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									THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION


  National Survey of Distracted and Drowsy Driving
           Attitudes and Behaviors: 2002




  VOLUME I – FINDINGS REPORT




                         Submitted to:
         National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
                     400 7 th Street, SW
                        Room 5119
                   Washington, D.C. 20590

                   Final Report – March 2003




                         Submitted by:
             Dawn Royal, Senior Managing Consultant
                THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION
                     901 F Street, NW
                   Washington, D.C. 20004
Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No.                                2.Government Accession No.                        3.Recipient’s Catalog No.
809 566
4.Title and Subtitle                                                                           5.Report Date
Volume I: Findings
National Survey of Distracted and Drowsy Driving                                               April 2003
Attitudes and Behavior: 2002                                                                   6.Performing Organization Code

7.Author(s)                                                                                    8.Performing Organization Report No.
Dawn Royal
9.Performing Organization Name and Address                                                     10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

The Gallup Organization
901 F Street, NW – Suite 400                                                                   11.Contract or Grant No.
Washington DC20004                                                                             282-00-0017
202-715-3030
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address                                                         13. Type of Report and Period Covered

U.S. Department of Transportation                                                              Final Report
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)                                         14.Sponsoring Agency Code
Office of Research and Traffic Records
Washington, D.C.20590
15.Supplementary Notes
Paul J. Tremont, Ph.D. was Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative

16.Abstract
                    This report represents the findings on distracted driving (including cell phone use) and drowsy driving. The
           data come from a pair of studies undertaken by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to better
           understand drivers’ behaviors and attitudes regarding speeding, unsafe driving, distracted and drowsy driving. This
           report, Volume I: Findings--National Survey of Distracted and Drowsy Driving reports respondent’s behaviors and
           attitudes on various topics related to distracted and drowsy driving. Volume II: Findings--Speeding and Unsafe
           Driving presents the data on those topics, while Volume III: Methods Report describes the methods used to conduct
           the interviews and analyze the data, and also contains the questionnaires. The data will be used to help identify the
           extent to which potentially distracting behaviors are undertaken by drivers and to understand the characteristics of
           those engaging in these behaviors so that programs can be developed to reduce these behaviors where they have been
           shown to be dangerous. The data come from two surveys each conducted among nationally representative samples of
           drivers during the Spring of 2002. Interviews were conducted with a total of 4,010 drivers in the U.S.

                     The survey findings show that most drivers at least occasionally engage in behaviors that draw some of their
           attention away from their driving task. The most common of these behaviors include general activities of talking with
           other passengers (81%), changing radio stations or CDs (66%), and eating or drinking while driving (49%). While it
           is estimated that more than a billion driving trips are made weekly by drivers engaging in each of these behaviors,
           fewer than one in four drivers perceive these particular activities as distracting or as making driving much more
           dangerous. About one in four drivers uses a cell phone while driving for either inbound (26%) or outbound calls
           (25%), while a similar proportion deals with children in a back seat (24%). Close to one-half of drivers perceive
           these behaviors to make driving much more dangerous, although drivers who use cell phones are only half as less
           likely as non-users to feel cell phone use is dangerous. Regarding drowsy driving, over a third, (37%) of drivers
           report having nodded off or falling asleep at least once since they began driving. Eight percent have done so in the
           past six months. Nearly half of drivers who nodded off report doing so between 9:00PM and 6:00AM.

                     About one quarter (26%) of drivers have been involved in a crash in the past five years. About 3.5% of drivers
           attribute a crash they’ve had in the past 5 years to their being distracted (including 0.8% looking for something outside of
           their vehicle and 0.7% dealing with children), seven-tenths of 1 percent (0.7%) attribute a crash they’ve had to drowsy
           driving, while one-tenth of 1 percent (0.1%) of drivers attribute a crash they’ve had to their cell phone use.
17.Key Words                                                           18.Distribution Statement
Driving, Attitudes, Survey, Distracted Driving, Drowsy                 This report is available from the National Technical Information Service,
Driving, Cell Phone Use                                                Springfield, VA (703) 487-4650, and is free of charge on the NHTSA
                                                                       website at www.nhtsa.dot.gov.
19.Security Classif. (of this report)        20. Security Classif. (of this page)              21.No. of Pages         22.Price
                                                                                               68

Form DOT F 1700.7(8-72)                            Reproduction of completed page authorized
              Contents
Executive Summary                                               1


Introduction                                                    7


Section I: 2002 Survey Administration Findings                 11


     Chapter 1: General Driving Characteristics and Road Use   11

     Chapter 2: Distracted Driving Behaviors                   17
     Chapter 3: Perception of Impacts of Distracted Driving    31
     Chapter 4: Drowsy Driving                                 41




Appendix A:


     NHTSA Regions



Appendix B:


     Supplemental Charts
List of Figures



   1.    General Driver Characteristics......................................................................................................................................13
   2.    Roadway Use...................................................................................................................................................................15

   3. Ownership of Devices That May Distract Drivers ....................................................................................................19
   4.    Frequency of Behaviors Involving Potentially Distracting Technology...............................................................21
   5.    Frequency of Behaviors Not Involving Potentially Distracting Technology.......................................................23

   6.    Estimated Weekly Trips Made While Engaged in Potentially Distracting Behavior.........................................25
   7.    In-Car Wireless Phone Use...........................................................................................................................................27
   8.    Crash Related to Distracted Driving............................................................................................................................29

   9.    Perception of Actions That Distract Drivers – Technology-Based........................................................................33
   10. Perception of Actions That Distract Drivers – Non-Technology-Based...............................................................35
   11. Perceived Threat of Distracted Driving ......................................................................................................................37

   12. Views on Initiatives to Curtail Car Phone Use .........................................................................................................39
   13. Experience With Drowsy Driving................................................................................................................................43
   14. Characteristics of Most Recent Drowsy Driving Trip ..............................................................................................45

   15. Characteristics of Most Recent Drowsy Driving Trip (continued) .......................................................................47
   16. Preventative Measures ...................................................................................................................................................49
   17. Outcome of Drowsy Driving ........................................................................................................................................51

   18. Perceived Threat of Driving While Drowsy ..............................................................................................................53


   Appendix B:

   19. Frequency and Mean Number of Potentially Distracted Driving Behaviors Not Involving Technology ......59
   20. Frequency and Mean Number of Potentially Distracted Driving Behaviors Involving Technology ..............60
   21. Perceived Threat of Driving Behaviors .....................................................................................................................61
           Executive Summary
Background

           The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) mission is to save lives, prevent
           injuries, and reduce traffic -related healthcare and other economic costs. While much focus has
           been placed in recent years on alcohol-related driving and speeding, less focus has been paid to
           other forms of potentially unsafe driving behaviors that draw drivers’ attention away from the
           primary task of driving such as distracted and drowsy driving. However, a recent surge in
           legislation meant to curb cell phone use while driving has increased interest in these and other
           forms of potentially distracting activities for drivers.

           NHTSA undertook this nationally representative survey of drivers in order to collect data on the
           nature and scope of the distracted driving problem with the intent of understanding how serious
           the problem is in the public’s eyes, and what countermeasures the public may accept to control
           distracted driving.

           Telephone interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 4,010 drivers
           (age 16 or older) in the United States between February 4 and April 14, 2002. The data
           presented in this document are based on the self-reported responses from these surveyed drivers.

Key Findings

     Engaging in Potentially Distracting Behaviors While Driving
           We considered 12 potentially distracting behaviors in this study and asked drivers how often they
           personally engaged in each behavior while driving.

           The vast majority of drivers engage in two of the behaviors on at least some driving trips,
           including:
                   •   Talking with other passengers (81%)
                   •   Changing radio stations or looking for CDs or tapes (66%)

           Nearly half (49%) eat or drink while driving at least some of the time, while the following three
           activities are performed by about one in four drivers (at least some of the time):
                   •   Making outgoing calls on a cell phone (25%)
                   •   Taking incoming calls on a cell phone (26%)
                   •   Dealing with children riding in the rear seat (24%)

           The other six activities are undertaken by about one in ten or fewer drivers on at least some
           driving trips:
                   •   Reading a map or directions while driving (12%)
                   •   Personal grooming (8%)
                   •   Reading printed material (4%)
                   •   Responding to a beeper or pager (3%)
                   •   Using wireless remote Internet access (2%)
                   •   Using telematics such as in-car navigation or crash avoidance systems (2%)
                                                                                                               1
        Frequency of Engaging in Potentially Distracting Behaviors While Driving
                 Based on projections from the sampled drivers, drivers report making an estimated 4.2 billion
                 one-way driving trips in a typical week. The preliminary estimate from the 2001 National
                 Household Travel Survey (NHHTS1 ), which acquired personal travel data between March 2001
                 and May 2002, reported that drivers made about 6.0 billion one-way trips each week. The higher
                 NHHTS figure is likely due to interviewing differences and questionnaire design (eg. this study
                 did not undertake to acquire extensive data on trip detail or segment definition as did the
                 NHHTS). The measurement in this survey is intended to obtain relative estimates of engagement
                 in potentially distracting behaviors in relation to other behaviors. Consequently, compared to the
                 NHHTS, the actual estimates of trips could be underestimated by as much as 30%.

                 To provide estimates of weekly trips involving each behavior, the reported proportion of trips in
                 which the driver engages in a given behavior  such as “on all or most trips” or “on about three-
                 quarters of driving trips”  was applied to the number of total reported weekly driving trips. The
                 formula used in these calculations can be found on page 24 of the report.

                 Drivers make the following estimated number of driving trips each week while engaging in a
                 potentially distracting behavior on at least some portion of a driving trip:

                         •   2.38 billion trips while talking to passengers (56% of all trips)
                         •   1.92 billion trips while changing the radio station or looking for CDs or tapes
                             (45% of all trips)
                         •   1.25 billion trips while eating or drinking (30% of all trips)
                         •   792 million trips while taking incoming cell phone calls (19% of all trips)
                         •   776 million trips while making outgoing cell phone calls (18% of all trips)
                         •   776 million trips while dealing with children in the back seat (18% of all trips)
                         •   414 million trips while looking at maps or directions (10% of all trips)
                         •   349 million trips while undertaking personal grooming (8% of all trips)
                         •   131 million trips while responding to a beeper or pager (3% of all trips)
                         •   116 million trips while using wireless Internet access (3% of all trips)
                         •   59 million trips whiles using navigation or crash avoidance systems (1% of all trips)

        Wireless Cell Phone Use
                 While six in ten (60%) drivers report having a cellular or wireless phone, more than half of those
                 with cell phones say they never or rarely use the cell phone while driving to make outgoing or
                 take incoming calls (58% and 56% respectively). While a small proportion of drivers use cell
                 phones only for outbound (5%) or only for inbound (4%) calls, 21% use them for both inbound
                 and outbound calls at least occasionally. Thus about 30% of all drivers use a cell phone while
                 driving to make outgoing OR incoming calls on at least some of their driving trips.

                 Wireless phone use is currently receiving a great deal of legislative attention with several
                 municipalities recently having passed (or considering passing) laws that prohibit or limit cell
                 phone use (or hand-held cell phone use) while driving. Some of the legislation seems to be based
                 on the belief that the use of hands-free devices is less distracting and may be preferable to hand-
                 held phones. However, others believe that any activity involving mental (such as conversation)


1
  2001 National Household Travel Survey. User’s Guide, Version 1 (preliminary release). U.S. DOT: BTS & FHWA,
January 2003.
                                                                                                                       2
       or physical (such as eating or playing with the radio) involvement distracts drivers, and that
       hands-free phones simply offer convenience to drivers.

       The current study finds that about one-third (34%) of drivers who do use a cell phone while
       driving use a hands-free model with speakerphone or head phones (32% of those using cell
       phones for outbound calls and 36% using them for inbound calls). About 263 million of the 776
       million weekly trips made using a cell phone for outgoing calls are made using a hands-free
       phone. While approximately 291 million of the 792 weekly trips using a cell phone for incoming
       calls are made using a hands-free phone.

       Cell phone using drivers estimate that they spend an average of 4.5 minutes per call while
       driving. However, 13% of drivers typically spend 10 minutes or more per call.

Involvement in Crash as a Result of Wireless Phone Use

       Approximately one in four (26%) drivers report involvement in a motor vehicle crash in the past
       five years. One tenth of one percent (0.1%) of all drivers (0.5% of drivers who use a cell phone
       while driving) attribute a crash they’ve had to cell phone use. This equates to an estimated
       292,000 drivers who report involvement in a crash they attribute to cell phone use in the past
       five years.

Involvement in a Crash as a Result of Distracted Driving
       While cell phones are reported to contribute to some automobile crashes, other forms of
       distracted driving appear to play a much more significant role. Several behaviors reportedly
       account for many more crashes than do cell phones.

       About 3.5% of all drivers have been involved in a crash in the past five years they attribute to
       their being distracted  equating to an estimated 6.0 million to 8.3 million drivers.

       Drivers involved in a distracted-related crash attribute their distraction to the following activities:

               •    Looking for something outside of the car (building, street sign, etc.) (23% of drivers
                    in a distracted related crash; 0.8% of all drivers)
               •    Dealing with children or other passengers (19%; 0.7% of all drivers)
               •    Looking for something inside the car (14%; 0.5% of all drivers)
               •    Another driver (11%; 0.4% of all drivers)
               •    Personal thoughts/thinking (5%; 0.2% of all drivers)
               •    Looking at an animal outside of the car (3%; 0.1% of all drivers)
               •    Dealing with technology (primarily radio) (2%; 0.1% of all drivers)
               •    Other distractions (23%; 0.8% of all drivers)
Perceptions of Actions That Distract Drivers
      We asked drivers to rate 12 potentially distracting behaviors that may make driving more
      dangerous. Drivers perceive the following four behaviors to be the most distracting:
               •    Reading printed materials such as a book, newspaper, or mail (80% feel it makes
                    driving much more dangerous)
               •    Using wireless remote Internet equipment (such as a PDA or wireless e-mail) (63%)
               •    Personal grooming (61%)
               •    Looking at maps or directions (55%)

                                                                                                                 3
      Slightly less than half of all drivers feel that engaging in the following behaviors while driving
      make driving “much more dangerous”:

              •    Making outgoing cell phone calls (48%)
              •    Taking incoming cell phone calls (44%)
              •    Answering or checking a pager or beeper (43%)
              •    Dealing with children in the back seat (40%)

      One in four or fewer drivers perceive the following activities to be distracting while driving and
      make driving “much more dangerous”:

              •    Using navigation or crash avoidance systems (23%)
              •    Changing the radio station or looking for CDs or tapes (18%)
              •    Eating or drinking (17%)
              •    Talking to other passengers (4%)

      Not surprisingly, drivers who themselves engage in each behavior are less likely to feel it makes
      driving more dangerous than those who do not engage in the behavior.

Perceived Severity of the Threat of Others’ Behavior
      Not only do drivers perceive distracting behaviors as more dangerous, but drivers also feel some
      actions are a major threat to their personal safety. Seven out of ten (70%) drivers feel it is a
      major threat to their safety when other drivers look at maps or directions while driving. Fifty-two
      percent (52%) feel that others’ use of cell phones while driving is a major threat to their personal
      safety. These relative perceptions of reading and using a cell phone while driving as major
      threats to one’s personal safety are similar to those reported earlier on overall perceptions of how
      dangerous these activities are (70% and 48% respectively).

      Drivers who do not use cell phones while driving are three times as likely as drivers who use
      them to feel such behavior by others is a major personal safety threat.


