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Biometrics

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					Biometrics




         Presented by
       Ratna Sudha.R
     Reg No: Y1MC09035
          Final MCA
           CONTENTS
1. Introduction
2. Security and authentication
3. Methods of verification
     a. Psychological verification
          i. Finger Print.
         ii. Hand Print.
        iii. Face Measurement.
        iv. Retinal Scanning.
         v. DNA Analysis.
     b.Behavioral verification
          i. Typing.
         ii. Signature.
        iii. Voice.
4. Identification.
5. Verification.
6. Advantages
7. Limitations
8. Conclusion.
9. References
                          Introduction
              Biometrics is an advanced technology for superb security and
authentication .The very term "biometric” it represent that "bio" means
related to the biological study and "metric " means something, which is
related to measurement. In network environment security is a crucial factor.
Provide security to pages in the network is to difficulty. Password is not a
good measurement for security. Good security mechanism is necessary on
the Internet. Security in different levels applies to various documents.
Security is depends how security assign to documents. Security depends on
following categories.

   1.   Confidential
   2.   Secret
   3.   Non-secret
   4.   Public

       Confidential pages over the network provide full security. No way to
tamper data in the page by third party. In this case biometrics are more
useful and no way to disturb the page contents. First of all store all data
about biometrics in database after that tally with this data. If tally satisfies
with backend then provide access to the user. Collecting information is too
difficult and store in database also need more space.

There are two security methodologies in Biometrics, they are

1.Token-based security:
     It relies on the users special item -token like card-id.

2.Secret based security:
      It relies on an individual secret id number like password.

       Neither of the two can accurately determine whether the password
that posses a token nor knows some secret information of the individual it
represents. Tokens can be stolen and information can be guessed or
fraudulently obtained.
       Biometric is a technology where the password for entry is you, which
identifies your psychological and behavioral characteristics.

               Security and Authentication
       Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) supports a limited form
of security for the Microsoft® Windows® 98 platform that involves
validating a user's logon for the local machine and for remote access. A
validated user is granted access to the entire Common Information Model
(CIM) schema. WBEM does not secure system resources, such as individual
classes, instances, and namespaces. Security is limited because Windows 98
is not a secure operating system and does not support file system or registry
security.
       All security-related information is represented by instances of WBEM
system classes located in the Root\Security namespace. These classes and
instances can only appear in the Root\Security namespace and must remain
there permanently.
      The WBEM Administrator application can be used to set permissions
for WBEM users. It is similar to the User Manager application supplied
with Microsoft® Windows NT®.
      In WBEM, all security accounts are referred to as subjects. There are
two types of subjects: user and group. Users are represented by instances of
the NTLMUser system class, which describes individual users. Groups are
represented by instances of the NTLMGroup system class, which describes
multiple users. Both the NTLMUser and NTLMGroup classes derive
indirectly from the subject system class, an abstract class that is not
intended to be used for instantiation. More directly, NTLMUser derives
from the generic User class and NTLMGroup derives from the generic
Group class.


Permissions:
      Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security.
The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to
use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The
ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA,
database owner, or database object owner). Permissions are set on database
users or groups, not on login IDs.
Permission Hierarchy:
      SQL Server's permissions system recognizes four types of users: the
SA, database owners, database object owners, and other users of the
database.
      The different types of users exist in a hierarchy (explained in the
following sections and illustrated below).



                       System Administrator

                             Database owners
                             Database object owners
                                     Database users


      Only the SA and database owners can grant statement permissions to
other users.

Different Security Mechanisms:
       To help you understand the information presented in this chapter, we
begin by defining some security-related terms. This brief list of definitions
is not intended to serve as a comprehensive SQL Server glossary. It is
provided as a quick reference to help you understand some of the security
elements discussed throughout this chapter. You may find it useful to refer
back to this list of security definitions as you read through this chapter and
through Chapter 9, "Managing Security."
alias
      An alias is a database username that is shared by several login IDs. A
database alias allows you to treat more than one person as the same user


inside a database, giving all of them the same permissions. Any username in
a database can also serve as an alias.
      Aliases are often used so that several users can assume the role of
database owner.
Database object owner
      Database objects are tables, indexes, views, defaults, triggers, rules,
and procedures. The user who creates a database object is the database
object owner and is automatically granted all permissions on it. The
database object owner can grant permission to other users to use that object.
Database object ownership cannot be transferred.

database owner
      The database owner (DBO) is the creator of a database. There is only
one DBO. The DBO has full privileges inside the database that he or she
owns, and determines the access and capabilities provided to other users.
      In his or her own database, the user is recognized as DBO; in other
databases, the database owner is known by his or her database username.
      DBO status can be reassigned to a different user. Only one login ID
can be DBO, although other login IDs can be aliased to DBO.
domain
       In Windows NT security, a domain is a collection of computers that
are grouped for viewing and administrative purposes, and that share a
common security database.

