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Nacala Dam EIA_July.2010

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					    Nacala Dam Feasibility Study,
   Environmental and Social Impact
 Assessment, Design and Supervision

 PROCUREMENT REF No.: QCBS-MCA-MOZ-4-08-025
           CONTRACT NO: P015


               VOLUME 5
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT

                    July 2010

                     Submitted to:
        MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
     MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE ACCOUNT - MOÇAMBIQUE



                    Submitted by:
              JEFFARES & GREEN (Pty) Ltd
                   In association with
                       CONSENG
                         And
                       LAMONT
INSERT VERIFICATION PAGE
                Structure of Reports



                    Volume 1                           Volume 6

                   Main Report                         Drawings

                   Report No:                         Report No:
                  FS/2010/MR01                        FS/2010/DR05




 Volume 2           Volume 3            Volume 4

Hydrological       Geotechnical        Preliminary
Investigation      Investigation      Design Report
   Report             Report
                                        Report No:
Report No:          Report No:         FS/2010/PD04
FS/2010/HI02       FS/2010/GI03




                                    Volume 5A                 Volume 5B

                                   Environmental            Environmental
                                   Scoping Report              Impact
                                                             Assessment
                                                               Report
                                     Report No:
                                   FS/2010/ENV05A             Report No:
                                                            FS/2010/ENV05B
         Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision


                                    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Government of the Republic of Mozambique (GOM) has received a grant from the
Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), an innovative United States established foreign
assistance program designed to reduce poverty by promoting sustainable economic growth.
The MCC operates on the principle that aid is most effective in countries that promote good
governance, economic freedom and investments in people. The GOM, through the
Millennium Challenge Account-Mozambique (MCA-Mozambique), a public institution created
by the GOM) and its National Directorate of Water (DNA-GOH) organ, intends to use a
portion of the proceeds of this grant, to carry out feasibility studies relating to the
rehabilitation and augmentation of the Nacala Dam and Reservoir.

In June 2009 Jeffares and Green (Pty) Ltd (J&G) was appointed as the lead consultant to
undertake the Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment,
Design and Supervision Project. The aim of this project is to improve the safety associated
with the use of the dam, and to increase water storage and supply capacity for the City of
Nacala and nearby Nacala Velha. As part of this project, a number of activities are proposed,
including the rehabilitation and elevation of the dam wall; an upgrade of the spillway; a road
deviation; and the excavation of materials for these activities. Should Nacala Dam not be
rehabilitated, the risk of dam failure is a concern both in terms of the structural stability of the
dam and community safety.

The Nacala Dam is located on the Muecula River approximately 30 kilometres south west of
Nacala (refer to locality plan overleaf). The dam is the primary water source for the town of
Nacala which is situated approximately 200 kilometres north east of Nampula City. Nacala
City is of significant regional importance for potential growth in Mozambique.

Several specialist studies were undertaken in support of the project. These included a
Terrestrial Ecological study (Appendix C), an Environmental Flow Requirements (EFR)
specialist study (Appendix D), a Hydrological specialist study (synopsis included in Appendix
E), a Hydrocensus (Appendix F), a Social Impact Assessment (Appendix G) and associated
Resettlement Plan Framework (Appendix H), and a Health Impact Assessment (Appendix I).
Various other studies, e.g. a geotechnical investigation were undertaken in support of the
design of the project and where appropriate, reference has been made to such studies.

The raising of the dam wall will result in the inundation of approximately 170ha of land which
may have certain ecological impacts. However, the terrestrial ecological study found that
additional inundation will not significantly affect the conservation status of eight Red Data
Listed plants found in the study area. This is because all of these species are still widespread
in Mozambique, and most of these species were originally listed because of the high levels of
harvesting they were enduring, not because of small population sizes.




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During the construction phase, site disturbance will be unavoidable and the risk of increasing
the spread of exotic invader weeds is high. Two serious invader plants have already been
recorded within the footprint area, namely *Hyptis suaveolens (Horehound Weed) and
*Lantana camera (Lantana).

The terrestrial ecological survey found that the resident fauna species that are present in the
project area are sufficiently resilient to withstand extreme pressures occurring within the
study area. The increased inundation zone of Nacala Dam is secondary to the extreme
pressure exhibited by the local communities living in the study area. Such human pressures
are represented by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, subsistence hunting, subsistence
agriculture, and pollution. The extent of habitat loss in the project area caused by this project
will not significantly impact on fauna populations of conservation importance.

The rehabilitation and raising of the Dam requires the assessment of the EFR of the Muecula
River to determine the optimum flow releases from the dam to maintain a desired ecological
state of the river downstream. Due to the Muecula River having insufficient flow for the initial
part of the study, an EcoStatus Level III determination was undertaken. The EFR approach
aims to give the river a present ecological class based on the site conditions and ecological
diversity data obtained during a one-off site visit. The ecological data gathered during the site
visit, namely fish, aquatic invertebrate, geomorphological and riparian vegetation, were used
to classify the Present Ecological State (PES). The PES outcomes are used to determine a
Recommended Ecological Class (REC) for releases from the Nacala Dam.

The EFR hydrology was undertaken using the Desktop Support System model (DSS). In this
case, the Muecula River had a PES of a Class C, with the final REC also being a Class C.
The results of the EFR determination, including the maintenance low flows (base flow) and
the maintenance high flows (floods and freshettes) require a release of 2.497 Mm3/ann (=
21.4% MAR). Releases from the dam to support a downstream Class C EFR would cause a
decrease in yield for a 2m raised dam from 6.0 million m3/a to 4.3 million m3/a. The
implementation of the EFR has a significant impact on the yield of the system and
consideration should be given to postponing its implementation until alternative sources of
water are available to augment water supplies.

A hydrocensus was undertaken to ascertain the water sources being used by the
communities surrounding the dam. The investigation identified the following sources of water:
      •      Six boreholes (Afridev hand pumps located close to households).
      •      Three stream/ river abstractions (badly discoloured water and no form of protection).
      •      A shallow-dug well (badly discoloured water and no form of protection).
      •      Stand-pipe with two widgets
      •      A wetland abstraction point and the Muecula River



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Some of these sources dry up in the dry season and leave the communities with little to no
potable water source in the near vicinity. Water security is non-existent in this area, in spite of the
dam being close to it. It is therefore recommended the Nacala Dam Rehabilitation and the Nacala
Water Supply Programme considers providing a sustainable and clean source of potable water for
the communities surrounding the dam. Presently, the only water that is supplied to the
communities from the Nacala Dam is from the dual widget standpipe.


Subsistence agriculture in conjunction with an informal economy is the dominant livelihood
strategy for local households and communities. Subsistence agriculture is primary aimed at
producing basic foods for households with any surplus food being sold at local markets. The
greater population around the dam have dry land machambas, which are away from the dam
and rely on ground water. Very few households have access to the coveted wet land
machambas, which are around the dam and along the small inlets that feed into the dam.
There are about 30 “dam/river machamba” owners affected by the proposed project and this
is regarded as economic displacement. Recession agriculture makes use of the falling levels
of the dam to open up the dam margins for cultivation. The following key issues and related
impacts emerged during the Social Impact Assessment (SIA):

Issue 1: Job Creation and Stimulation of Economic growth
       Impact 1.1: Job opportunities
       Impact 1.2: Expansion of the local skills base
       Impact 1.3: Small business opportunities
       Impact 1.4: Enhanced access to markets for local farmers
       Impact 1.5: Economic development in the region
       Impact 1.6: Return of Young People to the Area
       Impact 1.7: Lack of labour for traditional livelihood strategies

Issue 2: Loss of, or Reduced Access to Livelihoods
       Impact 2.1: Loss of or reduced access to agricultural land
       Impact 2.2: Loss of and reduced access to natural resources

Issue 3: Disruption of Homesteads
       Impact 3.1: Disruption of Homesteads

Issue 4: Reduced Access to Social Infrastructure
       Impact 4.1: Loss of access routes

Issue 5: Social Conflict and Social Problems
       Impact 5.1: Decreased emotional well being and sense of place
       Impact 5.2: Occupational adjustment problems
       Impact 5.3: Changes in the traditional livelihood strategy of households
       Impact 5.4: Community conflict as a result of differential benefits from the Project
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       Impact 5.5: Tensions between outsiders and local communities
       Impact 5.6: Problems related to influx into the area.

Issue 6: Health, Safety and Security
       Impact 6.1: Increase in communicable diseases
       Impact 6.2: Traffic safety risks
       Impact 6.3: Security risks

The proposed project will result in the physical displacement of nineteen (19) households
that will have to be resettled. These include 17 residential homesteads and a Frelimo Party
office affected by the road deviation and the local police station affected by the re-developed
spillway. Where displacement cannot be avoided, a comprehensive Resettlement and
Compensation programme is to be implemented to ensure the restoration or improvement of
the affected individuals’ livelihoods and standards of living. Specific assistance is to be
provided to vulnerable households as part of the resettlement process. Vulnerable
households include child-headed households, those headed by people with disabilities or
health problems, and the elderly or single-headed households. In line with the MCA’s Gender
Policy (2006), focus would also be placed on female-headed households.

The Health Impact Assessment (Appendix I) found that the project is likely to impart potential
future health impacts to the surrounding community for a limited period of time, but their
presence also presents an opportunity to improve the existing health status of the community
and other communities through direct and indirect benefits. These need to be systematically
evaluated so that the proponent, and the broader stakeholders, can develop a community
health management plan to avoid, mitigate or enhance any health impacts, opportunities or
risks. This needs to be based on priority as well as practicality. Vector-related diseases, e.g.
malaria; soil, water and waste-related diseases; sexually transmitted infections including
HIV/AIDS; food and nutrition-related issues; and accidents and injuries were all regarded as
impacts of potentially high significance. Mitigation measures are provided but these
mitigations will require a series of separate management policies, strategies, plans, and
programs. To support these programs, adequate training or information, education and
communication (IEC) programs will be required, some of which are outlined in the
Environmental Management Programme (EMP).

This project is of high economic and social importance to Nampula Province and Nacala-a-
Velha and it is anticipated that it will achieve important tangible benefits in terms of increased
crop production and potable water supply. As Mozambique is prone to floods, there is a
serious risk that flooding while the bottom outlets are closed may lead to a total collapse of
the dam with serious consequences to human lives and property.




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                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.          INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1
     1.1.     PROJECT BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................... 1
     1.2.     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE EIA ................................................................................... 2
     1.3.     DETAILS OF THE APPLICANT ............................................................................................... 2
     1.4.     DETAILS OF THE EIA TEAM .................................................................................................. 2
       1.4.1.       Jeffares & Green ............................................................................................................... 2
       1.4.2.       CONSENG ........................................................................................................................ 3
       1.4.3.       Environmental Impact Assessment Team ........................................................................ 3

2.          POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK.............................. 5
     2.1.     NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION ...................................................................... 5
       2.1.1.       The Constitution of Mozambique ...................................................................................... 5
       2.1.2.       The Environment Act ........................................................................................................ 5
       2.1.3. Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process ..................................... 5
     2.2. SUPPORTING ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION ................................................................. 6
     2.3.     OTHER LEGISLATION ............................................................................................................ 7
     2.4.     INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE ....................................................................................... 8
       2.4.1.       Millennium Challenge Corporation ................................................................................... 8
       2.4.2.       World Bank ....................................................................................................................... 8
       2.4.3.       International Finance Corporation .................................................................................... 9
     2.5.     INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND TREATIES .............................................................. 9
     2.6.     ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................ 10

3.          METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................ 11
     3.1.     EIA PRE-EVALUATION APPLICATION (SCREENING) ....................................................... 11
     3.2.     ENVIRONMENTAL PRE-FEASIBILITY AND SCOPING STUDY (EPDA) ............................ 11
     3.3.     THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS ........................................................................... 12
     3.4.     ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ........................................................................ 12
       3.4.1.       Terrestrial Ecology Assessment ..................................................................................... 13
       3.4.2.       Ecological Flow Requirements ....................................................................................... 13
       3.4.3.       Hydrology ........................................................................................................................ 13
       3.4.4.       Hydrocensus ................................................................................................................... 13
       3.4.5.       Social Impact Assessment.............................................................................................. 14
       3.4.6.       Resettlement Policy Framework ..................................................................................... 14
       3.4.7.       Health Impact Assessment ............................................................................................. 15
     3.5.     AUTHORITY REVIEW OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT .............................. 15

4.          ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS CONSIDERED ..................................................... 18
     4.1.     SPILLWAY UPGRADE OPTIONS ......................................................................................... 18
     4.2.     ROAD ALIGNMENT ............................................................................................................... 23
     4.3.     EMBANKMENT RAISING OPTIONS ..................................................................................... 23
     4.4.     THE NO-GO PROJECT OPTION .......................................................................................... 24

5.          PROJECT DESCRIPTION .............................................................................. 25

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     5.1.     NACALA DAM ........................................................................................................................ 25
     5.2.     KEY COMPONENTS OF NACALA DAM ............................................................................... 25
        5.2.1.       Embankment................................................................................................................... 25
        5.2.2.       Reservoir ........................................................................................................................ 30
        5.2.3.       Spillways ......................................................................................................................... 30
       5.2.4. N12 National Highway .................................................................................................... 31
     5.3. RATIONALE FOR THE UPGRADE & REHABILITATION OF NACALA DAM ...................... 32
        5.3.1.       Improving Water Supply ................................................................................................. 32
        5.3.2.       Improvement of Dam Safety ........................................................................................... 32
     5.4.     PROJECT ACTIVITIES .......................................................................................................... 33
        5.4.1.       Spillway Upgrade ............................................................................................................ 33
        5.4.2.       Embankment Raising...................................................................................................... 37
        5.4.3.       Road Deviation ............................................................................................................... 37
        5.4.4.       Borrow Pits ..................................................................................................................... 39

6.          BASELINE ENVIRONMENT........................................................................... 41
     6.1.     CLIMATE ................................................................................................................................ 41
     6.2.     GEOLOGY ............................................................................................................................. 42
     6.3.     SOILS ..................................................................................................................................... 42
     6.4.     TOPOGRAPHY AND LANDFORM ........................................................................................ 43
     6.5. VEGETATION ........................................................................................................................ 43
       6.5.1. General Overview ........................................................................................................... 43
        6.5.2.       Plant species/communities occurring on site.................................................................. 44
        6.5.3.       Land-cover ...................................................................................................................... 46
     6.6.     TERRESTRIAL FAUNA ......................................................................................................... 46
        6.6.1.       General overview ............................................................................................................ 46
        6.6.2.       Mammals ........................................................................................................................ 46
        6.6.3.       Avifauna .......................................................................................................................... 47
        6.6.4.       Herpetofauna .................................................................................................................. 47
     6.7. AQUATIC FAUNA .................................................................................................................. 48
       6.7.1. General Overview ........................................................................................................... 48
        6.7.2.       Fish ................................................................................................................................. 48
       6.7.3. Aquatic invertebrates ...................................................................................................... 48
     6.8. HYDROLOGY ........................................................................................................................ 48
        6.8.1.       Yield Hydrology............................................................................................................... 49
        6.8.2.       Environmental Flow Requirements ................................................................................. 50
        6.8.3.       Sediment Yield Analysis ................................................................................................. 51
        6.8.4.       Design Flood hydrology .................................................................................................. 51
     6.9.     GEOHYDROLOGY ................................................................................................................ 52
     6.10.    THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ....................................................................... 53
       6.10.1. Magisterial Structure ....................................................................................................... 53
        6.10.2.      Population Demographics............................................................................................... 53
        6.10.3.      Community and Household Structure ............................................................................. 55
        6.10.4.      Livelihoods and Economy ............................................................................................... 56
        6.10.5.      Land-Use ........................................................................................................................ 57
        6.10.6.      Gender ............................................................................................................................ 57
        6.10.7.      Seasonal Calender ......................................................................................................... 57

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        6.10.8.      Social Infrastructure ........................................................................................................ 58
        6.10.9.      Community Perceptions of the Dam Rehabilitation Project............................................ 58
     6.11.        RESETTLEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK........................................................................ 59
        6.11.1.      Design and Objectives of RPF ....................................................................................... 60
        6.11.2.      Magnitude of Displacement ............................................................................................ 60
        6.11.3.      Valuation and Compensation Process ........................................................................... 61
        6.11.4.      Compensation and Resettlement Cost Estimate ............................................................ 62
     6.12.    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 62
       6.12.1. Rapid Health Impact Assessment .................................................................................. 63
        6.12.2.      HIA Methodology ............................................................................................................ 63
        6.12.3.      Potentially Affected Communities ................................................................................... 63
        6.12.4.      Environmental Health Areas ........................................................................................... 64

7.          ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT................................................. 66
     7.1.     METHODOLOGY IN DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACTS .......................... 66
     7.2.     FLORA/VEGETATION ........................................................................................................... 69
     7.3.     TERRESTRIAL FAUNA ......................................................................................................... 71
        7.3.1.       Mammals ........................................................................................................................ 71
        7.3.2.       Avifauna .......................................................................................................................... 72
        7.3.3.       Herpetofauna .................................................................................................................. 74
       7.3.4. Aquatic Fauna ................................................................................................................. 75
     7.4. ECOSYSTEMS ...................................................................................................................... 76
     7.5.     ECOLOGICAL FLOW REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................. 79
     7.6.     HYDROLOGY ........................................................................................................................ 79
     7.7.     HYDROCENSUS ................................................................................................................... 79
     7.8.     SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ............................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
        7.8.1.       Issue 1: Job Creation and Stimulation of Economic Growth .......................................... 81
        7.8.2.       Issue 2: Loss of or Reduced Access to Livelihood Assets ............................................. 85
        7.8.3.       Issue 3: Disruption of Homesteads ................................................................................. 87
        7.8.4.       Issue 4: Reduced Access to Social Infrastructure .......................................................... 89
        7.8.5.       Issue 5: Social Conflict and Social Problems ................................................................. 89
       7.8.6. Issue 6: Health, Safety and Security .............................................................................. 94
     7.9. RESETTLEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK ................ ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
     7.10.        HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 96