Support for Initiatives to Curtail Cell Phone Use While Driving
      The majority of drivers support the five potential actions measured in the survey to reduce cell
      phone use while driving. Specifically, they support:

              •    Increased public awareness of the risk of wireless phone use while driving
                   (88% support)
              •    A restriction on hand-held phones while driving  only allowing hands-free or
                   voice-activated car-mounted phones (71%)
              •    Insurance penalties for being involved in a crash while using a cell phone (67%)
              •    Double or triple fines for traffic violations involving cell phone use (61%)
              •    A ban on all wireless phone use while a car is moving (except for 911 calls) (57%)




                                                                                                           4
        While drivers who use cell phones are as likely as non-users to support initiatives involving
        increased awareness of the risks of cell phone use while driving, and a majority support
        restrictions on hand held phone use while driving, they generally do not support the use of
        increased traffic fines or a ban on wireless phones. Specifically, cell phone-using drivers show
        much lower support than non-users for:
                •   Increased fines for traffic violations when a cell phone is involved (only about 40%
                    of drivers using cell phones support increased fines compared to 70% support by
                    drivers who do not use cell phones while driving).
                •   A ban on all wireless phone use in a moving car (about a quarter support such an
                    action as compared to 69% support for drivers who don’t use cell phones)
Drowsy Driving

        This study also examined prevalence and conditions of drowsy driving. While the issue of
        drowsy driving is not currently receiving the attention in the media or among the general public
        as is the use of cell phones while driving, a significant number of drivers have experienced
        drowsy driving. Specifically:
                •   Thirty-seven percent (37%) of drivers have nodded off for at least a moment or fallen
                    asleep while driving at least once in their driving career
                •   Eight percent (8%) have done so in the past six months
        Nodding off or falling asleep recently is most prevalent among drivers age 21-29 (13%) and
        males (11%) and least prevalent among drivers over age 64 (4%) and females (5%).

Characteristics of Drowsy Driving Trips
        The average drowsy driving experience is associated with the following characteristics:
                •   Driver averaged 6.0 hours of sleep the previous night (and 24% had slept fewer than
                    five hours)
                •   Driver had been driving for an average of 2.9 hours (but 22% had been driving for
                    more than four hours)
                •   Occurred while driving on an interstate type highway with posted speeds of 55 mph
                    or higher (59%)
                •   Nearly half (48%) nodded off between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Involvement in a Crash as a Result of Drowsy Driving
        In the past five years, about 0.7% of drivers have been involved in a crash that they attribute to
        drowsy driving  amounting to an estimated 800,000 to 1.88 million drivers.

Preventative Actions for Drowsy Driving
        When asked what actions they take when they feel sleepy while driving, 43% of drivers report
        they pull over and rest or nap. While drivers may feel a social desirability to offer this response,
        it may also depend on the level of sleepiness experienced. The severity of a driver’s drowsiness
        was not accounted for in this study.

Other key behaviors reported by drivers to combat sleepiness while driving include:
                •   Open the window (26%)
                •   Get coffee, soda, or caffeine (17%)
                •   Pull over/get off the road (15%)
                •   Play the radio loudly (14%)

                                                                                                               5
6
Introduction
Background and Objectives




          While distracted driving has been around since the advent of automobile travel, recently it has
          become a focus of increasing interest. Some of this interest is attributable to the increased use of
          cell phones and to a recent surge in state legislation to curb cell phone use while driving, possibly
          because cell phones are among the newer and more visible array of driver distractions.
          Drowsiness is another condition that takes drivers’ attention away from the road.

          Despite the growing concern over these behaviors, little information is available on the specific
          conditions under which drivers engage in various distracted and drowsy driving behaviors. In
          addition, little information exists on the characteristics of the drivers who exhibit these behaviors.

          To help answer these and other questions surrounding distracted and drowsy driving, the National
          Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has undertaken a national survey of the driving
          public's attitudes and experiences related to distracted and fatigued driving behaviors. NHTSA
          contracted with The Gallup Organization to conduct two surveys of the driving public’s attitudes
          and behaviors regarding speeding, and a second dealing with unsafe driving. Both surveys
          covered aggressive driving, driver distraction and fatigued driving.

          Similar methods were used to field the two surveys and many of the questions were asked on both
          surveys to provide more robust estimates. The data collected in the two surveys resulted in two
          separate reports: this report on Distracted and Drowsy Driving and a second report on Speeding
          and Aggressive Behaviors, which is published under a separate cover.



     Methods
          Sampling Objective

          The sampling requirement of the two studies was the same: acquire a representative national
          sample of drivers age 16 and older in the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C.

          In order to accommodate the need to acquire data on topics of speeding, aggressive and unsafe
          driving, distracted and fatigued driving, two separate surveys were undertaken. The first survey
          focused on speeding behaviors, while the second survey focused on aggressive driving and other
          unsafe driving behaviors. Both versions measured distracted driving and drowsy driving. In
          addition, split-sample procedures were used within each version to extend the number of
          questions that could be asked within the 18-minute telephone survey.

          Each survey instrument was fielded as an independent national sample and was constructed in an
          identical manner. Gallup used a three-stage procedure to meet the sampling objective:

          1.      Gallup first identified the universe of residential telephone listings within each of the
                  eight U.S. Census Regions.


                                                                                                                   7
                 2.        Second, Gallup drew a systematic sample of telephone 100-number blocks within each
                           region. Gallup then randomly generated the last two numbers for a full 10-digit phone
                           number within each valid block selected in the previous stage. This procedure provides
                           for an equal probability of selection for each working residential telephone number in the
                           United States (both listed and unlisted residential telephone households).
                 3.        Next, a single driver age 16 or older was randomly selected (using the “most recent
                           birthday” method described in the Methods report) for inclusion from all eligible
                           members of the driving public residing in that household.

                 Up to 14 attempts were made to reach each randomly selected respondent. Seven attempts were
                 made to reach the household, and once a respondent in the household was identified, Gallup made
                 up to seven additional attempts to reach that person.

                 Using the two surveys, Gallup completed a total of 4,010 telephone interviews with vehicle
                 drivers age 16 and older between February 4, 2002 and April 14, 2002. Interviews were
                 completed in both English and Spanish, using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing
                 (CATI) system.

                 Sample Weighting

                 While the two samples were weighted separately, similar sample weighting was carried out for
                 each sample. The final telephone samples of drivers age 16 and older were weighted to equalize
                 selection probabilities (at both the household and the individual levels  particularly since we
                 excluded non-drivers), and to adjust for non-response bia s by demographics. In the last stage of
                 the weighting process, the adjusted results were projected to the number of drivers age 16 or older
                 in the United States A detailed description of the weighting procedures can be found in
                 Volume II: Methods.

                 The final number of weighted and unweighted interviews by age and gender appear below:

                                               Gender                                  Age
                                 TOTAL    Male     Female       16-20      21-29      30-45      46-64      65+
Total Unweighted                  4010    1798      2212         214        530       1298       1242       697
Weighted                          4010    1970      2040         352        610       1303       1115       610
Estimated sampling error range    ±1.5%   ±2.3%     ±2.1%       ±6.7%      ±4.3%      ±2.3%      ±2.8%     ±3.7%




                 Precision of Sample Estimates
                 All sample surveys are subject to sampling error in that results may differ from what would be
                 obtained if the whole population had been interviewed. The size of such sampling error depends
                 largely on the number of interviews. For the main sample of 4,010 telephone interviews, the
                 expected maximum sampling error range is approximately +/- 1.5% at the 95% level of
                 confidence. The table above shows the sampling error ranges by age and gender at the 95% level
                 of confidence. Due to the stratification and other complexities of the sample design, in some
                 cases (particularly among smaller sub-groups of the population) the error ranges will be slightly
                 larger than those shown in the table. This information is provided to offer the reader a general
                 sense of the range of the true estimates. The report Volume II: Methods, presents a table showing
                 the expected sampling error ranges for sub-group sizes in the sample.




                                                                                                                        8
       Data Presented
               It should be noted that this is a top-line report on survey data and includes responses from more
               than 4,000 persons of driving age on more than 200 survey questions. The report is not intended
               to provide in-depth analyses of any one topic, but rather to give the reader a general overview of
               the data. Additional analyses may be done at the reader's discretion.

               The data in this report are based on driver responses from two separate surveys conducted
               concurrently. Some of the questions were shared between the two surveys, while others were
               unique to one of the two surveys. The two surveys were referred to as “Speed” and “Unsafe” to
               identify their primary topic differences. Figures in the report identify from which of the two
               surveys (Speed or Unsafe) the data are based. In addition, within each survey version some
               questions were asked of a random half-sample of drivers, rather than the entire survey base.
               These items are noted with an “(A)” or “(B)” marker in the figure.

               The sample bases for most figures can be found in reference tables below. For figures based on
               other populations, the sample base appears at the bottom of the figure page. A definition of the
               NHTSA Regions 1-10 can be found in Appendix A.

                                                SAMPLE BASES

                    Total     Male    Female      16-20    21-29     30-45     46-64      65+
Speed and Unsafe    4010      1798     2212        214      530      1298      1242       697
Speed               2004      927      1077        105      273       660       633       321
Unsafe              2006      871      1135        109      257       638       609       376

Race                White     Black     Other     Asian   Hispanic
Speed and Uns afe   3442      319        55        92       298
Speed               1717      165        30        53       155
Unsafe              1725      154        25        39       143

Region                1        2         3         4         5         6         7         8        9          10
Speed and Unsafe     234      364       446       786       699       394       200       154       52        206
Speed                114      189       225       382       348       201       101        83       25        105
Unsafe               120      175       221       404       351       193        99        71       27        101




                                                                                                                    9
10
2002 Survey Administration
Findings

Chapter 1: General Driving Characteristics and Road Use

         This section provides information on the driving age public’s general driving characteristics and
         road use. Specifically it covers the following topics:

         •   Frequency of driving by gender and age
         •   Presence of valid driver’s license and commercial license
         •   Number of years driving
         •   Personal use of radar detectors
         •   Use of various road types
         •   Urbanicity of roads
         •   Weekly driving trips




                                                                                                             11
General Driving Characteristics

    Frequency of Driving

          To qualify for this study of Distracted and Drowsy Driving, persons age 16 or older must drive a
          motor vehicle at least occasionally, regardless of holding a valid driver’s license. About eight out
          of ten (82%) drivers report that they usually drive a car or other motor vehicle every day. An
          additional 14% drive several days a week. Male drivers (86%) are more likely than female
          drivers (78%) to report daily driving. Middle age drivers (those in their 30s through 64) report
          the greatest frequency of driving (86% daily), while just 63% of those over 64 drives on a daily
          basis. [Figure 1-A] Not surprisingly, driving frequency is impacted by employment status, with
          92% of those employed full time reporting daily driving, as compared to just 66% of those who
          are not currently employed.

    Driver’s License

          Approximately 2% of drivers report driving a motor vehicle without the benefit of a valid driver’s
          license. Male drivers (3%) and those ages 16-20 (8%) are most likely to report not having a valid
          driver’s license. [Figure 1-B]

    Commercial License
          About fourteen percent (14%) of drivers report having a commercial driver’s license. It is likely
          that there was some misunderstanding of the meaning of a “commercial driver’s license” among
          youth age 16-20, as 19% of these drivers report this type of license. Male drivers are more likely
          to hold this type of license than are their female counterparts (18% vs. 11%). [Figure 1-C]

    Radar Detector
          About four percent (4%) of drivers report that they usually drive with a radar detector in their
          vehicle, with males (6%) and younger drivers (9% of 16-20 year olds) more likely than others to
          do so. Use of a radar detector may indicate a propensity for speeding or other types of unsafe
          driving behaviors. [Figure 1-E]




                                                                                                             12
                                          FIGURE 1: GENERAL DRIVER CHARACTERISTICS

 A                       FREQUENCY OF DRIVING,                                                  B        PERCENT WITH VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE,
                           BY GENDER AND AGE                                                                     BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                                         Once a week or less
                                                                         Several days a week
                                                                         Every day              98%           97%    99%                   98%      98%     100%       100%
                                                                                                                                   92%
  4%        2%            5%                 4%            2%            3%            7%
  14%       12%                     11%      10%           11%           12%
                         17%        17%                                               30%


  82%       86%          78%                 86%           87%           85%
                                    72%                                               63%



 TOTAL      Male        Female      16-20    21-29      30-45            46-64        65+      TOTAL          Male Female          16-20   21-29    30-45   46-64      65+
              GENDER                                    AGE                                                     GENDER                             AGE

Q1: How often do you usually drive a car or other motor vehicle?                               Q2a: Do you have a valid driver’s license?
[Base: total respondents speed and unsafe; n=4010]                                             [Base: total respondents speed and unsafe; n=4010]



                PERCENT WITH VALID COMMERCIAL                                                                  MEAN NUMBER OF YEARS DRIVING,
  C                                                                                             D
              DRIVERS LICENSE, BY GENDER AND AGE                                                                     BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                                                                                                                                       52

                                                                                                                                                             36
                                                                                                26            26      26
                                                                                                                                                    20

 14%               18%                      19%      16%         16%        14%                                                             9
                           11%                                                         8%
                                                                                                                                    2

TOTAL              Male Female              16-20    21-29       30-45      46-64      65+     TOTAL          Male Female         16-20    21-29   30-45    46-64      65+
                  GENDER                                     AGE                                               GENDER                               AGE
Q2b: Is that a commercial license?                                                             Q3: How many years have you been driving?
[Base: Total respondents speed and unsafe; n=4010]                                             [Base: Total respondents speed and unsafe; n=4010]


                    PRESENCE OF RADAR DETECTOR,
  E
                      BY GENDER AND AGE – % YES



                                             9%
                   6%                                6%
  4%                                                             4%          4%
                               2%
                                                                                       1%


TOTAL              Male Female              16-20    21-29       30-45      46-64      65+
                    GENDER                                   AGE

 Q85: Do you usually drive with a radar detector in your vehicle?
 [Base: total respondents speed and unsafe; n=4010]


                                                                                                                                                                  13
Roadway Use by Type

        Road Types Driven

                 More than eight out of ten (83%) drivers say they frequently drive on city, town, or neighborhood
                 roads, with an additional 13% driving on these types of roads sometimes. More than two-thirds
                 (68%) frequently drive on two-lane roads with speed limits of 45 MPH or more. Multi-lane
                 interstate highways with speed limits of 55 MPH or higher (55%) and non-interstate multi-lane
                 roads with 40-55 MPH are driven on less, with just 55% and 45% of drivers frequently using
                 these roads. [Figure 2-A]

        Urbanicity of Roads Used
                 Fifty-six percent (56%) of drivers report that the roads they normally drive are more urban than
                 rural while about one-third (35%) drive on roads that are more rural. Drivers in their 20s report
                 the heaviest travel on urban roads (63%), while those age 46-64 are slightly more likely to say
                 their preferred roads are more rural in nature (39%). [Figure 2C] Drivers living in NHTSA
                 Regions 3, 4, 5, and 7 are most likely to say they primarily drive on more rural roads (at least
                 40% do). [Figure 2-D] (A definition of the states within each Region can be found in Appendix
                 A).

        Number of One-Way Trips Weekly
                 On average, drivers report about 21 one-way trips in the past week. Male drivers report about
                 two more trips a week on average than do females. Drivers age 21-45 report the most one-way
                 trips, while those age 64 or older report only about two-thirds of the trips on average.
                 [Figure 2-E]

        Estimated Number of Total One-Way Weekly Trips
                 An estimate was made to determine the total number of driving trips in an average week. The
                 number of one-way weekly trips reported by study respondents was projected to the total U.S.
                 driving population. Using this method, it is estimated that drivers make about 4.23 billion one-
                 way driving trips in a typical week. Males make approximately 2.2 billion trips, while females
                 report about 2.0 billion trips. [Figure 2-F]

                 It should be noted that this estimate is based on respondents’ understanding of “one-way driving
                 trips” and their recall of the number of trips they made in the previous seven days. In addition,
                 the study was fielded in the first quarter of 2002, and driving trips during this time period may not
                 be reflective of other times of the year. This estimate is not expected to be a completely accurate
                 estimate of the number of weekly driving trips, but is meant to provide an approximation of the
                 magnitude of driving trips and relative comparisons among sub-groups of the driving population.

