A. Definition of Learning
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral
potentially that results form experience and cannot be attributed to temporary
body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs (Lilik Suryanti,
et all, 2009 : 17).
Learning is the process by which an activity originates or is change
through responding to a situation. Provided the changes can not be attributes to
growth or the temporary state of the organism as in fatigue or under drugs
(Pasaribu, 1983 : 59)
1. Factors That Influence Learning
There are some factors that influence learning process, namely
internal factors and external factors. Internal factors are factor from inside
individual itself and external factors are factor from outside individual
a. Internal Factors
1) Physical Factors
- Physical defect or handicap
2) Psychological Factors
3) Fatigue Factors
- Physical fatigue
- Psychological fatigue (Slameto, 1987 : 56 – 62)
b. External Factors
1) Family Factors
- Relation among family member
- Parents educational quality
- House situation
- Economical condition
- Family culture
2) School Factors
- Learning methods
- Relation between student and teacher
- Relation among students
- Field of study
3) Environment Factors
- Relation among people (Slameto, 1987 : 62 – 74)
2. Characteristic of Learning
Some students have little more than a vague urge to remember
what they are reading but habits of reading for the moment’s
comprehension, as in fiction reading, really determine their behavior.
Other students carefully select the points, they feel they will need to know
and definitely attempt to fix them in mine.
Some students comprehend and remember better than other
students. It was found that the better students organized the main idea of
the selection they were reading into a short outline and noted the key
phrases used to state these ideas. This plan gave a general understanding of
the lesson, around which to bring together the rest of the ideas, and a basic
for later remaining them selves what the lesson about. On the other hand in
the same study, the students should not stop to recite each time he finds an
important point (Slameto, 1987 : 104 – 114).
The characteristic of learning is :
a. Learning is indicated with behavior change.
b. Behavior change from learning process is permanent.
c. Behavior change could not be seen at learning process, but is that
d. Behavior change is training and experience product.
e. Training or experience can give reinforcing.
TRAINING & LEARNING CHANGE
EXPERIENCE PROCESS BEHAVIOR
(Lilik Suryanti, et all, 2009 : 19)
3. Learning Method
Method is the way or process to reach some purpose. Learning
purpose is to get knowledge, attitude and skill. The way that using will be
habit and influence learning process it self (Slameto, 1987 : 87). There are
some learning methods that can promote and develop learning qualities
a. Making schedule and the implementation.
b. Reading and making note.
c. Repeat material of study.
e. Doing the assignment.
4. Learning Theory
Theory is sum of explanation which accomplished based on the
conclusions from the research (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 3). Theory is
very importance to study psychology and education, it uses to develop and
to break problem in the study.
a. Behaviorism Theory
1) Classical Conditioning by Ivan Pavlov
Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through
associations between environment stimulus and naturally occurring
stimulus (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 43).
a) Major Concept
Classical conditioning is how to make conditioning stimulus
(CS) to get unconditioning response (UR). Without
conditioning process every unconditioning stimulus (US)
causes unconditioning response (UR) too, but right stimulus
conditioning can defend the existence unconditioning response
(US) (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41 – 43).
Step in the conditioning process
CS + US UR (repeat)
Sound/light + beef salivation (repeat)
That is, when a hungry dog is presented with the sight of food
(unconditioned stimulus or US) he begs to salivate (unconditioned
response or UR). If the sound of a bell is now associated with the
representation of food, after a while the sound of the bell
(conditioned stimulus or CS) alone will produce salivation
(conditioned response or CR). In short, the dog has learned to
respond to a previously neutral stimulus (the bell) as though it were
the natural stimulus (the food). The point of it is how hookups
between stimulus and response (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41)
b. Cognitivism Theory
1) Gestalt Theory
The Gestalt theories central issues in learning is insight and
understanding learning has occurred when the learner has
understood, has developed an insight into the actual nature of the
problem situation, and can act in ways that show that important
features of the task have deed been grasped (Lilik Suryanti, dkk,
2009 : 87).
c. Comparison Theory
Most theories of learning appear quite different from one
another. One of the major issues for any ad quite theory of learning is
to answer the question. How does a person learn classical conditioning
theory focused on two problems there is stimulus and response? This is
one of behaviorism theory. This theory concern how conditioning of
stimulus to get a response. But Gestalt theory focused on insight. This
theory is one example of cognitivism theory. This theory concern more
on explaining about psychology not behavior (Lilik Suryani et all,
2009 : 37 – 39).