group
       In SQL Server, a database group is a collection of database users. The
users receive the database permissions granted to the group. Using groups
simplifies management of a large number of database users, because groups
provide a convenient way to grant and revoke permissions to more than one
user at the same time.
       In Windows NT, a group is a collection of Windows NT users. The
users received the Windows NT rights and permissions granted to the group.
Groups provide a convenient way to manage the capabilities of a large




number of users with similar needs, within the security scope of a domain or
a computer.
integrated security
       Integrated security allows a SQL Server to use Windows NT
authentication mechanisms to validate logins for all connections. Only
trusted (multi-protocol or named pipes) connections are allowed.

login ID
      A login ID is a name by which a user is known to SQL Server. Login
IDs are also referred to as logins.
      To log in to a SQL Server that is running standard security, a user
must provide a valid login ID and password.


login security mode
      The login security mode determines the manner in which a SQL
Server validates a login request. There are three types of login security:
integrated, standard, and mixed.

mixed security
       Mixed security allows login requests to be validated using either
integrated or standard security. Trusted connections (as used by integrated
security) and nontrusted connections (as used by standard security) can be
established.

object permissions
      Object permissions regulate the use of certain statements on certain
database objects. They are granted and revoked by the owner of the object.

permissions
      Microsoft SQL Server uses permissions to enforce database security.
The SQL Server permissions system specifies which users are authorized to
use which Transact-SQL statements, views, and stored procedures. The




ability to assign permissions is determined by each user's status (as SA,
database owner, or database object owner).
There are two types: object permissions and statement permissions.
standard security
       Standard security uses SQL Server's own login validation process for
all connections. To log in to a SQL Server, each user must provide a valid
login ID and password.

statement permissions
      Statement permissions provide the privilege to issue certain Transact-
SQL statements. Statement permissions are not object-specific. They can be
granted only by the SA or the database owner.
    Statement permissions apply to these statements: CREATE
DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE
RULE, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, DUMP DATABASE, and
DUMP TRANSACTION.
      Statement permissions are also called command permissions.
system administrator
       The system administrator (SA) is the person responsible for the
administrative and operational functions that are independent of any
particular application, and is likely to be a person with a comprehensive
overview of SQL Server and all its applications.
       Administering SQL Server typically includes such tasks as installing
SQL Server; configuring servers and clients; managing and monitoring the
use of disk space, memory, and connections; creating devices and databases;
authorizing SQL Server users and granting them permissions; transferring
data in and out of SQL Server databases; backing up and restoring
databases; implementing and maintaining replication; scheduling
unattended operations; monitoring and tuning SQL Server performance; and
diagnosing system problems. The system administrator may also advise
application designers about the data that already exists on SQL Server,
make recommendations about standardizing data definitions across
applications, and so on.
      The system administrator operates outside the protection system,
which means that SQL Server does no permission checking for the system
administrator. The system administrator is also treated as the owner of
whatever database he or she is using. Anyone who knows the SA password
can log in and act as system administrator (unless the server is running in
Integrated login security mode).


trusted connections
       Integrated security requires network protocols that support
authenticated connections between clients and servers. These are referred to
as trusted connections. The multi-protocol and named pipe protocols
provide trusted connections.


      Note that nontrusted connections (connections over other network
protocols that do not support authenticated connections) must be handled by
using SQL Server standard security.


username
       In SQL Server, a database username is a name assigned to a login ID
for the purpose of allowing a user to have access to a database. The abilities
a user has within a database depend on the permissions granted to the
username (and to any groups the username is a member of).


       In Windows NT, a username is the name by which the user is known
to the domain, or to an individual Windows NT computer. A user logs on to
a domain or computer by providing a valid username and password. The
abilities of the user depend on the Windows NT rights and permissions
granted to that username and to any Windows NT groups the username is a
member of.
              Method of Verification
1.PSYCHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION

             Psychological Verification involves in the verification of the
organs of the human being, which will have unique identification and does
not match with others.

There are five types of verifications. These are:

   I.   Fingerprint.
  II.   Handprint.
 III.   Face measurement.
 IV.    Retinal scans.
  V.    DNA analysis.

I. Finger print: It involves the user placing his finger over a glass-plate,
which resides over a high-resolution camera, which uses optical or
electromagnetic means to take its snapshot. The software analysis your
finger for pattern such as loops, worls and arches.

Advantages:

      a. This technology is neither too expensive nor does it require
extensive user training.
      b. It also simple to implement.
      c. Finger print system has FAR<0.5%
      d. It is oldest known technique that is still used in criminal records
and forensic.

      Imagine the number if unique finger prints that might need to be
stored and then accessed in a database. This necessities the use of easier
indexing and matching.
       In US super market, customers give their credit card information and
other personal details to store and tie it with their fingerprint data. The next
time, he can pay for purchases without a fingerprint.
Disadvantages:
       1.Any injures of fingers effect more.

II. Hand print:
      It compares a 3D image of the users hand to that present in the system
database. It is somewhat similar to finger print verification.

Advantage:
     a. Accuracy is better than fingerprint.
     b. Cheap and easy to deploy.

