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					                   WORKSHOP II-
          Quality of life dependence to natural
                         resources
                SEEKING
            ALTERNATIVES TO
         REDUCE OUR IMPACT ON
           THE ENVIRONMENT

     Adrian Jamolin, Michele Naglia, Beat Niederberger, Minna Aichinger, Elizabeth Steiner,
    Heidrun Miller, Katerina Kotaskova, Lenka Parkanova, Yvonne Mueller, Vesna Milicic and
                                      Jasmina Zakonjsek
1
       WORKSHOP II SUB-GROUPS
    1. Does our quality of life affect climate change?
    2. Energy and sustainability
    3. Ecological economics as an alternative to
       traditional economic models
    4. Ecotourism- way to sustainability




2
          does
    our Quality of Life
         effect
    Climate Change ?




3
4
5
6
                              Carbon dioxide, CO2
                                                              facilities:
       naturally in the atmosphere

       released in large quantities from natural processes

       volcanoes, forest fires and evaporation from
        seawater

       man made carbon dioxide is produced by
        combustion processes




                                                               Source: EPER 2004, EU25




7
                                         Methane, CH4
                                                                 facilities:
       naturally in the environment

       use: methane is burned to directly heat buildings
        and is also used as a fuel in power stations

       extremely flammable

       decomposition of plant and animal matter

       human activities: livestock farming (most important!),
        production of fossil fuels, wet rice cultivation,
        biomass burning, landfill and domestic sewage.

       the global warming potential of methane is 21 times
        that of carbon dioxide (over 100 years)‫‏‬




                                                                      Source: EPER 2004, EU25




8
                              Nitrogen oxides, NOx
       potent greenhouse gas.
                                                              facilities:
       man-made releases: fuel combustion, biomass
        burning and some production processes

       natural sources: lightning and biological processes
        in soils

       contribute to acid rain-causing damage to
        vegetation, buildings and contributing to the
        acidification of lakes and streams

       Ground-level ozone

       ozone layer.

       Inhalation of the pure gases is rapidly fatal (Very
        toxic)‫‏‬




                                                                    Source: EPER 2004, EU25




9
10
                                                                   Technological      Changing
       Need        Aspect          Process          Impact           potential        Lifestyle

                               Lifestock
                Production
                               farming
                                               Methane, Ammonia          -             We Must

                Waste
                               Organic waste
                               dumping
                                               Biogas (Methane)‫‏‬       +/-            We might
      FOOD                                                         Energy recovery


                Conservation   Refrigeration   CFC, HCFC                 +           Not necessary
                                                                   Changing in HFC



                Delivering
                goods
                                               Carbon Dioxide            -            We Must

     MOBILITY                  Combustion
                Going to job
                                               Nitrogen Oxides         +/-            We might
                                                                     New burners
                Spare time



11
                                                                   Technological      Changing
       Need        Aspect          Process          Impact           potential        Lifestyle?

                               Lifestock
                Production
                               farming
                                               Methane, Ammonia          -
                Waste
                               Organic waste
                               dumping
                                               Biogas (Methane)‫‏‬       +/-
      FOOD                                                         Energy recovery


                Conservation   Refrigeration   CFC, HCFC                 +           Not necessary
                                                                   Changing in HFC



                Delivering
                goods
                                               Carbon Dioxide            -
     MOBILITY                  Combustion
                Going to job
                                               Nitrogen Oxides         +/-
                                                                     New burners
                Spare time



12
                                                                   Technological      Changing
       Need        Aspect          Process          Impact           potential        Lifestyle?

                               Lifestock
                Production
                               farming
                                               Methane, Ammonia          -
                Waste
                               Organic waste
                               dumping
                                               Biogas (Methane)‫‏‬       +/-            We might
      FOOD                                                         Energy recovery


                Conservation   Refrigeration   CFC, HCFC                 +           Not necessary
                                                                   Changing in HFC



                Delivering
                goods
                                               Carbon Dioxide            -
     MOBILITY                  Combustion
                Going to job
                                               Nitrogen Oxides         +/-            We might
                                                                     New burners
                Spare time



13
                                                                   Technological      Changing
       Need        Aspect          Process          Impact           potential        Lifestyle?