5. Learning Style
Learning style is an individual predisposition to learn in a
particular way (Martin Parrot, 1993 : 40). Every student has a different
style in learning process. Because individual ability to absorb and
understanding the material of study is different. Fast, enough, or slowly so
their learning style different too.
These are positive and negative characteristics of learning style.
The student is very lucky if they have positive characteristics of learning
style. The students enable to distinguish part from a whole to concentrate
on something, in every place, everywhere and every situation. For
example, the students can read a book and understand the contents of book
that they read in noisy train station. Different with students with negative
characteristics of learning style. They impossible to learn everywhere.
Usually they cannot concentrate in the noisy place. They just needs the
quiet or lonely place. For students with negative characteristics like this,
they must have private place to learn.
6. The Type of Learning Style
a. Visual Learners
This style explains that students must have seen the proof to
- Need to see some information with visual way to
- Have strength, sensitivity about colour.
- Have enough understanding about artistic problem.
- Have difficulty to make direct dialogue.
- They usually talk fast and efficient
- They are not disturbed by the noisy.
- Remember or to remind with visual association.
- They are preferred to do demonstration than speech.
- They prefer art than music (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 45 – 50).
b. Auditory Learners
Auditory learners style is learning style that rely on sense of
learning to understand and remember some information.
- The all of informations depend on what they have been heard.
- Have difficulty to absorb direct information or writing.
- Have difficulty to write and read.
- They are easily disturbed by noisy.
- They like reading book with hard voice and listening.
- They are preferring music than art.
- They are usually mumbling their lips when reading book.
- They are usually shearing and remembering in discussion than
- They are clever to spell with hard than writing.
- They are usually clever to speak in some discussion (Michael J.
Losier, 2009 : 65 – 66).
(Received sound waves)
(Received stimulus selectively)
(Save the symbol to the memories bank)
(Slameto, 1991 : 110)
c. Tactual Learners
In this style, students must touch something that giving
information to remember it.
- Hands are thinks to get information.
- Even just touch the thing students can absorb information
without read the explanation.
- Students can more easy and good learning with physical
- They are usually speaks with slowly.
- They touch someone to get their attention.
- Drill with walking and seeing.
- They use gesture more.
- They cannot sit in long time.
- Usually their handwriting is bad.
- They like an exiting game (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 82).
7. Effective Learning Style
Because of differential of learning style type, the students must
choose one match style to learn. There are seven kinds of effectives
a. Play with word.
b. Play with question.
c. Play with picture.
d. Play with music.
e. Play with activity.
f. Play with socialization.
g. Play with lonely (Dr. Hamzah B. Uno, 2008 : 183 – 184).
Achievement is something done successfully with effort and skill
or something was gained or achieved by effect or skill (Hornby, 1985 : 8).
Achievement of students is the result of the interaction between some
factors that has been influent by internal and external factors, but internal
factors have more influent to students’ achievement that external factor.
2. The Classification Factors
a. Internal Factor
Internal factors are factor from inside individual itself. The
classification of internal factors are :
1) Physical Factors
Physical factors is everything which was on the body or the
students (organs), they are :
2) Psychological Factors
Psychological factors classification are :
a) Intellectual Factors
b) Non Intellectual Factors
b. External Factor
External factor is factor from outside individual it self. The
classification of external factors are :
1) Social Factors
2) Cultural Factors
3) The Equipment Factors
a) School facilities
b) Learning facilities
c) The other equipment in studying
4) Spiritual Factors
The all factors above have interactions. It has influence the students’
achievement direct or indirectly.
Based on the definition above, it can be understood : achievement is the
result of the students’ learning. It can be understood the factors which has
influence in achievement. The measurement of achievement can know the
development of student in their study especially in English material.