THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK A. Definition of Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral potentially that results form experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs (Lilik Suryanti, et all, 2009 : 17). Learning is the process by which an activity originates or is change through responding to a situation. Provided the changes can not be attributes to growth or the temporary state of the organism as in fatigue or under drugs (Pasaribu, 1983 : 59) 1. Factors That Influence Learning There are some factors that influence learning process, namely internal factors and external factors. Internal factors are factor from inside individual itself and external factors are factor from outside individual itself. a. Internal Factors 1) Physical Factors - Physical defect or handicap - Health 2) Psychological Factors - Intelligent - Concentration 12 13 - Interest - Talent 3) Fatigue Factors - Physical fatigue - Psychological fatigue (Slameto, 1987 : 56 – 62) b. External Factors 1) Family Factors - Relation among family member - Parents educational quality - House situation - Economical condition - Family culture 2) School Factors - Learning methods - Curriculum - Relation between student and teacher - Relation among students - Field of study 3) Environment Factors - Culture - Relation among people (Slameto, 1987 : 62 – 74) 2. Characteristic of Learning 14 Some students have little more than a vague urge to remember what they are reading but habits of reading for the moment’s comprehension, as in fiction reading, really determine their behavior. Other students carefully select the points, they feel they will need to know and definitely attempt to fix them in mine. Some students comprehend and remember better than other students. It was found that the better students organized the main idea of the selection they were reading into a short outline and noted the key phrases used to state these ideas. This plan gave a general understanding of the lesson, around which to bring together the rest of the ideas, and a basic for later remaining them selves what the lesson about. On the other hand in the same study, the students should not stop to recite each time he finds an important point (Slameto, 1987 : 104 – 114). The characteristic of learning is : a. Learning is indicated with behavior change. b. Behavior change from learning process is permanent. c. Behavior change could not be seen at learning process, but is that potentially. d. Behavior change is training and experience product. e. Training or experience can give reinforcing. TRAINING & LEARNING CHANGE EXPERIENCE PROCESS BEHAVIOR 15 Learning Process (Lilik Suryanti, et all, 2009 : 19) 3. Learning Method Method is the way or process to reach some purpose. Learning purpose is to get knowledge, attitude and skill. The way that using will be habit and influence learning process it self (Slameto, 1987 : 87). There are some learning methods that can promote and develop learning qualities a. Making schedule and the implementation. b. Reading and making note. c. Repeat material of study. d. Concentration. e. Doing the assignment. 4. Learning Theory Theory is sum of explanation which accomplished based on the conclusions from the research (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 3). Theory is very importance to study psychology and education, it uses to develop and to break problem in the study. a. Behaviorism Theory 16 1) Classical Conditioning by Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between environment stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 43). a) Major Concept Classical conditioning is how to make conditioning stimulus (CS) to get unconditioning response (UR). Without conditioning process every unconditioning stimulus (US) causes unconditioning response (UR) too, but right stimulus conditioning can defend the existence unconditioning response (US) (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41 – 43). Step in the conditioning process US UR CS – CS + US UR (repeat) CS CR Beef salivation Sound/light – Sound/light + beef salivation (repeat) Sound/light salivation That is, when a hungry dog is presented with the sight of food (unconditioned stimulus or US) he begs to salivate (unconditioned response or UR). If the sound of a bell is now associated with the 17 representation of food, after a while the sound of the bell (conditioned stimulus or CS) alone will produce salivation (conditioned response or CR). In short, the dog has learned to respond to a previously neutral stimulus (the bell) as though it were the natural stimulus (the food). The point of it is how hookups between stimulus and response (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41) b. Cognitivism Theory 1) Gestalt Theory The Gestalt theories central issues in learning is insight and understanding learning has occurred when the learner has understood, has developed an insight into the actual nature of the problem situation, and can act in ways that show that important features of the task have deed been grasped (Lilik Suryanti, dkk, 2009 : 87). c. Comparison Theory Most theories of learning appear quite different from one another. One of the major issues for any ad quite theory of learning is to answer the question. How does a person learn classical conditioning theory focused on two problems there is stimulus and response? This is one of behaviorism theory. This theory concern how conditioning of stimulus to get a response. But Gestalt theory focused on insight. This theory is one example of cognitivism theory. This theory concern more 18 on explaining about psychology not behavior (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 37 – 39). 