Docstoc

mayoux_Howdowefindout-Appendix

Document Sample
mayoux_Howdowefindout-Appendix Powered By Docstoc
					L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                   Page 1    2/10/2011




        APPENDIX 1: EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATED METHODS FOR INVESTIGATION


       EXAMPLE 1:PROGRAMME IMPROVEMENT IN MICROFINANCE

  1) Aim of assessment:
   to find out how particular loan conditions in a microfinance programme should be improved to increase contribution to
     poverty reduction and gender equality. The intention is to introduce any required changes quickly in response to high drop
     out rates and anecdotal evidence of repayment problems and tensions within households.

  2)   Priority requirements:
      rapid investigation and dissemination of findings
      increased understanding of problems by programme staff
      improved relations between programme and clients

  3) Assumptions:
        relations between staff and clients are good
        sincere interest in honest investigation of problems and solutions on the part of the programme as a whole
        good and reliable management information system exists with some baseline indicators from loan records into which
          indicators for long-term impact monitoring can be integrated
        grassroots groups keep group records and minutes and hold regular meetings which can contribute to the
          assessment on a sustainable basis
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                      Page 2   2/10/2011



4) Possible sequencing of methods

   Step              Aim                         What                               Method               Who
   1. Reviewing      to identify institutional   programme aims, interventions      Participatory        Principal investigator
   existing          strengths and               and structures                     workshop and         with programme staff
   information       weaknesses and                                                 literature review
                     possibilities for change
                     to identify non-            Macro level economic and           Participatory        Principal investigator
                     programme                   political context, gender and      workshop and         with programme staff
                     opportunities and           ethnic relations, market           literature review
                     constraints for poverty     opportunities and constraints,
                     reduction and change        environmental shocks

                     To identify possible     differences in repayment patterns     Consultation         Principal investigator
                     patterns of individual-  and/or activities for which loans     programme records
                     level impacts and        are taken, loan size etc. between     and statistics and
                     inform sampling design   different categories of client and    group records
                                              different needs by economic
                                              status, ethnic group, gender,
                                              marital status, age, economic
                                              activity
                     To identify possible      differences in repayment            Consultation of      Principal investigator
                     patterns of group-level     patterns between groups            programme records
                     impacts, inform           quality of group minutes            and statistics and
                     sampling design and       any particular problems in          group minutes
                     grassroots investigation    group governance
                     To facilitate sampling   list of names and addresses of        Consultation of      Principal investigator
                                              respondents and dropouts to           programme records
                                              inform sampling design
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                 Page 3     2/10/2011




   2. Establishing  To introduce the        Selected questions about           Participatory            Principal investigator
   rapport           assessment              programme implementation           workshop/s with          with key
                    To investigate the                                         sample stakeholders      stakeholders,
                     local relevance of      Selected questions about           including grassroots     including some non-
                     the programme and       context                            groups/representatives   programme
                     contextual                                                                          participants and
                     information             Brainstorming/diagramming to       Exploratory private      dropouts.
                    To get a preliminary    explore hypotheses                 focused interviews
                     feel for the                                               with key stakeholders
                     relevance of any
                     hypotheses
                     generated
                    To get a preliminary
                     feel for any further
                     hypotheses
                     proposed by other
                     stakeholders
   3. Asking the    To quantify             Background of participant and      Structured one-hour      Programme staff
   questions         particular impacts      context                            survey with some         and/or principal
                    To quantify                                                open questions at the    investigator for
                     particular contextual   Selected questions about           end                      purposive cluster
                     factors                 programme participation                                     sampling of
                    To quantify                                                                         beneficiaries and
                     particular attitudes    Selected questions about impact                             dropouts
                     and needs in            and problems
                     relation to policy                                         Group-level survey on    Group leaders at
                     changes proposed        Selected questions about           issues of interest to    group meetings
                     above                   proposed solutions                 them
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                     Page 4      2/10/2011




   4. Recording        To ensure reliability   As identified in text                 As identified in text.   All stakeholders
   the                  of information                                                                         where possible to
   information         To contribute to                                                                       contribute to capacity-
                        understanding                                                                          building and
                        between                                                                                sustainable learning
                        stakeholders and                                                                       unless this
                        capacity building                                                                      compromises
                                                                                                               reliability too much
   5.                 To investigate in        Processes of impact                   Informal interviews      Principal researcher
   Crosschecking       more detail the                                                                         for purposive sample
   information         reasons for any          Feasibility of proposed solutions     and/or participatory     of key informants
                       patterns observed in                                           workshop                 selected from
                       quantitative survey                                                                     quantitative sample of
                                                                                                               both beneficiaries and
                                                                                                               dropouts
   6. Ending the     to establish              Processes of impact                   Participatory            Principal researcher
   investigation      consensus on the                                                workshop/s.              with key stakeholders
                      findings and practical    Feasibility of proposed solutions                              and informants
                      recommendations or                                                                       including group
                      to establish                                                                             leaders and influential
                      differences and                                                                          institutional
                      conflicts of interest                                                                    representatives
                      between stakeholders
                      regarding these
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                     Page 5   2/10/2011



      EXAMPLE 2: POLICY DEVELOPMENT: FOR GENDER-SENSITIVE REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS FOR ENTERPRISE.

1) Aims of the impact assessment:
     to develop gender sensitive policy guidelines
     to develop structures and networks which take into account the needs of different stakeholders and linkages between
      different types of enterprise
     to identify any particular needs of poor women.