8.          PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS ......................................................... 100
     8.1.     NOTIFICATION OF INTERESTED & AFFECTED PARTIES .............................................. 100
     8.2.     WORKSHOP AND MEETING .............................................................................................. 100
     8.3.     PUBLIC CONSULTATION REPORT ................................................................................... 100
     8.4.     PUBLIC REVIEW OF DOCUMENTATION .......................................................................... 101
     8.5. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS UNDERTAKEN TO DATE ...................................... 101
       8.5.1. Awareness Building ...................................................................................................... 101
       8.5.2. Issues and Concerns raised ......................................................................................... 101
     8.6. SOLUTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 104

9.          CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................. 105
10.         REFERENCES.............................................................................................. 107
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                                                LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1: Nacala Dam Project implementation structure ....................................................10
Figure 3-1: The EIA process. ................................................................................................17
Figure 4-1:    Spillway options considered during preliminary design stage ........................21
Figure 5-1:    Locality plan of Nacala Dam .........................................................................26
Figure 5-2:    Aerial view of Nacala Dam and Surrounds ....................................................27
Figure 5-3:    Different components associated with Nacala Dam ......................................28
Figure 5-4:    Upstream face of Nacala Dam ......................................................................29
Figure 5-5:    Nacala Dam Reservoir ..................................................................................29
Figure 5-6:    Downstream Face of Nacala Dam with protective stone grouting .................31
Figure 5-7:    Dam Crest and N12 Highway........................................................................31
Figure 5-8:    Layout of preferred Spillway Option ‘Left Hand Side A’ .................................35
Figure 5-9:    Tailwater Inundation area for LHS Spillway Option A ....................................36
Figure 5-10: Preferred Road Diversion – Option 2 ............................................................38
Figure 5-11: Locality of identified borrow pits ....................................................................40
Figure 6-1:    Average monthly rainfall in the Nacala Dam Catchment ...............................41
Figure 6-2:    Study area for the Nacala Dam Terrestrial Ecological Assessment ...............44
Figure 6-3:    Simulated natural stream flow time-series plotted against the C Class desktop
    EWR time-series............................................................................................................51
Figure 6-4:    Location of Nacala A Velha District ...............................................................54
Figure 6-5:    Typical homestead structures .......................................................................55
Figure 6-6:    Images of machambas located along the dam reservoir margin ...................57


                                                 LIST OF TABLES

Table 4-1:        Advantages and Disadvantages of various spillway options .............................18
Table 6-1:        Characteristics of rainfall in the Nacala Dam catchment ...................................41
Table 6-2:        S-pan evaporation data for the Nacala Dam catchment(1).................................42
Table 6-3:        Land cover classes in study area .....................................................................46
Table 6-4:        Summary of Yield Analysis Scenarios (Jeffares & Green, 2010) ......................49
Table 6-5:        Summary of Yield Analysis Results (Jeffares & Green, 2010) ..........................49
Table 6-6:        Community Water Sources identified during Hydrocensus ...............................52
Table 6-7:        Summary of Resettlement Costs ......................................................................62
Table 7-1:        Rating methodology to determine the significance of Impacts ..........................67
Table 7-2:        Impact Probability.............................................................................................68
Table 7-3: Overall Environmental Significance Statement .................................................68
Table 7-4: Summary of issues and related impacts identified during SIA ..........................80
Table 7-5:    Summary of Environmental Health Areas including Health Determinants and
    Health Impacts...............................................................................................................96




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                                            APPENDICES

Appendix A:              Consultancy Certificate
Appendix B:              MICOA project requirements
Appendix C:              Terrestrial Ecology Specialist Study
Appendix D:              Environmental Flow Requirements Specialist Study
Appendix E:              Synopsis of Hydrological Specialist Study including water quality
                         monitoring programme results
Appendix F:              Hydrocensus Resource Sheets
Appendix G:              Social Impact Assessment
Appendix H:              Resettlement Plan Framework
Appendix I:              Health Impact Assessment
Appendix J:              Environmental Management Plan




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                            GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS

DNA-GOH:                    Direcção Nacional de Águas (National Directorate of Water) - Cabinet
                            of Hydraulic Works
DNAIA:                      Direcção Nacional de Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental
                            (National Environmental Impact Assessment Directorate)
DPCAA:                      Direcção Provincial para a Coordenação da Acção Ambiental
                            (Provincial Directorate for Co-ordination of Environmental Affairs)
EFR:                        Environmental Flow Requirements
EIA:                        Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP:                        Environmental Management Plan
GOM:                        Government of Mozambique
HIA:                        Health Impact Assessment
mamsl:                      Metres Above Mean Sea Level
MCA-Mozambique:             Millennium Challenge Account – Mozambique
MCC:                        Millennium Challenge Corporation
mcm/a:                      million cubic metres per annum
MICOA:                      Ministério para a Coordenação da Acção Ambiental
                            (Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs)
OP 4.12:                    World Bank’s Operational Policy on Involuntary Resettlement
PPP:                        Public Participation Process
RPF:                        Resettlement Policy Framework
SIA:                        Social Impact Assessment




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1.       INTRODUCTION
1.1.     PROJECT BACKGROUND
The Government of the Republic of Mozambique (GOM) has received a grant from the
Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), an innovative United States established foreign
assistance program designed to reduce poverty by promoting sustainable economic growth.
The MCC operates on the principle that aid is most effective in countries that promote good
governance, economic freedom and investments in people. The GOM, through MCA
(Millennium Challenge Account-Mozambique, a public institution created by the GOM) and its
National Directorate of Water (DNA-GOH) organ, intends to use a portion of the proceeds of
this grant, to carry out feasibility studies relating to the rehabilitation and augmentation of the
Nacala Dam and Reservoir.

The Nacala Dam is located on the Muecula River approximately 30 kilometres south west of
Nacala. The Nacala Reservoir is the primary water source for the City of Nacala, which is
situated approximately 200 kilometres north east of Nampula City. The City of Nacala has
also received funding for water and sanitation system improvements under a different project
that is being developed concurrently with this Nacala Dam Rehabilitation project. Due to a
previously identified risk of dam failure, water levels at the dam are reported to be kept low,
reducing the water supply for Nacala significantly. In addition, there are significant increases
projected for water demands for the city due to population growth and other planned
developments. Projected demands for urban growth in the City of Nacala and Nacala Velha
greatly exceed the existing water supply capacity of the Nacala Dam Reservoir.

The Nacala Dam was designed and constructed from 1968 to 1975. In 1982 the dam wall
was overtopped for 10 consecutive hours due to the non operation of the spillway gates. This
resulted in high seepage through the defective concrete on the right hand side of the spillway
which flooded the fill downstream of the core and may have been the trigger for the
concentrated erosion of the embankment in this area. In 1983 the wash away area was
reinstated and a layer of stone pitching was placed on the downstream face of the wall as a
protective measure against the possibility of future overtopping. Further repairs were
undertaken in 1995 and 2002 resulting in a pre-feasibility study into the possibility of
rehabilitating and raising the dam wall which was undertaken by Michael Baker Jr. Inc.
(Baker) in 2006.

In June 2009, a consortium of firms, with Jeffares and Green (Pty) Ltd (J&G) as the lead
consultant, was appointed to undertake the Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental
and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision Project. The Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA), as categorised by the Provincial Directorate for the Co-ordination of
Environmental Affairs (15 October 2009), is being undertaken in compliance with the
Environmental Law (Law No 20/1997) and the Regulations for the Environmental Impact
Assessment Process (Decree No. 45/2004), as amended by Decree 42/2008 and the

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General Directive for Public Participation (Diploma No. 129 and 130/2006). Cognisance has
also been taken of the MCC Guidelines (MCC, 2006) for Environmental and Social
Assessment.

1.2.      AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE EIA
The overall aim of the Nacala Dam EIA is to identify and assess potential environmental
impacts and risks in balance with potential benefits of the project. Specific objectives of this
EIA are to:


   •     Identify and assess potential environmental and social impacts, both negative and
         positive, that are directly associated with the proposed activity.
   •     Avoid, minimise, mitigate or compensate for negative impacts while maximising the
         positive spin-offs of the proposed activity.
   •     Ensure open and transparent consultation with Interested and Affected Parties
         (I&APs) and ensure that their views are incorporated into the assessment of
         alternatives, impacts and mitigation measures.
   •     To promote improved environmental and social performance through better planning
         and management.

1.3.      DETAILS OF THE APPLICANT
The applicant is MCA-Mozambique. The details of the applicant are as follows:

                                             MCA-Moçambique
                                       Contact: Mr. Paulo Fumane
                                            (Executive Director)
                                       Av. Ahmed Sekou Toré 2539
                                           Tel: + 258 21 333920
                                          Fax: + 258 21 333921

1.4.      DETAILS OF THE EIA TEAM
A joint venture has been established between Jeffares & Green and CONSENG in order to
comply with Article 21 (Registration of EIA team) and Article 23 (Responsibility of EIA team)
of the Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Decree No 45/2004)
and to provide the necessary mix of skills and expertise.

1.4.1.    Jeffares & Green
Jeffares & Green (Pty) Ltd is a long-established (since 1922) South African multidisciplinary
consultancy company. Jeffares & Green have a full compliment of some 280 professional
staff, including expertise in water, sanitation, municipal services, roads, environmental,
hydrology, geohydrology and geotechnical engineering.

The company, via its in-house environmental division, provides the necessary expertise and
skills to undertake an EIA in compliance with local legislation and to International Best

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Practice Standards. Jeffares & Green holds full ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management
Certifications. The contact details for Jeffares & Green are:

                                             Jeffares & Green
                                             Contact: Jan Norris
                                             6 Pin Oak Avenue
                                         Hilton, 3245, South Africa
                                           Tel: +27 33 343 6700
                                           Fax: +27 33 343 6701
                                          Email: norrisj@jgi.co.za

1.4.2.   CONSENG
CONSENG (Consultancy Services & Engineering) is a Mozambican Company established in
September, 1984, and targets the Mozambican market in the consulting and project
management field (See Appendix A for consultancy certificate). The contact details for
CONSENG are:

                                              CONSENG
                                     Contact: Claudio Carvalho
                                 Av Kwame Nkrumah No. 460 Polana,
                                         Maputo, Mozambique
                                        Tel: +285 (82) 3287520
                                        Fax: +258 (21) 496758
                                 Email: carvalho.claudiop@gmail.com

1.4.3.   Environmental Impact Assessment Team
The environmental team consists of the following members:
     Name                Area of Expertise                        Study/Role                       Company
   Marco da           Environmental Impact
                                                            Project Management                 Jeffares & Green
    Cunha                 Assessment
                      Environmental Impact                    Assistant Project
Melissa Moffett                                                                                Jeffares & Green
                          Assessment                         Manager/Reviewer
                      Environmental Impact                   Public Participation
 Alicia Calane                                                                                     CONSENG
                          Assessment                          Process Manager
                                                             Public Participation
   Francisco          Environmental Impact
                                                                  Process                          CONSENG
    Mbebe                 Assessment
                                                                  Assistant
Carlos Santana            Legal Specialist              Environmental Law Review                   CONSENG
                                                        Social Impact Assessment
                          Socio-Economic                                                          Independent
 Greg Huggins                                             Resettlement Policy
                            Specialist                                                               (J&G)
                                                                Framework
                                                        Social Impact Assessment
   Delmira                Socio-Economic
                                                          Resettlement Policy                      CONSENG
   Mahache                   Specialist
                                                                Framework
                     Economics and Agrarian
  Vasco Lino                                             Land-Use and Agriculture                  CONSENG
                            Policy
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    Name                Area of Expertise                        Study/Role                       Company

Jose Chiocho        Agriculture Engineering             Land and Asset Valuation                  CONSENG
                     Occupational Medicine                                                       Independent
 Mark Divall                                           Health Impact Assessment
                          and Health                                                                (J&G)
                     Zoology, Conservation                                                       Independent
 Martin Taylor                                          Terrestrial Ecology Study
                            Biology                                                                 (J&G)
                       Aquatic Ecology &                     Ecological Flow
  Ryan Gray                                                                                   Jeffares & Green
                          Hydrology                        Requirements Study
Simon Johnson               Hydrologist                       Hydrology Study                 Jeffares & Green

  Jan Norris        Geotechnical Specialist             Geotechnical Assessment               Jeffares & Green




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2.         POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK
This chapter provides a summary of the legislative framework and international best practice
guidelines and standards that have been adopted for this EIA.

2.1.       NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
The EIA process is regulated by a number of laws that include the Constitution of
Mozambique as the overarching law in terms of environmental protection. The Environmental
Law (Decree No. 20/1997) and the Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment
Process (Decree No. 45/2004) define the principles and actions needed in the EIA.

2.1.1.     The Constitution of Mozambique
The Constitution is the supreme law of the land and any act or conduct inconsistent with it is
invalid and will have no force of law. Any development has to ensure that none of its
activities will be inconsistent with the constitutional rights of the people of Mozambique. The
key provisions relevant to this EIA are:

     “Article 27: The state shall promote efforts to guarantee the ecological balance and the
     conservation and preservation of the environment for the betterment of the quality of
     life of its citizens”.

     “Article 72: All citizens shall have the right to live in, and the duty to defend, a balanced
     natural environment”.

2.1.2.     The Environment Act
The Environmental Law (Decree No. 20/1997 of 1 October) serves as the framework
environmental legislation for Mozambique. It provides the overarching principles and
foundations for all forms of environmental legislation, policy and practice. Its overall objective
is defined as follows:

     “Article 2: The current Act has the objective of defining the legal basis for the utilisation
     and correct management of the environment and its components, with a view of
     ensuring a system of sustainable development in this country”.

Articles 15 to 17 of the Law define, in general terms, that any activities, that by the nature of
the location, design or scale may cause significant environmental impacts, will require an
environmental license. The basis of obtaining this license is via an EIA.

2.1.3.     Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process
The Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process Act (Decree No.
45/2004), as amended by Decree No. 42/2008 of November defines the rules and
regulations concerning competent authorities, applications for environmental authorisation,
and the procedures that must be followed in an EIA.

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These regulations form the central pillar in terms of the procedural requirements for this EIA.
This includes undertaking an EIA Pre-assessment Application (Screening), Environmental
Pre-Feasibility and Scoping (EPDA) and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as
well as a Public Participation Process.

Under Article 6, the proposed project must be assessed against listed activities (Annexures
A, B and C) and additional environmental criteria as defined under Article 8. There is no
specific reference to dam rehabilitation and upgrading under the listed activities. However the
proposed project does trigger the following activities:

       a) Areas and ecosystems meriting special protection under national or
       international law such as …sources or rivers and other water supplies.
       b) Populated areas that would require resettlement.
       e) Areas near water courses or areas used as water sources by the community.
       1h) Main roads outside urban area and the construction of new roads.
       1o) Dams and walled water storage with a flooded area of more than 5 hectares.

No specific reference is made in the regulations with regard to the upgrade and
refurbishment of existing infrastructure. The above listed activities have been interpreted as
to include the modification, extension or alteration of any existing infrastructure.

An application for an Environmental License is to be lodged with the relevant environmental
authorities (MICOA – Ministério para o Coordenação da Acção Ambiental) as part of the EIA
Pre-assessment Application (Screening) phase in compliance with Article 3 of the EIA
Regulations.

After the Pre-assessment Application, an Environmental Pre-Feasibility and Scoping Study
(EPDA) is to be undertaken in compliance with Article 10 of the EIA Regulations. This study
identifies potential environmental impacts associated with the project and defines the Terms
of Reference of the larger EIA phase.

The second and final phase is the EIA, as defined under Article 12 of the EIA regulations. An
EIA should, at minimum, include a clear assessment of potential environmental and social
impacts. Supporting specialist studies and an Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
should be included as annexures to the EIA.

Article 14 defines the Public Participation Process (PPP) required as part of a full EIA. This
gives rights to potential Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) to engage in the PPP.

2.2.     SUPPORTING ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
A number of Decrees and ministerial Diplomas have been enacted in support of the above
acts. The following are considered relevant:


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   •   The General Directive for the Public Participation Process in the Environmental
       Impact Assessment (Ministerial Diploma No. 129 and 130/2006 of 19 July.
   •   Regulations for the Environmental Audit Process (Decree No. 32/2003 of 20 August)
   •   Regulations for Environmental Inspections (Decree No. 11/2006 of 15 June)

2.3.     OTHER LEGISLATION
The following legislation or sectoral legislation may to varying degrees be relevant to the EIA
process:

The Water Law, Decree 16/1991 of 3 August states that hydraulic works will not be
approved without the previous analysis of its effects and impact on the environment,
economy and society.

The Forestry and Wildlife Law, Decree 10/1999 of 7 July provides lists of economic
important timber species and of protected fauna. Projects likely to have an impact on areas
where these species predominate even though the area itself is not protected by law, require
a more careful evaluation than projects that do not impinge on this kind of resources.

The Land Law, Decree 19/1997 of 1 October refers to the extinction of land occupation and
usage rights, stating that payment of just compensation will precede any process of
expropriation. There is no specific legislation concerning responsibility neither for organizing
and implementing compensation and resettlement nor on the procedures to be followed. In
the absence of a clearly defined resettlement policy, the GOM has been following the
principles set forth in the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (OP
4.12) in order to deal with the issues raised by the need to resettle people.

The Emission of Effluents, Decree 18/2004 of June 2 lays out the standards for
environmental quality and the emission of effluents. This regulation sets standards for air,
water, soil and noise and is of relevance particularly during the construction phase. In
general, the emission of effluents should occur in such a manner that “there is no change in
the quality of the receiving environment which turns the use of its waters for other aims
impossible” (Article. 16). In Annex IV, the Decree defines the standards for liquid effluents
with regard to colour, smell, pH, temperature, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Suspended
Solids (TDS), Phosphorus and Nitrogen for fresh water bodies.