                 In comparison, the figure of total driving trips is lower than the preliminarily estimated 6.0 billion
                 weekly vehicle trips reported in the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHHTS2 ). The
                 higher NHHTS figure is likely due to interviewing differences and questionnaire design (e.g. this
                 study did not undertake to acquire extensive data on trip detail or segment definition as did the
                 NHHTS). Again, the measurement in this survey is intended to obtain relative estimates of
                 engagement in potentially distracting behaviors in relation to other behaviors. Consequently,
                 compared to the NPTS, the actual estimates of trips may be underestimated by as much as 30%.
2
  2001 National Household Travel Survey. User’s Guide, Version 1 (preliminary release). U.S. DOT: BTS & FHWA,
January 2003.
                                                                                                                      14
                                                                     FIGURE 2: ROADWAY USE

 A                   FREQUENTLY OR SOMETIMES DRIVE                                                                    B                        TYPE OF ROAD USE BY AGE,
                           EACH TYPE OF ROAD                                                                                                      % FREQUENTLY DRIVE
                                                                           Frequently        Sometimes
                                                                                                                                                                  16-20          21-29         30-45        46-64       65+

                                    89%                      98%
          84%                                                13%                           80%
                                   21%
          29%                                                                           35%
                                                                                                                                                                  88%
                                   68%                       83%
                                                                                                                 52%65%59%55% 40%              72%73%64%71%62% 81% 83% 84% 79%
          55%                                                                           45%                                                                                                           45%54%42% 50% 36%


Multi-lane Interstate Hwy     Two-lane Roads             City, Town, or        Non-Interstate Multi-lane       Multi-lane Interstate Hwy         Two-lane Roads               City, Town, or         Non-Interstate Multi-lane
                                                         Neighborhood                                                                                                         Neighborhood
       55 MPH+                    45 MPH+                 <35 MPH                    40-55 MPH
Q8: Thinking of a typical week, how often do you drive on the                                                 Q8a: Thinking about the roads you normally drive on, would
following roads?                                                                                              you say that these roads are ___________?
[Base: total respondents, speed; n=2004]                                                                      [Base: total respondents, speed; n=2004]

 C                           URBANICITY OF ROADS USED,                                                                D                        URBANICITY OF ROADS USED,
                                      BY AGE                                                                                                       BY NHTSA REGION
             More Urban than Rural             More Rural than Urban              About the Same                                                More Urban than Rural                        More Rural than Urban
                                                                                                                                                                                               66%       69%
                                                                                                                                                                     63%
                                   63%             58%                                                         51% 55% 51% 51% 52%                                                                                  53%
56%              56%                                                 52%                54%                                                                                       49%
                                                                                                                 39%         41% 40%
                                                                        39%                36%                       36% 40%                                              32%
                                                                                                                                                                                     40%
                                                                                                                                                                                                  30%                  35%
     35%              35%                             35%
                                       28%                                                                                                                                                                    21%
           6%                                5%              5%                 7%                 8%
                             2%

     Total            16-20            21-29          30-45               46-64              65+                          1      2         3         4        5           6              7        8           9         10
                                                AGE                                                                                                               REGION

Q8a: Thinking about the roads you normally drive on, would                                                            Q8a: Thinking about the roads you normally drive on, would
you say that these roads are ___________?                                                                             you say that these roads are ___________?
[Base: total respondents, speed; n=2004]                                                                              [Base: total respondents, speed; n=2004]

             AVERAGE NUMBER OF ONE-WAY TRIPS IN PAST                                                                          ESTIMATED TOTAL NUMBER OF ONE-WAY TRIPS IN
E                                                                                                                F
                    WEEK, BY GENDER AND AGE                                                                                          PAST WEEK, BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                                                                                      4.23
                                                                25        24
  21                    22                          21
                                  20                                                  20
                                                                                                           BILLIONS




                                                                                                 13
                                                                                                                                      2.23
                                                                                                                                                   2.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                1.58
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1.11
                                                                                                                                                                      0.36          0.78                              0.39

TOTAL                  Male Female                 16-20 21-29 30-45                 46-64       65+            TOTAL                 Male Female                     16-20 21-29 30-45                    46-64       65+
                        GENDER                                            AGE                                                                  GENDER                                             AGE
Q9: Please estimate how many total one-way driving trips you made                                           Q9: Please estimate how many total one-way driving trips you made
in the past seven days?                                                                                     in the past seven days?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]                                                         [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15
16
Chapter 2: Distracted Driving Behaviors

          This section assesses drivers’ participation in potentially distracting behaviors while behind the
          wheel. Specifically it covers the following topics:

          •   Presence of devices that may be distracting
          •   Frequency of participating in potentially distracting behaviors involving technology
          •   Frequency of participating in potentially distracting behaviors not involving technology
          •   Estimated weekly trips made while engaged in potentially distracting behaviors
          •   Wireless phone use




                                                                                                               17
Ownership of Devices That May Distract Drivers

    Ownership of Devices That May Be Distracting if Used While Driving
          Wireless or cellular phones are the most common potentially distracting devices owned by drivers.
          Six out of ten (60%) drivers in the United States report that they have a wireless or cellular phone.
          Slightly less than one in seven (15%) drivers have wireless remote Internet or e-mail access, while
          one in eight (12%) report having a beeper or pager. Fewer than one in ten drivers reports having a
          Personal Data Assistant (PDA) (8%). While the types of in-car telematic systems vary, reported
          ownership of either an in-car navigation system or crash avoidance safety system is quite low at
          5%. [Figure 3-A]

    Ownership of Devices That May Be Distracting – by Gender
          While male and female drivers are equally likely to report having a wireless or cellular phone,
          male drivers are more likely to have a beeper or pager (16% as compared to 9% of females), or a
          PDA (10% vs. 7%). [Figure 3-B]

    Ownership of Devices That May Be Distracting – by Age
          While technological devices are often adopted more heavily by the young with use dwindling off
          as one ages, two thirds (66%) of those age 16-45 report wireless phone ownership, and 60% of
          those age 46-64 do. Wireless phone use is lower among those over age 64, but 39% of drivers
          this age report having a wireless or cell phone. [Figure 3-C]

          About one in ten drivers between the ages of 16-45 report having a PDA, with use dropping to
          6% among 46-64 year olds and to 3% among those age 65 and older. Wireless remote Internet or
          e-mail access shows a similar trend, with those under age 30 reporting the highest use (21%),
          falling to about one in six among those age 30-64, and dropping considerably to just 6% among
          those over age 64.

          With the exception of drivers age 16-20, among whom reported use is slightly higher (9%), use of
          in-car navigation or crash avoidance systems is similar across age groups (about 5%).

          While nearly one out of six (16%) drivers under age 21 report having a pager or beeper, presence
          of these devices drops to 11% among drivers in their 20s. Beeper or pager ownership jumps
          again among those in their 30s and early 40s to 17%, while just 11% of those 46-64 have one. As
          is true of the other technologies measured, only a small proportion of those age 65 or older report
          having one of these devices (2%).




                                                                                                            18
                  FIGURE 3: OWNERSHIP OF DEVICES THAT MAY DISTRACT DRIVERS

 A                 OWNERSHIP OF DEVICES THAT MAY BE                                                        B                 OWNERSHIP OF DEVICES THAT MAY BE
                             DISTRACTING                                                                                         DISTRACTING, BY GENDER
                                                                              % Yes
                                                                                                                                                                          Male                Female
       60%                                                                                                   59% 60%

                             12%                   8%                                       15%                                   16% 9%             10% 7%                                 14% 16%
                                                                      5%                                                                                                 6% 5%

 Wireless or cellular    Pager or beeper     PDA such as Palm   In-car navigation      Wireless remote     Wireless or cellular   Pager or beeper   PDA such as Palm   In-car navigation   Wireless remote
       phone                                   Pilot or Visor   system or crash       Internet or e-mail         phone                                Pilot or Visor   system or crash     Internet or e-mail
                                                                avoidance safety            access                                                                     avoidance safety        access
                                                                    system*                                                                                                system


           Q44: Do you have any of the following devices? (Percent Yes) [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




 C                 OWNERSHIP OF DEVICES THAT MAY BE
                         DISTRACTING, BY AGE

                                           16-20       21-29      30-45             46-64        65+
   66% 60%
66% 66%

                39%
                        16%11% 11%
                             17%                               21%21%
                                                                    16% 14%
                                     12%10% 6%
                                           11%    9% 6%5%5% 5%             6%
                                  2%           3%

 Wireless or cellular    Pager or beeper     PDA such as Palm   In-car navigation      Wireless remote
       phone                                   Pilot or Visor   system or crash       Internet or e-mail
                                                                avoidance safety            access
                                                                    system


Q44: Do you have any of the following devices? (Percent “Yes”)
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




      *Full question wording specified: In-car advanced technology such as a navigation system (like OnStar or Wingcast) or an
      advanced crash avoidance safety system.




                                                                                                                                                                                                         19
Frequency of Engaging in Potentially Distracting Behaviors
Involving Technology

    Use of Wireless/Cellular Phone While Driving
            While six in ten (60%) drivers say they have a wireless/cellular phone, 58% of those with a
            wireless phone say they rarely or never use it to make outgoing calls while driving and 56% say
            they rarely or never take incoming calls on their cell phone while driving. This amounts to about
            one in three of all drivers using a cell phone for outgoing or incoming calls while driving.
            Of drivers with a cell phone, about 13% say they use their phone for outgoing or incoming calls
            on three-quarters or more of their driving. This relates to about 8% of all drivers using a cell
            phone on the majority of their driving trips. About three in ten drivers with cell phones say they
            use them on about one-quarter to one-half of their driving trips for outgoing (28%) or incoming
            (31%) calls. [Figure 4-A]
            Male drivers with cell phones are more likely than their female counterparts to both make
            outgoing (46%) and accept incoming (50%) calls while driving (as compared to 39% of females
            doing each behavior). [Figure 4-B]
            While drivers age 21 or older with cell phones are about equally likely to use their cell phones for
            outgoing calls as they are to take incoming calls, cell phone-using drivers age 16-20 are more
            likely to use their cell phones to take incoming calls (63%) than they are to make outgoing calls
            while driving (40%). Use of a cell phone while driving decreases significantly with age. About
            six in ten cell phone owners age 21-29 use their phone for inbound or outbound calls while
            driving, compared to about one-half of those age 30-45, one-third of those age 46-64, and less
            than 10% of those age 65 or older. [Figure 4-C]
    Use of Navigation System or Crash Avoidance System While Driving
            Of the 5% of drivers who report having a navigational or crash avoidance system, just 30% (or
            about 1.5% of all drivers) say they use a navigational system or respond to a crash avoidance
            system while driving. About 15% of owners say they use them for more than three quarters of
            their trips, while 15% use them for only about one-quarter to one-half of their driving trips.
            [Figure 4-A]

    Use of Wireless Equipment – PDA or E-mail Access While Driving
            Few drivers with wireless equipment such as a PDA or e-mail access actually use this equipment
            while driving. Of the 15% of drivers who have remote Internet access, just 14% say they use this
            equipment while driving (or about 2% of all drivers). [Figure 4-A]
            There is little difference in use by gender, but reported use of remote wireless access is highest
            among younger drivers and decreases with age. [Figure 4-C]

    Answering or Checking Pages While Driving
            About three in ten (29%) drivers with a pager or beeper say they answer or check their
            beeper/pager while driving, with 8% doing so on three-quarters or more of their trips. This
            relates to about 3% of all drivers ever accessing a beeper or pager while driving. Males (32%)
            and those under 30 (40%) are most likely to check or answer the page. [Figure 4-A]
    Figure 19 in Appendix B presents a comparison of the proportion of the population who reported a
    specific frequency of behavior and the corresponding mean number of trips these drivers make
    undertaking the behavior.

                                                                                                                 20
                    FIGURE 4: FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS INVOLVING POTENTIALLY
                                    DISTRACTING TECHNOLOGY
  A               FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS INVOLVING                                                        B              FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS INVOLVING
                          TECHNOLOGY        Rarely/Never                                                               TECHNOLOGY, % DO ACTIVITIES, BY GENDER
                                            1/4 of trips
                                                                            1/2 of trips
                                                                            3/4 of trips
                                                                            All or most of trips                                                                  Male            Female
                                         38%                                                                                              64% 59%
      58%             55%                                                                                                    50%
                                                           68%                              70%              46%
                                         15%                              86%                                      39%             39%                 33% 28%                    32%
                                         15%                                                                                                                                            24%
   18%               20%                                                                                                                                             15% 12%
                                         10%                       5%
6% 10%            5% 11%                              5% 10%       4%                9% 12%
                                         23%          6%           2%                3%
7%                8%                                  9%           3%                6%                          Make          Take       Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or
     Make            Take             Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or                   outgoing call   incoming      stations or system or crash equipment check a page
 outgoing call     incoming            stations or system or crash equipment check a page                    from wireless    call from   look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or
 from wireless      call from         look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or                                     phone        wireless      or tapes    safety system e-mail access)
     phone          wireless            or tapes    safety system e-mail access)                                               phone
                     phone
      (C)            (C)                 (A)               (D)            (E)                (F)                 (C)           (C)          (A)           (D)            (E)          (F)
Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving? [Base: See sample bases chart]*



  C                FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS INVOLVING                                                          D         PROPORTION OF ALL DRIVERS WHO ENGAGE IN
                   TECHNOLOGY, % DO ACTIVITIES, BY AGE                                                                    BEHAVIORS INVOLVING TECHNOLOGY,
                                                                                                                               % DO MORE THAN RARELY
                                        16-20         21-29       30-45           46-64            65+

                                      84% 84%
                                                                                                                                             66%
             65%64%                         70%
   61%                                                  62%
 49% 49%           48%                          51%
                                                     42%                                    41%
         31%          33%                         31%                                 39%                        25%            26%
                                                              27%                             27% 24%
                                                                20% 23%
                                                                      17%
                                 9%                                      13%                         9%
              8%                                                  13%        7%5%                                                                          2%            2%           3%
      Make            Take             Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or                      Make          Take       Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or
  outgoing call     incoming            stations or system or crash equipment check a page                   outgoing call   incoming      stations or system or crash equipment check a page
  from wireless      call from         look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or                                from wireless    call from   look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or
      phone          wireless            or tapes    safety system e-mail access)                                phone        wireless      or tapes    safety system e-mail access)
                      phone                                                                                                    phone

       (C)            (C)                (A)               (D)             (E)                (F)                (C)           (C)          (A)            (D)           (E)          (F)

 Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving?
 [Base: See sample bases chart]*




             *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                                          Total        Male         Female       16-20        21-29       30-45      46-64       65+
  A.   Split Sample A                                                     2016         908           1108         110          273         643        624        350
  B.   Split Sample B                                                     1994         890           1104         104          257         655        618        347
  C.   Own cell phone                                                     2412         1089          1323         146          359         862        751        278
  D.   Have advanced in-car technology                                     214          111          103           21           32          67         52         39
  E.   Have wireless remote internet or PDA                                822          391          431           63          146         316        231         61
  F.   Have pager or beeper                                                455          276          179           37           62         205        131         15



                                                                                                                                                                                      21
Frequency of Potentially Distracting Behaviors Not
Involving Technology

    While driver behaviors involving technology such as cell phones, pagers, and Internet accessing devices have
    come into the forefront recently as important driver distractions, drivers continue to engage in many potentially
    distracting behaviors that do not involve these types of equipment.


