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					Byrne, Barbara (1992). Relevance Theory and the Language of Advertising. CLS
Occasional Paper No. 31. ED349840.
ABSTRACT: Relevance theory, the premise that a hearer will make the effort to process a
communication if he or she feels it will alter or enrich his/her cognitive environment, can be
useful for increasing the effectiveness of advertising communication. It is particularly helpful
for analyzing and improving the effectiveness of the creative devices often used in advertising
language to add interest and additional meaning to the text. While essentially a theory of
pragmatics, relevance theory gives a complete account of the recovery of meaning of an
utterance. Advertising text commonly contains variations on accepted standards of
grammaticality and specific contextual implications. Analysis of the text using relevance
theory can expose the text/context interaction and illustrate the role of linguistic style as a tool
for conveying more than is actually verbalized. Areas that can be targeted by such analysis
include disambiguation and referential assignment, readers' anticipatory hypotheses,
examination of phonetic effects, repetition, text length, media-specific contextual
implications, intertext devices, illocutionary force, and cancellation of implicature.

ERIC_NO: EJ641271
TITLE: Verso la comprensione: l'applicazione di un modello (Towards Comprehension: The
Application of a Model).
AUTHOR: Brusco, Simona
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2001
JOURNAL_CITATION: Italica; v78 n4 p540-60 p79-99 Win 2001
ABSTRACT: Argues comprehension is a complex, non-linear process, conditioned by
multiple individual and contextual factors. Outlines DeMauro's models of comprehension,
presents an integrated model that combines the interlacing and the circular models, uses the
integrated model to analyze a series of interviews based on viewing of a magazine
advertisement. Offers a graphical representation of the different factors at play.


ERIC_NO: ED120758
TITLE: Maturational and Social Factors in Children's Understanding of TV Commercials.
AUTHOR: Robertson, Thomas S.; Rossiter, John R.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
ABSTRACT: The findings of this study indicated that children's capacity to comprehend
television advertising is primarily a developmental phenomenon, although social and
experiential factors may have a moderate positive and a minor negative influence,
respectively. Research subjects were 289 elementary school boys of first, third, and fifth
grade levels, equally divided among the three groups. Canonical correlation analysis was
utilized in a broad application of Piaget's theory to assess the relative contribution of
developmental, social and experiential factors to children's comprehension of television
advertising. Comprehension was operationally defined as cognitive understanding of the
general structure and intent of commercials and demonstration of a selective attitudinal
response toward them.

Kurose, Yuki (2002). The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement. ED463666.
ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language
as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising
and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous
research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising, presenting
typical examples for each. The strategies are divided into linguistic-oriented strategies and
sociocultural strategies. Finally, the paper suggests some teaching plans for Japanese
classrooms, where teachers can utilize advertising language as one of the language
teaching materials. These plans cover the strategies unique to the Japanese language and the
strategies that require some background knowledge of Japanese society and culture.

ERIC_NO: ED388072 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Linking Multilingual Advertising to Foreign Language Teaching.
AUTHOR: Martin, Elizabeth
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1995
ABSTRACT: It is suggested that print advertising is particularly well suited to classroom
second language teaching because it is attractive, entertaining, contains powerful emotional or
factual messages, and is concise. Research indicates that multilingual or code-mixed
advertising is common and reveals interesting linguistic phenomena, including semantic,
grammatical, and syntactic ambiguity, word-border displacement, lexical innovation,
idiom transformation, and phonetic repetition as well as code mixing. Advertisements
also reflect cultural traits and images, including connotations associated with use of certain
orthographic systems. English is the most popular language with which another language is
paired, but is also considered inappropriate in some cultures. Characteristics of multilingual
ad copy containing English include explicit cues to meaning or to English pronunciation.
Several examples of possible use of code-mixed advertising in language teaching are
offered, with illustrations from ad copy. Suggestions include vocabulary or grammar activities
based on ad content, pronunciation exercises, and discussion of cultural clues and influences
in format and language use. Brief guidelines for selecting and adapting advertisements for the
foreign language classroom are also presented.