                               Lifestock
                Production
                               farming
                                               Methane, Ammonia          -             We Must

                Waste
                               Organic waste
                               dumping
                                               Biogas (Methane)‫‏‬       +/-            We might
      FOOD                                                         Energy recovery


                Conservation   Refrigeration   CFC, HCFC                 +           Not necessary
                                                                   Changing in HFC



                Delivering
                goods
                                               Carbon Dioxide            -            We Must

     MOBILITY                  Combustion
                Going to job
                                               Nitrogen Oxides         +/-            We might
                                                                     New burners
                Spare time



14
                        some actions
        avoid overproduction / overconsumption
        optimizing processes
        ecomobility
        waste management
        thinking global - buying local
        encourage environmental researches
        ............

15
              Energy and Sustainability
     20% of the world population consume 55 % of the final energy




                                           •Energy demand is constantly
                                           increasing


                                           •To be able to serve the growing
                                           demand, alternative have to be
                                           found




16
              New Energy policy in the EU-
               a new industrial revolution?
    Present situation not satisfying
      Unstable environment (natural catastrophes…)
      Unsatisfying economic energy policy …. both: very
      expensive
    Energy production is responsible for 80% of the GHG
     in the EU
    Former energy policy would even increase the
     emissions by 5% by 2030
       EU current energy is not sustainable
    EU response: New energy policy
      EU Climate Change Program, EU‟s pioneering
      Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)…
      Integrated & energy strategy March 07

17
     Energy strategy: Targets and Objectives in 2020 compared
                              to 1990
  Improving energy efficiency by 20% by 2020
             High efficient energy – low green house emission economy
             Concerning the industry & the EU citizens

 Increasing the level of biofuels in transport fuel to 10% by 2020
 Raising the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020
             EU already produces 60% of wind energy in the world

 Increasing research and technological development
             8,4 Billion for environment, energy & transport should be spent
              earlier than proposed

  but no solution for 17% of EU emissions other than CO2
      (fluarinated gases/emissions from agricultural sector)



18
        The USA are looking for alternative energy
                       resources
     Energy production in the USA is nowadays dominated by fossil fuels
       (Coal, petroleum and natural gas)

     The reduction of GHG emissions can be reached by:
      change in the mix of energy fuels and technologies
      reduction of energy demand


     Future energy resources are:
      Nuclear energy
      CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage)
      Renewable energy




19
     Renewable energy share in the USA


                The US Global-Change szenario 2000-2100


            Comparisson of two different szenarious with three
              analytical models

            the two szenarious are:

            -reference szenario
            -stabalization szenario

            Goal:
            • basis for comparativ analysis of how climate might
              change in the future and for analyses of adapting
              options




20
         The USA fear the impact of climate change
               on renewable energy sources

        renewable energy production is highly susceptible to
         changes in the resource base (e.g. hydroelectric
         power generation, wind and solar energy)

        even modest impacts in key resource areas could
         substantially impact the cost competitiveness

        biomass power and fuel production impacts are less
         certain in short term



21
               Possible Solutions
      More effective isolation on buildings
      CCS

      Wind-energy

      Hydro-energy

      Biomass (low carbon structures)

      Geothermal

      Solar energy (Photovoltaic, Solar plants)




22
                      Pro
                                              CCS                 Con
        Effective reduction of CO2 in               Does not solve the bigger
         the atmosphere                               problem of the fact that fossil
        For remaining use of fossil                  fuels are unlasting
         fuels


             More effective isolation on buildings
        Save energy (daily and global                Quit big investment for
         bases)                                        average citizen
        Save money for heating or                    In all energy consume just a
         cooling                                       little part
        Healthy (always fresh air
         available, filters for allergic
         people)


23                     Passiv houses in Austria
                                 Wind-energy
               Regenerative
                                             Changes in landscape
               Relatively little land
                requirement on the           Reliability to blowing wind
                ground                       Effects on the fauna
               Low repair- and               (especially birds)
                maintaining costs (so far)