    Frequency of Conversing with Passengers
          The overwhelming majority (81%) of drivers talk to other passengers while driving, with 47%
          doing so on about three-quarters or more of all driving trips and an additional 34% conversing
          with other passengers on about one-quarter to one-half of their trips. [Figure 5-A]
            Male and female drivers are equally likely to talk with passengers while driving. [Figure 5-B]
            While older drivers are slightly less likely to talk to passengers while driving than younger
            drivers, about three-quarters of those over age 45 still engage in this activity. [Figure 5-C]

    Frequency of Other Behaviors Not Involving Technology
            Nearly one in four (24%) drivers deal with children in the back seat of the car while driving. One in
            ten (10%) say they engage in this action on the majority of their trips, while an additional 14% do so
            on about one-quarter to one-half of their driving trips. [Figure 5-A] This behavior can be especially
            distracting if the driver actually turns around to adjust the occupants or pick up a lost toy or offer food.
            Female drivers are more likely to address the needs of children in the back seat while driving (29% as
            compared to 20% of males). [Figure 5-B] While participation in most potentially distracting
            behaviors is highest among younger cohorts and decreases with age, dealing with small children is
            highest among drivers in their 30s and early 40s and drops off significantly among those age 45 or
            older. [Figure 5-C]

            While one in four drivers engage in this behavior, more than six in ten (62%) drivers who are parents
            or guardians of children 12 or younger display this behavior, with 30% doing so on a majority of their
            trips, and 32% doing so on about one-quarter to one-half of their driving trips. Slightly less than one
            in ten (9%) drivers who are not parents or guardians of young children also engage in this behavior at
            least occasionally. These drivers may be addressing the needs of grandchildren, children under their
            supervision, or others’ children. [Figure 5-D]

    Frequency of Other Behaviors Not Involving Technology
          Half of all drivers (49%) report eating or drinking at least occasionally while driving, with 14%
          doing so on three-quarters or more of their driving trips. Relatively fewer drivers report engaging
          in the other behaviors measured, with 8% engaging in personal grooming (such as putting on
          make-up, shaving, or looking in the mirror), 12% looking at maps or directions, and 4% reading
          printed material (such as a book, newspaper, or mail).

            Female drivers are three times more likely to engage in personal grooming (13% as compared to
            4% of males), and are slightly more likely to eat or drink while driving. [Figure 5-B]

            Participation in these behaviors is generally highest among younger drivers and tapers off with
            age, with very few drivers over 64 engaging in these behaviors. [Figure 5-C]

    Figure 20 in Appendix B presents a comparison of the proportion of the population who reported a
    specific frequency of behavior and the corresponding mean number of trips these drivers make
    undertaking the behavior.
                                                                                                                     22
                                                  FIGURE 5: FREQUENCY OF POTENTIALLY DISTRACTING
                                                       BEHAVIORS NOT INVOLVING TECHNOLOGY
  A           FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS NOT INVOLVING                                                                     B             FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS NOT INVOLVING
                        TECHNOLOGY           Rarely/Never                                                                            TECHNOLOGY, % DO ACTIVITIES, BY GENDER
                                                                                        1/4 of trips
                                                                                        1/2 of trips
                                                                                        3/4 of trips
                                                                                        All or most trips                                                                               Male         Female
                                                                                                                       81% 81%
       18%
       14%                              50%                                                                                                             47% 52%
       20%                                                  75%               87%
                       96%                                                                          92%                                                                       29%
       14%                              21%
                                                                                                                                                                       20%
                                                                                                                                                                                         12% 12%                 13%
                                        14%                 8%
                                                                                                                                       4% 4%                                                                4%
       33%                                                  6%
                                         6%                 3%                   8%                 5%
                        3%
                        0%
                        1%               8%                 7%               2%1%                   1%
      Talk to       Read a book,         Eat or            Deal with        Look at a map         Personal               Talk to      Read a book,        Eat or        Deal with        Look at a map      Personal
       other         newspaper,           drink          children in the     or directions      grooming -put             other        newspaper,          drink      children in the     or directions   grooming -put
    passengers      mail, or notes                         back seat                             on make-up,           passengers     mail, or notes                    back seat                          on make-up,
                                                                                                shave, look in                                                                                            shave, look in
                                                                                                    mirror                                                                                                    mirror
        (A)            (B)             (A)               (B)               (A)                (B)                          (A)         (B)              (A)           (B)               (A)               (B)
Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving? [Base: See sample bases chart]* B: Percent do more than “rarely or never.”


   C             FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIORS NOT INVOLVING                                                                  D              FREQUENCY OF DEALING WITH CHILDREN
                   TECHNOLOGY, % DO ACTIVITIES, BY AGE                                                                                         IN BACK SEAT
                                                                                                                                                                                           Rarely/Never
                                                                                                                                                                                           1/4 to 1/2 of trips
                                      16-20             21-29         30-45             46-64               65+                                                                            3/4 or more
    87%
  84% 85%
         76%
           73%
                                       63%
                                     64%                                                                                                38%
                                          57%
                                             45%             41%
                                                          33%                                                                                                                                 91%
                                                        26%                                                                             32%
                                                  20%                   17%16%      17%
                     10%                                        11%           10%     11%10%6%
                   6% 3% 2%1%                                      4% 8%         5%           1%                                        30%
                                                                                                                                                                             2%                7%
     Talk to       Read a book,         Eat or            Deal with        Look at a map        Personal
      other         newspaper,           drink          children in the     or directions     grooming -put                              Yes                                                   No
   passengers      mail, or notes                         back seat                            on make-up,
                                                                                              shave, look in                     PARENT OR GUARDIAN TO CHILDREN AGE 12 OR YOUNGER
                                                                                                  mirror
       (A)            (B)             (A)                (B)               (A)                (B)
Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving? [Base: See sample bases chart]* B: % Do more than “rarely or never.”




              *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                                                      Total       Male            Female     16-20     21-29           30-45       46-64       65+
              A.   Split Sample A                                                     2016         908             1108       110       273             643         624        350
              B.   Split Sample B                                                     1994         890             1104       104       257             655         618        347
              C.   Own cell phone                                                     2412        1089             1323       146       359             862         751        278
              D.   Have advanced in-car technology                                    214         111              103        21         32              67          52         39
              E.   Have wireless remote internet or PDA                               822         391              431        63        146             316         231         61
              F.   Have pager or beeper                                               455         276              179        37         62             205         131         15
                   Parent/guardian to kids <12                                        1236
                   Not parent/guardian                                                2766




                                                                                                                                                                                                            23
Estimated Weekly Trips Made While Engaged in Potentially
Distracting Behaviors

    This section attempts to estimate the number of trips made by drivers who are engaged in potentially
    distracting behaviors. The estimates were made by applying the reported frequency of trips respondents
    engaged in the various behaviors to the reported number of one-way weekly driving trips. It is important to
    note that the frequency of engaging in the behaviors was asked in very broad categories. The following
    percentages values were assigned to the reported responses:

    “rarely or never”                            5%
    “about one quarter of driving trips”        25%
    “about one-half of driving trips”           50%
    “about three-quarters of driving trips”     75%
    “all or most driving trips”                 90%

    While we recognize that the scale uses broad categories for frequency of behavior, and may not discriminate
    all levels of frequency, these estimates are intended only to provide very rough estimates of the magnitude of
    distracted-related trips, and also to offer a relative comparison of the frequency of different types of potentially
    distracting behaviors. These trip estimates do not take into account the length of the trip or, the level of
    engagement in or time spent involved in the reported behavior. The number of trips may total to more than the
    4.3 billion estimated total weekly trips as drivers may engage in more than one behavior on a trip.

    Estimated Weekly Trips Engaging in Technology-based Behaviors
            Drivers make an estimated 1.9 billion trips a week in which they change the radio or look for CDs
            or tapes. An estimated 776 million trips (18% of all weekly trips) are made in an average week in
            which an outgoing wireless call was placed. About 792 million trips (19% of all trips) are made
            each week in which an incoming wireless call is accepted. While significantly fewer trips are
            made by drivers using other types of devices, a large number of trips are made each week by
            drivers who drive while accessing the wireless Internet (116 million or 3% of all trips), answering
            a pager or beeper (131 million or 3% of trips), and using navigation or crash avoidance systems
            (59 million or 1% of all weekly trips). [Figure 6-A]

    Estimated Weekly Trips Engaging in Non-Technology-Based Behaviors
            Driving trips involving non-technology-based behaviors are even more pervasive. Close to an
            estimated 2.4 billion driving trips (about 56% of all trips) are made weekly by drivers who are
            conversing with other occupants, while more than 1.2 billion trips (29% of all trips) are made
            while the driver is eating or drinking.

            Drivers make approximately 776 million trips weekly (18% of trips) while dealing with children
            in the back seat. More than 300 million weekly trips are made by drivers who are looking at
            maps or directions (414 million or 10% of trips), engaging in personal grooming (349 million or
            8% of trips) or reading printed materials (303 million or 7% of trips).    [Figure 6-B]




                                                                                                                     24
                          FIGURE 6: ESTIMATED WEEKLY TRIPS** MADE WHILE ENGAGED IN
                                      POTENTIALLY DISTRACTING BEHAVIOR
     A ESTIMATED WEEKLY NUMBER OF TRIPS ENGAGING                                                      B ESTIMATED WEEKLY NUMBER OF TRIPS ENGAGING
         IN POTENTIALLY DISTRACTING BEHAVIOR,                                                             IN POTENTIALLY DISTRACTING BEHAVIOR,
            TECHNOLOGY-BASED DISTRACTIONS                                                                  NON-TECHNOLOGY-BASED DISTRACTIONS
                                                                                                           2384
                                       1915
MILLIONS




                                                                                                MILLIONS
                                                                                                                                   1245
             776           792                                                                                                                   776
                                                                                                                       303                                         414             349
                                                        59             116            131

       Outgoing cell    Incoming      Changing        Using        Using wireless   Answering         Talk to         Read a     Eat or     Deal with        Look at a map     Personal
       phone calls     cell phone       radio      navigation or      Internet       pager or          other           book,      drink   children in the     or directions grooming -put
                          calls       stations,        crash                         beeper         passengers      newspaper,              back seat                        on make-up,
                                     looking for    avoidance                                                         mail, or                                              shave, look in
                                    CD or tapes       system                                                           notes                                                    mirror
             (C)          (C)         (A)      (D)         (E)          (F)           (A)        (B)         (A)    (B)        (A)        (B)
                                         Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving?
                Q9. Please estimate how many total one-way driving trips you made in the past seven days? [Base: See sample bases chart]*


     C           ESTIMATED PROPORTION OF WEEKLY DRIVING                                               D       ESTIMATED PROPORTION OF WEEKLY DRIVING
                 TRIPS MADE WHILE ENGAGING IN BEHAVIOR,                                                      TRIPS MADE WHILE ENGAGING IN BEHAVIOR,
                     TECHNOLOGY-BASED DISTRACTIONS                                                             NON-TECHNOLOGY-BASED DISTRACTIONS
                                                                                                           56%
                                       45%


                                                                                                                                    29%
             18%          19%                                                                                                                    18%
                                                                                                                        7%                                        10%              8%
                                                       1%              3%             3%

      Outgoing cell     Incoming      Changing        Using        Using wireless   Answering        Talk to          Read a     Eat or     Deal with       Look at a map     Personal
      phone calls      cell phone       radio      navigation or      Internet       pager or         other            book,      drink   children in the    or directions grooming -put
                          calls       stations,        crash                         beeper        passengers       newspaper,              back seat                       on make-up,
                                     looking for    avoidance                                                         mail, or                                             shave, look in
                                    CD or tapes       system                                                           notes                                                   mirror
             (C)         (C)          (A)      (D)         (E)          (F)            (A)        (B)          (A)   (B)        (A)                                               (B)
                                         Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while driving?
                Q9. Please estimate how many total one-way driving trips you made in the past seven days? [Base: See sample bases chart]*


           **Estimates of total weekly trips were made by applying the proportions of reported trips made engaging in the behavior
           (as reported on the verbal scale) to total weekly number trips reported earlier in the survey using the following percentages
           of trips: “rarely or never” = 5% of trips; “about one quarter” = 25%; “about half” = 50%; “all or almost all” = 90% of trips.


           *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                                       Total        Male    Female          16-20     21-29      30-45    46-64             65+
           A.   Split Sample A                                         2016         908      1108            110       273        643      624              350
           B.   Split Sample B                                         1994         890      1104            104       257        655      618              347
           C.   Own cell phone                                         2412         1089     1323            146       359        862      751              278
           D.   Have advanced in-car technology                         214         111      103              21        32         67       52               39
           E.   Have wireless remote internet or PDA                    822         391      431              63       146        316      231               61
           F.   Have pager or beeper                                    455         276      179              37        62        205      131               15


                                                                                                                                                                                   25
Wireless Phone Use

    Use for Outbound vs. Inbound Calls

          About half (49%) of drivers who own cell phones say they rarely or never use their cell phones
          while driving for any reason. Of drivers who use their cell phones on at least some driving trips,
          nearly two out of ten (18%) use their cell phone only to make outgoing calls, about one of ten
          (12%) use their cell phone only for incoming calls while driving, and 70% use them for both
          incoming and outgoing calls. [Figure 7-A]

    Method of Wireless Phone Use
          More than six out of ten (63%) drivers who use cell phones while driving say they usually use a
          hand-held model phone, while about one in three (34%) usually use a hands-free model. Males
          (38%) are more likely to use a hands-free phone while driving than females (30%). Use of a
          hands-free phone while driving is more prevalent among younger drivers (38% of those under age
          30) and declines with age to just 26% of those over age 64. [Figure 7-B]

    Average Time Spent on Phone Per Call
          Drivers who use cell phones while driving average about 4.5 minutes per call. However, 50% say
          they typically spend approximately 2.0 minutes or less per call while driving. Only about 13%
          report spending more than 10 minutes on average, per call while driving. Younger drivers
          average longer call times (6.8 minutes for drivers under 21 and 5.5 minutes for those in their 20s),
          with time decreasing with age to averages of less than two minutes for drivers over age 64 (1.8
          minutes on average). Female drivers average slightly longer phone conversations while driving
          than do their male counterparts (4.9 minutes and 4.2 minutes respectively). [Figure 7-C and 7-D]

    Driving Situations Would Not Use Cell Phone
          While half of drivers with cell phones use their cell phone on at least some of their driving trips,
          there are instances where these cell phone-using drivers would not use their phones. Only 7% say
          there are no driving situations where they would refrain from using their cell phones. Nearly half
          (47%) say they would not use a cell phone while driving in bumper-to-bumper traffic or city
          driving and about four in ten (43%) would not use their cell phone in bad weather. About one in
          ten (11%) won’t use their phone in fast-moving freeway traffic.