Decree 10/1988 and Decree 27/1994 of 20 July and Regulation for the Protection of
Archaeological Heritage protects explicitly any archaeological heritage even if not
registered and requires that construction be carried out in such a way that damage to this
heritage is avoided. The Regulation determines that the Ministry of Culture (now: the Ministry
of Education and Culture) has to be informed about any project involving excavation. If
during the execution of the project traces with an archaeological interest are found, the
Ministry has to be informed within 24 hours and the works have to be suspended.


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2.4.     INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE
2.4.1.   Millennium Challenge Corporation
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) recognises that all MCC-funded projects are to
be environmentally sound, legally compliant and should not result in unacceptable
environmental, health, or safety impacts. The MCC have developed three specific guidance
documents in this regard – the Guidelines for Environmental and Social Assessment (MCC,
2006), Gender Policy (MCC, 2006a) and MCC Guidance on the Implementation of
Resettlement Activities (MCC, 2008). These guidelines are briefly described below:

Guidelines for Environmental and Social Assessment
The purpose of this guideline is to establish the procedures and principles for the review of
environmental and social impacts associated with any project funded by the MCC. The
ultimate aim is to ensure that the projects undertaken are environmentally sound, and
compliant with local regulatory requirements.
Under this guideline document, the proposed project is defined as a Category A project as it
has the potential to have a significant adverse environmental and social impact. For all
Category A projects, the MCC requires an EIA to be undertaken in accordance to MCC
guidelines and local regulations.

Gender Policy
The Gender Policy provides guidance in terms of the responsibilities for the integration of
gender into projects funded by the MCC. The ultimate aim of this policy is to address gender
inequality as part of its overall mission of promoting economic growth and poverty reduction,
and to incorporate gender into the development, design, implementation and monitoring of
programs funded by MCC (MCC, 2006)

The primary means of integrating gender into the planning process is to ensure full
consultation with women. This is being promoted during the EIA as part of the PPP and
within the Social Impact Assessment and the Resettlement Policy Framework studies.
Throughout the EIA process, cognisance is being taken of the MCC Gender Policy (2006)
and MCA Plan for the Integration of Gender Issues (2009).

Guidance on the Implementation of Resettlement Activities
This guideline defines the principles and actions of how resettlement and compensation of
project-affected households and people is to be undertaken in any projects funded by the
MCC. This guideline makes specific reference to the World Bank’s Operational Policy
(OP) 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement.

2.4.2.   World Bank
Although the proposed project is not World Bank funded and therefore not subject to World
Bank Standards, the various operational policies and standards are useful in providing
guidance in meeting international best practice.
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World Bank Standards have been adopted in support and supplementary to the MCC
guidelines. Relevant World Bank Safeguard Policies including the following:

   Operational Policy 4.01: Environmental Assessments
   Operational Policy 4.04: Natural Habitats
   Operational Policy 4.36: Forests
   Operational Policy 4.11: Physical Cultural Resources
   Operational Policy 4.12: Involuntary Resettlement
   Operational Policy 4.10: Indigenous Peoples
   Operational Policy 4.37: Safety of Dams

Of particular importance is Operational Policy 4.12 for Involuntary Resettlement, which forms
the key guideline for undertaking and implementing the resettlement process that will be
required as part of the project. This guideline defines the procedures and steps required in
the development of the Resettlement Policy Framework and the principles under which the
resettlement will be undertaken.

2.4.3.   International Finance Corporation
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) functions as the private investment arm of the
World Bank. As with the World Bank, the IFC Performance Standards have been adopted in
support of and supplementary to the MCC guidelines.

The Performance Standards for Social and Environmental Sustainability (IFC, 2006) cover
eight major themes, namely:

   Performance Standard 1: Social & Environmental Assessment and Management System
   Performance Standard 2: Labour and Working Conditions
   Performance Standard 3: Pollution Prevention and Abatement
   Performance Standard 4: Community Health, Safety and Security
   Performance Standard 5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement
   Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation & Natural Resource Management
   Performance Standard 7: Indigenous Peoples
   Performance Standard 8: Cultural Heritage

2.5.     INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND TREATIES
Mozambique is a signatory to a number of international conventions and treaties on
environmental issues (ACIS, 2007) including:

   Resolution 18/81, of 30 December, ratifying the African Convention of Nature and Natural
   Resources Conservation
   Resolution 17/96, of 24 August, ratifying the UN Convention on Biological Biodiversity
   Resolution 45/2003, of 05 November, ratifying the Convention on Humid Areas of
   International Importance which serve as Habitats for Aquatic Birds

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2.6.     ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK
MCA-Mozambique was formed to act on behalf of the Government of Mozambique, and is
primarily is responsible for the provision of financial resources and coordination of the Nacala
Dam project (See Figure 2.1). A critical function of MCA-Mozambique is co-ordination with
the Government of Mozambique in terms of providing the required reports, information and
resources and ensuring appropriate monitoring and oversight.

The National Directorate of Water – Cabinet of Hydraulic Works (DNA-GOH) will function as
the implementing entity during the feasibility and construction phases of the project. The
National Directorate of Water will transfer the operational and post-construction management
responsibility to the Regional Water Authority for the North Central Region which has legal
standing but is not yet operational. Due to the combined responsibilities, the implementing
entity is a co-ordinated effort between the DNA-GOH and the Regional Water Authority for
the North Central Region (hereafter termed the Implementation Entity).




                  Figure 2-1: Nacala Dam Project implementation structure

DNA-GOH will be responsible for ensuring that all activities of the Project are implemented in
a manner consistent with MCC’s Environmental Guidelines and applicable Mozambican
environmental laws and regulations. DNA-GOH will also have responsibility for overseeing
the implementation of Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) for all activities in the
Project and verifying that the Works contractors are implementing relevant mitigation
measures as defined in and required by the EMPs. All activities should be carried out in
close coordination with the MCA Environment and Social Impact Specialist (MCA ESI
Specialist).
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3.        METHODOLOGY
The methods used to undertake this EIA followed the requirements and procedures defined
in the Regulations for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Decree No 45/2004 of
29 September 2004) and outlined in Figure 3.1. The Regulations are seen as commensurate
with international EIA procedures and their requirements are summarised as follows:

3.1.      EIA PRE-EVALUATION APPLICATION (SCREENING)
All activities were screened against Annexures I, II and III as defined in Article 3 of the Act in
order to determine which process is to be undertaken. This included the completion of an
Environmental Application Form (Ficha de Informação Ambiental Preliminar), which was
submitted to the Provincial Directorate of Environmental Affairs (DPCA-Nampula).
Confirmation of the requirement that the project requires a full EIA was obtained from the
DPCA-Nampula (per written communication date 15 October 2009, Ref: 469/GD/DPCA/09)
(See Appendix B).

3.2.      ENVIRONMENTAL PRE-FEASIBILITY AND SCOPING STUDY (EPDA)
An Environmental Pre-feasibility and Scoping Study (Estudo de Pré-Viabilidade Ambiental e
Definição de Ambito - EPDA) is obligatory for all Annexure I activities as defined by Article 10
of the EIA regulations. The key objectives of this study are to:


     •   Determine any fatal flaws or environmental risks associated with the implementation
         of the activity.
     •   Determine the ambit of the EIA process and develop a Terms of Reference (ToR) for
         this phase should no fatal flaws be identified.

An EPDA report was compiled in both English and Portuguese and it included the following
information:


     •   Details of the applicant and EIA team.
     •   Spatial extent of the proposed activity in terms of both direct and indirect influences.
     •   A description of the activity and the different actions to be undertaken, with respect to
         possible alternatives at the planning, construction, exploration and where relevant,
         decommissioning stages.
     •   Identification of key biophysical and social characteristics of the affected environment.
     •   Identification of any potential fatal flaws.
     •   Identification of potential environmental issues or impacts.
     •   Identification of aspects that need to be addressed in the EIA phase.

A ToR for the EIA was included in the EPDA Report. The EPDA report was submitted to the
relevant authority for review and has been approved.



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3.3.    THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS
The Public Participation Process (PPP) undertaken during the EPDA phase involved
consultation with the wider public. The process facilitated the dissemination of information
and identification of indirectly and directly Interested & Affected Parties (I&APs). Specific
objectives of the PPP included providing suitable notification of the proposed project to all
identified I&APs; providing I&APs with an opportunity to obtain information on the proposed
project; providing I&APs with an opportunity to comment and raise concerns about the
proposed project and to suggest possible solutions. This has ensured that I&AP views were
incorporated into the assessment of alternatives, potential impacts as well as mitigation
measures.

The outcomes of the EPDA Phase PPP were described in the EPDA report and appended as
a Public Consultation Report. Similarly, the PPP undertaken during this EIA Phase will be
described in the final EIA and a Public Consultation Report summarising the PPP and its
outcomes will be appended to the final EIA report.

3.4.    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the focus of this report, contains the following
information:


   •   Executive Summary, a non-technical summary with main conclusions and
       recommendations.
   •   Introduction including project background and motivation for project (Chapter 1).
   •   The legal and planning framework for the proposed development and EIA process
       (Chapter 2).
   •   EIA methodology (Chapter 3).
   •   A description and comparative assessment of alternatives (Chapter 4).
   •   A description of the proposed activity (Chapter 5).
   •   The definition of the geographic extent of the project with focus on the biophysical
       and socio-economic attributes that may be influenced by the project (Chapter 6).
   •   Identification and assessment of potential environmental impacts and mitigation
       measures (Chapter 7).
   •   Description of proposed PPP for the EIA Phase of the project (Chapter 8).
   •   Conclusions and Recommendations (Chapter 9).
   •   An EMP for the project that includes aspects such as a monitoring plan, an
       environmental education programme and emergency plans, amongst others
       (Appendix J).

In order to address the issues raised during the EPDA, specialist studies have been
undertaken to provide a detailed and thorough examination of key environmental impacts.
These studies are included as Appendices to this EIA Report.


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3.4.1.   Terrestrial Ecology Assessment
A Terrestrial Ecology Assessment (Appendix C) was undertaken to determine potential
impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna, and to determine changes in local ecosystem function.
Tasks to be undertaken as part of this study include determining a regional and local
baseline description of the possible vegetation types and faunal habitats, including possible
IUCN Red Data listed species; a site visit including data collection; spatially defining
ecologically sensitive zones; identification and assessment of potential ecological impacts;
and providing recommendations and mitigation measures to reduce negative ecological
impacts.

3.4.2.   Ecological Flow Requirements
An Ecological Flow Requirements study (Appendix D) was undertaken to determine the
volumes of water that must be discharged from Nacala Dam to support the local riverine
ecology. This study adopted an EcoStatus Rapid Level III process that determined the study
area and identified sample sites on the Muecula River; undertook field surveys for each
sample site and determined site characteristics; determined the ecological status of the
Muecula River employing relevant EcoStatus modelling; determined habitat integrity for
stream and riparian components using the Index of Habitat Integrity Model; determined
ecological importance and sensitivity of the Muecula River using the EIS Model; determined
and recommended ecological flow volumes using the Hughes DSS Model, assessed the
impacts of ecological flow volumes on the riverine and riparian ecology; and assisted in the
development of management protocols and procedures to ensure appropriate Ecological
Flow Requirement for the operation of the Nacala Dam.

3.4.3.   Hydrology
A Hydrological Study (Appendix E) was undertaken that included undertaking a review of
existing hydrological studies and information; a gap analysis; review the most appropriate
hydrological model to be adopted in this study; establish a detailed water budget; determine
domestic water use demand in consultation with the Nacala Water Supply System project;
plot storage versus yield for each of the different reservoir storage amount to determine the
optimum yield for the dam; provide preliminary operating rules; undertake a Flood Peak
Analysis for the catchment of the Muecula River; and provide recommendations for
emergency spillway design and for dam operation. Appendix E contains a synopsis of the
hydrological study as this study is deemed to be part of the design process rather than a
study in support of the EIA. Hydrological information where relevant to the EIA, has been
incorporated in this EIA report.

3.4.4.   Hydrocensus
A Hydrocensus (Appendix F) to determine the existing status and potential changes to local
groundwater/ hydrogeological regime was undertaken that included both a desktop study and
fieldwork. Tasks undertaken as part of the hydrocensus included a review all previous
studies and designs carried out at the Nacala Dam; an investigation of geological and ground
water conditions and propose methods of treatment; undertake ambient hydrogeological
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assessments; evaluate the groundwater/surface water interactions and recharge and any
potential environmental impact on these from the raised dam; evaluate the surface water
environment downstream ending at the village directly downstream of the dam; identify a
ground and surface water monitoring network; conduct a hydrocensus and evaluate the
possible impacts that the proposed facilities and operations will have on the geology, surface
water, wetlands, and groundwater environments.

3.4.5.    Social Impact Assessment
A Social Impact Assessment (SIA) (Appendix G) was undertaken in conjunction with the
Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) (Appendix H). The Terms of Reference for this study
included:
    1. Determining an appropriate study area that covers all directly affected households
       and communities including those downstream of the dam.
    2. Collecting relevant social data, information and reports and providing a baseline
       analysis at a national, provincial, regional and local social level including, as a
       minimum, the following:
            •    Population demographics
            •    Local community structure including leadership structure.
            •    Households structure
            •    Livelihood strategies
            •    Primary social services in the study area
            •    Cultural, historical and archaeological sites
             • Land types and land uses
   3.    Disaggregation of the above tasks to provide a gender-based analysis.
   4.    Spatially defining the households and machambas that will form part of the RPF.
   5.    Spatially defining dominant land-use types within the study area.
   6.    Providing a detailed analysis of the local socio-economic environment with particular
         focus on households/communities that will be directly affected by the project.
   7.    Providing recommendations and mitigation measures that will reduce the negative
         social impacts and maximise the social benefits of the project, and will be included in
         the Environmental Management Plan.

3.4.6.    Resettlement Policy Framework
A Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) (Appendix H) was developed as a practical action
plan for any form of physical or economic resettlement. The RPF will:

   1. In consultation with the project team, define the potential inundation area and any
      additional activities that will result in resettlement.
   2. Provide early recommendations to avoid or minimise resettlement.
   3. Identify and establish communication with relevant government and community
      authorities that are important in the effective development of the RPF.
   4. Undertake a detailed household census and asset inventory in affected households
      that will cover, at minimum, the following:
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            •    Household family structure
            •    Type and size of primary and secondary dwelling
            •    All physical assets
            •    Livelihood strategies
            •    Natural resource use
            •    Number, size and location of Machambas
            • Crops and trees
   5.    Establish a Resettlement and Compensation Entitlement Matrix and undertake a
         consultation process that includes all affected households, local communities and
         government authorities.
   6.    Provide a compensation and resettlement plan for each affected household, with a
         detailed cost schedule.
   7.    Special attention shall be given to resettlement impacts on women, children and any
         other vulnerable groups.
   8.    Provide a broad action plan for the implementation, monitoring and auditing of the
         resettlement and compensation process.

The RPF was undertaken so as to comply with the World Bank Operational Policy on
Involuntary Resettlement (OP4.12).

3.4.7.    Health Impact Assessment
A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) (Appendix I) was undertaken in conjunction with the SIA.
The aim of this study was to undertake a review of local health regulations; in consultation
with the SIA, develop a profile of households/communities that may be affected by the
project; identify environmental health areas that include health determinants and health
outcomes, as per the accepted HIA methodology under the IFC community health guidelines
and HIA toolkit; incorporate data collection efforts in social impact assessments through
household questionnaires and focus group discussions; review of relevant health
infrastructure and health facility data; meet with relevant stakeholders and conduct key
informant interviews; evaluate the existing baseline health data for the potentially affected
communities in the project area, including the relevant data gaps that may exist; provide
advice as how to address these data gaps so that a clear baseline is established for the next
phase; identify and assess potential health risks to all employees on the project; identify and
assess direct, indirect and cumulative impacts, either positive or negative, that may arise
from the project; and provide recommendations and mitigation measures to avoid or mitigate
negative impacts and enhance anticipated benefits. The last task is to develop a Community
and Occupational Health Action Plan that can be integrated into the EMP.

3.5.      AUTHORITY REVIEW OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT
The final EIA report and all associated Appendices as defined in Article 12 of the EIA
regulations will be presented to the relevant authority (MICOA) for review. Upon completion
of the review, MICOA will provide a final Record of Decision. Based on Article 19 of the EIA
regulations this may be one of the following:
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   •   Positive record of decision
   •   Total rejection of the activity based on the outcomes of the reports and the final
       environmental impact statement
   •   Partial rejection of the activity based on the outcomes of the reports and the final
       environmental impact statement

In providing an environmental licence, the relevant authority may seek to place conditions of
approval that are legally binding on the proponent. Furthermore the authority may request
changes to the project scope or additional EIA studies.




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                            Figure 3-1: The EIA process.




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4.        ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS CONSIDERED
The various options regarding the spillway upgrade, road alignment and associated bridge
options and raising of the embankment that were considered in the preliminary design phase
are outlined in this section.

4.1.      SPILLWAY UPGRADE OPTIONS
As part of the preliminary design, five different spillway types and positions were investigated
taking into account factors influencing the positioning such as:


     •   Construction sequencing
     •   Road alignment including bridge crossings and diversion road
     •   Position of existing infrastructure like the Intake Tower, Water Treatment Works
         (WTW) and the pipeline linking the tower to the WTW
     •   Founding conditions (geotechnical considerations)
     •   Influence on surrounding community (social considerations)
     •   Area available for construction of the required spillway length

Options were investigated on both the left (LHS) and right (RHS) flanks of the embankment
and have been labelled as follows ():


     •   Left Hand Side Option A (LHS A) with a semi-circular overspill crest.
     •   Left Hand Side Option B (LHS B) with a side channel.
     •   Right Hand Side Option A (RHS A) with a side channel.
     •   Right Hand Side Option B (RHS B) with a side channel.
     •   Right Hand Side Option C (RHS C) as an open channel by-wash.