5. Learning Style Learning style is an individual predisposition to learn in a particular way (Martin Parrot, 1993 : 40). Every student has a different style in learning process. Because individual ability to absorb and understanding the material of study is different. Fast, enough, or slowly so their learning style different too. These are positive and negative characteristics of learning style. The student is very lucky if they have positive characteristics of learning style. The students enable to distinguish part from a whole to concentrate on something, in every place, everywhere and every situation. For example, the students can read a book and understand the contents of book that they read in noisy train station. Different with students with negative characteristics of learning style. They impossible to learn everywhere. Usually they cannot concentrate in the noisy place. They just needs the quiet or lonely place. For students with negative characteristics like this, they must have private place to learn. 6. The Type of Learning Style a. Visual Learners This style explains that students must have seen the proof to believe something. 19 1) Characteristics - Need to see some information with visual way to understanding. - Have strength, sensitivity about colour. - Have enough understanding about artistic problem. - Have difficulty to make direct dialogue. - They usually talk fast and efficient - They are not disturbed by the noisy. - Remember or to remind with visual association. - They are preferred to do demonstration than speech. - They prefer art than music (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 45 – 50). b. Auditory Learners Auditory learners style is learning style that rely on sense of learning to understand and remember some information. 1) Characteristics - The all of informations depend on what they have been heard. - Have difficulty to absorb direct information or writing. - Have difficulty to write and read. - They are easily disturbed by noisy. - They like reading book with hard voice and listening. - They are preferring music than art. - They are usually mumbling their lips when reading book. - They are usually shearing and remembering in discussion than seeing. 20 - They are clever to spell with hard than writing. - They are usually clever to speak in some discussion (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 65 – 66). AUDITORY LEARNERS Messages External Obstruction Internal Obstruction Listening (Received sound waves) Attention (Received stimulus selectively) Understanding (Make interpretation) Recalling (Save the symbol to the memories bank) Listening Process (Slameto, 1991 : 110) c. Tactual Learners In this style, students must touch something that giving information to remember it. 1) Characteristics - Hands are thinks to get information. - Even just touch the thing students can absorb information without read the explanation. 21 - Students can more easy and good learning with physical activity. - They are usually speaks with slowly. - They touch someone to get their attention. - Drill with walking and seeing. - They use gesture more. - They cannot sit in long time. - Usually their handwriting is bad. - They like an exiting game (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 82). 7. Effective Learning Style Because of differential of learning style type, the students must choose one match style to learn. There are seven kinds of effectives learning style. a. Play with word. b. Play with question. c. Play with picture. d. Play with music. e. Play with activity. f. Play with socialization. g. Play with lonely (Dr. Hamzah B. Uno, 2008 : 183 – 184). 22 B. Achievement 1. Definition Achievement is something done successfully with effort and skill or something was gained or achieved by effect or skill (Hornby, 1985 : 8). Achievement of students is the result of the interaction between some factors that has been influent by internal and external factors, but internal factors have more influent to students’ achievement that external factor. 2. The Classification Factors a. Internal Factor Internal factors are factor from inside individual itself. The classification of internal factors are : 1) Physical Factors Physical factors is everything which was on the body or the students (organs), they are : a) Mouth b) Hand c) Eyes d) Ear e) Etc 2) Psychological Factors Psychological factors classification are : a) Intellectual Factors - Talent - Skill 23 - Intelligence - Etc b) Non Intellectual Factors - Interest - Attitude - Motivation - Emotion - Etc b. External Factor External factor is factor from outside individual it self. The classification of external factors are : 1) Social Factors a) Family b) School c) Society d) Groups e) Etc 2) Cultural Factors a) Technology b) Arts c) Knowledge d) Etc 3) The Equipment Factors a) School facilities 24 b) Learning facilities c) The other equipment in studying 4) Spiritual Factors a) Religion b) Believe The all factors above have interactions. It has influence the students’ achievement direct or indirectly. Based on the definition above, it can be understood : achievement is the result of the students’ learning. It can be understood the factors which has influence in achievement. The measurement of achievement can know the development of student in their study especially in English material.
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