                            Hydro-energy
        High effect                         High investments
        Non high tech – long lifetime       Reliability to rain
         of constructions                    Effects and changing
        Possibility for energy saving        conditions high/low water on
        Also use for drinking water          flora and fauna
        Maintaining ground water?           Long distances to urban areas


24
                          Geothermal
     •Hydrothermal ( low or high temperature)
     •Geothermal heat pumps (near surface)
     •Petrophysical systems (Hard Dry Rock System)

                     Pro                              Con
        Miner changes to                  Not mobile
         landscape                         Not possible everywhere
        Little land requirement           Big investments
        Constant amount of
         energy – independent
         on weather
        Nearly infinite
25
                              Biomasses
                    • as heat source such as firewood or pellets
                    • as fuel usable as ethanol or methanol (low on
                    carbohydrate)

                    Pro                                   Con
        Burns clean                        Deforestation in order to
        Efficient                           produce biomasses
          new technology for heating        (especially ethanol in tropical
             as well as fuel                 countries)
        Methanol reduces CO2               Extremely toxic in
         emission considerably               transportation and storage
        Use of biomasses in Central         concentration
         Europe in order to reduce
         afforestation of former
         cultural landscape



26
   After these known possibilities there are with today's solutions
27 still missing 87.5 GW
            Solar Energy production in Africa




     Advantages:                      Disadvantages:
        •No emission                     •Technology in development
        •Use of the sun belt             •High costs
        •Renewable energy                •Long distance
                                         •Political issue (energy
        •Use of non cultivated land
                                         dependency)
28                                                                    28
                Conclusion
  The  solar energy project is one good
   and concrete solution
  All renewable energies still need
   research and the investment will be well
   worth it
  To enforce political will, it is important
   to stimulate the awareness of
   sustainability

29
     Alternatives to conventional
     economics

         Trials to solve the problem of limited growth

         Lenka Parkanová, Kateřina Kotásková,
         Yvonne Müller


30
           Adaptation of economical theory
              Ecological (new) economics works
                   with the limits of growth

                                                 C
     GDP




                          Time
31
     Ecological economics
     (Also called green or new economics)

        Reaction to exploitative relation to nature
        Comming in seventies of the last century
        E.F. Schumacher is considered as a founder, his theory is
         sometimes called „Buddhist economics (Small is BeuatifulI,
         1973)
        No unifying conception, not accepted by mainstream
         economists.
        Many flows, all criticise modern mainstream economics and
         proclaim that economics as a discipline must be rethought.




32
     Ecological (new) economics
        Ecological economics considers economics as a component
         of the ecosystem and wants to apply the nature mechanisms
         into it.
        Economics can not be closed discipline, it influences a wide
         sphere or society.
        cross-disciplinary approach is unavoidable.
        As university field of study is ecological economics taken
         rarely (Sweden–Mälarden University: Ecological Economics –
         Studies in Sustainable Development).
        Domain of non-governmental organisations:
        Feasta (Ireland),New Economics Foundation (GB), Society for
         Ecological Economics (USA), Post-Autistic Economics
         (France)

33
     Comparism of values between conventional and
     ecological (new) economics
     Conventional economics                Ecological economics
      Anthropocentric                      Ecocentric

      Valuable is only that stuff and      Nature has its own inherent value
       doing, which increases prosperity    Respect, Responsibility,
      Exploitative attitude to nature       Stewardship
                                            Welfare is guaranteed not only by

        Welfare is guaranteed by            consumption, but also results
         consumption                         from our relationship to the
                                             nature, other people and to
                                             oneself
                                            People are not only consuments
        Dividing people into consuments     and producers, but also citizens
         and producers