Table 4-1 lists the spillway options that were identified during the preliminary design stage
and summarises the advantages and disadvantages associated with each option.

Table 4-1:       Advantages and Disadvantages of various spillway options

 Spillway Option                        Advantages                                    Disadvantages
LHS Option A              •   Relatively good founding                     •   Interference with the existing
                              conditions with the presence of                  bridge providing access to the
                              slightly weathered hard rock at                  intake tower as well as the
                              a level of approximately                         pipeline linking the tower to
                              72mamsl at a point directly                      the WTW.
                              beneath the road.                            •   A temporary abstraction
                          •   No interference with any                         works will have to be
                              houses.                                          established to prevent a
                                                                               break in supply of water to
                                                                               Nacala.
                                                                           •   Requirement for blasting of
                                                                               rock.
LHS Option B              •   Good founding conditions with                •   Interference with the existing
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Spillway Option                      Advantages                                     Disadvantages
                           the presence of slightly                         bridge providing access to the
                           weathered hard rock at a level                   intake tower, as well as the
                           of approximately 72 mamsl at a                   pipeline linking the tower to
                           point directly beneath the road.                 the WTW.
                       •   No interference with any                     •   A temporary abstraction
                           houses.                                          works will have to be
                       •   Shorter bridge crossing than                     established to prevent a
                           LHS A.                                           break in supply of water to
                                                                            Nacala.
                                                                        •   Requirement for blasting of
                                                                            rock.
LHS Option C           •   Good founding conditions with                •   Long bridge crossing that will
                           the presence of slightly                         increase costs.
                           weathered hard rock at a level               •   Requirement for blasting of
                           of approximately 72 mamsl at a                   rock.
                           point directly beneath the road.
                       •   No interference with any
                           houses.
                       •   No interference with the
                           existing bridge providing
                           access to the intake tower or
                           the pipeline linking the tower to
                           the WTW.
                       •   Construction in both wet and
                           dry season.
RHS Option C           •    Very little concrete lining                 •    A large 110m wide and 14m
                            required throughout the                          deep cut is required at the
                            structure due to the flow being                  point where the road crosses
                            subcritical.                                     the spillway channel. This will
                       •    It is favourable from a cost                     effectively cut the existing
                            perspective.                                     community in half and is
                                                                             likely to interfere with an
                                                                             existing mosque and a shop.
                                                                             Pedestrian bridges will also
                                                                             have to be considered to
                                                                             allow the people to move
                                                                             between the different areas
                                                                             of the community. The
                                                                             channel will also prevent
                                                                             members of the community
                                                                             obtaining access to certain
                                                                             crops currently planted on the
                                                                             banks of the impoundment.
                                                                        •    High likelihood of erosion and
                                                                             scour in the area between the
                                                                             discharge channel and the
                                                                             Muecula River.
RHS Option B           •    Narrower channel and smaller                •    Founding conditions on
                            cut than RHS C.                                  moderately weathered gneiss
                                                                             rock.
                                                                        •    Interference with several
                                                                             houses.
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After analysing the various spillway alignments it was proposed that LHS A (semi-circular
overspill crest) and RHS B (side channel spillway) be the preferred options. This provided a
preferred option on either side of the embankment. These two options were then compared
from a cost perspective and LHS A was significantly less expensive ($2.5 million) due to the
smaller amount of concrete required in the structure.

To optimise the allowance for the surcharge and the spillway length two freeboard scenarios
were investigated, as required in the SANCOLD guidelines:


   •   Increased FSL + height of flow over new spillway under SEF flood flow conditions +
       no freeboard. This equals 3.4m.
   •   Increased FSL + height of flow over spillway under RDF conditions + freeboard for
       wave run up and setup. This equals 1.15m + 2.1m = 3.25m.

After reviewing these scenarios it was decided that a spillway of crest level 78.5mamsl, a
length of 120m and a spillway discharge coefficient of 2.1 would enable a total Non-Overspill
Crest (NOC) raising of 4m, i.e. from 78mamsl to 82mamsl. This provides a total freeboard
allowance of 3.5m, which is deemed to be acceptable by the engineers.




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                                   Figure 4-1:        Spillway options considered during preliminary design stage

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4.2.    ROAD ALIGNMENT
The raising of the dam embankment required the abandoning of the existing road works and
the design of a new road alignment. The road alignment options were considered in
conjunction with aspects such as spillway position; bridge positions and span lengths;
embankment raising method; construction sequencing; and impacts on the environment and
the local community. Three alternative road alignment options were investigated, i.e.:

   1. Maintain the same horizontal alignment and construct a new pavement on top of the
      newly repaired and raised dam,
   2. Offset the alignment slightly and combine the construction of the new road with the
      necessary widening of the existing embankment.
   3. Select a new alignment, downstream of the dam.

All of these options require a temporary detour, downstream of the dam, and crossing the
existing river, in order to accommodate public traffic.

Option 1 was discarded based on the cost of building a temporary and permanent road and
rehabilitation of a temporary access road; the difficulty of sequencing construction; the cost
of a long road bridge across the dam spillway crest; the problem of overpassing the
proposed outlet works near the existing radial gates; the long-term risk posed by ever-
increasing traffic loading on the dam crest, and the pollution risk of the Nacala Water supply
source in the event of an accident involving toxic substances.

Option 2 having the road alignment at the base of the new dam embankment was identified
as the most preferable option. Construction of this option has advantages over Option 1 in
that the construction activities can be kept further away from the main embankment works,
which will reduce traffic management and construction conflicts between dam and road
works. This will greatly reduce construction sequencing problems. The bridging of the
channel below the existing spillway channel could in this option be constructed using
embankment and culverts rather than a more expensive bridge structure. The bridge
structure required over the left flank spillway discharge channel would be shorter and less
expensive than for Option A.

Option 3 with the road passing downstream of the dam was ruled out due to the long
distance required and hence the high cost that would be incurred in constructing this option.

4.3.    EMBANKMENT RAISING OPTIONS
Three embankment raising options were investigated for the raising of the dam to achieve an
increase in full supply level in the reservoir of 2m:

   1. Raising with the road along the downstream face of the embankment.



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   2. Raising with the road separate from and at the toe of the embankment and placement
      of additional material on the downstream slope.
   3. Raising by steepening the upstream and downstream faces at higher levels of
      embankment.

Option 1 was deemed to be more difficult than the others due to the technicalities involved
with having to ensure the correct drainage systems are in place for both the road and the
dam embankment. The construction sequencing would also be more difficult because the
existing road would need to be kept open to traffic until the new road was complete. This
would have to involve a lot of construction work happening very close to the existing road
which is often used by large trucks. This was deemed to be a disadvantage of this raising
option.

The preferred option is to move the existing National Road N12 off the embankment crest
and to move it onto a new embankment downstream of the dam wall (Option 2). By removing
the national road from the dam crest the crest width can then be reduced from 11m to 6m.
The dam embankment can then be raised by 4m, by increasing the side slopes on both the
up and downstream face to a 1: 2 slope. The core will also be raised to within 1m of the crest
level. The downstream face will be widened by the addition of a gravel aggregate layer, and
by the inclusion of a mid slope berm. Internal sand filters will be installed adjacent to the
raised core on the downstream face, which will connect into a gravel drain that will link into a
surface drain running along the berm. A new rock toe will be incorporated into the
downstream face, which will connect into seepage detection weirs at specified intervals.

4.4.     THE NO-GO PROJECT OPTION
Should Nacala Dam not be rehabilitated, the risk posed by the dam is a concern both in
terms of the structural stability of the dam and community safety. Nacala City and Nacala
Velha would continue to experience potable water shortages and this would become more
problematic with time.




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5.       PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The key components of Nacala Dam are outlined followed by a description of the proposed
rehabilitation and raising of Nacala Dam.

5.1.     NACALA DAM
The Nacala Dam is located on the Muecula River approximately 30 kilometres south west of
Nacala City and approximately 20km north east of Monapo in northern Mozambique (Figure
5-1). It is the primary water source for the city of Nacala, which is situated approximately
200km north east of Nampula City. This underlies the importance of the dam for the future
development of Nacala Town and its port. The coordinates for the Dam are 14º43’11.03’’
South and 40º31’43.28’’ East (.

The Nacala Dam was designed and constructed from 1968 to 1975. The dam was
overtopped for 10 consecutive hours during the 1982 floods, due to the malfunctioning of the
spillway gates. This resulted in the severe erosion of the roadway and downstream face, in
particular an area adjacent to and extending some 100m from the spillways towards the right
flank. Repairs were undertaken 1983 and involved the reinstatement of the eroded
embankment with soil, stone pitching and cement mortar. Further repairs were undertaken in
1995 and subsequently in 2002. Technical Reviews undertaken by the MCA-Mozambique
(Baker, 2006) concluded that the Nacala Dam is not safe at present and needs to be
rehabilitated.

5.2.     KEY COMPONENTS OF NACALA DAM
An earth-embankment dam is made up of a number of key components that are shown in
Figure 5.3 and are briefly described in this section.

5.2.1.   Embankment
The main embankment dam is a conventional earthfill dam of low to moderate height
(17.4m). It is considered a medium category dam that is approximately 300m in length.
Earthfill dams are made of compacted earth with distinct zones of differing materials/soils. In
the case of Nacala Dam, this includes zones of clayey-sands and sand-clay mixtures that
were most likely sourced locally. The crest is approximately 11m wide with an upstream side
slope of 1:2.4 and a downstream side slope of 1:2.7. The upstream face is protected by a
layer of hand placed riprap of large rocks (Figure 5-4). Apart from minor irregularities and
some weed growth it appeared to be in good condition.

The downstream slope is covered by grouted stone pitching that was placed as protection
following the overtopping by flood water in 1983 (Figure 5-4). It should be removed when a
new substantial spillway is constructed. Overall, this section of the dam appears to be in a
reasonable and safe condition.



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                   Figure 5-1:        Locality plan of Nacala Dam
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          Figure 5-2:        Aerial view of Nacala Dam and Surrounds


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Figure 5-3:      Different components associated with Nacala Dam

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           Figure 5-4:         Upstream face of Nacala Dam




                 Figure 5-5:        Nacala Dam Reservoir

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The section of the embankment on the left hand side of the Dam wall, adjacent to the
spillway, is of more concern. This is the area that was overtopped and eroded during the
flood of 1982, and subsequently
the     upper      portion     was
reconstructed.       Seepage      is
prevalent      here,    particularly
adjacent      to the concrete
sidewall of the spillway. During
the geotechnical investigation,
the stone pitching was removed
from the leak area and this
revealed a large void centred on
two pipes traversing through the
embankment. Remodelling of
this part of the embankment will
be necessary, whether or not
the dam is raised.

5.2.2.   Reservoir
The Reservoir is the main body of water and extends for approximately 3km from the dam
wall (Figure 5-2 and Figure 5-5). It is approximately 400m at its widest point. The volume of
water stored in the reservoir varies based on management practices and rainfall. The
maximum or gross storage capacity is estimated at 4.4 million m3 (mcm).

5.2.3.   Spillways
Currently Nacala Dam does not have outlets for the release of water downstream, and water
overflows (flooding) are managed by spillways located on the eastern (left) flank of the
embankment. Spillways provide for the controlled release of water during flood periods thus
preventing water from overtopping and damaging the dam. It functions as a critical
mechanism in terms of flood control.

During the preliminary feasibility study, the spillway gates were in the closed position, but a
large flow of water (± 200ℓ/sec) was escaping through the sill seal and corroded parts of the
gate leaf of the right hand side gate. The raising mechanism could not be operated by the
electric motors, and the Consultant was informed that it takes two men an hour to raise each
gate manually. There were replacement stop logs lying alongside the spillway structure, but
the lifting gantry was not in working order. The spillway is understood to be inadequate for
the passing of large floods. The lack of maintenance and problems with the existing gates
suggests that an ungated spillway would be a preferred solution.




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     Figure 5-6:      Downstream Face of Nacala Dam with protective stone grouting

5.2.4.   N12 National Highway
The Nampula to Nacala Road (N12) is 191.35km in length and links Nampula, the capital city
of Nampula Province with the deep-sea port of Nacala. The N12 National Highway runs
along the embankment for 304m with a 9m wide bitumen surfaced road, and a 1m wide by
0.3m thick concrete walkway on each side. The road provides for two way traffic along the
embankment (Figure 5-7).




                            Figure 5-7:        Dam Crest and N12 Highway

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5.3.       RATIONALE FOR THE UPGRADE & REHABILITATION OF NACALA DAM
The GOM, via the National Directorate of Water and MCA-Mozambique, propose to
rehabilitate and raise Nacala Dam. The aim is to increase the water supply capacity of
Nacala Dam in order to meet increasing demand of Nacala City and to supply Nacala Velha
with water, while ensuring that the dam is structurally safe.

5.3.1.     Improving Water Supply
The Nacala Dam is the principal water source for Nacala City, and is thus of strategic
importance. During dry years, it falls empty and fails to secure supply. Nacala Dam was
almost empty for three years and only filled again after the rains in January 2006. Vegetation
growth occurred within the basin and most of the vegetation rotted impacting on the water
quality within Nacala Dam. Consumers complained about turbidity and smell (Michael Baker
Jr., 2006).

A baseline analysis was undertaken in 2006 to determine the water supply capacity of
Nacala Dam and its ability to meet the current and future water demand of Nacala City. The
City of Nacala had a total estimated population of 282,498 in 2005, which is estimated to
grow at 3.3% per annum. Estimates (Michael Baker Jr., 2006) based on input from the local
water service providers indicated that only 15.7% of the total population receive water from
formal water sources.

In the upgrade of Nacala Dam, the GOM has not only sought to increase water supply
capacity but to increase the coverage of households that will receive water and this will
include households in Nacala Velha. The overall program goal is to increase water supply to
50% of the population of Nacala City by 2015 and by 75% in 2035. Water demand
projections (Michael Baker Jr., 2006) indicate a water demand of 5,490m3/day for 2005
increasing to 23,092m3/day in 2015 to meet the programme goal of providing water to 50% of
Nacala City.

At present Nacala Dam is kept at 4m below its full supply level (74.5masl), however at full
supply level it provides a total yield of 3.2mcm/a (Michael Baker Jr., 2006). Estimates
indicate that based on population growth the supply capacity of the dam would be reached in
2009. The raising of Nacala Dam by 2m will increase the supply capacity to 4.99mcm/a
(Michael Baker Jr., 2006), thus providing additional water supply capacity to 2015. Thereafter
new sources of water will need to be explored.

5.3.2.     Improvement of Dam Safety
Prefeasibility reports (Baker, 2006) indicate that the dam is operated sub-optimally and
concluded that Nacala Dam is a safety risk due the following:


       •   The embankment was repaired after being overtopped with permeable gravel zones
           increasing the risks of piping failure.

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       •   Seepage through the embankment occurs when the water level rises to within 4m of
           the dam crest.
       •   No internal drainage system has been provided which is of concern as the soils were
           found to be potentially dispersive.
       •   The existing spillways are in a state of disrepair and capacity is inadequate.
       •   The radial gates are in a state of disrepair.

The primary aim of the rehabilitation of Nacala Dam is to ensure the long term stability and
safety of the dam.

5.4.       PROJECT ACTIVITIES
5.4.1.     Spillway Upgrade
The existing spillway comprises two radial gates, each 6.0m wide x 5.5m high, having a total
combined discharge capacity when fully open of approximately 300m³/s. This is insufficient to
deal with the routed Recommended Design Flood (RDF) figure of 744m³/s and the Safety
Evaluation Flood (SEF) of 1 530m³/s. The existing spillway is in a poor state of disrepair and
has resulted in overtopping in the past and is considered a safety risk.

The options considered and the analyses that were undertaken as part of the design report
tied together road, bridge crossing and water levels under different conditions to optimise
spillway position and size. Due to topographical constraints the embankment can only be
raised to a maximum non-overspill crest height of 82mamsl. To achieve the required 2m
increase in Full Supply Level (FSL) a maximum freeboard allowance of 3.5m is available.
Using this maximum freeboard allowance, a 120m long spillway is required to safely
discharge the SEF without overtopping the crest of the dam, which supersedes the RDF as
being the controlling factor in spillway sizing.

The proposed spillway upgrade would involve the increase in capacity from 300m3/sec to
734m3/sec. The upgraded spillways would have a free overflow crest that does not need to
be operated by staff. Spilling will occur automatically when the water level exceeds the
spillway crest. The existing malfunctioning spillways will be discontinued and replaced with a
concrete bulkhead. Outlet pipes and valves will be introduced to be able to release the
required ecological flow requirements.

The preferred spillway option, LHS A is a ‘bath tub’ type spillway positioned approximately
20m from the existing spillway channel with the centre of the bath tub positioned on the
northern edge of the N12 (Figure 5-8). The diameter of the semi-circular overspill crest is
76m providing the required 120m overspill length. A spillway chute narrowing from the 76m
diameter down to 30m at the outlet will discharge the water into an existing drainage line
approximately 50m from the Muecula River.




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Construction of a coffer dam will be required upstream of the proposed position of this
spillway. It is possible for the concrete floor/base of the bath tub structure to be founded on
solid rock which will prevent it from lifting as a result of water pressure underneath the
structure. Advantages of this option are as follows:


   •   Relatively good founding conditions with the presence of slightly weathered hard rock
       at a level of approximately 72mamsl at a point directly beneath the road.
   •   No interference with any houses.

Disadvantages of this option are as follows:
   •    Interference with the existing bridge providing access to the intake tower as well as
       the pipeline linking the tower to the WTW. A temporary abstraction works will have to
       be established to prevent a break in supply of water to Nacala.
   •   Requirement for blasting of rock.