ERIC_NO: ED324948
TITLE: The Language-Culture Interface in German Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Gramberg, Anne-Katrin
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
ABSTRACT: A comparison of German and American advertising reveals differences in
technique and structures. Persuasion is central in both, but the grammatical structures and
illocutionary devices available in each language vary. The culture is also reflected in the type
and degree to which each language uses techniques of persuasive language. The findings can
be applied in the foreign language classroom, allowing students to better understand German
marketing techniques, German verbal and nonverbal communication, the function of German
strategies and structures used for persuading, and perceived and actual cultural differences.
Comparison of automobile ads from the two countries, using both pictures and text, suggests
significantly different approaches to the audience, with the German version using a much
more interpersonal communication style and the American ad stressing facts. The level of
communication in the ads also varies. The German ad uses conversational turn-taking,
handwriting, more personal pronouns, and an identification of buyer and seller belonging to
the same group. The American ad is clearly constructed as a monologue, focusing on the
product alone.


Oaks, Dallin D. (1995). Structural Ambiguities and Written Advertisements: An
Inventory of Tools for More Resourceful Advertisements in English. Journal of Technical
Writing and Communication; 25, 4, 371-92.
ABSTRACT: Discusses some types of writing tasks, such as advertising, in which a writer
might want to create ambiguous wordplays. States that a more conscious understanding of the
structure of a language could make the generation of structural ambiguities easier. Examines
some structural features of English that could prove useful to advertisers who wish to cause
deliberate structural ambiguities.


Byrne, Barbara (1992). Relevance Theory and the Language of Advertising. CLS
Occasional Paper No. 31. ED349840.
ABSTRACT: Relevance theory, the premise that a hearer will make the effort to process a
communication if he or she feels it will alter or enrich his/her cognitive environment, can be
useful for increasing the effectiveness of advertising communication. It is particularly helpful
for analyzing and improving the effectiveness of the creative devices often used in advertising
language to add interest and additional meaning to the text. While essentially a theory of
pragmatics, relevance theory gives a complete account of the recovery of meaning of an
utterance. Advertising text commonly contains variations on accepted standards of
grammaticality and specific contextual implications. Analysis of the text using relevance
theory can expose the text/context interaction and illustrate the role of linguistic style as a tool
for conveying more than is actually verbalized. Areas that can be targeted by such analysis
include disambiguation and referential assignment, readers' anticipatory hypotheses,
examination of phonetic effects, repetition, text length, media-specific contextual
implications, intertext devices, illocutionary force, and cancellation of implicature.


ERIC_NO: EJ332828
TITLE: The Language of Advertising vs. Standard English.
AUTHOR: Wyckham, Robert G.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1986
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Journal; v75 n4 p57-58 Apr 1986
ABSTRACT: Discusses syntactic and stylistic errors in the language of advertising and the
reason for these linguistic irregularities. Suggests ways of dealing with the problem.

ERIC_NO: ED322554
TITLE: Undressing the Ad: A Method for Deconstructing Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Frith, Katherine Toland
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1990
ABSTRACT: Deconstruction is a critical literary theory which focuses on the unintentional
meanings of a text and aims to achieve an unprejudiced, value-free vision of the social and
political power structures in society that combine to produce the text. The development of
such critical skills in advertising students will deepen their ability to judge the quality of their
work and the work of others. A series of examples of students' deconstruction of
advertisements provide examples of how students can "undress the ad" to (1) show how
cultural messages are woven into sales messages, and (2) discuss mythology and symbolism,
cultural stereotypes of men and women, and sexual fantasy. Deconstruction holds great
promise for raising the standards of professionalism in advertising and for shaping a more
scholarly approach to the study of advertising.


ERIC_NO: EJ370120 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: A Content Analysis of Visuals Used in Print Media Advertising.
AUTHOR: Moriarty, Sandra E.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journalism Quarterly; v64 n2-3 p550-54 Sum-Fall 1987
ABSTRACT: Provides a content analysis of advertising visuals--illustrations and
photographs--to determine the frequency with which the basic visual communication
functions are used. Finds that photographs are the most frequently used type of visual and
that symbolic visuals are more prevalent than literal visuals.


Stone, William B. (1978). Advertising and Student Rhetoric. ERIC No. ED166701.
ABSTRACT: Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action,
is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric.
Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable
corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching
composition. In one course that used advertising as a basis for teaching composition, students
were assigned six papers on advertising topics during a semester. The six topics were: explain
why an ad is effective; discuss a poor ad; compare or contrast two ads on any basis; write a
public service ad and explain why it is effective; argue that advertising is one of society's
evils, that it ought to be controlled by the government, or that it benefits the consumer; and
write on a controversial thesis regarding some aspect of advertising in the United States.
Students learned about variety in diction, connotations, sentence structure, openings, use of
detail, economy of expression, the sound of language, and persuasion through indirection.