34
        Daly, H., Cobb, J. (For the Common Good, Redirecting the
         Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a
         Sustainable Future, 1994;)
        Henderson, H. (Beyond Globalization: Shaping a
         Sustainable Global Economy; Ethical Markets: Growing the
         Green Economy, 2006;)
        Johanisova, N. (Living in the Cracks, 2005;)
        Douthwaite, R. (Short Circuit, 1996; Growth: The Celtic
         Cancer, Why the global economy damages our health and
         society, 2004;)
        Hawken, P., Lovins, A., L.H.Lovins (Natural Capitalism:
         Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, 1999;)
        Hertz, N. (The Silent Takeover: Global Capitalism and the
         Death of Democracy 2001;)
        Capra, F. (The Turning Point, 1982; EcoManagement, 1992;
         Steering Business Toward Sustainability, 1995;)



35
     Useful links
     Organisations
     http://www.feasta.org/
     http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/
     http://www.ecoeco.org/
     http://www.ussee.org/
     http://www.paecon.net/

     Education
     http://www.eki.mdh.se/ekologiskekonomi/indexeng.htm
     http://www.uvm.edu/giee
     http://www.publicpolicy.umd.edu/prospective/programs/ecoeco.htm
     http://www.sts.rpi.edu/index.php?siteid=20&pageid=287
     http://www.beijer.kva.se/
     http://www.schumachercollege.org.uk

     Information
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_is_Beautiful
     http://www.hazelhenderson.com/
     http://www.fritjofcapra.net/
36
     Motto expressing the main message of
     alternative economics and its vision of the
     life quality
     Existence of the place near your home,
     where you can walk with your dog, is much
     more important to personal welbeeing than
     having a chance to travel on the Canarian
     Islands twice a year.

                       (Václav Cílek, Czech polyhistor)

37
     LETS = local exchange trading system,
     community economy
     Definition:
      exchange of services and goods among people living in
       the community (inside local community) – one village,
       one city, one region
      local, non-profit exchange networks in which goods and
       services can be traded without the need for printed
       currency

     Principle in one sentence:
      a member may earn credit by doing childcare for one
       person and spend it later on carpentry with another
       person in the same network

38
         How LETS work 1
          Local people set up a club to trade between themselves, keeping their own record of
           accounts.
          A directory of members' offers and requests—goods, services or items for hire, priced
           in local LETS units—is compiled and circulated.
          Members use the directory to contact one another whenever they wish. They pay for
           any service or goods by writing a LETS cheque or credit note for an agreed amount of
           LETS units, or by exchanging printed LETS notes.
          If applicable, the credit note is sent to the LETS bookkeeper who adjusts both
           members' accounts accordingly.

     Woman A                    Man B               Student C               Family D
     + cleaning windows         + piano lessons     + english lessons       +vegetables
     +nuts                      + baking bred       +baby sitting           +car
     + needlework               - PC skills         + gardening             -piano lessons
     --   vegetables            - needlework        - baking bred           -gardening

     - baby sitting             -move               - graphic               -printing


39
     How LETS work 2
        Since its beginning over 20 years ago, LETSystems have been highly
         innovative in adapting to the needs of their local communities in all
         kinds of ways. For example in Australia, people have built houses
         using LETS in place of a bank loan, freeing the owner from huge
         interest payments
        LETS is a fully fledged "monetary system", unlike direct exchange, with
         LETS members able to earn credits from any member and spend
         them with anyone else on the scheme
        Units have various names – green dollars, new berries; it is also
         possible to use hours of work as units
        LETS have mostly from 50 to 300 members
        The LETS scheme does not require outside sources of income as
         stimulus


40
     Examples
                  Zajezova
        Slovak ecovillage based on
         traditions, modest and
         environmental-friendly lifestyle       Rozlet (Let´s flight)
         and growing own food
                                            LETS system for people from Brno
        10 jež = 1 hour of work               and surroundig managed on
        Services and goods: building and                internet
         reparing houses, farming and
         gardening, cutting woods; food,
         clothes, herbs, furniture…
        About 20 people participating
        Many others activity
        „Normal― money are earned in
         recycling factory which is owned
         by Zajezova NGO


41
     Benefits
        Revitalise and build community and local economy, create social contacts
        It is issued by people, no central authority is needed, fair prices
        Encourage using of local resources
        Promote small business, support for local enterprise and new businesses
        Keep „money― and values in the place
        Everybody starts et ZERO point
        No interest, no reason to save, no robbery is possible
        You don´t need money, if you want sth to „buy―
        LETS 'currency' is notional – just record of transactions
        Less need of „normal― money
        Housework has values….

