result of the testing.
                                                              This is not an historic repair and therefore
        3. Carefully patch in new pre-treated
                                                              not grant eligible.
        timbers to match original and make good
        internal finishes to match original                   3. In exceptional circumstances
                                                              refurbishment of decorative electrical
                                                              fittings may attract grant for repairs
                                                              but this should be agreed with Historic
                                                              Scotland in advance.

	                           Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme             17
     9 Ironwork

     The identification of the form of              3. Pure iron has no superior corrosion
     ironwork to be repaired i.e. mild steel,       resistance to steel and should not be
     cast iron or wrought iron should               used in preference to wrought iron for
     be made at an early stage to guide             historically correct repairs.
     subsequent works.

                                                9.3 Decorative and other Metal
 9.1 Cast iron                                      Work Repair
     1. Each project should be assessed             1. Weathervanes, roof ventilation
     and the most appropriate repair                louvres, solum ventilators, railings,
     technique(s) employed given the                gates or other historic architectural
     application, materials and historic            ferramenta may be considered for
     importance.                                    repair as part of the eligible works.
     2. In certain circumstances cast iron          2. Flame cleaning; needle gunning
     may be welded by specialists using             or blast cleaning may be appropriate.
     high nickel electrodes, or brazed              Chemical cleaning should be avoided,
     using aluminium bronze. Plate repairs          particularly for cast iron due to the
     or pinning by drilling and tapping             porosity of the material.
     adjoining components may also be               3. Weathervanes may be gilded.
     appropriate. Cold metal stitching may
     also be feasible.
     3. Re-casting missing components           9.4 Metalwork Protection.
     using traditional techniques might also        1. Generally new steel (not cast or
     be considered. Design and quality              wrought iron) should be galvanised
     should match existing.                         following manufacture.
                                                    2. Suitable long life paint treatments
 9.2 Wrought Iron                                   for ironwork, such as zinc rich
                                                    primers, and micaceous iron oxide
     1. Wrought iron should be removed              build coats should be considered for
     for repair by proven experts in this           use and applied in accordance with
     field.                                         manufacturers’ written instructions.
     2. To correctly repair wrought iron,           Hard shell epoxy paints should not be
     use only suitable quality recycled             used on cast iron; dry film thicknesses
     wrought iron. Repairing in wrought iron        should strike a balance between
     is preferable to replacing in steel.           protection and loss of detail.




18   Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme
        10 Other

    10.1 Non Grant Eligible Works                    10.4 Sustainability Issues
        1. The application should include a              1. Those involved in specification are
        list of work intended but which does             requested to satisfy themselves that
        not form part of the grant eligible repair       the products specified or used in the
        scheme, together with an indication              works will not endanger the health of
        of costs separately identified from the          the consumers or others, will not cause
        historic repair work, eg electrical work,        significant damage to the environment
        ramps, new WCs or other alterations.             during manufacture, use, or disposal,
                                                         will not consume a disproportionate
                                                         amount of energy during manufacture,
    10.2 Priorities or Phasing                           use, or disposal, will not cause
        1. The remedial works should be                  unnecessary waste because of over-
        undertaken in one phase but additional           packaging or because of an unusually
        phases may be considered. The                    short shelf life, or will not contain
        cost of the complete works should                materials derived from threatened
        be estimated at the outset and the               species or threatened environments.
        content of each phase should be                  2. All timber for the works to be
        priced and agreed in advance with                supplied with written confirmation
        Historic Scotland.                               that it is sustainably produced. Large
                                                         section hardwood timbers to come
                                                         with the appropriate chain of custody.
    10.3 Unforeseen Works
                                                         Historic Scotland may wish to have
        1. It is accepted that unforeseen work           sight of such confirmation.
        may sometimes be necessary. Any
                                                         3. Specifiers are encouraged to
        such work should be clearly identified,
                                                         ensure that protected wildlife (eg bats)
        costed and agreed with Historic
                                                         is not adversely affected by the repair
        Scotland before being included in the
                                                         work.
        works.




	                         Historic Environment Grants • Building Repair Grants Scheme          19
       Bibliography and Further Information
Historic Scotland, “The Repair of             Historic Scotland, Guide for
Historic Buildings in Scotland”               Practitioners
Historic Scotland, Technical Advice                1. The Conservation of Timber Sash
Notes (TANS)                                       and Case Windows
     1. TAN 1, Preparation and Use of              2. Scottish Iron Structures
     Lime Mortars Revised 2003]               Historic Scotland/English Heritage
     2. TAN 2, Conservation of                     1. Timber Decay in Buildings – The
     Plasterwork                                   Conservation Approach to Treatment
     3. TAN 4, Thatch and Thatching
     Techniques                               English Heritage,
     4. TAN 6, Earth Structures and                1. Lightning Protection for Churches
     Construction in Scotland                 Other useful Contacts
     5. TAN 13, The Archaeology of                1. Scottish Lime Centre Trust,
     Scottish Thatch                              Charleston, Fife: for advice on lime
     6. TAN 15, External Lime Coatings on         mortar mixes
     Traditional Buildings                        2. British Geological Survey,
     7. TAN 20, Corrosion in Masonry-             Edinburgh: for advice on selection of
     Clad Early Twentieth Century Buildings       building stone
     8. TAN 24, The Environmental Control         3. Historic Scotland’s Building
     of Dry Rot                                   Conservation Register: for access to
     9. TAN 26, Care and Conservation of          a list of consultants, contractors and
     17th Century Plasterwork in Scotland         suppliers.
     10. TAN 29, Corrugated Iron and Other        4. Historic Scotland’s reference library
     Ferrous Cladding                             of ironwork pattern books.
     11. TAN 30, Scottish Turf Construction




                           Historic Environment Grants Team
                                    Historic Scotland
                                    Longmore House
                                     Salisbury Place
                                      EDINBURGH
                                        EH9 1SH
                              Telephone: 0131 668 8801
                                  Fax: 0131 668 8788
                         E-mail: hs.grants@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

				
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