Picken, Jonathan (1999). State of the Ad: The Role of Advertisements in EFL Teaching.
ELT Journal; 53, 4, 249-55.
ABSTRACT: Examines the main arguments for using ads in the English-as-a-Foreign-
Language classroom. With reference to recent research, focuses on some of the appealing
uses of language, visual elements, and culture in advertising, and on how language teachers
could exploit them in their classes.


Brickman, Bette (1992). Advertisements in the Basic Skills Writing Class. ERIC No.
ED352859.
ABSTRACT: Advertising in the mass media contains a wide variety of psychological,
emotional, and cultural messages. In basic skills and English-as-a-Second-Language writing
instruction, ads can be used to exemplify writing models presented in class. Basic skills
students often come to writing classes discouraged or prepared for failure, and the structure of
most writing textbooks is confusing and/or patronizing. By contrast, advertisements provide
real-life illustrations of argument, cause and effect, and persuasion. They can be particularly
effective, when carefully chosen, in teaching foreign students. Learners can collect ads
containing examples of concepts being taught in class, idioms, and figurative language.
Because they contain persuasive information, ads may be easier to decipher than many other
materials. Analysis of ads also lends itself to collaborative learning. Ads are readily available
in a wide range of forms, some with intentional grammatical or spelling errors. Comparison of
advertising for similar products across audiences or media (e.g., magazine versus television),
analysis of layout and placement in a publication, and examination of content and appearance
are useful exercises. With training, students can learn to think critically, distinguish faulty
from sound logic, and analyze the influence ads have on the consumer.

Heyer, (1985) recommended that Advertisements be reproduced as slides or other visual
aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing
previously discussed topics or introducing new ones and that they be organized according to
themes and general topics, such as banking, insurance, transportation, and categories of
consumer goods. A variety of classroom activities can be derived from advertisements: fine
print can be used for translation exercises, testing of reading skills, or discussion; students can
guess concealed headlines or fill in words, phrases, or text segments from overhead
projections; and students can compare American and foreign advertising or provide
comparable wording in the target language for American advertisements.

Deutsch, Rena (1984). Advertisements: An Overlooked Resource in the Foreign
Language Classroom. ERIC No. ED253055.
ABSTRACT: The use of newspaper and magazine advertisements for teaching foreign
language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well as vocabulary, idiomatic
expressions, grammar, pronunciation, and culture is encouraged and discussed. Lesson topics
include understanding how advertisements use various kinds of puns or manipulate language,
finding ads in which grammatical rules are broken, finding cultural generalizations in
advertising, and using mail order catalogs to obtain cultural information.

Mollica, Anthony (1979)."A Tiger in Your Tank": Advertisements in the Language
Classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review; 35, 4, 691-743.
ABSTRACT: Describes the use of advertisements in language instruction, with particular
attention to the language of advertisements, including the conative and emotive functions,
linguistic shock, translation, humor, and cultural information.


Stock, Janet C. (1992). Teaching Culture through Advertising. ERIC No. ED348870.
 ABSTRACT: Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language
instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model
of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach
French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism are
cited. The teaching approaches include examining a large number of issues to identify
appropriate ads, discussing with the class how advertisers appeal to consumers with both open
and covert messages, and sensitizing students to hidden promises of the ads. Small group
discussions among the students focus on specific French qualities or values to which the ads
appeal. Differences between French and American ads are also discussed.


Coombs, Virginia M. (1978). Magazine Advertisements in Beginning Language Classes.
ERIC No. ED153493.

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the ways in which pictures in current German
magazine advertisements can be employed as effective visual aids in basic grammar
drills. The structures discussed here are the reflexive verb construction and two aspects of
the passive voice construction, namely the passive to indicate activity-as-such and the
contrast between the passive voice and the statal passive. Reference is made to the
presentations of these grammar points and the accompanying drills in two secondary level
texts, "ALM Level II" and "Level III" and "German Today Two," as well as two college level
texts, "First-Year German" and "Deutsch heute." The construction of the drill and descriptions
of the various appropriate advertisements that accompany the drill are described; full drill
sequences are presented in Appendix A. Suggestions for selecting and preparing the materials
are also included.
Plata, Maximino (1992). Language in Food Advertisements. Reading Improvement; 29,
3,193-99.
ABSTRACT: Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities.
Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of
language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads
in the classroom.

Corbellari, Michel (1981). Procedes de langage dans la publicite (Linguistic Devices in
Advertising). Francais dans le Monde; 163, 69-73.
ABSTRACT: Analyzes the linguistic devices and styles employed in advertisement writing.
Illustrates the use of rhetorical figures and gives examples of word creation, of puns based on
polysemy or paronyms, of alliteration, and of rhyme. Concludes with the suggestion that
advertisement texts could profitably be put to use in the classroom.