         A successful LETSystem can provide members with food, clothing,
         housing, transport, health and legal services, repairs, equipment, business
         services, entertainment and much more



42
     Problems

        Tax – it is not a Taxation Avoidance Scheme
        Same problems like other NGOs based on volunteers
        A conventional national currency, is generally hard to
         earn but easy to spend. To date LETSystems are
         comparatively easy to earn but harder to spend. The
         success of a LETSystem is therefore determined by the
         ease with which a person can spend their LETS credits,
         and improve their quality of life by participation.
        Many others of course…



43
     Links
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_Exchange_Trading_Systems
        http://www.tauschring.de
        http://www.transaction.net/money/lets
        http://www.letslinkuk.org/
        http://www.gmlets.u-net.com/
        http://www.feasta.org/documents/moneyecology/contents.htm -
         online book Ecology of money by Richard Douthwaite


        Books: LETS act locally by Jonathan Croall
         LETS work: rebuilding the local economy by Peter Lang




44
     Local currencies – regionalization
     instead of globalisation
          loss of jobs, migration, growing debts considerably caused by drawback of money from
           the region
          issuing of a second currency circulating as cash substitute for the national currency
          usually predetermined depreciation
          in general intended to trade only in a small area
          characteristics and benefits:
              tend to circulate more rapidly than national currencies
              greater overall economic activity
              strengthen purchasing power of the region
              community uses more fully its existing productive resources, especially unemployed
               labor
              raise awareness for regional economy, encourages purchase of locally produced and
               locally available goods and services
              for any given level of economic activity, more of the benefit accrues to the local
               community, less drains out
          difficulties:
                pooling, with sudden release of the pool, creating hyperinflation


45
     Example: „Waldviertler“, Austria
          region in Niederösterreich
          launched in May 2005
          value equal to €
          28,000 „Waldviertler― in circulation
          predefined depreviation of 2% per quarter
          has to be clued with marks to keep its full value
          accepted by 186 companies of different sectors
          continuously enlargement of range of articles shall further
           improve attractivity of the new currency
          since end of 2006 interest in this local currency decreasing



46
     Other examples:
        WIR, Switzerland:
          founded 1934

          oldest local currency known to be in continuous use

          biggest local currency system worldwide


        Fureai Kippu system, Japan:
          credits in exchange for assistance to senior citizens

          credits transferrable

          promoting fuller utilization of resources over a wider geographical area


        QQ coins, China:
          virtual / electronic form of currency catering to the specific needs of a virual

           community
          used to stimulate transactions on a global basis

          used to purchase virtual products and services (e.g. ringtones, on-line video

           games time)

47
     Useful links
     Local currencies:
        http://www.waldviertler-regional.at
        http://www.wir.ch
        http://www.ithacahours.org
        http://www.art-money.org/255

     Institutions
        http://www.smallisbeautiful.org
        http://www.complementarycurrency.org
        http://www.appropriate-economics.org

     Information
        http://www.bundesbank.de/download/volkswirtschaft/dkp/2006/200643dkp_en.pdf



48
     Conclusion

        no. of local economy systems increasing – but mostly at local
         level
        sometimes it works, sometimes fails
        scale changes everything

        Does ecological economy work at global scale too?
        Are we able to run another economy?
        Are local economy systems really alternatives?
        Is society in Europe prepare to change its system so much?



49
ECOTOURISM
WAY TO SUSTAINABILITY

          Vesna Miličič
         Adrian Jamolin
       Jasmina Zakonjšek



50
51
     ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF
     TOURISM

 1. Pressure on natural resources,

 2. pollution and waste generation,

 3. damage to ecosystem.




