Docstoc

theory

Document Sample
theory Powered By Docstoc
					                          THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK



A. Definition of Learning

           Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral

   potentially that results form experience and cannot be attributed to temporary

   body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs (Lilik Suryanti,

   et all, 2009 : 17).

           Learning is the process by which an activity originates or is change

   through responding to a situation. Provided the changes can not be attributes to

   growth or the temporary state of the organism as in fatigue or under drugs

   (Pasaribu, 1983 : 59)

   1. Factors That Influence Learning

                 There are some factors that influence learning process, namely

       internal factors and external factors. Internal factors are factor from inside

       individual itself and external factors are factor from outside individual

       itself.

       a. Internal Factors

           1) Physical Factors

                 -   Physical defect or handicap

                 -   Health

           2) Psychological Factors

                 -   Intelligent

                 -   Concentration




                                          12
                                                                13




          -   Interest

          -   Talent

       3) Fatigue Factors

          -   Physical fatigue

          -   Psychological fatigue (Slameto, 1987 : 56 – 62)

   b. External Factors

       1) Family Factors

          -   Relation among family member

          -   Parents educational quality

          -   House situation

          -   Economical condition

          -   Family culture

       2) School Factors

          -   Learning methods

          -   Curriculum

          -   Relation between student and teacher

          -   Relation among students

          -   Field of study

       3) Environment Factors

          -   Culture

          -   Relation among people (Slameto, 1987 : 62 – 74)



2. Characteristic of Learning
                                                                          14




       Some students have little more than a vague urge to remember

what they are reading but habits of reading for the moment’s

comprehension, as in fiction reading, really determine their behavior.

Other students carefully select the points, they feel they will need to know

and definitely attempt to fix them in mine.

       Some students comprehend and remember better than other

students. It was found that the better students organized the main idea of

the selection they were reading into a short outline and noted the key

phrases used to state these ideas. This plan gave a general understanding of

the lesson, around which to bring together the rest of the ideas, and a basic

for later remaining them selves what the lesson about. On the other hand in

the same study, the students should not stop to recite each time he finds an

important point (Slameto, 1987 : 104 – 114).

       The characteristic of learning is :

a. Learning is indicated with behavior change.

b. Behavior change from learning process is permanent.

c. Behavior change could not be seen at learning process, but is that

   potentially.

d. Behavior change is training and experience product.

e. Training or experience can give reinforcing.




  TRAINING &                    LEARNING                       CHANGE
  EXPERIENCE                     PROCESS                     BEHAVIOR
                                                                            15




                               Learning Process

                       (Lilik Suryanti, et all, 2009 : 19)

3. Learning Method

          Method is the way or process to reach some purpose. Learning

   purpose is to get knowledge, attitude and skill. The way that using will be

   habit and influence learning process it self (Slameto, 1987 : 87). There are

   some learning methods that can promote and develop learning qualities

   a. Making schedule and the implementation.

   b. Reading and making note.

   c. Repeat material of study.

   d. Concentration.

   e. Doing the assignment.

4. Learning Theory

          Theory is sum of explanation which accomplished based on the

   conclusions from the research (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 3). Theory is

   very importance to study psychology and education, it uses to develop and

   to break problem in the study.




   a. Behaviorism Theory
                                                                       16




1) Classical Conditioning by Ivan Pavlov

   Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through

   associations between environment stimulus and naturally occurring

   stimulus (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 43).

   a) Major Concept

      Classical conditioning is how to make conditioning stimulus

      (CS)    to    get   unconditioning    response     (UR).   Without

      conditioning process every unconditioning stimulus (US)

      causes unconditioning response (UR) too, but right stimulus

      conditioning can defend the existence unconditioning response

      (US) (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41 – 43).

                     Step in the conditioning process


                   US                                    UR
                   CS                                    –
             CS + US                                     UR (repeat)
                   CS                                    CR



                   Beef                          salivation
          Sound/light                                –
   Sound/light + beef                            salivation (repeat)
          Sound/light                            salivation



   That is, when a hungry dog is presented with the sight of food

   (unconditioned stimulus or US) he begs to salivate (unconditioned

   response or UR). If the sound of a bell is now associated with the
                                                                        17




      representation of food, after a while the sound of the bell

      (conditioned stimulus or CS) alone will produce salivation

      (conditioned response or CR). In short, the dog has learned to

      respond to a previously neutral stimulus (the bell) as though it were

      the natural stimulus (the food). The point of it is how hookups

      between stimulus and response (Lilik Suryani et all, 2009 : 41)

b. Cognitivism Theory

   1) Gestalt Theory

      The Gestalt theories central issues in learning is insight and

      understanding learning has occurred when the learner has

      understood, has developed an insight into the actual nature of the

      problem situation, and can act in ways that show that important

      features of the task have deed been grasped (Lilik Suryanti, dkk,

      2009 : 87).

c. Comparison Theory

         Most theories of learning appear quite different from one

   another. One of the major issues for any ad quite theory of learning is

   to answer the question. How does a person learn classical conditioning

   theory focused on two problems there is stimulus and response? This is

   one of behaviorism theory. This theory concern how conditioning of

   stimulus to get a response. But Gestalt theory focused on insight. This

   theory is one example of cognitivism theory. This theory concern more
                                                                            18




       on explaining about psychology not behavior (Lilik Suryani et all,

       2009 : 37 – 39).