Disadvantage:
        a. Complex in usage.
        b. Implementation is expensive.
        c. Any damages to hand effect more.
III. Face measurement:
       Measuring this is as simple as taking a picture and analyzing the
image from a security video capture. This technique enables the computer to
use your face as your password and matching these to an existing database.

Advantage:
     a. Most continents at public places.
     b. Less expensive.

Disadvantage:
        a. Inaccurate is affected by changes in lighting, age, and
           movement, glass.
        b. Face creams also effect the measurements.
IV. Retinal scans:
       It involves imaging of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye when
infrared light of a certain frequency and wavelength is incident upon it.this
energy is absorbed by the blood vessels is different in different individuals.

      The retinal iris patterns are unique to individuals than any biometric
yet devised.

       The retina is an internal part of the eye located at the back of the eye
and is get of thin nerve which sense the light coming through a camera,
pupil, eye lenses.

      The pattern of blood vessels which makeup retina are unique to each
individual i.e., <1.2 inch.

Advantage:
     a. Accurate with no false match in 2 million people.
     b. It s sophisticated process.

Disadvantages:
        c. Expensive, difficult to deploy and use.
        d. Focus of light effect measurements.
V. DNA Analysis:
      It involves in checking the DNA pattern of a human used when
physical characteristics are unrecognizable. It is used to identify people,
who are died, to find out the relationship like identifying Childs natural
parents.

       This is one Biometric that is judicially accepted. No human have
identified DNA patterns except in twins.

Advantages:
     a. DNA samples can be collected from toothbrush, clothes.

Disadvantages:
        e. DNA testing takes longer time than other methods.
        f. Twins have same DNA.
        g. Researchers produce same DNA.
2.BEHAVOURAL VERIFICATION

      This involves in oral thing done by the individual. There are 3 types
of behavioral verifications,

   1. Typing
   2. Signature
   3. Voice

1. Typing:
       Some systems measure things you do in addition to the things you
are, you will notice that your typing has a certain pattern. Some letters
follow others in quick succession, while others take longer.

      Software called Bio password is available for less than $100.It
integrates with Windows 2000.Windows NT.Login to provide this
authentication without the need for any additional software. This measure is
a behavioral characteristic of a person.

2. Signature:
      Some qualities looked into include acceleration rates, direction, and
pressure and stroke length. Here mainly concentrate on pressures. This
pressures stored in back end for future significations.

Disadvantages:
       a. The disadvantage with the technology lies in the randomness or the
consistency with which a user makes his signature. If pressures are not tally
with stored pressure in the database.

3. Voice:
      It involves in the recognition of the voice of the individual.

Advantages:
  1) It is inexpensive.
  2) It also works through telephone.
  3) Some person mimicry with other person voices.
Disadvantages:
     a. One can mimic the voice of the individual.

      Biometric does not guarantee security. It simply offers ore convenient
and reliable means of identification and authentication.


             Mixed form Biometrics
      Some times use more than one form biometrics. This mixed form
provide more security. Here combine more than one type. Even 80% equals
with database then access provide to user.
                        Identification
    It is a process of recognition and involves taking the biometric data and
searching for the match in the database asking it a slow process that it is
more prone to errors.

Authentication:

      It involves confirming your identity and the biometric systems have
to match your data with only one, single record.

      Depending on the technique used, Biometric have varying levels of
accuracy .The system might let you pass in one attempt on Monday and
require five on Tuesday.

     The accuracy of any biometric system is measured in terms of FAR
and FRR.

FAR (False Acceptance Rates):
      Where an imposer is accepted as a match. It is a probability of falsely
accepting a metric as a match.

FRR (False Rejection Rates):
      Where a legal match is denied. Where the system sails to recognize an
authentic Bio-signature.

       As FRR increases, the FAR goes down and vice versa.
Almost all biometric systems can be adjusted to varying levels of strictness
to create a variation in FAR and FRR. For a system to be successful, both
have to be with in acceptable low limits.
                           Advantages
    It provide good security mechanism than all other security methods
    It never fails in security constraints.
    In public locations such as banks and airports a large number of
     people transit every day including known criminals. Face recognition
     systems attached to video surveillance systems are supposed to help
     catch them.
    A professor recently published his techniques for fooling finger print
     scanners. He found that Optical finger print scanners can be fooled by
     silicon rubber. However electro magnetic scanners would reject those,
     because electrical characteristics are different from that of a live
     finger.


                           Limitations
      It needs high memory space in the back end.
      Collect data for security is difficult
      Some times fails the security with right users
      Any time data loose in database high effect for security mechanism.
      So many equipments are needed for provide this technology.
      It highly expensive



                            Conclusion
               Security is not just about putting big locks on the front door; it
also involves making sure all the windows are shut. Each one can be
individually fooled, but the comparison makes the system more secure as a
whole. Biometrics are have its own advantages and disadvantages. It high
expensive but it provide good security. Money is not important than
security. It is more useful for confidential maters.
                 References

http://Biometrics.com
http://whitepapers.com
http://www.milesresearch.com
http://microsoft/biometrics.com
IT Magazines