52
53
 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

     “ is tourism development that avoids
     damage to the environment, economy
      and cultures of the locations where it
                  takes place.”




54
 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IS:
  It is informative,
  it supports integrity of place,
  it benefits residents,
  it conserves resources,
  it respects local culture and tradition,
  it does not abuse its product,
  it strives for quality, not quantity,
  It means great trips.


55
 ECOTOURISM

     “responsible travel to natural areas that
     conserves the environment and improves
         the well-being of local people.”

                     The International Ecotourism Society




56
 CRITERIA
 1.   conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity,
      through ecosystem protection;
 2.   promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity;
 3.   sharing of socio-economic benefits with local
      communities;
 4.   increase of environmental and cultural knowledge;
 5.   minimization of environmental impact;
 6.   lack of waste in the form of luxury;
 7.   local culture, flora and fauna being the main
      attractions.
57
 OTHER TYPES

    Agro-tourism,

    Community based tourism,

    Nature tourism,

    Pro-poor tourism.



58
 SLOVENIAN LANDSCAPE




59
  NATURAL BEAUTIES OF SLOVENIA
        Slovenia surprises visitors at very step with its natural sites.




                                                          The last floating mill on
                                                       the Mura river (“Babičev mlin”)

                 Bled




60
Piran
                              Škocjan caves                               Gorjanci
 Biodiversity in numbers:
 (estimated)
 (source: Biodiversity Conservation
 Strategy of Slovenia, 2002)


• 15 000 of animal species




• 6 000 of plant species
• 5 000 of fungi species




61
 MAP OF NATURA 2000 AREAS
  286 Natura 2000 sites in total
  35% of the country




62
 AGROTOURISM IN SLOVENIA

   1998: Institute for Sustainable Development got
    involved in “Green tourism in countryside”
 1999: “Green Holiday Guide for South East Europe”
 Since 1999: promoting tourism on certified organic
    farms
 2000-2001: a partner in the project Eco-agroturismo
 2003: a national project EcoAgroTourism dealing with
    development of green tourism in rural areas



63
 SYMBOLS




     Symbol of eco farm

64                        Certificate
 THE NUMBER OF ECO FARMS IN
 SLOVENIA
                         The development of eco-farming in Slovenia
              2000

              1800

              1600

              1400

              1200                                                    Eco-farms in control
     Number




              1000

               800
                                                                      Eco-certficates
               600

               400

               200

                 0
                     1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                                         Year


65
 TYPE OF TOURIST FARMS
                               Tourist farm in the Julian Alps




     Tourist farm on Pohorje
66
 THE FUTURE OF ECOTOURISM IN
 SLOVENIA

    Ecotourism is still developing
    We have a great opportunites to develop the
     ecotourism as an alternative to the classical
     tourism
    We have to promote and develop appropriate
     educational programmes addresed to children
     and young people


67
 ECOTOURISM IN AUSTRALIA
 Australian definition is consistent with the international one:
         “ecologically sustainable tourism with a
      primary focus on experiencing natural areas
         that fosters environmental and cultural
            understanding, appreciation and
                      conservation.˝
                               (Ecotourism Australia)




68
    SNAPSHOT OF TOURISM IN
    AUSTRALIA
   5.5 million international arrivals in 2006.
   52% of visitors came for the purpose of a holiday (2005-2006).
   International visitors spent $23.8 billion and consumed about $22.4
    billion of goods and services (2005-2006).

                                                       (Tourism Australia)




69
 GROWTH OF ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA
    In 2005, 3.4 million international visitors
     participated in nature-based activities (Tourism
     Australia).

    Nearly 30% of domestic travellers were
     ecotourists in 1999 (Ecotrends).




70
 WHY ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA?
                        Environmental




              Social                      Economic

 Environmental:
  Incentive for conserving natural areas.
  Provides resources for conservation management.
  Conservation of the environment.

                                      (Jenkins and Wearing 2003)
71
 WHY ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA?
                          Environmental




                Social                          Economic

 Economic:
  Economic development and diversification.
  Tendency for ecotourists to stay longer.
  Distribution of income to local economies.