As part of the preliminary design, a tailwater analysis was undertaken using the HEC-RAS
hydraulic model. The routed RDF figure of 734m3/s was modelled to determine what affect
the flood waters would have on the downstream topography once it had left the spillway.
Peak flows were hydraulically simulated on the downstream topographical contours provided
by the LIDAR Survey. This determined the maximum water levels of the discharging flood
around the toe of the dam embankment. This analysis included taking into account the
effects of the proposed new road embankment below the toe of the raised dam embankment.
In addition the analysis provided an indication of what houses, if any, needed to be relocated.
Figure 5-5 shows the results of the tailwater analysis for Spillway LHS A. This figure also
shows the footprint of the raised dam embankment and the proposed road embankment.




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                                     Figure 5-8:         Layout of preferred Spillway Option ‘Left Hand Side A’

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                                       Figure 5-9:        Tailwater Inundation area for LHS Spillway Option A

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5.4.2.   Embankment Raising
Various options of raising the existing embankment were analysed in conjunction with
different road alignments and spillway positions (Section 4.1.1). The TOR for the project
stipulated that a 2m raising of the FSL was required in order to increase the level of supply to
Nacala Town. This resulted in a new FSL of 78.5mamsl. The new freeboard required for the
new embankment was 3.5m. The nett result was that the embankment needed to raised by
4m, resulting in a new NOC of 82mamsl (Section 4.1.1). The survey information obtained
indicated that the topography was suitable for a raising to this level. The new embankment
would need to extended on the left flank up to the WTW position. The preferred option
identified was to raise the embankment by steepening the embankment slopes in the upper
parts to a slope of 1:2. This would reduce the materials required for construction and provide
a simpler and cheaper solution.

5.4.3.   Road Deviation
As the Nacala Dam rehabilitation project involves the raising of the dam embankment, it will
be necessary to abandon the existing road works. All the alternative road options (Section
4.1.2) including the preferred option require a temporary detour, downstream of the dam, and
crossing the existing river, in order to accommodate public traffic.

The preferred road alignment option that is recommended for detailed design is Option 2 with
the road just downstream of the toe of the raised embankment (Figure 5-10). The overall
length of this new section would be approximately 1 288m and it is currently proposed to
have a pavement thickness of 350mm, i.e. 2 x 175mm layers of granular base, with a running
surface the same as the existing road.

It is proposed that the road, bridge and culverts will be constructed during the dry season at
the beginning of the contract. The route to be followed is immediately downstream of the
existing dam wall and the vertical alignment will be optimised so as to reduce the amount of
fill required and thus keep the construction period as short as possible. It is envisaged that
the road deviation and associated drainage works will be completed within the first six
months of the contract, thus allowing traffic to be diverted off of the existing dam wall to
facilitate construction work on the dam wall.




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                                                  Figure 5-10: Preferred Road Diversion – Option 2

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5.4.4.   Borrow Pits
A borrow pit survey undertaken for the Nacala Dam project included investigating locations
within the immediate vicinity of the Nacala Dam embankment and at a number of potential
borrow locations further away from the present dam site location (Figure 5-11). These sites
are between approximately 3km to approximately 19km away from the site along the present
N12 route and along a prominent granite gneiss ridge which is situated to the north and north
east of the Nacala Dam and the N12 route.

The borrow materials survey indicates that a plentiful supply of consistently good quality
naturally occurring clays (for the dam embankment clay core construction), sands and
gravels occur in relatively close vicinity to the site. These sands are suitable for use as lower
selected subgrade and subgrade fill layerworks for the proposed road construction and for
the proposed dam embankment shoulder material construction.

This material was investigated at four “locally” occurring locations namely to the west, in the
immediate western vicinity of the dam embankment and to the east of Nacala Dam along the
N12 route. The distance to the west was approximately 3km (N12 Ch 155.6km) and the
distance to the east was approximately 9km (N12 Ch 169.1km) east of the site along the N12
route.

The closest commercial quarry to the Nacala Dam project site has been identified as the
Condor Lda commercial rock quarry. The Condor Quarry is located to the north of the
national Route N12 at chainage km 89.1, which is on the eastern side of the town of Namialo
and approximately 60km from the site. The quarry’s geographical co-ordinates are 14° 53’
45.91” S, 39° 59’ 25.93” E. The quarry which is a s yenite rock quarry can, at the time of
reporting, supply “G2” and “G1” crushed stone base course material and the full range of
concrete stone aggregate and concrete sand materials. The management at the quarry
would not allow bulk sampling of the materials at the time of the visit to the quarry site. Two
other existing, but inoperative, rock quarries were identified closer to the Nacala Dam project
site.




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                Figure 5-11: Locality of identified borrow pits

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6.                                          BASELINE ENVIRONMENT
This chapter describes the current environmental situation in the proposed location including
biophysical, economic and social information.

6.1.                                        CLIMATE
Rainfall data for the catchment were calculated using the combined characteristics of the
three patched rainfall data sets of the gauges Itoculo (MCA), Lumbo and Sanhute Rio and
covers a 50-year period from 1956 to 2005 (hydrological years) and are summarised in Table
6-1. These data were used to determine rainfall-runoff and yield modelling processes.

Table 6-1:                                         Characteristics of rainfall in the Nacala Dam catchment

 Period of record (hydrological years)                                             Length                           Annual statistic
                                                                                  of record
                                    Start                          End             (years)          MAP (mm)           SD (mm)                 CV

                                    1956                           2005               50                913.9              165.5           18.1 %


The mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the catchment is estimated to be 913.9mm (Table
6-1). The average monthly distribution of rainfall in the Nacala Dam catchment (Figure 6-1)
indicates that the rainy season starts in December and ends in April.

                                  250




                                  200
  Monthly average rainfall (mm)




                                  150




                                  100




                                   50




                                   0
                                        1           2          3          4      5         6        7           8      9           10     11        12

                                                                                 Month No. (starting in October)


                                            Figure 6-1:            Average monthly rainfall in the Nacala Dam Catchment

Evaporation data for the Nacala Dam Catchment are summarised in Table 6-2 and represent
a mean annual evaporation (MAE) of 1 497mm, based on the Symon’s pan (S-pan)
standard. Evaporation data were used for the estimation of catchment evapo-transpiration as



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part of the rainfall-runoff modelling process, as well as for the modelling of evaporation
losses from the surface area of Nacala Dam in the yield analysis.

Table 6-2:       S-pan evaporation data for the Nacala Dam catchment(1)

                       Average S-pan evaporation for indicated month (mm)                                     Total
  Oct    Nov       Dec      Jan      Feb      Mar      Apr      May      Jun       Jul     Aug      Sep      (MAE)

  157     150      160      156      127      127      104       98       81       91      111       135     1 497

Note:   (1) From Baker (2006).

6.2.     GEOLOGY
Nacala Dam is underlain by geology of the Nampula Group of the Nampula Supergroup. The
Nampula Group comprises mostly of granulitic and migmatitic gneisses, migmatites and their
weathered derivatives (Baker, 2006). Gneiss is a common type of metamorphic rock formed
from the local Nampula Supergroup. Structurally, the local Gneiss is a slightly weathered,
coarse grained, hard rock with tight medium and widely spaced joints. The foundations of the
dam overlie residual gneiss overlying Rapala Gneiss bedrock of the Nampula Metamorphic
Complex. The bedrock was described as being competent on the right flank of the original
river channel and fractured on the left flank.

6.3.     SOILS
Three soil profiles were undertaken in selected areas of the catchment (Jeffares & Green,
2010).




SP 1 – Northern Area of Catchment                      SP 2 – Central Area of Catchment




Soil Profile 3 – South Western Area of Catchment

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The following is a brief summary of the findings of the soil profiling:
   •     SP1 – Namib 1100 Nortier
         This soil consists of a very shallow Orthic A-horizon overlying a deep Regic Sand B-
         Horizon (> 500 mm). The Regic Sand Horizon appears to be of Aeolian origins. It is
         pale yellowish brown with quartz common throughout the horizon. It had no structure
         and exhibited no cross-bedding.
   •     SP2 – Clovelly 1100 Twyfelaar
         This soil consists of a shallow Orthic A-horizon overlying a deep Yellow-Brown
         Apedal B-Horizon. The B-Horizon was light brown in colour. The Yellow-Brown
         Apedal B-Horizon was found to be dystrophic and non-luvic. The soil appeared to
         have no structure, and was friable and apedal in nature.
   •     SP3 – Hutton 1100 Lillieburn
         This soil consists of a shallow Orthic A-horizon overlying a deep Red Apedal B-
         Horizon. The B-Horizon did not exhibit deep red colouration, but had sufficient
         chroma to categorise it as red Apedal subsoil. The Red Apedal B-Horizon was found
         to be dystrophic and non-luvic. The soil appeared to have some structure, but when
         studied more closely was found to be friable and apedal in nature.

6.4.      TOPOGRAPHY AND LANDFORM
The local topography may be characterised as Coastal Lowland, i.e., a landscape that is very
flat with gentle undulating hills providing some change in local topography. The dam itself is
sited at between 60 and 90mamsl.

6.5.      VEGETATION
6.5.1.    General Overview
An ecological study that includes a vegetation specialist study is included as Appendix C.
The vegetation that will be inundated by the raising of the wall of the Nacala Dam was
assessed by desktop analysis of the area’s current global and regional characterisation. This
was followed up with an extensive site visit during which field sampling methods were
undertaken to measure the plant community assemblages, identify plant species and
communities and land-cover. The sampling methods used, included:


   •     A search and survey of various habitat types looking for plants of conservation
         importance.
   •     Using sample plots to record species composition (10mx10m plots).
   •     Using sample plots to verify remote sensing segmentation signatures to train
         classification algorithms.

According to the World Wildlife Fund’s Conservation Science Program (Olsen et al. 2001) the
Nacala Dam study area occurs within the larger Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest
mosaic Terrestrial Ecoregion. This Ecoregion is very large and extends from southern
Tanzania to Inhambane in Mozambique. The Ecoregion is characterised by a high density of


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endemic species in the northern portion (southern Tanzania) followed by an almost complete
lack of data in the central portion (northern and central Mozambique).

A relatively dated classification of the study area according to work published by Wild and
Fernandes (1968) for the Flora Zambesiaca, the Nacala Dam area falls within Unit 33:
Deciduous Woodland and Thicket – Dry Deciduous Miombo Savanna Woodland vegetation
type. The presence of this vegetation type, and finer-scale communities, was explored during
the site visit undertaken in November 2009. The study area is illustrated in Figure 6-2.




    Figure 6-2:      Study area for the Nacala Dam Terrestrial Ecological Assessment
6.5.2.   Plant species/communities occurring on site
A total of 194 plant species were recorded for the study area during the site visit. This
included 25 plant species that are either exotic or cultivated, and 9 plants that are of
conservation importance. A list of the 194 plant species and their status is appended to the
Terrestrial Ecological Specialist Study (Appendix C).

The natural vegetation around the Nacala Dam can be described as a degraded form of dry
deciduous woodland and thicket mosaic. Logging and other disturbances mainly associated
with agriculture practices has obscured the natural vegetation boundaries which created
difficulties in the identification of definite communities within this Dry Deciduous Woodland
and Thicket Mosaic. No pristine areas (areas that show no signs of logging) were observed.
Five vegetation communities were identified, i.e.:

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Millettia Dry Thicket/Forest
This community is characterised by Millettia stuhlmannii, Millettia bussei, Hugonia
busseana, polysphaeria lanceolata, Adansonia digitata, Combertum andradae,
Micklethowaitia carvalhoi, Ochna atropurpurea, Strychnos potatorum and
Hymenocardia ulmoides. The height of the community is about 8-12m tall, but
judging from the occasional emergents still standing, it was once much taller.
Saplings of the popular timber tree Milicia excelsa were found in this community.

Diplorhynchus Savanna / Woodland
This community was characterised by Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Holarrhena
pubescens, Strychnos gerrardii, Diospyros loureiriana, Dalbergia melanoxylon,
Ormocarpum kirkii, Bauhinia petersiana, Synaptolepis oliverana, Boscia angustifolia
and Combretum adenogonium. This is a more open community with limited timber
trees such as Dalbergia melanoxylon.

Albizia Savanna / Woodland
This community is characterised by Albizia brevifolia, Senna sanguinea,
Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. forbesii, Lantana camara*, Barleria kirkii, Senna
petersiana, Hyptis suaveolens*, Salacia elegans, Hyperthelia dissoluta and Ehretia
amoena. This community is very degraded and is located closest to the residential
areas. The invasive Lantana camara* and very invasive Hyptis suaveolens* occur in
this community.

Cultivated Crop Fields
This community is characterised by cultivated crops such as Zea mays* (Maize),
Musa acuminate* (Banana), Saccharum* sp. (Sugar Cane), Solanum lycopersicum*
(Tomato), Hibiscus sabdariffa* and Vigna unguiculata* (Cowpea). Other weedy
species characteristic of this community are Grangea maderaspatana, Sorghum
bicolour subsp. arundinaceum, Nidorella auriculata, Persicaria senegalensis, Ricinus
communis*, Ziziphus mauritiana, Heliotropium ovalifolium and Coldenia procumbens.
The occasional and persisting Flagellaria guineensis was found in this community,
highlighting the fact that parts of this community may once have been forest. This
community was found all along the dam’s edge and in drainage lines.

Dry Cashew / Cassava Lands
This community was generally made up of Cashew lands found away from the
water’s edge. This community was characterised by the crops such as Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew), Manihot esculenta (Cassava), Mangifera indica (Mango) and
Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea). Other characteristic weedy and indigenous species
include Trichodesma zeylanica, Vernonia poskeana, Hyparrhenia rufa, Abutilon sp.,
Xylotheca tettensis, Ritchiea pygmaea and Pennisetum polystachion.

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6.5.3.    Land-cover
The following land-cover classes were recognised in field and used to classify and determine
the percentage cover of the study area (Table 6-3):


   •     Water;
   •     Transformed – roads, buildings, bare soil;
   •     Degraded, grassland or once woodland;
   •     Shrubland, clear-felled woodland; and
   •     Woodland.

The percentage land-cover is expressed as a portion of a proposed 80m footprint area of the
inundated area (approximately 170ha) as well as a portion of the broader Nacala Dam study
area (approximately 531ha). The image of the land-cover is included in the Terrestrial
Ecological Specialist Study (Appendix C).

Table 6-3:        Land cover classes in study area
                  Broader Nacala dam study                          Nacala Dam 80m footprint
                  area (approximately 531ha)                        (approximately 170ha)
LAND-                                 PERCENTAGE                                       PERCENTAGE
                   SIZE (ha)                                         SIZE (ha)
COVER                                     (%)                                              (%)
Water                 83.82                  15.8                       83.8                  49.3
Transformed           54.51                  10.3                        4.5                   2.7
Degraded             128.15                  24.1                       35.5                  20.0
Shrubland            137.29                  25.8                       22.7                  13.3
Woodland             127.42                  24.0                       23.3                  13.7
TOTAL                531.19                  100.0                      169.8                100.0

6.6.      TERRESTRIAL FAUNA
6.6.1.    General overview
The faunal species occurring on or within the area to be inundated by the raising of the
Nacala Dam wall was assessed, firstly by gathering desktop information with regards to any
possible species that might occur and secondly by assessing the species present on the site
during a site visit. The site visit investigation made use of field observations (scats, tracks,
tree scrapings and breeding / shelter sights), trapping of rodents, interviewing the local
residents (through an interpreter) and the analysis of scats of predator species (owl, jackal,
domestic dog) for animal remains used in species identification. The specialist terrestrial
ecological study that includes faunal aspects is included as Appendix C.

6.6.2.    Mammals
The rodent diversity recorded on the study area was low. In total, five species were
recorded, namely Tatera leugogaster, Mastomys coucha, Mastomys natalensis, Otomys

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angoniensis and Lemniscomys rosalia. However, the density was overwhelmingly in favour
of the primary species, Tetra leucogaster (as estimated by observation, jaw-bones and
relative trapping success). The dominance of a single species is indicative of a highly
disturbed area in its primary phase of succession. Elephant shrews were seen on site and
were subsequently captured and identified as the Four-toed Sengi Shrew (Petradromus
tetradactylus). This shrew is locally threatened in some areas of its distribution as a result of
subsistence hunting and habitat loss. The species however, has a global status of Least
Concern according to the IUCN Red-Data List.

Vervet Monkeys are a common species throughout southern Africa and were sighted on a
number of occasions during the survey period. In addition, local information gathered from
members of the surrounding communities’ states that the Syke’s or Samango Monkey
(Cercopithecus albogularis) is often seen in the area but seldom proceeds past the dam wall.
Both species are highly mobile and arboreal and will not be affected by the proposed
increase in the inundation zone of the dam. Recorded carnivorous species centred on
circumstantial evidence from the local communities rather than direct observations is
possibly present on in the study area. In this regard a single Slender Mongoose was sighted
and a dead specimen of a Large-spotted Genet was collected.

6.6.3.   Avifauna
A total of 81 bird species were detected within the study area. A complete bird list is
included as an addendum to Appendix C. The majority of the species detected can be
categorised as “generalists”, which can persist in degraded habitats such as those found
within the study area. This can be determined by the relatively high number of species that
are seed eaters. A relatively low number of raptors were encountered during the survey.

6.6.4.   Herpetofauna
Five herpetofaunal species of importance were identified as “target species” during the
desktop survey of the study area, they are: Python sebae (Southern African Python),
Crocodylus nilotica (Nile Crocodile), Xenocalamus transvaalensis (Transvaal Quill-Snout
Snake), Kinyxs natalensis (Natal Hinge-back Tortoise) and Cycloderma frenatum (Zambezi-
flap shell turtle). Ten species of reptile were directly observed from the study area although
none of the target species from the desktop survey were found during the sampling period.
However, local information gathered represents that two of the listed target species, Python
sebae and Crocodylus nilotica periodically occur in and around the Nacala Dam area.