                                                                                                               26
                                                                   FIGURE 7: WIRELESS PHONE USE


  A                               CELL PHONE USE BY DRIVING                                                 B            METHOD OF WIRELESS PHONE USAGE,
                                                                             Don't have                                         BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                                             Neither
                                                                             Both
                                                                             Incoming calls only
                                                                             Outgoing calls only                                         Hand-held             Hands-free with speaker or headset


                                                                                                                                         67%                                             69%       73%
                40%                                    49%                                                 63%             59%                               59%       61%      62%
                                                                                     70%
                                                                                                                34%              38%          30%               37%      38%      34%
                29%                                                                                                                                                                        29%       26%
                                                       36%
                                                                                     12%
    5%          21%                         6%
    4%                                      9%                                       18%
                                                                                                             Total           Male Female                      16-20    21-29    30-45    46-64      65+
           Total Population                       Own Cell Phone           Use Cell Phone While Driving
                                                                                                                                       GENDER                                   AGE
Q45: How often, if ever, do you do the following activities while                                           Q47: When using a wireless phone in the car to make or receive
driving? Use cell phone for incoming calls? Use a cell phone to                                             calls, do you USUALLY use a hand-held phone, or do you use a
make outgoing calls? [Base: As noted in chart]*                                                             hands-free phone that has a speaker or a headset?
                                                                                                            [Base: use cell phone while driving]*

 C          TIME SPENT ON THE PHONE WHILE DRIVING                                                           D         AVERAGE (MEAN) TIME SPENT ON PHONE WHILE
                                              11+ minutes
                                                                                                                            DRIVING, BY GENDER AND AGE
                                  6-10 minutes    6%      DK
                                       8%                 1%
                      5 minutes
                        19%                                            1 minute or less                                                                        6.8
                                                                                                                                              4.9                        5.5
                                                                            25%                               4.5                4.2
MINUTES




                                                                                                                                                                                  4.1
                                                                                                                                                                                           2.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1.8

                         3-4 minutes
                             16%
                                                         2 minutes                                           Total               Male Female                   16-20    21-29    30-45    46-64      65+
                                                             25%                                                                   GENDER                                       AGE

    Q51: How many minutes do you typically spend, per call, on                                            Q51: How many minutes do you typically spend, per call, on
    your wireless phone while driving?                                                                    your wireless phone while driving?
    [Base: use cell phone while driving]*                                                                 [Base: use cell phone while driving]*

 E           DRIVING SITUATIONS WOULD DEFINITELY NOT
                   USE CELL PHONE WHILE DRIVING


                                                                                                            *Sample bases for figures on this page:

          47%                                                                                                            Total         Male         Female   16-20     21-29     30-45     46-64         65+
                                43%
                                                                                                          Use cell       1194          596           598      101       252       508       291           35
                                                       11%
                                                                         20%                              phonedriving
                                                                                                          while while
                                                                                              7%

   Bumper to                  Bad weather        Fast moving freeway     Other               None
bumper/City driving


Q53: In what, if any driving situations, would you definitely not use your wireless phone to make or answer a call? (Three responses allowed)
[Base: use cell phone while driving]

                                                                                                                                                                                                   27
Crash Experience Related to Cell Phone Use or Other
Distracted Driving

    Involvement in a Crash as a Result of Wireless Phone Use
          About one quarter (26%) of drivers have been involved in a crash in the past five years where
          there was damage to a vehicle. Slightly less than one percent (.6%) of those involved in a crash
          (.1% of all drivers) attribute the crash to wireless phone use. Drivers under age 30 are more
          likely to have been involved in such a crash, with .3% of all drivers this age having been in a
          crash they attribute to wireless phone use. [Figure 8-A]

          Though the proportion of drivers involved in a crash they attribute to wireless phone use is very
          small, it relates to an estimated 292,000 drivers over the past five years. Female drivers report
          about two-thirds of these crash experiences (about 197,000). [Figure 8-B]

    Involvement in a Crash as a Result of Distracted Driving

          A larger proportion of drivers have been involved in a crash as a result of other distracted driving
          activities. About 14% of drivers involved in a crash in the past five years (3.5% of all drivers)
          attribute the crash to distracted driving. Male drivers (4.7%) were about twice as likely as female
          drivers (2.3%) to have done so. [Figure 8-A]

          Drivers under age 30 were significantly more likely to have been in a crash they attribute to
          distracted driving (about 6%), with involvement in such a crash decreasing directly with age to
          less than 2% of drivers 65 or older.

          Figure 8-C shows the estimated number of drivers involved in a crash they attribute to distracted
          driving in the past five years along with likely high and low ranges of the estimates. It is
          important to keep in mind that these are self-reported data and are subject to potential recall
          errors, particularly as they cover a large time frame.

          Over the past five years an estimated 7.2 million drivers have been in a crash while driving which
          they attribute to being distracted. About 4.7 million, or two-thirds, of these drivers, were male.
          Youth drivers make up a disproportionally large number of these drivers. About 985,000 drivers
          under age 21 were involved in a distracted-driving crash. This is 13% of all drivers involved in a
          crash, yet youth drivers make up just 6% of the driving population. Similarly, about 1.7 million
          drivers in their 20s had a distracted-related crash, which is 23% of all involved drivers. However,
          drivers in their 20s account for just 13% of the driving population. Conversely, just 592,000
          drivers over age 64 report a crash. This is 8% of drivers in a crash, while these older drivers
          make up 17% of the population. [Figure 8-C]

    Cause of the Distraction That Led to a Crash
          Of the approximately 7.2 million drivers involved in a distracted-related crash within the past five
          years, nearly one-quarter (23%) say they were distracted by looking for something outside the
          vehicle, (0.8% of all drivers) such as a building or street sign, while an additional 11% were
          distracted by another driver (0.4% of drivers), and 3% were distracted by an animal outside of the
          car. About one of five (19%) drivers involved in a distracted-related crash (0.7% of all drivers)
          were dealing with a child or other passenger. One in seven (14% or 0.5% of all drivers) were
          looking for something inside the vehicle. An additional one in five were distracted by some other
          distraction. [Figure 8-D]
                                                                                                              28
                                         FIGURE 8: CRASH RELATED TO DISTRACTED DRIVING

 A INVOLVED IN CRASH AS RESULT OF DISTRACTED                                                                    B           ESTIMATED NUMBER OF DRIVERS INVOLVED IN
       DRIVING OR USING A WIRELESS PHONE,                                                                                   CRASH AS RESULT OF WIRELESS PHONE USE
     PAST 5 YEARS, BY GENDER AND AGE - % YES                                                                   531                       PAST 5 YEARS
                                                                                                                                                                                      u Estimate
                                                                                                                                                                                        High/low range
                                                                                                                                                    385




                                                                                                   THOUSANDS
                                                             Wireless phone        Distracted

                                                                                                                     292                238
                                                     5.7%      5.5%
                             4.7%
             3.5%                                                        3.7%                                                                         197
                                         2.3%                                      2.5%     1.9%                                                                              107   113
                                                                                                                                                                                           90
                                                                                                                                          95                       48            89     94     73
0.1%                      0.1%      0.2%          0.2%      0.3%      0.1%      0.0%      0.0%                                                                                       75
                                                                                                                                                                      36       71
                                                                                                               53                   0           9                 24                        56    000
   Total                   Male Female            16-20     21-29     30-45     46-64      65+             Total                    Male Female                   16-20     21-29     30-45   46-64       65+

Q71/73: In the past five years, have you been in a crash while driving a motor vehicle in which there was damage to your vehicle or another
vehicle? Were any of these crashes a result of _________?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




              C          ESTIMATED NUMBER OF DRIVERS INVOLVED IN                                     D                     CAUSES OF DISTRACTION THAT LED
                                                                                                                                     TO CRASH         In Distracted Crash
                          CRASH AS RESULT OF DISTRACTED DRIVING                                                                                                                       All Drivers
              8337                                                                                 23%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    22%
                                      PAST 5 YEARS
                                                                                                                           19%
                  7173
                                 5717                                   u Estimate
                                                                          High/low range                                                14%
              6009
                                                                                                                                                      11%
 THOUSANDS




                                  4733

                                 3749    3096                            3148
                                                                                                                                                                 5%
                                           2440                23232463 1909                                                                                                 3%
                                                                                                                                                                                         2%
                                                    1524    1718                                               0.8%          0.7%             0.5%        0.4%      0.2%        0.2%       0.1%        0.8%
                                         1784                    1778     1415 909
                                                  446 985 1113          921 275 592                 Looking for Dealing with Looking for                    Distracted    Personal      Animal        Dealing
                                                                                                     something children/pas something                           by        thoughts/     outside        with
                                                                                                   outside of car senger     inside car                      another       thinking      of car     technology
             Total           Male Female            16-20     21-29    30-45     46-64      65+    (i.e., building                                            driver
                                                                                                   or street sign)


   Q71/73: In the past five years, have you been in a crash while driving Q75: What caused you to be distracted?
   a motor vehicle in which there was damage to your vehicle or another [Base: in crash caused by distraction; n=130;total respondents,
   vehicle? Were any of these crashes a result of _________?              speed and unsafe n=4010]
   [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




                                                                                                                                                                                                       29
30
Chapter 3: Perception of Impacts of Distracted Driving

          While some groups would like to see a reduction of the potentially distracting behaviors
          measured in this study, if drivers do not perceive the actions to be distracting or to make driving
          more dangerous, it is unlikely that they will make changes in their driving behavior either
          voluntarily or as a result of legislation. This section provides information on the driving public’s
          attitudes regarding potentially distracting driving behaviors. Specifically it covers the
          following topics:

          •   Perceived impacts of technology-based behaviors
          •   Perceived impacts of non-technology-based behaviors
          •   Perceived threat of distracted driving
          •   Support of initiatives to reduce cell phone use while driving




                                                                                                                 31
Perceptions of Actions That Distract Drivers – Technology-Based
Behaviors
       Impact of Technology-Based Behaviors on Driving Safety

               Although most drivers say they change radio stations or look for CDs or tapes while driving, just
               over one in three (36%) perceive this action to make driving more dangerous. Just 18% think it
               makes driving much more dangerous. [Figure 9-A]

               While about one in four drivers drive while talking on a wireless phone, the majority of drivers
               perceive this activity as making driving more dangerous (a “4” or “5” on the 1 to 5 scale of “no
               impact” to “much more dangerous”). Two-thirds (66%) feel that taking incoming cell phone calls
               makes driving more dangerous, with 44% feeling it makes it much more dangerous. Drivers are
               even more likely to feel that making outgoing calls makes driving more dangerous, with seven in
               ten (70%) seeing this as at least somewhat dangerous and 48% seeing it at as making driving
               much more dangerous.

               Navigational and crash avoidance systems are intended to make driving safer by allowing drivers
               to travel to unfamiliar locations without flipping through printed maps and by alerting drivers of
               potential crash hazards, yet two in five (39%) drivers feel that use of such systems actually makes
               driving more dangerous.

               Nearly seven out of every eight (86%) drivers believe that using wireless remote equipment (such
               as PDA, or access to wireless remote email) while driving makes driving more dangerous, with
               63% saying it makes driving much more dangerous. Two-thirds (66%) of drivers feel that
               answering or checking a pager makes driving more dangerous.

       By Gender and Age

               Female drivers are more likely than males to believe that potentially distracting behaviors make
               driving more dangerous. Females are especially more likely to feel that answering or checking a
               beeper is distracting (74% as compared to 56% of males). Male drivers are much more likely to
               engage in these types of behaviors than are females. [Figure 9-B]

               Younger drivers are least likely to believe these behaviors make driving more dangerous, with the
               perception of danger increasing with age, though at least eight in ten drivers of all ages perceive
               remote Internet access while driving as dangerous. Drivers over age 64 are much more likely
               than others to feel that adjusting music (58%) makes driving more dangerous (as compared to
               about one-third of younger drivers). [Figure 9-C]

       By Cell Phone Use

               There is a substantial difference in the perception of the impact of cell phone use by cell phone
               ownership and use. While more than eight in ten drivers who do not have a cell phone believe
               making outgoing or taking incoming calls makes driving more dangerous (83% and 86%
               respectively), just half (52%) of those with cell phones (whether they use them while driving or
               not) feel that taking incoming calls is dangerous, and 62% feel that making outgoing calls makes
               driving more dangerous. [Figure 9-D]

Those who use cell phones while driving are even less likely to perceive the activity as dangerous, with just
(37%) believing that taking incoming calls makes driving more dangerous, and 42% seeing outgoing calls as more
dangerous.
                                                                                                                   32
FIGURE 9: PERCEPTION OF ACTIONS THAT DISTRACT DRIVERS – TECHNOLOGY-BASED

 A           IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS                                                       B              IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS
                 TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS,                                                                                 TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS
                  % MAKE MORE DANGEROUS                                                                          % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS (4 OR 5), BY GENDER
                                                              Somewhat more dangerous (4)                                                                                   Male         Female
                                                              Much more dangerous (5)

                                                                        86%                                                                                        83% 88%
      70%                                                                                                       75%             70%                                                        74%
                                                                                                          65%            61%
                      66%                                              23%              66%                                                                                         58%
      22%                                                                                                                                    40%          46%
                      22%
                                    36%                 39%                             23%                                            32%          32%
      48%                           18%               16%              63%
                      44%                                                               43%
                                    18%               23%
     Make            Take       Change radio Use navigation Use wireless                                  Make             Take       Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or
                                                                           Answer or
 outgoing call     incoming      stations or system or crash equipment check a page                   outgoing call      incoming      stations or system or crash equipment check a page
 from wireless      call from   look for CDs                                                          from wireless       call from   look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or
                                                avoidance      (PDA or
     phone          wireless      or tapes                                                                phone           wireless      or tapes    safety system e-mail access)
                                              safety system e-mail access)
                     phone                                                                                                 phone

      (B)           (A)           (A)                 (B)              (A)              (B)                (B)            (A)          (A)             (B)            (A)                (B)
      Q54: Please tell me how much, if at all, you think the following actions while driving distract drivers and make their driving less safe.
      Please use a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means it has no impact on driving safety and 5 means it makes driving much more dangerous.
      [Base: total respondents, random half-sample]*

 C               IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS                                                  D           IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF CELL PHONE
                      TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS,                                                                       USE, BY CELL PHONE OWNERSHIP,
                 % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS (4 OR 5), BY AGE                                                                  % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS (4 OR 5)
                                 16-20          21-29          30-45          46-64           65+                                                                  Make outgoing calls
         86%              84%                                            87%
                                                                      87% 87%
       76%                                                       81%
                                                                   80%                     78%                                                                     Take incoming calls
    69%                 69%                                                              73%
                     64%                                                               65%                                83% 86%
  61%              58%                    58%                                       54%
                                                                                                                                                                               81% 78%
                 47%                                     48%                      46%                 62%
42%                                    37%           41%
                                                  40% 39%                                                       52%
                                                                                                                                             42% 34%         46%
                                26% 31%
                                  28%                                                                                                                              37%
                                                18%


     Make            Take       Change radio Use navigation Use wireless   Answer or
 outgoing call     incoming      stations or system or crash equipment check a page
 from wireless      call from   look for CDs    avoidance      (PDA or                                     Yes                  No           Outbound     Incoming     Neither
     phone          wireless      or tapes    safety system e-mail access)
                     phone                                                                                 HAVE CELL PHONE                      USE CELL PHONE WHILE DRIVING
      (B)           (A)           (A)                 (B)              (A)              (B)
  Q54: Please tell me how much, if at all, you think the following actions while driving distract drivers and make their driving less safe.
  Please use a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means it has no impact on driving safety and 5 means it makes driving much more dangerous.
  [Base: total respondents, random half-sample]*



      *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                  Total          Male        Female           16-20   21-29           30-45       46-64       65+
                  Split sample A                  2016           908          1108             110     273             643         624        350
                  Split sample B                  1994           890          1104             104     257             655         618        347
                  Cell Phone Owners
                                  Yes             1200
                                  No               800
                  Cell Phone Users
                            Outbound              500
                              Inbound             520
                               Neither            1400



                                                                                                                                                                                         33
Perceptions of Actions That Distract Drivers –
Non-Technology-Based

    Impact of Non-Technology-Based Behaviors on Driving Safety
          Although the vast majority of drivers (81%) converse with passengers while driving, only 10%
          of drivers believe that this activity distracts drivers and makes their driving more dangerous.
          Similarly, while half of all drivers eat or drink while driving, just 31% feel that such behavior
          distracts drivers enough to make driving more dangerous. [Figure 10-A]

          Nearly two-thirds (65%) of drivers believe that dealing with children in the back seat makes
          driving more dangerous, with the majority of these (40% overall) seeing it as making driving
          much more dangerous.