5. Learning Style

           Learning style is an individual predisposition to learn in a

   particular way (Martin Parrot, 1993 : 40). Every student has a different

   style in learning process. Because individual ability to absorb and

   understanding the material of study is different. Fast, enough, or slowly so

   their learning style different too.

           These are positive and negative characteristics of learning style.

   The student is very lucky if they have positive characteristics of learning

   style. The students enable to distinguish part from a whole to concentrate

   on something, in every place, everywhere and every situation. For

   example, the students can read a book and understand the contents of book

   that they read in noisy train station. Different with students with negative

   characteristics of learning style. They impossible to learn everywhere.

   Usually they cannot concentrate in the noisy place. They just needs the

   quiet or lonely place. For students with negative characteristics like this,

   they must have private place to learn.

6. The Type of Learning Style

   a. Visual Learners

              This style explains that students must have seen the proof to

       believe something.
                                                                         19




   1) Characteristics

      -   Need      to   see   some   information    with   visual   way to

          understanding.

      -   Have strength, sensitivity about colour.

      -   Have enough understanding about artistic problem.

      -   Have difficulty to make direct dialogue.

      -   They usually talk fast and efficient

      -   They are not disturbed by the noisy.

      -   Remember or to remind with visual association.

      -   They are preferred to do demonstration than speech.

      -   They prefer art than music (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 45 – 50).

b. Auditory Learners

          Auditory learners style is learning style that rely on sense of

   learning to understand and remember some information.

   1) Characteristics

      -   The all of informations depend on what they have been heard.

      -   Have difficulty to absorb direct information or writing.

      -   Have difficulty to write and read.

      -   They are easily disturbed by noisy.

      -   They like reading book with hard voice and listening.

      -   They are preferring music than art.

      -   They are usually mumbling their lips when reading book.

      -   They are usually shearing and remembering in discussion than

          seeing.
                                                                      20




      -   They are clever to spell with hard than writing.

      -   They are usually clever to speak in some discussion (Michael J.

          Losier, 2009 : 65 – 66).

                            AUDITORY LEARNERS

                                      Messages


                               External Obstruction

                                 Internal Obstruction

                                    Listening
                             (Received sound waves)

                                    Attention
                          (Received stimulus selectively)

                                Understanding
                              (Make interpretation)

                                    Recalling
                      (Save the symbol to the memories bank)

                                  Listening Process

                              (Slameto, 1991 : 110)

c. Tactual Learners

          In this style, students must touch something that giving

   information to remember it.

   1) Characteristics

      -   Hands are thinks to get information.

      -   Even just touch the thing students can absorb information

          without read the explanation.
                                                                          21




          -   Students can more easy and good learning with physical

              activity.

          -   They are usually speaks with slowly.

          -   They touch someone to get their attention.

          -   Drill with walking and seeing.

          -   They use gesture more.

          -   They cannot sit in long time.

          -   Usually their handwriting is bad.

          -   They like an exiting game (Michael J. Losier, 2009 : 82).

7. Effective Learning Style

           Because of differential of learning style type, the students must

   choose one match style to learn. There are seven kinds of effectives

   learning style.

   a. Play with word.

   b. Play with question.

   c. Play with picture.

   d. Play with music.

   e. Play with activity.

   f. Play with socialization.

   g. Play with lonely (Dr. Hamzah B. Uno, 2008 : 183 – 184).
                                                                                  22




B. Achievement

   1. Definition

              Achievement is something done successfully with effort and skill

      or something was gained or achieved by effect or skill (Hornby, 1985 : 8).

      Achievement of students is the result of the interaction between some

      factors that has been influent by internal and external factors, but internal

      factors have more influent to students’ achievement that external factor.

   2. The Classification Factors

      a. Internal Factor

                   Internal factors are factor from inside individual itself. The

          classification of internal factors are :

          1) Physical Factors

             Physical factors is everything which was on the body or the

             students (organs), they are :

             a) Mouth

             b) Hand

             c) Eyes

             d) Ear

             e) Etc

          2) Psychological Factors

             Psychological factors classification are :

             a) Intellectual Factors

                   -   Talent

                   -   Skill
                                                                     23




          -    Intelligence

          -    Etc

      b) Non Intellectual Factors

          -    Interest

          -    Attitude

          -    Motivation

          -    Emotion

          -    Etc

b. External Factor

          External factor is factor from outside individual it self. The

   classification of external factors are :

   1) Social Factors

      a) Family

      b) School

      c) Society

      d) Groups

      e) Etc

   2) Cultural Factors

      a) Technology

      b) Arts

      c) Knowledge

      d) Etc

   3) The Equipment Factors

      a) School facilities
                                                                            24




           b) Learning facilities

           c) The other equipment in studying

       4) Spiritual Factors

           a) Religion

           b) Believe

       The all factors above have interactions. It has influence the students’

achievement direct or indirectly.

       Based on the definition above, it can be understood : achievement is the

result of the students’ learning. It can be understood the factors which has

influence in achievement. The measurement of achievement can know the

development of student in their study especially in English material.