2) Priority requirements
     reliable in-depth and generalizable information on the specific needs and problems of different groups of women involved in
       enterprise
     balancing of the needs of different stakeholders
     protecting the interests of poor women
     obtaining broad consensus about the changes needed and minimising or addressing any possible conflicts between women
       and other interests e.g. men in the same households and communities, large enterprises in the same marketing chain etc.
     establishment of networks which can assist in implementation of the changes identified

   4) Assumptions
      no baseline study exists and the need for change is too urgent to wait for longitudinal data
     that the investigation will need to cover sensitive issues of intra-household and intra-community relations, power relations
       between different types of enterprises
     that the investigation is likely to uncover patterns of avoidance of regulation and corruption
     that skilled local researchers and interested NGOs and government staff can be found to translate the findings of the
       assessment into policy change
     that some grassroots organizations exist which are interested in participating in the research
     that there is a need to balance immediate dissemination of easily understandable information with credible and in-depth
       analysis which can convince senior policymakers
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                      Page 6     2/10/2011



     4) Possible sequencing of methods


   Step              Aim                            What                            Method                    Who
   1. Reviewing       to identify the relevant      detailed stakeholder and      Literature review and     Principle researcher
   existing             stakeholders as                institutional analysis       participatory             with selected
   information at       contributors to the         macro level economic and       workshop/s                participants: ‘experts’,
   macro-level          assessment/sample            political context, gender                                stakeholder and
                        respondents                  and ethnic relations,                                    organizational
                      to identify contextual        market opportunities and                                 representatives
                        opportunities and            constraints, environmental
                        constraints                  shocks
                      to identify the different     detailed analysis of
                        regulatory measures            existing regulations,
                        which already affect the       implementation and any
                        different stakeholders         evidence of impacts
   2. Establishing    To introduce the              local-level stakeholder         participatory          Principle researcher
   rapport at          assessment to intended          and institutional analysis      workshop/s with        with assistants
   local level         policy beneficiary groups    local-level analysis of           identified             assisted by other
                       where not included in A       effects of macro level            stakeholder groups     stakeholders and
                      To investigate the local      economic and political           exploratory            grassroots leaders
                       relevance of the              context, gender and ethnic        qualitative research
                       programme and                 relations, market                 with stakeholder
                       contextual information        opportunities and                 groups were
                      To get a preliminary feel     constraints, environmental        participatory
                       for the relevance of any      shocks                            workshops might
                       hypotheses generated         local-level analysis              be to public and/or
                      To improve                    analysis of existing              make them
                       representativeness of         regulations,                      vulnerable
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                      Page 7   2/10/2011



                       sampling methodology        implementation and any           possible initial
                                                   evidence of impacts               census of
                                                   local-level exploration of       communities
                                                   possible solutions                identified as key
                                                   identification of                sample to further
                                                   differences between               establish rapport
                                                   stakeholders relevant to          and reliably identify
                                                   sampling and analysis             appropriate control
                                                                                     group categories
   3. Asking the      To quantify particular     Background of participant       Structured survey in       Programme staff
   questions           impacts of existing        and context                     several stages with        and/or principal
                       policies                                                   some open questions        investigator for
                      To quantify particular     Selected questions about        at the end and             purposive cluster
                       contextual factors         programme participation         adapted to the needs       sampling of different
                      To assess the extent of                                    of particular groups       stakeholder groups
                       sensitive problems like    Selected questions about
                       corruption, sexual         impact and problems             Structured                 Grassroots
                       harassment and                                             questionnaires for         leaders/groups
                       violence                   Selected questions about        grassroots
                      To quantify particular     proposed solutions              organizations on
                       attitudes and needs in                                     issues of concern to
                       relation to policy                                         them
                       changes proposed
                       above
   4. Recording       With clear eye to ways     As indicated in text            As identified in text      All stakeholders
   the                  in which information                                      but carefully designed     where feasible to
   information          needs to be presented                                     photography and            contribute to capacity
                        for different audiences                                   videos are likely to be    building and
                                                                                  particularly important     sustainable learning
L.mayoux   4d4d00dd-b4d6-4d66-a2e6-3960cc6c8a6b.doc                     Page 8   2/10/2011



                                                                                 for dissemination
   5.                 To investigate in more       Processes of impact          Informal interviews      Principal researcher
   Crosschecking       detail the reasons for                                                             for purposive sample
   information         any patterns observed in     Feasibility of proposed      participatory            of key informants
                       quantitative survey          solutions                    workshops with           selected from
                                                                                 quantification through   quantitative sample of
                                                                                 voting                   both beneficiaries and
                                                                                                          dropouts

                                                                                                          Reliable stakeholder
                                                                                                          representatives
   6. Ending the      To publicise findings                                     participatory            stakeholder groups or
   investigation      to discuss the feasibility                                workshop/s               representatives who
                        of policy changes                                                                 were involved in
                        identified                                                                        research
                      to identify ways in which
                        networks can be set up                                                            other influential
                        for implementation and                                                            institutional actors
                        ongoing
                        monitoring/learning                                                               other researchers who
                      identification of                                                                  might be involved in
                        measures which might                                                              future
                        be needed to avoid any
                        negative repercussions
                        for those most
                        vulnerable

				
DOCUMENT INFO