                                       (Jenkins and Wearing 2003)
72
 WHY ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA?
                         Environmental




             Social                          Economic

 Social:
  Long-term conservation of cultural heritage.
  Revitilisation of local arts and traditions.
  Engenders an environmental ethic.

                                        (Jenkins and Wearing 2003)
73
 HISTORY OF ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA
    Second half of 20th century- Development of ecotourism
     operators
    1991- Ecotourism Australia
    1994- National Economic Strategy
    Post 1994- Continued growth of ecotourism




74
 ECO-CERTIFICATION IN
 AUSTRALIA




    Ecotourism and nature tourism certification provides
     all stakeholders with an assurance that a certified
     tourism service/product is backed by a commitment
     to best practice ecological sustainability.
                                       (Ecotourism Australia)
75
 ECO-CERTIFICATION IN
 AUSTRALIA
  Triple bottom line         The nature tourism or ecotourism    Nature   Ecotourism/Advanced
                                    product principles:         Tourism        Ecotourism
Economic                1.     Business Management and
Sustainability                 Operational Planning
                        2.     Business Ethics


                        3.     Responsible Marketing


                        4.     Customer Satisfaction


Environmental           5.     Natural Area Focus
Sustainability
                        6.     Environmental Sustainability


                        7.     Interpretation and Education
                                                                  N/A

                        8.     Contribution to Conservation
                                                                  N/A

Social Sustainability   9.     Working with Local Communities
                                                                  N/A

                        10. Cultural Respect and Sensitivity
76                                                                N/A
LEGAL MECHANISMS THAT ASSIST IN
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN AUSTRALIA

    World Heritage Areas-
     UNESCO Convention for
     the Protection of World
     Cultural and Natural
     Heritage (1972)
    National Parks- eg
     National Parks and
     Wildlife Act 1974
     (NSW)
    EIA                       Tasmanian Wilderness-
    EMAS                      inscribed on the World
                                    Heritage List
77
 EXAMPLE OF WTWHA AS AN
 ECOTOURISM SITE
                 The Wet Tropics World
                  Heritage Area (WTWHA) was
                  inscribed on the World
                  Heritage Register in 1988.
                 It‟s an area of rainforests in
                  Queensland, the northeastern
                  part of Australia.
                 In 1993 direct tourism use of
                  the World Heritage Area was
                  estimated to generate over
                  $179 million.
                 An estimated two million
                  people visit the WTWHA each
                  year.
                   (Wet Tropics Management Authority)

78
 MANAGEMENT OF ECOTOURISM
 IN THE WTWHA
    Ecotourism activities in the WTWHA include bushwalking/hiking,
     wildlife viewing, whitewater rafting,etc.
    Ecotourism operators include both budget camping and
     expensive „eco-lodges‟.
    Tourism in the WTWHA is managed by the Wet Tropics
     Management Authority. In 2000 the Authority established a
     Tourism Liaison Group.
    There is also a zoning and permit system in the WTWHA.
                                  (Wet Tropics Management Authority)




79
 POTENTIAL NEGATIVES OF
 ECOTOURISM IN AUSTRALIA
 Environmental:
  Damage to vegetation from trampling.
  Disturbance of wildlife.

 Economic:
  Failure of total revenue to match costs of ecotourism
   impacts.
  Increased burden on conservation agencies.

 Social:
  Overcrowding in nature areas.
  Improper commodification of local cultures.

                              (Jenkins and Wearing 2003)
80
 FUTURE OF ECOTOURISM IN
 AUSTRALIA
    Increased proliferation
     of eco-certification.
    Support by federal
     government to
     ecotourism.
    Greater international
     links.
    Further marketing of
     Australia as an
     ecotourism destination.


81
CONCLUSIONS ON ECOTOURISM

    A more sustainable form of tourism in relation
     to mass tourism.

    However, tourists must also act sustainably
     when they return home.

    Ecotourism must be developed carefully so as
     not to damage natural areas.

    International standards on ecotourism would be
     beneficial.
82

				
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