          While fewer drivers report engaging in other distracting behaviors while driving, such as reading
          printed materials (4%), looking at maps or directions (12%), or personal grooming (8%) these
          behaviors are perceived to make driving much more dangerous than the other activities more
          commonly engaged in. Eight out of ten drivers feel that looking at a map or directions (79%) or
          personal grooming (81%) makes driving more dangerous, with a majority feeling that these
          behaviors makes driving much more dangerous.

          Drivers perceive reading printed materials (such as a book, newspapers, mail, or notes) while
          driving as most distracting, with 80% feeling this behavior makes driving much more dangerous
          and an additional 12% seeing it as somewhat distracting.

    By Gender
          While there are no differences in the perceptions of the impact of eating/drinking or personal
          grooming between male and female drivers, females are slightly more likely than males to feel
          that the talking with other passengers (12% vs. 9% of males) and looking at maps or directions
          (81% vs. 77%) make driving more dangerous. Female drivers are especially more likely to see
          dealing with children in the back seat as dangerous (69% vs. 61% of male s). [Figure 10-B]

    By Age

          Younger drivers are generally less likely to feel that the behaviors make driving more dangerous,
          with perceptions of behaviors being distracting increasing with age. Drivers age 64 and older are
          twice as likely to feel that eating or drinking (57% compared to about one in four younger
          drivers) and talking with others (20% as compared to about 10% of others) make driving more
          dangerous. [Figure 10-C]




                                                                                                              34
                         FIGURE 10: PERCEPTION OF ACTIONS THAT DISTRACT DRIVERS
                                         NON-TECHNOLOGY-BASED
 A              IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS                                                          B            IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS
                  NON-TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS,                                                                              NON-TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS,
                              % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS                                                               % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS (4 OR 5), BY GENDER
                                                                  Somewhat more dangerous (4)                                                                                          Male       Female

                         92%                                      Much more dangerous (5)
                                                                                                                            90% 94%
                         12%                                                   79%              81%                                                                           77% 81%         81% 80%
                                                               65%                             20%                                                                 69%
                                                                              24%                                                                            61%
                                                             25%
                         80%                 31%                                                                                           31% 31%
                                                                              55%              61%
       10%                                  14%              40%                                              9% 12%
4% 6%                                       17%
   Talk to            Read a               Eat or         Deal with       Look at a map     Personal           Talk to       Read a         Eat or                                             Personal
                                                                                                                                                             Deal with       Look at a map
    other              book,                drink       children in the    or directions grooming -put          other         book,          drink         children in the    or directions grooming -put
 passengers         newspaper,                            back seat                       on make-up,        passengers    newspaper,                        back seat                       on make-up,
                      mail, or                                                           shave, look in                      mail, or                                                       shave, look in
                       notes                                                                 mirror                           notes                                                             mirror
      (A)              (B)               (A)               (B)                (A)              (B)               (A)          (B)           (A)                (B)               (A)             (B)
     Q54: Please tell me how much, if at all, you think the following actions while driving distract drivers and make their driving less safe.
     Please use a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means it has no impact on driving safety and 5 means it makes driving much more dangerous.
     [Base: total respondents, random half-sample]*


 C              IMPACT ON DRIVING SAFETY OF VARIOUS
                   NON-TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS,
                    % MAKES MORE DANGEROUS (4 OR 5), BY AGE
                                        16-20          21-29          30-45          46-64           65+
                              95%94%
                       90%93%                                                        87%               88%
                    82%
                                                                  74% 74%71%   78%80%         80%81%81%
                                                               70%                         67%
                                                        62% 61%
                                                    57%    58%

                                                 31%
              20%                      22%22% 26%
     11%8% 10%
5%

  Talk to             Read a              Eat or          Deal with       Look at a map     Personal
   other               book,               drink        children in the    or directions grooming -put
passengers          newspaper,                            back seat                       on make-up,
                      mail, or                                                           shave, look in
                       notes                                                                 mirror

      (A)               (B)               (A)               (B)               (A)              (B)
Q54: Please tell me how much, if at all, you think the following actions while driving distract drivers and make their driving less safe.
Please use a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means it has no impact on driving safety and 5 means it makes driving much more dangerous.
[Base: total respondents, random half-sample]*




     *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                          Total       Male          Female           16-20   21-29        30-45         46-64        65+
       Split sample A                                     2016        908            1108             110     273          643           624         350
       Split sample B                                     1994        890            1104             104     257          655           618         347




                                                                                                                                                                                                       35
Perceived Threat of Distracted Driving

    Perceived Threat of Wireless Phone Use While Driving to Personal Safety
             While virtually all drivers feel that eating or drinking (94%), using a wireless phone (97%), and
             looking at maps or directions (99%) while driving are at least a minor threat to their and their
             family’s personal safety, there are big differences in perceived level of the threat. [Figure 11-A]

             Looking at maps or directions while driving is felt to be the greatest threat, with seven out of ten
             drivers (70%) seeing this behavior by others as a major threat to their personal safety. Slightly
             more than half (52%) of drivers feel that others’ cell phone use while driving is a major threat to
             their or their family’s personal safety. In contrast, just over one-quarter (28%) feel that eating or
             drinking by others while driving is a major threat. An additional two-thirds (66%) see this
             behavior as a minor threat to their safety.

             Figure 21 in Appendix B presents a comparison of the perceived threat of various driver
             distractions and other unsafe driving behaviors.

    By Cell Phone Use
             Not surprisingly, drivers who use a cell phone while driving perceive cell phone use by others as
             less of a threat to their safety as do non-users, with one in five drivers who use a cell phone while
             driving seeing this activity as a major threat. This is compared to 65% of drivers who do not use
             a cell phone for either incoming or outgoing calls. [Figure 11-B]

    By Gender
             Female drivers are much more likely to feel that cell phone use while driving is a major threat to
             their personal safety as do male drivers (57% compared to 48%), and slightly more likely to see
             others’ map use as a major threat (72% versus 68%). Males are slightly more likely to feel that
             others’ eating or drinking behavior is a major threat (30% compared to 26% for females).
             [Figure 11-C]

    By Age

             Younger drivers are least likely to feel that all of the measured driving behaviors are a major
             threat to their safety, with the perception of threat generally increasing with age. Just three out of
             ten drivers under age 21 feel that wireless phone use by others while driving poses a major threat,
             as compared to half or more of those in their 30s to mid-40s and 72% of those over age 64. There
             is less difference in perception on the threat of eating or drinking, with about one in five drivers
             under age 45 seeing this behavior as a major threat, compared to three out of ten drivers ages
             46-64 and 52% of those over age 64. [Figure 11-D]




                                                                                                                   36
                           FIGURE 11: PERCEIVED THREAT OF DISTRACTED DRIVING

 A       SPECIFIC ACTIONS THAT ARE THREATENING TO                                 B       PERCEIVED THREAT TO OWN PERSONAL SAFETY
                      PERSONAL SAFETY                                                         OF CELL PHONE USE WHILE DRIVING
                                                                 Minor threat
                                                                 Major threat                                                                               Minor threat
                                                                                                                                                            Major threat
           97%                                                   99%                                                                                        98%
                                      94%                                                  95%                               95%
                                                                 29%
           45%                                                                                                                                              33%
                                      66%
                                                                                           73%                               75%
                                                                 70%
           52%                                                                                                                                              65%
                                      28%
                                                                                           22%                               20%
  Using a wireless phone    Eating or drinking while     Looking at maps or
                                                                                          Incoming                         Outgoing                        Neither
       while driving                driving            directions while driving
                                                                                                            USE CELL PHONE WHILE DRIVING

Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety of you and your family if other drivers do the following?
 Is it a major threat, minor threat, or not a threat?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]



 C         SPECIFIC ACTIONS THAT ARE THREATENING,                                  D        SPECIFIC ACTIONS THAT ARE THREATENING,
                 % MAJOR THREAT, BY GENDER                                                          % MAJOR THREAT, BY AGE
                                                            Male        Female                               16-20           21-29          30-45         46-64         65+
                                                                                                                                                                        87%
                                                           68%         72%                                 72%                                                68% 75%
                 57%                                                                                 58%                                   52%      53% 56%
     48%                                                                                       50%
                                                                                         39%
                                30%         26%                                    29%                                               31%
                                                                                                                 19% 18% 22%



  Using a wireless phone    Eating or drinking while     Looking at maps or         Using a wireless phone           Eating or drinking while         Looking at maps or
       while driving                driving            directions while driving          while driving                       driving                directions while driving

Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety          Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety
of you and your family if other drivers do the following? Is it a major           of you and your family if other drivers do the following? Is it a major
threat, minor threat, or not a threat?                                            threat, minor threat, or not a threat?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]                               [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




                                                                                                                                                                     37
Views on Initiatives to Curtail Cell Phone Use While Driving

    Support for Initiatives

           The study measured support for five potential initiatives to curtail cell phone use while driving.
           A majority of all drivers would support each of the five actions, and even a majority of those who
           use cell phones while driving support several of the initiatives. The greatest support is for
           increasing public awareness of the risks of wireless phone use while driving, with 88%
           supporting this initiative and just 12% saying they would oppose it. [Figure 12-A] Support is
           equally strong among in-car cell phone users and non-users. [Figure 12-D]

           Strong support is also reported for a restriction on using hand-held phones while driving,
           allowing hands-free models only (71%), and for insurance penalties for drivers involved in a
           crash while using a wireless phone (67%).

           While about six in ten drivers would support a ban on all wireless phone use while driving (57%),
           or double or triple fines for traffic violations involving cell phone use (61%), support for these
           last two initiatives is lower among drivers overall and generally not supported by those who
           currently use cell phones.

    By Gender
           While female drivers are less likely to use a cell phone while driving, they are more likely than
           males to support all five of the measured potential initiatives to reduce cell phone use while
           driving. Female drivers are especially more likely to support a ban on all wireless phone use
           (61% compared to 52%) and higher fines for traffic violations where a cell phone was involved
           (65% compared to 57%). [Figure 12-B]

    By Age

           Support for a ban on all cell phone use while driving and insurance penalties for being involved
           in a crash while using a cell phone increases significantly with age of the driver. Drivers under
           age 30 are also much less likely than drivers over 30 to support double or triple fines for traffic
           violations when a cell phone is involved (46% compared to about 66% of older drivers). There is
           not a substantial difference by age in support for increased public awareness or restrictions to
           using hands-free models only. [Figure 12-C]

    By Cell Phone Use
           While drivers who use cell phones while driving are equally likely to support public awareness
           initiatives as non-users, and a majority would support a hands-free restriction, only about 25%
           would support a total ban on cell phone use while driving (as compared to 69% of those who do
           not talk on phones while driving). Cell phone users are also significantly less likely than non-
           users to support monetary fines (about 40% do compared to 70% of non-users) and insurance
           penalties (about 49% do as compared to 75%). [Figure 12-D]




                                                                                                               38
                    FIGURE 12: VIEWS ON INITIATIVES TO CURTAIL CAR PHONE USAGE

 A                   VIEWS ON INITIATIVES TO CURTAIL                                                              B VIEWS ON INITIATIVES TO CURTAIL CAR PHONE
                          CAR PHONE USAGE                                                                               USAGE, BY GENDER – % SUPPORT

                                                                    Support              Oppose                                                                                        Male              Female
                                             88%                                                                                                              86% 90%
                        71%                                                                                                               70% 73%                                           65%           64% 70%
                                                                   61%                   67%                               61%                                                       57%
  57%                                                                                                              52%
          43%                                                              39%
                               29%                                                                33%
                                                     12%

    A ban on all   A restriction on using a   Increase public     Double or triple       Insurance penalties         A ban on all   A restriction on using a   Increase public     Double or triple      Insurance penalties
wireless phone use   hand-held wireless awareness of the risks fines for traffic       for being involved in a   wireless phone use   hand-held wireless awareness of the risks    fines for traffic   for being involved in a
   while a car is   phone while driving – of wireless phone use violations in which      crash while using a        while a car is   phone while driving – of wireless phone use violations in which     crash while using a
moving except for allowing hands-free or        while driving   a wireless phone           wireless phone        moving except for allowing hands-free or        while driving   a wireless phone          wireless phone
   emergency or      voice-activated car-                           is involved                                     emergency or      voice-activated car-                            is involved
    “911” calls     mounted models only                                                                              “911” calls     mounted models only


Q56: Now, I would like to know if you would support or oppose the following potential initiative regarding wireless phone use while driving.
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]



 C                 VIEWS ON INITIATIVES TO CURTAIL                                                                D                     VIEWS ON INITIATIVES TO CURTAIL
               CAR PHONE USAGE, BY AGE – % SUPPORT                                                                                    CAR PHONE USAGE, BY CELL PHONE
                                                                                                                                              USE – % SUPPORT
                                                           16-29       30-45          46-64       65+                               Make outbound calls        Take incoming calls          Don't use phone while driving

              77%                          84% 90% 91%87%                                                                                                    88% 88% 88%
                     67%73%73%73%                                  65% 65% 71%               70%77%                                                 76%                                                              75%
   53% 61%                                                                             59%67%                                 69%
                                                                                                                                        59% 61%
                                                                                                                                                                                              70%
43%                                                             46%                                                                                                                                     48% 50%
                                                                                                                                                                                  39% 41%
                                                                                                                  24% 27%


    A ban on all   A restriction on using    Increase public     Double or triple        Insurance penalties         A ban on all   A restriction on using a   Increase public     Double or triple      Insurance penalties
wireless phone use a hand-held wireless awareness of the risks fines for traffic       for being involved in a   wireless phone use   hand-held wireless awareness of the risks fines for traffic      for being involved in a
   while a car is  phone while driving – of wireless phone use violations in which       crash while using a        while a car is   phone while driving – of wireless phone use violations in which     crash while using a
moving except for allowing hands-free or       while driving   a wireless phone            wireless phone        moving except for allowing hands-free or        while driving   a wireless phone          wireless phone
   emergency or     voice-activated car-                           is involved                                      emergency or      voice-activated car-                           is involved
    “911” calls    mounted models only                                                                               “911” calls     mounted models only



Q56: Now, I would like to know if you would support or oppose the following potential initiative regarding wireless phone use while driving.
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      39
40
Chapter 4: Drowsy Driving

         Drowsy driving can be considered another form of distracted driving in that drivers experiencing
         drowsiness do not apply their full attention to the driving task. Yet, drowsy driving is a problem
         of its own.

         In the 1996 appropriations bill for the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Senate
         Appropriations Committee report noted that "NHTSA data indicate that in recent years there have
         been about 56,000 crashes annually in which driver drowsiness/fatigue was cited by police.
         Annual averages of roughly 40,000 nonfatal injuries and 1,550 fatalities result from these crashes.
         It is widely recognized that these statistics underreport the extent of these types of crashes. These
         statistics also do not deal with crashes caused by driver inattention, which is believed to be a
         larger problem."

         This section provides information on the driving age public’s experiences and perceptions
         regarding drowsy driving. Specifically it covers the following topics:

         •   Experience with driving while drowsy
         •   Characteristics of most recent drowsy driving trip
         •   Measures to prevent falling asleep while driving
         •   Outcomes of drowsy driving
         •   Perceived threat of drowsy driving




                                                                                                              41
Experiences With Drowsy Driving

    Nodding Off While Driving

          Overall, 37% of the driving population says they have nodded off for at least a moment or fallen
          asleep while driving at some time in their life. Males (49%) are almost twice as likely to report
          having nodded off while driving than are female drivers (26%).