Only two amphibian species, namely Amietophrymus maculates (Flat Backed Toad) and
Ptycaden oxyrhyncus (Sharp-nosed Grass Frog) were recorded despite strong sampling
efforts. A full explanation of these sampling efforts is described in the Specialist Terrestrial
Ecological Specialist Study (Appendix C). The lack of amphibians is ascribed to the extreme
human pressures in and around the Nacala Dam site and the timing of the sampling.
Amphibian diversity is an excellent environmental indicator of a Wetland system, the lack of


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diversity in the study area therefore reflects the extreme human pressures through
subsistence farming, subsistence hunting and pollution on the Nacala Dam. As a result of
the aforementioned subsistence agriculture, there is very little pristine riparian vegetation
around the study area. Amphibian species therefore have no breeding habitat or any
protection against predators, which resulted in the small numbers collected.

6.7.     AQUATIC FAUNA

6.7.1.   General Overview
A component of the Ecological Flow Requirement Study (Appendix D) included the
assessment of the aquatic fauna that occur in the Muecula River.

6.7.2.   Fish
The following fish species were sampled during the Ecological Water Requirement
Determination Study, Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique Tilapia), Tilapia rendalli
(Redbreast Tilapia), Pseudocrenilarbrus philander (Southern Mouthbrooder), Clarias
gariepinus (Catfish), Anguilla mossambicca (Longfin Eel), Barbus viviparous (Bowstripe
Barb), Barbus radiates (Beira Bard) and Barbus trimaculatus (Threespot Barb). None of
these sampled fish species can be classified as endemic, protected or endangered. It is
expected that these fish numbers will be affected drastically due to the human impact of
overfishing in the Nacala Dam. The full results of this survey are included in Annexure 3 of
the EFR specialist study included as Appendix D.

6.7.3.   Aquatic invertebrates
The following invertebrate taxa were sampled during the Ecological Water Requirement
Determination Study, Oligochaeta, Potamonautidae, Baetidae, Caenidae, Leptophebiidae,
Coenagrioniidae, Gerridae, Notonectidae, Veliidae, Ecnomidae, Dysticidae, Gyrinidae,
Chironomidae and Simuliidae. The diversity and abundance in the sampled taxa is relatively
low which is indicative of a total river system that is under severe ecological pressure. The
presence of Benthic Diatom growth on rocks and other hard surfaces indicate limited grazing
by macro-invertebrates which is consistent with the lack of sampling of these species. The
full results of this survey are included in Annexure 3 of the EFR Determination Study
attached in Appendix D.

6.8.     HYDROLOGY
Nacala Dam is fed by the Muecula River Catchment, which is estimated to cover
approximately 135.8km2. The mean annual runoff of the catchment into Nacala dam is
estimated at 11.66mcm/a (Jeffares & Green, 2010). The Nacala Dam catchment area (with
its outlet at the Nacala Dam Wall) is bordered by the N12 road in the south and a well
developed District Road in the north. A small sand track runs down the eastern boundary of
the catchment. Access into the catchment is limited to a few small sandy tracks through
dense vegetation in most places. The catchment conditions are considered to be largely
homogenous. Only minor changes in soil characteristics, land use and vegetation were


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noted. A summary of the main findings of the hydrological specialist study, as well as the
water quality analyses of two water quality samples taken at the Nacala Dam are included as
Appendix E.

6.8.1.      Yield Hydrology
The purpose of the yield hydrology analysis is to assess the water resource capability (or
yield) of Nacala Dam, both currently and after the FSL is raised by a minimum of 2m.
Furthermore, it also assesses the impacts of making releases to support downstream
environmental flow requirements (EFR) and the possible long-term loss of available storage
in the dam as a result of sedimentation. A summary of the scenarios used during the yield
analysis that was undertaken is provided in Table 6-4.

Table 6-4:            Summary of Yield Analysis Scenarios (Jeffares & Green, 2010)
                                                                                                              (3)
                                             Nacala Dam characteristics                                  EFR            Sediment
                                                                                                                        allocation
                                                                   Live storage                              Average      to live
  #              Name              Raised         FSL
                                                      (1)
                                                                                                               req.              (4)
                                                                                                Class                   storage
                                    (m)          (mamsl)        (million                 (2)                 (million    (million
                                                                    3        % MAR                              3
                                                                  m)                                          m /a)         m)
                                                                                                                              3


  A      Present                       -          76.50          3.99             34 %               -              -        -
  B      +2m                        2.00          78.50          6.62             57 %               -              -        -
 C       +2m&EFR_C                  2.00          78.50          6.62             57 %               C         2.78          -
 D       +2m&EFR_C&Sed              2.00          78.50          4.76             41 %               C         2.78        1.86
  E      +2.25m                     2.25          78.75          7.01             60 %               -              -        -

Notes:     (1) Full supply level, shown in metres above mean sea level (mamsl).
           (2) Mean annual runoff (MAR), which equals 11.7 million m3/a
           (3) Desktop Class C environmental flow requirement (EFR).
           (4) Sediment allocation to live storage over a planning period of 50 years.


A summary of the results obtained from the yield analysis is provided in Table 6-5.

Table 6-5:            Summary of Yield Analysis Results (Jeffares & Green, 2010)
                                                                                                         3
                                           (1)
                                                                            Yield (million m /a)
                                     HFY                                         (2)
                                                            at indicated RI (and annual assurance of supply)
  #              Name               (million
                                       3               1:20              1:50               1:100             1:200     Difference
                                     m /a)
                                                      (95 %)            (98 %)             (99 %)            (99.5 %)     at 1:50
  A      Present                       4.7                5.7              5.1                 4.8              4.6          -
  B      +2m                           6.3                6.5              6.0                 5.6              5.3         0.9
  C      +2m&EFR_C                     4.4                4.8              4.3                 4.1              3.8        -1.6
  D      +2m&EFR_C&Sed                 3.9                4.2              3.7                 3.5              3.3        -0.6
  E      +2.25m                        6.4                6.7              6.1                 5.7              5.4         0.1

Notes:    (1) Historical Firm Yield, based on an analysis over a 50-years period, from 1956 to 2005 (hydrological years).
(2) Recurrence Interval of failure, in years, based on a long-term stochastic yield analysis of 201 50-year generated streamflow
sequences.




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Based on the results from the yield analysis, it is recommended that Nacala Dam FSL is
raised by 2m as this would significantly improve the yield available from the system. Raising
the dam by another 0.25m, however, provides little benefit and should therefore not be
considered.

6.8.2.   Environmental Flow Requirements
The rehabilitation and raising of the Dam requires the assessment of the EFR of the Muecula
River. Releases from the Nacala Dam for environmental purposes are an integral part of the
protection of the environment in the river downstream of the dam. The objective of the EFR
study is to determine the optimum flow releases from the dam to maintain a desired
ecological state of the river downstream. Due to the Muecula River having insufficient flow for
the initial part of the study, an EcoStatus Level III determination was completed as an interim
measure (Appendix D).

The EFR approach aims to give the river a present ecological class based on the site
conditions and ecological diversity data obtained during a one-off site visit. These ecological
data gathered during the site visit, namely fish, aquatic invertebrate, geomorphological and
riparian vegetation, were used to classify the Present Ecological State (PES). The PES
outcomes are used to determine a Recommended Ecological Class (REC) for releases from
the Nacala Dam.

The EFR hydrology was undertaken using the Desktop Support System model (DSS) and
the REC. In this case, the Muecula River had a PES of a Class C, with the final REC also
being a Class C. The C Class REC was used in the DSS to simulate the EFR. The C Class
EFR was simulated to be 21.41 % (2.497Mm3) of the mean annual runoff.

The recommended EFR C Class, implemented with the correct flow release timing, was
considered sufficient. The results of the EWR determination, including the maintenance low
flows (base flow) and the maintenance high flows (floods and freshettes) are provided in
Figure 6-3, while the annual figures is provided below.

                           C Class EFR = 2.497 Mm3/ann = 21.4 % MAR

Releases from the dam to support a downstream Class C EFR would cause a decrease in
yield for a 2m raised dam from 6.0 million m3/a to 4.3 million m3/a. The implementation of the
EFR has a significant impact on the yield of the system and consideration should be given to
postponing its implementation until alternative sources of water are available to augment
water supplies.




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                                                                Nacala Dam Simulated Streamflow Time-Series
                                         Class C EWR
                              16         Natural flows


                              14


                              12
  Monthly flow (million m )
 3




                              10


                              8


                              6


                              4


                              2


                              0
                              1955        1960           1965   1970       1975       1980       1985         1990   1995     2000    2005

                                                                                     Year

  Figure 6-3:                                Simulated natural stream flow time-series plotted against the C Class
                                                                   desktop EWR time-series

6.8.3.                             Sediment Yield Analysis
Calculation of the sediment yield transported through the catchment and deposited at the
outlet is important when investigating a storage structure. The sediment deposited in the dam
will decrease its live storage, and hence its lifespan, by decreasing the volume of water it can
hold. It is necessary to take this into consideration when sizing the storage structure. To
determine the amount of sediment that will be deposited annually, the available bathymetric
survey data (2001 and 2009) were used along with the Rooseboom method. The final V50
value for use in the yield analysis of the Nacala Dam is:
                              Nacala Dam V50 = 86 % × 2.17 Mm3
                                  Nacala Dam V50 = 1.86 Mm3

The long-term impact of sedimentation is significant and should be considered in the timing
and sizing of possible future augmentation schemes.

6.8.4.                             Design Flood hydrology
A review of the design flood hydrology was undertaken in order to determine the peak
discharge figures to be used in the design of the new spillway and the freeboard of the raised
embankment. The Safety Evaluation Flood (SEF) is the flood hydrograph, which after routing
through the reservoir system may bring the dam to the point of failure but the resulting
damage, although possibly substantial, must not be such as to cause failure of the dam
(SANCOLD, 1991). The flood data were selected based on the type of flood causing rainfall
system that is present in the Nacala region. In this case the Nacala region receives a
majority of its flood causing rainfall from tropical cyclones. The SEF value of 1 530m3/s and


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the Recommended Design Flood (RDF) value of 734m3/s were adopted for use used in the
design stage of the Nacala Dam project (refer to Section 5.4.1).

6.9.       GEOHYDROLOGY
The area surrounding the Nacala dam has several scattered communities. The purpose of this
hydrocensus was to ascertain the water sources being used by the communities surrounding the
dam. The hydrocensus data were obtained through field verification of the communities that
surround the Nacala Dam. The investigation identified the following water sources:


       •       Six boreholes.
       •       Three stream/ river abstractions.
       •       A shallow-dug well.
       •       Stand-pipe with two widgets
       •       A wetland abstraction point.

The only water that is supplied to the communities from the Nacala Dam is from the dual widget
standpipe. The rest of the surrounding communities rely on the alternate sources listed in Table
6-6. The associated resource sheets are included in Appendix F.

Table 6-6:         Community Water Sources identified during Hydrocensus
           Resource                                                         Coordinates
                                     Resource Type
       Name/Number                                                 Latitude             Longitude
 Borehole 1 (BH 1)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 43' 03.5' ' S     40° 20' 06.6'' E
 Borehole 2 (BH 2)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 39' 06.7' ' S     40° 22' 07.2'' E
 Borehole 3 (BH 3)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 38' 39.3' ' S     40° 27' 10.2'' E
 Borehole 4 (BH 4)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 41' 08.2' ' S     40° 25' 37.4'' E
 Borehole 5 (BH 5)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 42' 22.3' ' S     40° 26' 30.8'' E
 Borehole 6 (BH 6)               Hand Pump - Afridev           14° 42' 38.1' ' S     40° 27' 04.3'' E
 Shallow Dug Well                Well                          14° 42' 30.7'' S      40° 26' 53.8 '' E
 Stream 1                        Small pools of water          14° 40' 42.5'' S      40° 21' 06.1'' E
 Stream 2                        Small pools of water          14° 38' 47.2'' S      40° 22' 25.1'' E
 Widget                          Widget dual standpipe         14° 43' 19.1'' S      40° 3 1' 58.5'' E
 Wetland                         Wetland                       14° 42' 46.2'' S      40° 34' 04.7'' E
 Mucuela River                   River                         14° 45' 38.0'' S      40° 34' 42.9'' E


The borehole sources are all Afridev handpumps positioned amongst the communities. They have
varying levels of concrete structures to protect the borehole for becoming contaminated by
stagnant water that results from spillages at the source. These concrete structures were generally
in good condition and would be achieving their purpose in their current state. In most cases the
boreholes are located short distances from the community households, livestock and in some
cases informal latrines. The soils are sandy, and thus fairly permeable, which increases the
contamination risk when the source is close to potential pollutants.

Two of the stream sources (Stream 1 and Stream 2) and the hand-dug well had badly discoloured
water. The sources appear to be used for all purposes, including washing, bathing, drinking and

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stock watering. They have no form of protection and with the level of usage are thought to be very
poor source for community use.

The wetland and the Muecula River sources are of a better quality than the other stream sources
due to their size and nature. However, these sources are not considered to be good due to the all
purpose usage and level of contamination (visually dirty, soap scum, etc). In addition to this the
area immediately below the Nacala Dam was found to be used as a place for humans to
defecate. This drastically increases the risk of cholera outbreaks as communities were found to be
reliant on the Muecula River for drinking water.

Some of these sources dry up in the dry season and leave the communities with little to no
potable water source in the near vicinity. Water security is non-existent in this area, in spite of the
dam being close to it. It is recommended the Nacala Dam Rehabilitation and the Nacala Water
Supply Programme considers providing a sustainable and clean source of potable water for the
communities surrounding the dam.

6.10.    THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

6.10.1. Magisterial Structure

Nacala Dam is located in Nampula Province, with the capital being Nampula City. The
province is divided into 20 districts of which the Nacala-A-Velha District is relevant to this
study (Figure 6-4). The Nacala-A-Velha District is further divided into Nacala-a-Velha (Sede)
Locality. Nacala is an important economic centre of the northern region of Mozambique. The
project area falls into the Moilete Bairro, which has a typical bairro leadership of a president
or chefe, vice president or cabo, secretary or regulo and council members.

6.10.2. Population Demographics

Preliminary results of Census 2007 (Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2007) indicate a total
population of 4,076 642 in the Nampula Province. A breakdown by gender is 2,076 684 and
1,999 958 for females and males respectively – a near 50/50 split. Population numbers for
the province between Census 1997 and 2007 is 3,063 456 and 4,076 642 respectively
(Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2007). The present population of Nacala is approximately
300,000: Nacala-A-Velha District has a total population of 89 336 and Nacala Port District
has a population of 207 894. Like the rest of the country, Nampula has a very young
population. 47.9% are under 15 years old, 49.5% are aged between 15 and 64, and only
2.7% are aged 65 and above.

As in many sub Saharan countries, women are marginalised in terms of economic and
political power. Although women in Mozambique carry out the majority of agricultural work,
they have limited control over the economic resources they generate. Women are dependent
on male family members, or the discretion of community leaders for access to land. Gender
discrimination in Mozambique has been exacerbated by the civil war, when women were
submitted to displacement, insecurity and the breakdown of social services and support.

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              Figure 6-4:        Location of Nacala A Velha District



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6.10.3. Community and Household Structure

The community and household structure of the village located adjacent to the dam is
characteristic of rural villages in Mozambique. Such villages have concentrated numbers of
households within a defined area which shows a sharp transition to true rural scattered
households in the village outskirts. This linear settlement is due to the Communal Village
Programme of the FRELIMO Government that was carried out in the 1970s and 1980s.

Typically machambas (rotational subsistence agricultural fields) are located outside the
villages and vary from small homestead gardens to 1ha fields located on the outskirts of the
village. The local village has developed in a linear fashion along the N12. Transport corridors
in Mozambique play a vital role in terms of economic development and the N12 may play a
vital role in the development of the town.

Households or families tend to be centred on the homestead, which are the physical
structures that make up the living area occupied by the household. The homestead is
generally made up of a primary household with a number of secondary structures including
kitchens, toilets and secondary residential units.

Typically machambas (rotational-based subsistence agricultural fields) are located at the
homestead or outside the villages, and may vary from small homestead gardens to large
mutli-hectare fields located outside of the villages. Households or families tend to be centred
on the homestead (Figure 6-5). The homestead is generally made up of a primary household
with a number of secondary structure including kitchens, toilets and secondary residential
units.




                           Figure 6-5:        Typical homestead structures

The local villages have developed in a linear fashion along the N12. Transport corridors in
Mozambique play a vital role in terms of economic development and the N12 may play a vital
role in the local development.




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6.10.4. Livelihoods and Economy

Subsistence agriculture is primarily aimed at producing basic foods for households with any
surplus food being sold at local markets. At a regional level the dominant crops include
cassava, maize, beans and seasonal crops. Location, soil quality and water are the driving
factors in terms of crop type. The greater population around the dam have dry land
machambas, which are away from the dam and rely on ground water. Very few households
have access to the coveted wet land machambas, which are around the dam and along the
small inlets that feed into the dam (Figure 6-6).

There are about 30 “dam/river machamba” owners affected by the proposed project. All have
larger portions of land that have been given to them by the local bairro administration. The
machamba owners divide their land into small portions and pay people to work on each
portion. The work includes cleaning and clearing of vegetation, but not planting. Only family
members plant, tend and harvest their crops. Clearing and cutting normally happens in
February and March, for both seasonal reasons and financial reasons. People who work on
these dryland machambas usually need money at this time of the year, due to their own
machambas not producing enough food to feed their families during these months. The large
dam/river machambas produce all year round. The average size of one of these large
dam/river machambas is 1.1ha, with a total of approximately 213ha under cultivation in the
busiest season. Most farmers have four or more of these plots.