Celuch, Kevin; Slama, Mark (1999).Teaching Critical Thinking Skills for the 21st
Century: An Advertising Principles Case Study. Journal of Education for Business; 74,
3, 134-39.
ABSTRACT: Describes how to teach business using critical thinking methods and how to
assess elements of critical thinking including standards for judging it. Illustrates teaching
methods, materials, and student activities for a course using a critical thinking approach to
advertising principles.

(1) Motes, William H.; And Others (1992). Reactions to Lexical, Syntactical, and Text
    Layout Variations of a Print Advertisement. Journal of Business and Technical
    Communication; 6, 2, 200-23.
    ABSTRACT: Assesses reader reactions to a broad range of lexical, syntactical, and text
    layout conditions, both in isolation and interactively. Finds that, although the role of these
    elements in affecting readers' perceptions is not as critical as was presumed, certain
    perceptions are significantly affected by specific lexical, syntactical, and layout
    combinations.

(2) Pyrczak, Fred (1980). Effects of Abbreviations on Comprehension of Classified
    Employment Advertisements. Journal of Reading; v24 n3 p249-52 Dec 1980
    ABSTRACT: Describes an investigation that showed that abbreviations in classified ads
    are difficult to comprehend and suggests that instruction be given in understanding
    abbreviations as a real life reading skill.

(3) Sokol, Kirstin R. (1981). Abbreviations: Their Effects on Comprehension of
    Classified Advertisements. ERIC No. ED214108.
    ABSTRACT: Two experimental designs were used to test the hypothesis that
    abbreviations in classified advertisements decrease the reader's comprehension of such
    ads. In the first experimental design, 73 high school students read four ads (for
    employment, used cars, apartments for rent, and articles for sale) either with abbreviations
    or with all abbreviations eliminated. Both forms of ads were followed by comprehension
    questions. The 93 high school students participating in the second experimental design
    read the ads both with and without the abbreviations but in different orders of presentation
    and sometimes with a lapse of one week between readings. The findings were the same in
    both of the experimental designs. Regardless of test conditions, order of presentation, and
    time lapse between completion of both forms of experiment, the mean correct scores of
    the subjects were significantly lower on the form with abbreviations than on the
   form without abbreviations. A grade-by-grade analysis of the data showed that the
   differences between scores on the two forms occurred in all grades, although the
   differences were not significant in the twelfth grade sample. The analysis by grade also
   showed a trend of decreasing differences between the two forms as educational level
   increased.

(4) Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others )1988). Explanation of Ambiguous Advertisements:
    A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents. Journal of Speech and
    Hearing Research; 31, 3, 466-74. ABSTRACT: Forty students aged 9-18 were asked to
    explain the meanings of lexically ambiguous advertisements from magazines, newspapers,
    and brochures. Older subjects explained the meanings correctly more frequently than
    younger subjects. The psychological meanings of the ads were found to be more difficult
    to explain than the physical meanings.

(5) Wyckham, Robert G. (1984.) Students' Linguistic Skills and the Language of
    Television Advertising. English Quarterly; 17, 1, 21-30.
    ABSTRACT: Details a survey of 264 Canadian elementary school teachers to determine
    their views on the influence of television advertising language on students' ability to learn
    standard English usage. Calls for research to ascertain whether the cause and effect
    relationship seen by a significant portion of the respondents has a basis in fact.

(6) Silva, Rosangela Souto (1994). A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicatures in Brazilian
    TV Commercials. ERIC No. ED378825.
    ABSTRACT: A study investigated the extent to which native speakers (NSs) and non-
    native speakers (NNSs) of Portuguese understand implicatures in Brazilian television
    commercials in Portuguese. Subjects were nine Brazilian graduate students and 11
    American students of Portuguese at the University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign.
    Correct inference of the implicatures was measured by a multiple-choice test, followed by
    an oral interview. Results revealed that the NSs' interpretation of implicatures was
    very uniform, with an average of correct answers (93.3 percent). Conversely, the
    performance of the NNSs varied, with an average of 47.3 percent correct answers.
    This was found to be true even in cases in which the implicatures in Brazilian
    Portuguese operated the same as in American English. Analysis of the data suggest
    that each case of successful inference requires some specific knowledge that may not
    be equally shared among NSs and NNSs. It is recommended that the pragmatic
    competence of American learners of Portuguese be addressed in language instruction.

				
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