          Not surprisingly, newer drivers (i.e. those under age 21) who have had less time driving overall,
          are only half as likely to have experienced nodding off while driving (18%) as older drivers.
          And, just as drivers over age 64 are less likely to undertake behaviors that are potentially
          distracting, these drivers are also less likely to have nodded off while driving (30%).
          [Figure 13-A]

    Recency of Drowsy Driving
          While 37% of drivers have nodded off while driving at some point in their lives, approximately
          three out of ten (29%) of these drivers report that they last experienced this problem within the
          past year, with just one in ten (10%) saying this happened to them within the past month. This
          amounts to about 4% of the driving population or an estimated 7.5 million drivers who have
          nodded off while driving within the past month. An additional 4% of drivers (11% of those who
          have ever nodded off at the wheel) report having done so within the past two to six months.
          [Figure 13-B]

    By Gender and Age
          About 22% of male drivers who have nodded off at the wheel report having done so within the
          past month as compared to 19% of their female counterparts.

          While drivers under age 21 are only half as likely to have had an experience of falling asleep
          while driving, slightly more than four of ten (44%) of those report having this experience within
          the past six months. [Figure 13-D]




                                                                                                              42
                               FIGURE 13: EXPERIENCE WITH DROWSY DRIVING


 A              EVER NODDED OFF WHILE DRIVING,                                         B            RECENCY OF NODDING OFF AT WHEEL
                      BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                                                                                                Within past week
                                                                                                                                      4%
                                                                                                                                            Within past month
                                                                                                                                                    6%
                                                                                                                                             Within past six
                 49%                                                                            More than a year
                                                  40%    41%       42%                                                                             months
 37%                                                                                                  ago
                        26%                                                  30%                                                                    11%
                                        18%                                                          70%

                                                                                                                                      Within past year
                                                                                                                                             9%
 Total           Male Female           16-20 21-29       30-45     46-64     65+

Q59: Have you ever fallen asleep or nodded off even for a moment,                      Q60: Thinking of the most recent time that you fell asleep or nodded
while driving?                                                                         off even for a moment while driving, how long ago was that?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]                                    [Base: have fallen asleep while driving]*



 C            RECENCY OF NODDING OFF AT WHEEL,                                             D            RECENCY OF NODDING OFF AT WHEEL,
                         BY GENDER                                                                            BY GENDER AND AGE
                                                            Male           Female
                                                                                                                    16-20     21-29         30-45           46-64      65+



                                                            11%      11%
                                 7%      6%                                                                           20%                           21% 21%
         4%                                                                                                                                                     9% 10% 5%
               2%                                                                          3% 6% 3% 3% 3%                   6% 8% 3% 5%


     Within past week         Wtihin past month         Within past 6 months                   Within past week         Within past month             Within past 6 months


Q60: Thinking of the most recent time that you fell asleep or nodded                   Q60: Thinking of the most recent time that you fell asleep or nodded
off even for a moment while driving, how long ago was that?                            off even for a moment while driving, how long ago was that?
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving]*                                              [Base: have fallen asleep while driving]*




     *Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                              Total     Male       Female          16-20    21-29           30-45    46-64      65+
      Have fallen asleep while driving        1505      906         599             44       214             526      511       203




                                                                                                                                                                     43
Characteristics of Most Recent Drowsy Driving Trip

    In order to better understand the conditions under which drivers experience drowsy driving, drivers who
    reported having nodded off while driving within the past six months were asked a series of defining
    characteristics of their most recent experience.
    Time of Day
            While some hold the perception that drowsy driving occurs mostly late at night or in the early
            morning hours, just 28% of drivers reporting a recent drowsy driving experience report this
            experience occurring between the hours of midnight and 6:00 a.m. More than one-third (35%) of
            drivers who nodded off while driving within the past six months say their last experience
            occurred between 6:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. An additional 17% report they nodded off between
            5:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m. [Figure 14-A]

    Average Length of Time Driving
            While slightly more than one in five (22%) drivers who recently experienced a drowsy driving
            episode report having been on the road driving for five or more hours, nearly half (47%) were
            driving for an hour or less. [Figure 14-B]

            On average, these drivers were driving for almost three hours before they nodded off. Males had
            driven for about an hour longer than females on average (3.2 as compared to 2.2 hours). Drivers
            age 30 and over became drowsy in a shorter amount of time than younger drivers. [Figure 14-C]

    Type of Road Driving

            Nearly six in ten (58%) drivers with a recent drowsy driving episode report this occurrence on
            multi-lane interstate highways, 23% report nodding off while driving on a two-lane road with
            posted speed limits of 45 MPH or higher, and fewer than one in ten drivers nodded off while
            driving on non-interstate multi-lane roads (8%) or local city or neighborhood roads (8%).
            [Figure 14-D] This report of nodding off experience by road type does not match the overall
            pattern of driving by road type. Just 55% of drivers report frequently driving on multi-lane
            interstate highways as compared with 83% who frequently drive local city or neighborhood roads.
            [Figure 2-A]




                                                                                                              44
         FIGURE 14: CHARACTERISTICS OF MOST RECENT DROWSY DRIVING TRIP

A       TIME OF DAY NODDING OFF WHILE DRIVING                                             B AVERAGE LENGTH OF TIME DRIVING BEFORE
                                                                                                        NODDING OFF
                        9 p.m.-Midnight                                                                                       6+ hours
                             20%                                                                                  5 hours        17%
                                                                                                                     5%
                                                                                                        4 hours
                                                                                                          5%
         5 p.m-9 p.m.                                  Midnight to
                                                                                                          3 hours                                    <1 hour
             17%                                         6 a.m.
                                                                                                            8%                                         30%
                                                          28%

                                                                                                             2 hours
                                                                                                               18%
                   Noon-5 p.m.             6 a.m.-11 a.m.
                                                                                                                                       1 hour
                        26%                       9%
                                                                                                                                         17%
Q62: Thinking of the most recent time that this occurred, what time                       Q65: How many hours had you been driving (the most recent time you
of day was it?                                                                            fell asleep or nodded off even for a moment while driving)?
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*                                 [Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*



C  AVERAGE LENGTH OF TIME DRIVING BEFORE                                                  D            TYPE OF ROAD DRIVING ON WHILE NODDING
NODDING OFF, BY GENDER AND AGE (MEAN HOURS)                                                                      OFF, BY GENDER

                                                                                                                                                        Total      Male       Female

                                                                                           58% 59% 58%


                                                   3.5                                                              23% 22% 24%
 2.9            3.2                       3.2                 2.8                                                                           8% 6% 11%               8% 9% 7%
                         2.2                                            2.5     2.3

                                                                                          Multi-lane interstate- Two-lane roads with one         City, town, or     Non-interstate, multi-
                                                                                           type highways with lane of traffic traveling in  neighborhood streets      lane roads with
                                                                                          posted speed limits of   each direction, with    with posted speed limits posted speed limits
Total           Male Female               16-20   21-29 30-45           46-64   65+         55 mph or above      posted speed limits of 45     of 35 mph or less       of 40-55 mph
                                                                                                                      mph or higher


Q65: How many hours had you been driving (the most recent time you                        Q63: What type of road were you driving on?
fell asleep or nodded off even for a moment while driving)?                               [Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*




*Sample bases for figures on this page:

                                                                Total      Male       Female     16-20         21-29        30-45         46-64         65+
Have fallen asleep while driving past 6 months                  311        197         114        24*           71           107           83           26**
**Note: Extremely small sample sizes – interpret with caution




                                                                                                                                                                                   45
Characteristics of Most Recent Drowsy Driving Trip (continued)

    Number of Hours Slept the Night Before

          While about one in four (24%) drivers experiencing a recent drowsy driving episode reported
          having just four or fewer hours of sleep the night before, a full one-third (33%) of the drivers had
          at least seven hours of sleep. An additional 26% report receiving about six hours of sleep the
          prior night. [Figure 15-A]

          While drowsy drivers on average had received six hours of sleep the night before they nodded off
          while driving, older drivers report having a drowsy driving episode even after longer sleep times.
          Drowsy drivers under age 30 reported an average of 5.5 hours of sleep the night before they
          nodded off at the wheel. The average sleep time of drowsy drivers increases with age, with those
          age 65 or older reporting a drowsy driving episode after an average of 7.7 hours of sleep the prior
          night. [Figure 15-B]

    Use of Alcohol or Medications Prior to Driving
          Relatively few drivers who nod off at the wheel report having had consumed alcohol (2%) or
          allergy or other medications (12%) prior to their trip. Alcohol is reported more of a factor among
          those in their 20s, of whom 5% report having consumed alcohol prior to their trip. Drivers age
          30-45 are least likely to report either alcohol (0%) or medication (6%) as a factor in their drowsy
          driving. [Figure 15-C]




                                                                                                             46
      FIGURE 15: CHARACTERISTICS OF MOST RECENT DROWSY DRIVING TRIP (cont.)

A NUMBER OF HOURS SLEPT THE NIGHT BEFORE                                                 B         AVERAGE LENGTH OF TIME SLEPT THE NIGHT
                                                                                                  BEFORE, BY GENDER AND AGE (MEAN HOURS)
                           4 hours or less
                                24%
                                                       8 or more hours
                                                             17%
                                                                                                                                                            7.7
                 5 hours                                                                  6.0           6.0     6.0                          5.9    6.2
                                                                                                                              5.6      5.5
                  16%

                                                      7 hours
                                                        17%
                                6 hours
                                  26%                                                     Total         Male Female       16-20       21-29 30-45   46-64   65+

Q67: How many hours did you sleep the night before (the most recent time you fell asleep or nodded off even for a moment while driving)?
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*




  C      USE OF ALCOHOL OR MEDICATION PRIOR TO
             DRIVING, BY GENDER AND AGE

                               Alcoholic beverages within 2 hours prior to trip
                               Allergy or other medications prior to trip




                                              23%
  12%           12% 13%                                12%                15% 19%
2%            2%   1%                                5%           6%
                                             0%              0%         0%   0%

 Total         Male Female                   16-20   21-29      30-45   46-64     65+

Q68: Did you have any ______________ (the last time you fell
asleep or nodded off even for a moment while driving)?
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months]*




  *Sample bases for figures on this page:
                                                                    Total       Male    Female      16-20     21-29   30-45         46-64    65+
   Have fallen asleep while driving past six months                 311         197      114         24*       71      107           83      26**
   **Note: Extremely small sample sizes – interpret with caution




                                                                                                                                                             47
Preventative Measures for Drowsy Driving

    Actions Taken When Feel Sleepy While Driving
          While only about 11% of all drivers say they have nodded off or fallen asleep while driving in the
          past year, we asked all drivers what actions they take if they feel sleepy while driving. About one-
          half of all drivers mention multiple actions, most of which serve as a change of status quo that alters
          the current driving experience. The majority of actions are physical in nature rather than cognitive
          changes. It is important to note that drivers who have nodded off while driving take different actions
          than those who have never nodded off.

          The largest proportion of drivers (43%) say they pull over and take a nap, while an additional 15%
          say they just pull over or get off the road. Six percent (6%) change drivers. About one in ten (9%)
          get out of the car to stretch or exercise. About one in four (26%) open a window to get air, while
          about one in five get a coffee or soda to drink (17%) or get something to eat (3%). One in seven
          (14%) say they turn on the radio or increase its volume, while an additional 3% say they sing or talk
          to himself or herself or another person (via cell phone) or a fellow passenger. [Figure 16-A]

    By Gender and Age
          Male drivers are much more likely to say they pull over and take a nap if they feel sleepy while
          driving (46% as compared to 39% of females), while female drivers are more likely to open a
          window (28% as compared to 24%). [Figure 16-B]

          The prevalence of drivers taking physical actions such as pulling over to nap, getting out of the
          car to stretch or exercise, and pulling over to get off the road all increase somewhat with age.
          Just 33% of drivers under age 21 reports that they pull over and nap as compared to 48% of those
          over age 45. Similarly, just 3% of the young drivers get out to exercise or stretch as compared to
          12% of the older drivers. Young drivers are most likely to rely upon turning the radio loud to
          keep them awake if they feel sleepy. More than one-third (35%) of drivers under 21 rely on this
          action as compared to just 6% of drivers over age 64. [Figure 16-C]

    By Drowsy Driving Experience

          Drivers who have ever nodded off while driving are more likely than those who have never
          nodded off at the wheel to open a window (34% as compared to 21% of those who have never
          nodded off), to get a soda or coffee (20% as compared to 15%), get out of the car and stretch or
          exercise (12% compared to 7%), and to turn the radio on loud (19% compared to 11%). Those
          who have never nodded off while driving are more likely to say they pull over and take a nap
          (46% versus 38%) or pull over to get off of the road (16% compared to 12%). [Figure 16-D]




                                                                                                             48
                                                       FIGURE 16: PREVENTATIVE MEASURES


A           ACTIONS TO PREVENT DROWSY DRIVING                                                             B           ACTIONS TO PREVENT DROWSY DRIVING,
                                                                                                                                  BY GENDER
                                                                               Total
                                                                                                                                                                           Male                 Female

 43%                                                                                                      46%
                                                                                                             39%
            26%                                                                                                          28%
                                                                                                                      24%
                      17%        15%         14%                                                                                17%17% 13%15% 12%15%
                                                        9%          6%                                                                               10%8% 6% 6%
                                                                                3%            3%                                                                 3% 4% 3% 3%

Pull over   Open        Get       Pull       Turn on   Get out/    Change        Eat          Sing or     Pull over    Open        Get      Pull     Turn on    Get out/   Change         Eat         Sing or
and take      the     coffee/    over/        radio    stretch/    drivers                     talk to    and take       the     coffee/   over/      radio     stretch/   drivers                     talk to
  nap       window     soda/     get off      loud     exercise                              yourself/      nap        window     soda/    get off    loud      exercise                             yourself/
                                  road                                                         other                                        road                                                       other
                     caffeine                                                                                                   caffeine
                                                                                              person                                                                                                  person

       Q70: If you feel sleepy while driving, what if anything, do you do to stop it? [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]

  C                                                       ACTIONS TO PREVENT DROWSY DRIVING, BY AGE



                                                                                                                                16-20          21-29           30-45         46-64               65+


          47%49%
        41%
  33%40%                  34%                                                    35%
                     22%26% 23%15%         13%17% 19%14% 13% 14% 16%
                                                 17%        13% 16%                 17%
                                                                                      15%9%
                                                                                                   6%    1% 1% 0% 1% 1%         5% 4% 6% 5% 6%         2% 3% 3% 4% 4%         2% 4% 3% 3% 2%

    Pull over          Open the             Get coffee/           Pull over/      Turn on radio               Get out/           Change drivers                 Eat               Sing or talk to
    and take            window                soda/                get off            loud                    stretch/                                                            yourself/other
      nap                                    caffeine               road                                      exercise                                                               person




Q70: If you feel sleepy while driving, what if anything, do you do to stop it? [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]


  D                                                               ACTIONS TO PREVENT DROWSY DRIVING,
                                                                    BY FATIGUED DRIVING EXPERIENCE


                                                                                                           Ever nodded off while driving                Never nodded off while driving


            46%
      38%              34%
                                21%         20% 15%                                    19%
                                                              12% 16%                         11%          12%        7%            5%      6%            5%          3%             4%         2%

    Pull over          Open the             Get coffee/           Pull over/      Turn on radio               Get out/           Change drivers                 Eat               Sing or talk to
    and take            window                soda/                get off            loud                    stretch/                                                            yourself/other
      nap                                    caffeine               road                                      exercise                                                               person

Q70: If you feel sleepy while driving, what if anything, do you do to stop it? [Base: respondents how nodded off while driving , n=1505;
never nodded off, n=2597]




                                                                                                                                                                                                      49
Outcomes of Drowsy Driving

     Outcome of Nodding Off on Most Recent Occasion
           The overwhelming majority (92%) of drivers who have nodded off while driving within the past
           six months report that they startled awake. However, sizable proportions of these drivers’
           experiences had more dangerous outcomes. One of three (33%) wandered into another lane or
           onto the shoulder, while 19% say they crossed the centerline. In one in ten (10%) cases, the
           driver ran off the road. While it happened in only about 2% of the most recent drowsy driving
           episodes, it is estimated that approximately 292,000 drivers were involved in some type of crash
           within the past six months as a result of nodding off at the wheel. [Figure 17-A]

     Involved in Crash as Result of Nodding Off Past Five Years
           Less than one percent (.7%) of all drivers (1.4% of those who have ever nodded off while driving,
           and 6.4% of those who have done so in the past six months) report they have been involved in a
           crash within the past five years that they attribute to them nodding off or having to greatly struggle
           to keep their eyes open. This equates to 2.5% of drivers who have been in any crash in the past
           five years attributing a crash to drowsy driving.