During the dry season and when the dam level is low there are about 235 people who plant
very small areas of land in the dry river beds that form tributaries to the dam, but these
people operate on a year-to-year basis, and are opportunistic farmers. They all have
machambas of their own elsewhere. During the dry season they plant tomatoes and onions
in the river machambas, or dry river and dam inlet beds, in order to sell, and plant cassava,
maize, and peanuts on their own plots. Through discussion with local farmers it was
estimated, very roughly, that 1 acre per adult person was required for food security and cash
to purchase daily necessities. Land is regarded by the local landowners as their most
precious possession. It is their only security in an otherwise economically insecure
environment.

The main animal husbandry practices in the area are chicken and duck rearing, but some
people also have goats. Fish seems to be a relatively unimportant part of the local diet.

As a result of poor agricultural returns, the commercialisation of charcoal has become an
important livelihood strategy in the area for those people who have dry land machambas and
face crop failure. Some interviewees labelled charcoal production as a ‘lifesaver’. Charcoal is
produced solely for sale and is not locally consumed. The level of exploitation of wood for
charcoal clearly has a significant effect on the natural resource base.




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Formal labour in the immediate vicinity of Nacala Dam is likely to be limited. As with much of
Mozambique, migration of males to local, regional and international centres is likely to be
common. Remittances received by local families form a major component in terms of cash
income.

6.10.5. Land-Use

The project area is comprised of a mosaic of different land uses. There are both extensive
and intensive agricultural areas with patches of natural vegetation punctuated by mango and
cashew nut trees in and around the homesteads. Subsistence agriculture is the dominant
land-use. No households are located in the inundation area. However the linear nature of the
village is an issue in the development of any new spillways and the road deviation.




       Figure 6-6:      Images of machambas located along the dam reservoir margin

6.10.6. Gender

While men and women will both be affected by the project, women could bear a
disproportionate burden. The expected negative impacts of the Nacala Dam Rehabilitation
Project on women include dislocation, loss of property and land, disruption in income source,
loss of client/ marketing base for products, heightening of social tensions/ conflicts, and
increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and STDs for women and girls.

The expected positive impacts on women include additional employment opportunities in the
project works of unskilled jobs; increased sources of income generation; enhanced vocal
contribution of women in projects such as these; and improved access to and use of socio-
economic infrastructure by women and girls.

6.10.7. Seasonal Calender

Based on information collected during the SIA (Appendix G), the following is evident:
   •    January, February, March and April are difficult months for the local population. There
        is a lack of food, which needs to be compensated for with collection of wild foods and
        purchasing of food. In this period sickness (malaria, diarrhoea) is perceived as
        particularly prevalent.


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   •   Agricultural activity takes place throughout the year.
   •   High expenses occur at the beginning of the agricultural season, and mainly relate to
       the need to hire labour to prepare the fields.

6.10.8. Social Infrastructure

In Nampula Province the most common illnesses are malaria, leprosy, HIV/AIDS (prevalence
rate at 2005 was 9.2% for the province) and diarrhoea. These are linked to poverty and lack
of access to clean water and sanitation.

From the data collected as part of the social baseline study it can be concluded that health
and hygiene conditions in the area are poor. The main water sources in the area are the dam
and unprotected wells. There is no sewerage system in the area and most of the population
rely on pit latrines, which are untreated. There is no refuse collection or treatment plant in the
area which means that household waste material is either burned or buried.

Educational levels in the area are relatively poor, with only 52% of the household members
of the families interviews having some sort of secondary education.

The following development needs were identified during focus groups and interviews:


   •   Food security (agricultural extension)
   •   Access to clean water
   •   Employment
   •   Housing
   •   Access to health facilities (quality and accessibility)
   •   Access to Educational facilities (quality and accessibility)
   •   Ablutions
   •   Food preparation: Access to drying areas and mills (cassava)
   •   Village Community centres

Sanitation must be linked to water supply in that sanitation is considered an essential aspect
of potable water supply improvements in the communities around the dam. Relevant
sanitation investments may include latrines, washing basins, showers/bathing houses, refuse
disposal pits, and household drainage, as well as hygiene education and training for
sanitation sustainability.

6.10.9. Community Perceptions of the Dam Rehabilitation Project

During the focus groups, household surveys, and individual interviews and conversations
with the local residents it became clear that the dam rehabilitation project is a welcome
investment in the area. The most important concern expressed by the majority of the
respondents was that access to agricultural land would disappear and not be replaced, or
that if land was replaced it would not be close enough to a water source to be irrigated.

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Men commented that alcohol and theft problems experienced in the area (young men being
the main perpetrators), would be solved by the rehabilitation project because the project
would bring jobs and opportunities for young men to learn trades.

Benefits associated with the rehabilitation of the dam included:
      •   That rehabilitation would facilitate the district government institutions and
          development assistance organizations to carry out activities in the area, leading to
          expansion and improvement of social services, better agricultural education, and job
          creation.
      •   Movement of workforces within the project area which would encourage commerce.
      •   Agricultural production will be stimulated by the increased workforce resulting in a
          higher demand for agricultural goods and services.
      •   Business operators in the area benefiting as they will be able to provide supplies such
          as fuel, agricultural tools, and agricultural inputs for the project and construction team.
      •   Temporary employment opportunities arising from construction and maintenance
          works, as well as from the provision of goods and services to the workforce.

Concerns raised by the participants included:
      •   Outsiders, as opposed to the local people, will benefit from employment opportunities,
          because the locals may not have the skills or knowledge required for those jobs. This
          may cause conflicts between the local residents and the newcomers. Therefore steps
          have to be taken to ensure that the local people are not excluded. NGOs should be
          consulted for guidance.
      •   There will likely be loss of land and property, and also damage/loss to water supply
          points could potentially happen. Agricultural land may also be affected. Therefore the
          resettlement process should implement information campaigns to inform the
          communities about the use of the right of way and to avoid erecting structures or
          cultivating within the right of way.
      •   The presence of workers could encourage criminal activities and encourage aberrant
          social activities such as prostitution, with the associated risks of spreading
          STDs/HIV/AIDS

6.11.      RESETTLEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK
The Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) for the Nacala Dam considers the displacement
induced and the measures taken so as to comply with the requirements of World Bank OP
4.12 and IFC Performance Standard 5. Evidence from resettlement projects around the world
reveals the following fundamental and recurrent risks1:


           •    Landlessness


1
    (Cernea and McDowell 2000)

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         •    Joblessness
         •    Homelessness
         •    Marginalisation
         •    Increased morbidity and mortality
         •    Educational losses
         •    Food insecurity
         •    Loss of common property and
         •    Social disarticulation.
6.11.1. Design and Objectives of RPF

This RPF is designed so that it can be adapted to become the backbone of a full
Resettlement Action Plan (RAP). The RPF clarifies the principles for social impact mitigation
with regards to compensation for loss of property, livelihood and relocation or resettlement
(of directly affected people). The objective of the framework is to provide guidelines to
stakeholders (including investors and developers) participating in the mitigation of adverse
social impacts of the project, in order to ensure that project affected persons (PAPs) will not
be impoverished by resettlement.

Best Practice implies that PAPs should be compensated for any attendant loss of livelihood;
compensated for loss of assets at replacement costs; given opportunities to share project
benefits; and be assisted in case of relocation or resettlement. The paramount purpose is to
restore the income earning capacity of the project-affected persons. The aim is to improve or
at the very least sustain the living conditions of the PAPs prior to project operations or to
resettlement. PAPs must be no worse off than prior to resettlement.

6.11.2. Magnitude of Displacement

Physical resettlement – 19 separate entities are affected. These include 17 residential
homesteads and a Frelimo Party office affected by the road deviation and the local police
station affected by the re-developed spillway. The survey conducted among the households
to be physically displaced revealed the following:
   •   There are 75 people living in the 17 households to be displaced. Of these 52% are
       female and 38% male.
   •   All bar one household have land from which they derive agricultural produce. These
       sixteen households possess 34 individual parcels of land.
   •   Cassava and maize were the main crops being cultivated at the time of the survey.
   •   There were 57 productive trees to be found on the homestead sites. Of these 21 were
       Monkey Oranges (Strychnos madagascarensis), 15 were paw paws, 10 were figs, 6
       were mango, 3 were cashews and 2 were palms.
   •   No households own cattle but 4 own goats, 1 has sheep, 1 has pigs, 2 have rabbits, 5
       have ducks and 9 have chickens.
   •   There are 35 structures (including the Frelimo Office and the Police Station) affected
   •   The structures total 1463m2 of developed area
   •   Households that will probably need to be resettled were concerned that their trees are
       replaced so that they have shade

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   •   Households are also very concerned that they would have access to water either from
       existing sources or a developed source

Notes associated with each household to be resettled through being physically displaced are
included in Appendix H.

Economic displacement –This will occur, albeit to a limited extent. There are a number of
households (approximately 30) that live in the village area surrounding the dam and that
make use of the margins of the dam basin to practise recession agriculture. Recession
agriculture makes use of the falling levels of the dam to open up the dam margins for
cultivation. With the re-habilitated dam it is assumed that there will be less dramatic seasonal
fluctuation and as such the amount of land available to recession agriculture will be reduced.
Further, according to the Nacala Dam operational staff this is not legal use of the land.
Technically the dam margins are part of Nacala Dam estate and not part of the community
lands. However community members contest this interpretation. They saw that the
development of the dam resulted in loss of their lands used for cultivation and the fact that no
effort has been made to stop their cultivation in the dam margins means that by implication
the dam authorities do not disapprove. This is an important consideration and a critical
concern for many of the residents of the communities in and around the dam.

6.11.3. Valuation and Compensation Process

The valuation of assets that may be lost during resettlement will be a sensitive issue and it should
be done with care and rigor. This is of particular relevance in cases where compensation may
include multiple options including replacement (land and structures) or monetary compensation.
The general approach to the valuation procedures is summarised below:


   •   Identify Eligibility under National Guidelines: All relevant legislation, policy and
       valuations guidelines defined by the government of Mozambique will need to be
       identified. This will form the basis for the identification of eligibility to compensation
       and valuation methodology.
   •   Asset Survey: The asset survey will determine the assets owned by affected
       individuals, households or communities. Preliminary data are available.
   •   Valuation Methodology: The valuation process will involve the assessment of national
       guidelines, international best practice and local market research. The outcomes of
       this process should be a set of practical and measurable values/rates for each asset
       category.
   •   Entitlement Contracts: Contracts will be produced for affected individuals that will
       contain a summary of all their assets, adopted compensation rates or options and
       final valuations.




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6.11.4. Compensation and Resettlement Cost Estimate

Table 6-7 sets out a summary of the total anticipated costs for the implementation of
resettlement. Costs include the facilitation of the establishment and the development of the
Community Resource Plan. The rebuilding of the police station and potentially its ancillary
structures (depending on relocation site) has been estimated at USD 100 000. The costs for
the Frelimo offices are include with the other structural costings. It should be noted that
Frelimo officials claim that their building costs were MZM 120 000 or USD 3555. This
appears very conservative and probably takes into account that much of the labour was
voluntary.

Table 6-7:      Summary of Resettlement Costs

Item                                                                        Cost
Structures                Model 1                                                             $545 625.00
                          Model 2                                                             $182 270.00
                          Model 3                                                             $460 370.00
                          Police Station                                                      $ 100000.00
Trees                                                                                               $690.52



Crops on Field                                                                                   $2 500.00


VLC and
Community
Resource Plan             VLC Remuneration                                                          $500.00
                          MCA Management                                                        $15 000.00


Close Out Audit                                                                                 $10 000.00


Total - Model 3                                                                               $589 060.52
Total - Model 2                                                                               $310 960.52
Total - Model 1                                                                               $674 315.52

6.12.   HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The objective of the HIA undertaken for this study (included as Appendix I) is to deliver
evidence based recommendations to maximize potential positive health benefits and prevent
or mitigate any detrimental health impacts that a project may have on the potentially affected
communities of the project. The methodology used for this project was based on the Good
Practice Note (GPN) for Health Impact Assessments as supported by the International
Finance Corporation. HIA is a participative process and inputs of various stakeholders are
sought throughout. The participative process allows the views of different groups, including
vulnerable ones, to be considered and to ensure that the mitigation measures proposed are
respectful of the local culture and requirements.

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6.12.1. Rapid Health Impact Assessment

It was concluded at the screening stage that a Rapid HIA would be the required level for the
project. This was due to the scope of the project, number of potentially affected communities,
the fact that the project was more of a refurbishment/extension of the dam wall rather that a
new project.

6.12.2. HIA Methodology

The activities undertaken in the HIA are presented below based on the following objectives
as defined by the rapid assessment methodology which included:
•   Literature review of information in public domain.
•   Review of project documentation and plans where these were available.
•   Review of other similar projects to evaluate precedents in relation to potential health
    impacts.
•   Perform a field visit to support the following:
    o   Collecting primary data by participatory means; including key informant interviews
        with key stakeholders and focus group discussions with community members in and
        around the project area.
    o   Collecting additional secondary information that was not available in the public
        domain during desktop review. This includes collection of information from the
        provincial and district health authorities, local health facilities as well as from
        unpublished reports and documents.
    o   Visualizing the project and the proposed work.
    o   Understanding project designs, present and planned work activities, project schedule
        and location of PACs.
•   Support the ongoing activities of the resettlement planning framework and social
    assessment. As part of an integrated approach specific health elements were identified
    for inclusion in these assessments. This will support the evidence base of the HIA.
•   Based on the existing evidence rank the likelihood and consequence of different health
    impacts to outline their significance.
•   Develop recommendations based on these likely impacts to mitigate the negative and
    enhance the positive impacts.

6.12.3. Potentially Affected Communities

There are a number of existing health needs and impacts through the existing presence of
the dam. The potentially affected communities (PAC) only consider future potential health
impacts hat will result through the refurbishment and raising of the dam wall. The following
are considered PACs:

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•   PAC1: Communities in Muhecule administrative post that will not be resettled but that
    reside in the footprint of the dam and is developments.
•   PAC2: Communities that may be resettled as a result of raising of the dam wall and
    construction of associated infrastructure. By April 2010 the design of both the spillway as
    well as the road deviation was advanced enough to be able to identify households that
    are likely to have to be physically displaced. 17 households were potentially affected.
•   PAC3: Communities downstream from the dam wall.

6.12.4. Environmental Health Areas

The environmental health areas (EHAs) identified during the assessment included the
following:


    •   Communicable diseases are directly linked to housing design, overcrowding and
        housing inflation. The state of housing in the district is overwhelmingly rural
        rudimentary thatched roofed reed structures, most without toilet amenities or
        electricity.
    •   Vector related diseases such as mosquito- and fly-transmitted diseases.
    •   Soil, water and waste-related diseases. The community obtains their water from the
        dam, from the communal taps at the treatment plant, and from wells or borehole/hand
        pumps. The water collected straight from the dam is boiled to make it safe for
        drinking. The water from the treatment works is also boiled because people say it
        tastes bad and has a funny color unless it is boiled. Water from wells and
        boreholes/hand pumps is considered pure, clean drinking water and is not treated at
        all before consumption. These boreholes are apparently quite shallow indicating a
        high water table but also the potential to be contaminated from run off and the pit
        latrines. Access to water was listed as a challenge to some communities due to long
        distances to collect (3-4km) and long waiting times at the source (especially the taps
        at the treatment plant). Sanitation is a major issue in the community. There are very
        little organized ablution facilities with high degrees of sharing of latrines and
        indiscriminate defecation. The latrines that are available are very shallow and often fill
        up. There is no system to determine the location of latrines and no maintenance
        program.
    •   Sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS. The Nacala area has an
        estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence of between 5-9.9%. In the focus group discussions
        there was good knowledge and awareness related to HIV/AIDS. The disease was
        reported to be common in the communities with a number of respondents
        acknowledging that they knew of people with HIV. While there was a high level of
        stigma and fear associated with the disease the community appeared to be tolerant of
        people that may acquire the disease and felt that they would support and integrate
        people with the disease into the community.
    •   Food and Nutrition-related issues

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•   Incidents and Accidents - Road traffic accidents are the most common form of
    accidents in the area. The location of the communities on the main road to Nacala
    Port increases the risk for pedestrian accidents.
•   Hazardous Materials, Noise and Malodors - Baseline water conditions and quality is
    of specific concern for the planned project and samples were collected as part of the
    biophysical baseline studies. Factors that may influence the water quality from the
    construction activity relate to hydrocarbon spills, building material (sand and cement)
    and related activities. It was not reported that any specific chemical or pesticide would
    be used in the development that may give rise to concerns of human health.
•   Social Determinants of Health - In the communities of the Nacala Dam, it is
    noteworthy mentioning the role of traditional medicine lay in the community. These
    practitioners are present in the communities and the community report that they are
    widely consulted. There is a deep-rooted belief in the value of the herbs and traditions
    underscored this and the majority of the community members are ardent followers.
•   Health Systems Issues - The Nacala-a-Velha District has 5 health posts and centers,
    totaling 97 beds. These health infrastructures are comprised of 2 type 1 health
    centers, 1 type 2 health centre and 2 health posts. The district does not have a
    hospital and did not have a medical doctor until the first placement in July 2009 who
    is posted at the district capital. The five health posts and centers in the district are
    managed by the government, which each cater for about an average of about 20,000
    inhabitants. This equates to one health professional for 3,800 inhabitants within the
    district; and one hospital bed per thousand inhabitants.




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7.       ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
7.1.     METHODOLOGY IN DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACTS
The methodology in assessing the significance of environmental and socio-economic
impacts is based on traditional risk assessment approaches. Each impact is identified by its
root cause (the project activity or action) that will result in an impact (change in status in the
natural and social environment, be it positive or negative) on a receptor (the natural
environment or community that will be impacted)

The significance of the impact will be determined using 4 criteria, namely spatial scale,
temporal scale, the probability of the impact occurring and the nature of the impact (negative
or positive). Where relevant, the impact will be assessed as to whether it will result in
cumulative or indirect impacts.