           Males are twice as likely as females to have been in such a crash (1.0% compared to .4%). While
           the total numbers of drivers involved is still small, drivers under age 30 are about six times more
           likely (1.8% have) to report involvement in a crash as a result of drowsy driving as are older drivers
           (.3%). [Figure 17-B]

           While the proportion of drivers involved in a crash as a result of nodding off at the wheel is very
           small, the actual numbers of drivers involved in such crashes over the past five years is sizable.
           Figure 17-C shows the estimated numbers of drivers by age and gender involved in a drowsy
           driving-related crash, along with high and low ranges around the estimates.

           An estimated 1.35 million drivers have been involved in a drowsy driving related crash in the past
           five years. About seven in ten of these drivers, or 972,000 were males, while 379,000 were
           females. Young drivers make a disproportionally high number of drowsy driving-related crashes,
           with about 274,000 drivers under age 21 involved in a drowsy driving-related crash within the past
           five years. These young drivers make up about 20% of all drivers involved in such a crash, yet
           these drivers under age 21 make up about 8.5% of the driving population. Similarly, about 44% of
           all drivers involved in a drowsy driving-related crash are in their 20s (594,000 drivers) yet they
           make up just 15% of the driving population. Relatively few drivers over age 64 (18,000) have had
           a drowsy driving-related crash in the past five years.




                                                                                                                 50
                                                              FIGURE 17: OUTCOME OF DROWSY DRIVING

 A                                     OUTCOME OF NODDING OFF                                                            B INVOLVED IN CRASH AS RESULT OF NODDING OFF,
                                           WHILE DRIVING                                                                        PAST 5 YEARS, BY GENDER AND AGE


                                                                                                 92%

                                                                                                                                                                    1.9%
                                                                                                                                                             1.6%
                                             33%
                           19%                                                                                                         1.0%
            10%                                                              6%                                9%        0.7%
                                                            2%                                                                                0.4%                         0.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                   0.2%    0.1%
   Ran off                Crossed Wandered                Got in a         Someone              Startled     Other/
  the road               centerline into other             crash           honked at            awake       Anything
                                      lane or                                 you                             else
                                     onto the                                                                             Total         Male Female          16-20 21-29   30-45   46-64   65+
                                     shoulder

Q61: On this most recent time, which, if any of the following                                                            Q71/73: In the past five years, have you been involved in a crash
happened when you fell asleep or nodded off even for a moment                                                            while driving a motor vehicle in which there was damage to your
while driving?                                                                                                           vehicle or another vehicle? If yes, were any of these crashes a
[Base: have fallen asleep while driving past six months; n=311]                                                          result of you nodding off, or having to greatly struggle to keep
                                                                                                                         your eyes open?
                                                                                                                         [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]


            C ESTIMATED NUMBER OF DRIVERS INVOLVED IN
            CRASH AS RESULT OF NODDING OFF, PAST 5 YEARS
            1882

                                 1434
                  1351
THOUSANDS




                                                                               968
                                       972
            820                               649                                           587
                                                                     553             594
                                 510                379                                           333 275
                                                                       274
                                                                 0            220          79          0    132 090 18
                                              109
            Total                Male Female                     16-20        21-29        30-45       46-64     65+




                                                                                                                                                                                           51
Perceived Threat of Driving While Drowsy

     Perceived Threat of Other Drivers Driving While Sleepy or Drowsy
              Virtually all drivers believe that other drivers who drive while sleepy or drowsy are a threat to
              their own personal safety and that of their family. Ninety-five percent (95%) belie ve this
              behavior by others to be a major threat, while 5% see it as a minor threat. [Figure 18-A]

     By Gender
              There is little substantive difference in the perception of the threat of other drivers who drive while
              drowsy or sleepy between male and female drivers. Male drivers are slightly more likely to view this
              behavior as a minor (6%), rather than a major (93%) threat to their and their family’s safety as
              compared to female drivers (3% and 96% respectively). However, all drivers see the behavior as a
              personal threat to their safety. [Figure 18-B]

     By Age
              There is also little difference in the perceived threat of others’ driving while drowsy or sleepy by age,
              with the exception that drivers in their 20s are more likely to see this behavior as a minor (8%) rather
              than a major threat (91%) to their and their family’s safety. [Figure 18-C]




                                                                                                                    52
                         FIGURE 18: PERCEIVED THREAT OF DRIVING WHILE DROWSY

  A           PERCEIVED THREAT OF DRIVING WHILE                                  B           PERCEIVED THREAT OF DRIVING WHILE
                     SLEEPY OR DROWSY                                                          SLEEPY OR DROWSY, BY GENDER
                                                                                                                                            Minor threat
                                                                                                                                            Major threat
                                                                                               100%                                 100%
                                                                                                6%                                  3%
                 Not a threat
                     0%                           Major threat
                                                         95%                                                                        96%
                Minor threat                                                                    93%
                    5%



                                                                                                Male                               Female

Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety        Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety
of you and your family if other drivers do the following?                       of you and your family if other drivers do the following?
[Base: Total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]                             [Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]


  C            PERCEIVED THREAT OF DRIVING WHILE
                   SLEEPY OR DROWSY, BY AGE
                                                                 Minor threat
                                                                 Major threat
      100%            99%          100%          100%               100%
      6%               8%          5%            4%                   3%



      94%             91%          95%           96%                  97%




      16-20           21-29        30-45         46-64                65+

Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety
of you and your family if other drivers do the following?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




                                                                                                                                                     53
54
Appendix A: NHTSA Regions
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has 10 regional offices that work on
the agency’s mission to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce traffic -related healthcare and other
economic costs. The states and territories that make up each region include:



Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Region 2: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Region 3: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

Region 4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee

Region 5: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin

Region 6: Arkansas, Indian Nations, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas

Region 7: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska

Region 8: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming

Region 9: American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, North Marianas

Region 10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington




                                                                                                         55
56
Appendix B:
Supplemental Charts




                      57
58
                  FIGURE 19: FREQUENCY AND MEAN NUMBER OF POTENTIALLY DISTRACTED
                               DRIVING BEHAVIORS INVOLVING TECHNOLOGY

   A      MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS USING CELL                                                           B      MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS USING CELL
       PHONES FOR OUTGOING CALLS, BY FREQUENCY OF                                                               PHONES FOR INCOMING CALLS, BY FREQUENCY OF
                     CELL PHONE USE                                                                                           CELL PHONE USE
                                                        Mean Trips Made                                                                                          Mean Trips Made
                                                        Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                           Percent Making Number of Trips
                               58%                                                                                                     55%

                                                                                         31.4
Mean Trips                                                                                              Mean Trips                                                                                25.4
Using Cell                                   18%                     21.2                                                                              20%                     20.2
                                                                                                        Using Cell
 Phones                                              11.6 10%                                                                                                 10.4 11%
                                       5.8                                  6%                  7%       Phones
                                                                                                                                                 5.7                                  5%                 8%
   6.4     4.0          1.0                                                                                6.2
                                                                                                                   4.1          1.8

        All Drivers   Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly      3/4 of Weekly       All or Most          All Drivers   Rarely/Never     1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                          Trips        Trips              Trips              Trips                                                 Trips        Trips             Trips              Trips

                              THOSE WHO USE CELL PHONES FOR OUTGOING CALLS                                                            THOSE WHO USE CELL PHONES FOR INCOMING CALLS



   C          MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS CHANGING                                                        D         MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS WHILE USING
             RADIO STATIONS OR CDS, BY FREQUENCY OF                                                               IN-CAR TELEMATICS, BY FREQUENCY OF USE OF
                CHANGING RADIO STATIONS OR CDS                                                                                IN-CAR TELEMATICS*
                                                        Mean Trips Made                                                                                         Mean Trips Made
                                                                                                                                      68%
                                                        Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                           Percent Making Number of Trips



                               38%                                                                                                                                            35.0
                                                                                                        Mean Trips
 Mean Trips
                                                                                                23%       Using                                               19.4
 Changing                                                                                19.4
                                             15%     11.4 15%        15.9                                 In-Car
   Music                                                                    10%                                                                        10%                                        9.1 9%
    9.5     4.9                        5.2                                                              Telematics                             5.7                   5%               6%
                         .9                                                                                 5.4    0.3         1.0

       All Drivers    Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly        All or Most          All Drivers   Rarely/Never    1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly      3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                          Trips        Trips             Trips               Trips                                                Trips        Trips              Trips              Trips
                                THOSE WHO TALK CHANGE RADIO STATIONS/CDS                                                                    THOSE WHO USE IN-CAR TELEMATICS
                                              WHILE DRIVING                                                                                         WHILE DRIVING


   E         MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS USING                                                            F           MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS
       WIRELESS REMOTE EQUIPMENT WHILE DRIVING, BY                                                            ANSWER/CHECK PAGER/BEEPER WHILE DRIVING, BY
           FREQUENCY OF USING WIRELESS REMOTE                                                                    FREQUENCY ANSWER/CHECK PAGER/BEEPER
                  86%
                       EQUIPMENT
                                                                                                                                      70%                       Mean Trips Made
                                                       Mean Trips Made
                                                        Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                          Percent Making Number of Trips
                                                                                                         Mean
                                                                                                          Trips
 Mean Trips                                                                                             Answer/
                                                                                         23.4           Cheking                                                                                  19.1
Using Wireless                                                       17.8                                                                                                     16.8
   Remote                                           11.2                                                 Pager/                                        12%   12.0 9 %
                                       5.6 5%              4%                                           Beeper 0.6                             6.0                                   3%                  6%
 Equipment0.6           0.9                                                 2%                  3%                            1.0
     2.8                                                                                                   5.3

       All Drivers    Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly        All or Most          All Drivers   Rarely/Never    1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly      3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                          Trips        Trips             Trips               Trips                                                Trips        Trips              Trips              Trips
                                THOSE WHO USE WIRELESS REMOTE EQUIPMENT                                                                THOSE WHO ANSWER/CHECK PAGER/BEEPER
                                              WHILE DRIVING                                                                                        WHILE DRIVING




                                                                                                                                                                                                         59
                    FIGURE 20: FREQUENCY AND MEAN NUMBER OF POTENTIALLY DISTRACTED
                               DRIVING BEHAVIORS NOT INVOLVING TECHNOLOGY

   A         MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS READING                                                            B          MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS DOING
           MAPS/DIRECTIONS, BY FREQUENCY OF READING                                                                PERSONAL GROOMING, BY FREQUENCY OF DOING
                       MAPS/DIRECTIONS                                                                                        PERSONAL GROOMING
                                                                                                                             92%
                               87%
                                                         Mean Trips Made                                                                                         Mean Trips Made
                                                         Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                          Percent Making Number of Trips




Mean Trips                                                                                31.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                  25.4
 Reading                                                              21.2                               Mean Trips                                                           20.2
  Maps/                                               11.6                                                Personal                                            10.4
Directions                              5.8 5 %                                                                                                 5.7 5 %
           1.1           1.0                                 1%              1%                  1%      Grooming 1.0           1.8                                  1%              1%                  1%
   2.1                                                                                                      1.0
       All Drivers     Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly      3/4 of Weekly       All or Most          All Drivers   Rarely/Never    1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                           Trips        Trips              Trips              Trips                                                Trips        Trips             Trips              Trips

                                 THOSE WHO READ MAPS OR DIRECTIONS                                                                          THOSE DOING PERSONAL GROOMING


   C           MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS TALKING TO                                                      D          MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS READING
              PASSENGERS, BY FREQUENCY OF TALKING TO                                                               WHILE DRIVING, BY FREQUENCY READING WHILE
                           PASSENGERS                                                                                         96%     DRIVING
                                                         Mean Trips Made                                                                                        Mean Trips Made
                                                         Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                          Percent Making Number of Trips



Mean Trips                                                                                       33%                                                                           35
 Talking to
Passengers                                                   20%                          19.0            Mean                                                19.4
                               18%            14%                     16.0 14%
   11.8                                               11.4                                                Trips                                                                                    9
              6.0                       5.2                                                              Reading                                5.7 3%
                          .9                                                                                        0.8         1.0                                                  1%
                                                                                                           1.5                                                       *                                   *
       All Drivers     Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly        All or Most          All Drivers   Rarely/Never    1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                           Trips        Trips             Trips               Trips                                                Trips        Trips             Trips              Trips

                               THOSE WHO TALK TO PASSENGERS WHILE DRIVING                                                                    THOSE WHO READ WHILE DRIVING



  E                    MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS                                                         F      MEAN NUMBER OF WEEKLY TRIPS DEALING WITH
                     EATING/DRINKING, BY FREQUENCY OF                                                           KIDS IN BACKSEAT WHILE DRIVING, BY FREQUENCY
                             EATING/DRINKING                                                                          OF DEALING WITH KIDS WHILE DRIVING
                                                        Mean Trips Made                                                               75%                       Mean Trips Made
                                                         Percent Making Number of Trips                                                                         Percent Making Number of Trips

                               50%

 Mean                                                                                                      Mean
 Trips                                        21%                                         23.4              Trips                                                                                19.1
                                                                      17.8                                                                                                   16.8
Eating/                                               11.2 14%                                            Dealing                                            12.0
Drinking                                5.6                                  6%                  8%       with Kids 2.1                        6.0 8 %               6%              3%
                                                                                                                                                                                                         7%
           3.2           .9                                                                                                     1.0
  6.2                                                                                                        3.9

       All Drivers     Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly     3/4 of Weekly       All or Most           All Drivers   Rarely/Never   1/4 of Weekly 1/2 of Weekly      3/4 of Weekly       All or Most
                                           Trips        Trips             Trips              Trips                                                Trips        Trips              Trips              Trips
                                                                                                                                              THOSE WHO DEAL WITH KIDS IN
                                 THOSE WHO EAT/DRINK WHILE DRIVING                                                                              BACKSEAT WHILE DRIVING




                                                                                                                                                                                                   60
                                       FIGURE 21: PERCEIVED THREAT OF DRIVING BEHAVIORS

 A           SPECIFIC ACTIONS THAT ARE THREATENING TO
                          PERSONAL SAFETY
                                                                                Minor threat
                                                                                Major threat

     98%          97%           94%              99%           99%          99%            98%
                                                              16%           2%
   30%                                          29%                                       40%
                45%
                               66%
                                                              83%          97%
   68%                                          70%                                       58%
                52%
                               28%
     Total      Using a        Eating or      Looking at     Weaving in   Running red Not coming to a
               wireless     drinking while     maps or       and out of     lights    complete stop at
              phone while       driving       directions       traffic                  stop signs
                driving                      while driving

Q86a: In your opinion, how much of a threat is it to the personal safety of you and your family if other drivers do the following?
 Is it a major threat, minor threat, or not a threat?
[Base: total respondents, speed and unsafe; n=4010]




                                                                                                                                     61

								
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