The overall significance of the impacts will be determined by the analysis of the above
criteria, both prior to and after the adoption of mitigation measures. The overall significance
will be detailed using Tables 7.1 to 7.3 overleaf.




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Table 7-1:                                   Rating methodology to determine the significance of Impacts
                                                                           IMPACT CRITERIA
                                                                          NATURE OF IMPACT
                                                   The activity or activity component will result no,        or such little impact such that it
                                  NO AFFECT
                                                   would be considered negligible.
                                                   Short term impacts on the                                  Short and limited benefits to
                                                   affected      system(s)     or                             the affected system(s) or
                                      Low
                                                   party(ies). Mitigation is very Low Benefits                party(ies).
                                    Negative
                                                   easy, cheap, less time
                                                   consuming or not necessary.
                                                   Medium to long term impacts                  A medium to long term impact
                                                   on the affected system(s) or                 of real benefit to the affected
                                                   party (ies), which could be                  system(s) or party(ies). Other
                                    Medium         mitigated.     For     example     Medium    ways       of  optimising     the
                                    Negative       constructing a narrow road         Benefits  beneficial effects are equally
                                                   through vegetation with low                  difficult, expensive and time
                                                   conservation value.                          consuming, as achieving them
                                                                                                in this way.
                                               Long term impacts on the                         A long term impact and
NATURE OF THE IMPACT OR BENEFIT




                                               affected      system(s)       or                 substantial benefit to the
                                               party(ies) that could be                         affected       system(s)       or
                                      High     mitigated.    However,      this                 party(ies). Alternative ways of
                                                                                 High Benefits
                                    Negative   mitigation would be difficult,                   achieving this benefit would be
                                               expensive         or       time                  difficult, expensive or time
                                               consuming,        or     some                    consuming,         or     some
                                               combination of these.                            combination of these.
                                               An irreversible and permanent change to the affected system(s) or party(ies)
                                   Fatal Flaw  which cannot be mitigated. For example the permanent loss of endangered
                                               species or significant social impacts
                                       TEMPORAL SCALE OF IMPACT                        SPATIAL SCALE OF THE IMPACT
                                               Impacts or benefits will be
                                                                                                Impacts or benefits will be felt
                                               limited to be design and           Individuals/
                                   Design and                                                   by a few individuals within the
                                               planning phase. Usually a           Individual
                                    Planning                                                    local communities or by a few
                                               once-off and very short term         species
                                                                                                faunal or vegetative species.
                                               impact.
                                               Impacts or benefits will be
                                                                                      Local     Impacts or benefits will be felt
                                               limited to the construction
                                                                                Communities/ by the larger community or
                                  Construction phase of the activity and is
                                                                                     Natural    natural habitats within close
                                               considered short-term (Less
                                                                                    Habitats    proximity of the dam.
                                               than 3 years)
                                               Impacts or benefits will
                                               extend throughout the life of
                                               the activity and would likely                    Impacts or benefits will extend
                                               be       associated         with                 beyond the dam area and
                                   Operation                                        Regional
                                               operations and maintenance.                      affect other districts or cities,
                                               These        impacts         are                 including Nacala City.
                                               considered medium to long
                                               term (Between 20-40 years)
                                               Over 40 years or resulting in                    Impacts or benefits may
                                               a permanent and lasting National and extend beyond the regional
                                   Permanent
                                               change that will extend International area and affect other countries
                                               beyond the life of the activity.                 or have a global influence.




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Table 7-2:                              Impact Probability

                                                           PROBABILITY OF IMPACT OCCURRING
 LIKELIHOOD



                             Unknown        The probability of the impact occurring can not be reasonably predicted.
                             Unlikely       Less than 40% sure of a particular fact or of the likelihood of an impact occurring
                             May Occur      Only over 40% sure of a particular fact or of the likelihood of an impact occurring
                             Probable       Over 70% sure of a particular fact, or of the likelihood of that impact occurring.
                             Definite       More than 90% sure of a particular fact. Should have substantial supportive data.


Table 7-3:                              Overall Environmental Significance Statement

                                                      ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT
                                 Low
                               Negative
                                Impact         These impacts will usually result in short term effects on the social and/or
                                               natural environment. Impacts rated as LOW will need to be considered by the
                                  Or           public and/or the specialist as constituting a fairly unimportant or benefits to be
                                               minimal overall.
                             Low Positive
                               Benefits
                              Moderate
                               Negative
                                Impact
                                               These impacts will usually result in medium term effects on the social and/or
ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE




                                               natural environment. Impacts rated as MODERATE will need to be considered
                                  Or
                                               by society as constituting a fairly important but manageable. Benefits are real
                                               but not considered substantial.
                              Moderate
                              Positive
                              Benefits
                                High
                              Negative
                                               These impacts will usually result in long term effects on the social and/or natural
                               Impact
                                               environment. Impacts rated as HIGH will need to be considered by society as
                                               constituting an important and require significant resources to mitigate. Benefits
                                  Or
                                               are considered substantial and would be noticeable in the receiving
                                               environment.
                             High Positive
                               Benefits
                              Very High
                               Negative        VERY HIGH impacts would be considered by society as constituting a major
                                Impact         and usually permanent change to the (natural and/or social) environment. In
                                               some cases this may be defined as a project or environmental Fatal Flaw.
                                  Or
                                               VERY HIGH benefits would be considered to be significant effects on the local,
                              Very High        regional and national (natural and/or social) environment. In some cases these
                               Positive        benefits may form part of the project rationale.
                               Benefits
                                               In certain cases it may not be possible to determine the significance of an
                              Unknown          impact. For example, the primary or secondary impacts on the social or natural
                                               environment given the available information.
                                 No            There are no primary or secondary effects at all that are important to scientists
                             Significance      or I&APs




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7.2.      FLORA/VEGETATION
IMPACT IDENTIFIED:             LOSS OF VEGETATION POPULATIONS OF CONSERVATION
IMPORTANCE

Description of the Project Risk
The raising of the dam wall may have an impact on the status of plant of conservation
importance occurring in the area that will be inundated. The loss of habitat or mature plant
individuals may negatively impact on the conservation status of plant species occurring
within the study area.

Analysis of the Project Risk
The extent to which habitat is lost is a good indication of the likely impact on plant species.
In addition, the extension of a species range outside of the footprint is also necessary to
assess the impact of the development at a broader scale. It was determined that 46.5% of
the new footprint area was already transformed and heavily degraded (all biodiversity lost).
Of the remaining natural area, 27% was could be classified as Woodland. Although this
Woodland was historically logged, it still supports a significant amount of biodiversity, some
of which are Red Data List plant species. A total of 8 Red Data List plant species and one
newly discovered tree species may be impacted upon. It is however believed that the loss of
individuals or local populations through inundation is not expected to have any impact on the
conservation status of these species.

Environmental Significance Rating
It is expected that the raising of the Nacala Dam wall and the resulting additional inundation
will have No Affect on the conservation status of 8 Red Data List plant species found in the
study area. This is because all these species are still widespread in Mozambique and most
of these species were originally listed because of the high levels of harvesting they were
enduring not due to small population sizes.

                             RATING            RATING
       CRITERIA             BEFORE              AFTER                   RATIONALE FOR RATING
                          MITIGATION         MITIGATION
                          No affect          No affect         Only plants occurring within the inundation
                                                               zone will be affected. The loss of these
Nature of impact
                                                               plants will not impact on the regional or
                                                               national populations of these species.
                          Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam is a permanent
Temporal Scale
                                                               impact.
Spatial Scale             Individuals        Individuals       Individual plants will be inundated.
                          Definite           Definite          The inundation of the study area will result
Probability
                                                               in the loss of individuals.
Significance              Low                Low               Only plant occurring within the inundation


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                         negative           negative          zone will be affected. The loss of these
                                                              plants will not impact on the regional or
                                                              national populations of these species.


IMPACT IDENTIFIED:            COLONISATION OF DISTURBED AREA BY ALIEN INVASIVE
PLANT SPECIES

Description of the Project Risk
Exotic and invader species are able to out-compete local indigenous species in new habitats.
Invader plants are unable to penetrate pristine environments but are superior in colonising
disturbed areas. It is inevitable that disturbed areas will be created during the construction
phase of the project which can be colonised by these invader plants.

Analysis of the Project Risk
Site disturbance will be unavoidable and the risk of increasing the spread of exotic invader
plants is high. Two serious invaders have been recorded within the study area, namely
Hyptis suaveolens* (Horehound Weed) and Lantana camara* (Common Lantana).
Horehound Weed has only recently been recorded in Mozambique and has rapidly spread
and colonized large parts of north and central Mozambique. An alien invader control
programme must be implemented during the construction phase of the project.

Environmental Significance Rating
Mitigation could reduce the impact of alien invasive plants. Particular caution must be taken
to reduce the risk of further spreading the highly invasive Horehound Weed.

CRITERIA                   RATING             RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Medium             Low               If not mitigated, establishment of an alien
                         negative           negative          invasive plant species pool could
                                                              contaminate the surrounding area.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Construction      An alien invader control programme can
                                                              limit the impact of invaders to just the
                                                              construction phase.
Spatial Scale            Regional           Regional          If not mitigated, establishment of an alien
                                                              invasive     plant     species     pool       could
                                                              contaminate the surrounding area.
Probability              Definite           Unlikely          Spread of invasive plants are unavoidable
                                                              if not mitigated through an alien invader
                                                              control programme.
Significance             High               No affect         The invasion of alien plant species during
                         negative                             the construction phase could impact on
                                                              the ecological integrity of the area if not
                                                              mitigated.

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7.3.     TERRESTRIAL FAUNA
7.3.1.   Mammals
IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF INDIGENOUS MAMMAL POPULATIONS
Description of the Project Risk
Inundation of the study area will result in existing mammal populations or communities
radiating outwards in a response to habitat loss with subsequent competition occurring
between residents of intact habitat and displaced communities.

Analysis of the Project Risk
Certain species or rather the composition of communities can give an indication of the
ecological stage of an ecosystem. Communities that are in the early stages of succession
tend to be dominated by a few species. In the case of the mammal community composition
at the Nacala Dam, composition is dominated by a single species namely, Tatera
leucogaster. With the inundation of the study area it is likely that this type of community will
persist as the subsistence agriculture radiates out and will not change dramatically.

Environmental Significance Rating
The resident fauna species are sufficiently resilient to withstand extreme pressures occurring
within the study area. The inundation of the site is the secondary impact to the Nacala Dam
faunal population and no significant mitigation measures are deemed to be necessary.

CRITERIA                   RATING             RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         No affect          No affect         The amount of habitat that will be lost and
                                                              the faunal communities it is impacting
                                                              upon is negligible.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam is a permanent
                                                              impact.
Spatial Scale            Regional           Regional          The impacts caused by the inundation will
                                                              radiate outwards resulting in the regional
                                                              area being affected.
Probability              Definite           Definite          The impact on local faunal communities is
                                                              definite.
Significance             Low                Low
                         negative           negative


IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF MAMMALIAN POPULATIONS OF CONSERVATION
IMPORTANCE
Description of the Project Risk
The inundation of the study area could possibly have a negative impact on the mammalian
species of conservation importance.


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Analysis of the Project Risk
The increased inundation zone of the Nacala Dam is secondary to the extreme pressure
exhibited by the local communities surrounding the study site. Such human pressures are
represented by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, subsistence hunting, subsistence
agriculture and pollution. None of the species identified are of conservation importance.

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                    RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                          BEFORE              AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         No affect          No affect         No species of conservation concern was
                                                              found within the study area.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The loss of habitat will be permanent.
Spatial Scale            Natural            Natural           The impact will be limited to the study
                         habitat            habitat           area and more specifically the inundated
                                                              area.
Probability              Definite           Unlikely          It is highly unlikely that any mammalian
                                                              species of conservation concern will be
                                                              impacted upon.
Significance             No                 No                This impact is of no significance based on
                         significance       significance      the species identified.


7.3.2. Avifauna
IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF BIRD SPECIES OF CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE

Description of the Project Risk
The raising of the dam wall would result in the inundation of habitat and could potentially
impact upon avifaunal species of conservation importance.

Analysis of the Project Risk
Two species of global conservation importance were identified during the desktop study
namely the Madagascar Pond Heron and the Lesser Kestrel. Neither of these species were
detected during the avifaunal assessment although it does not mean that they would not
occur on a sporadic basis.

Water birds such as the Madagascar Pond Heron are a highly nomadic species that move
between suitable habitats. The increased inundation of the Nacala Dam might result in an
increase in suitable habitat for this species which might result in this species visiting the dam
site on occasion. The Lesser Kestrel is a Palearctic non-breeding migrant that visits the area
between October to May. The implementation of the dam wall raising might impact on the
species by inundation of large trees in which these birds roost. A survey of the area
indicated that it is unlikely that there would be any impact on this species. It is believed that

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neither of these bird species will be negatively impacted consequently, no mitigation
measures are required,

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                    RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                          BEFORE              AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         No effect          No effect         The impact has no significance on any
                                                              avifaunal species of conservation concern.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam                will be
                                                              permanent.
Spatial Scale            Study area         Study area        The impact is limited to the study area.
Probability              Probable           Unlikely          It is unlikely that any impact will occur.
Significance             No                 No                The impact has no significance on any
                         significance       significance      avifaunal species of conservation concern.


IMPACT IDENTIFIED: IMPACT ON THE LOCAL BIRD COMMUNITY DUE TO HABITAT
LOSS
Description of the Project Risk
When a habitat is destroyed, the plants, animals and other organisms that occupied the
habitat have a reduced carrying capacity which makes population decline and extinction of
species more likely. Perhaps the greatest threat to organisms and biodiversity is the process
of habitat loss.

Analysis of the Project Risk
Habitat loss has the potential to impact upon bird communities. However, the current
fragmentation of existing habitat through slash and burn subsistence agriculture is currently
the greatest threat to the existing local bird community. Throughout the survey it was
apparent that birds occurred at low densities in the areas that had been subjected to slash
and burn agriculture with remaining intact patches being relatively productive in terms of the
number of species found. Whilst taking this into account the majority of species occurring on
site are species that are able to adapt to a variety of different habitats (generalists) with
relatively few specialists being present. With the inundation of the study area and
subsequent radiation and spread of subsistence agriculture the specialist type species will be
impacted upon and pushed into smaller habitat enclaves. Subsequently the impact created
by the habitat loss will not affect the majority of the current community but rather the
specialist species.

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                    RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE                AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Low                Low               Currently large portions of the habitat that


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                         negative           negative          will be lost due to the inundation has been
                                                              altered through slash and burn and is
                                                              predominantly inhabited by generalist
                                                              species. The habitat loss will not impact
                                                              significantly upon them.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam                will be
                                                              permanent.
Spatial Scale            Regional           Regional          The extent is regional in that the impact of
                                                              habitat loss will radiate outside of the
                                                              study area.
Probability              Probable           Probable          It is extremely likely that this impact will
                                                              occur.
Significance             Low                Low               This impact will be of a low negative
                         negative           negative          nature.

7.3.3.   Herpetofauna
IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF HERPETOFAUNAL SPECIES OF CONSERVATION
IMPORTANCE
Description of the Project Risk
The loss of habitat may impact negatively on herpetofaunal species of conservation species
within the study area.

Analysis of the Project Risk
A total of 5 herpetofaunal species were identified through the desk top study as possibly
being of conservation importance. No evidence of the Transvaal Quill Snout Snake was
located and its presence is highly unlikely based on known distribution data. This species is
therefore unlikely to be impacted upon by the proposed activities at the Nacala Dam. No
evidence of the Zambezi-flapshell Turtle or the Natal Hinge-back Tortoise was located and
due to extreme human impacts, the species is unlikely to occur on the study site. Local
information gathered as well as direct observations suggest that fresh water Chelonians
(Turtles and Tortoises) seldom if ever occur within the Nacala Dam. These species are
therefore unlikely to be impacted upon by the proposed activities at the Nacala Dam.

The Nile Crocodile is considered to be a reptile of importance due to past history of pressure
as well as certain populations coming under increasing pressure due to dam expansion
activities which modify the breeding habitat of these animals which led to localised
extinctions. However, as no breeding population in Nacala Dam has existed for a number of
years, it is therefore unlikely that any crocodiles that might occur within the study area will be
impacted upon by the proposed activities at the Nacala Dam.

The Southern African Python is the region’s largest snake. It is catholic in its habitat
preference and is strongly associated with wetlands. However, due to their breeding habitats
and size, pythons are more specific in their preferred breeding habitat. Although the python’s


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known distribution overlaps with the study site, local information gathered suggests that it is
rarely encountered. However, they do periodically occur. Examination of the study site also
concludes that there is little if any potential breeding habitat within the inundation zone and a
negligible prey base to sustain a significant resident population. Therefore, although the
species probably does sometimes enter the study area, no mitigation is required.

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                    RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                          BEFORE              AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         No affect          No affect         No species of conservation importance
                                                              was encountered on site.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam                will be
                                                              permanent.
Spatial Scale            Study area         Study area        Any possible impacts will be limited to the
                                                              study area.
Probability              Probable           Probable          This will most probably occur.
Significance             No                 No                The inundation of the dam will have no
                         significance       significance      significant impact on any of the species.


7.3.4. Aquatic Fauna
IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF FISH SPECIES OF CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE
Description of the Project Risk
The loss of habitat may impact negatively on fish species of conservation species within the
study area.

Analysis of the Project Risk
The fish species sampled during the Ecological Water Requirement Determination was all
common and typical of what was expected at the Nacala Dam ecosystem. The abundance
of the species however, was low due to the impact of overfishing by the local communities.
No species sampled are of conservation importance.

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                   RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                         BEFORE              AFTER
                        MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact        No affect          No affect         No species of conservation importance
                                                             was encountered on site.
Temporal Scale          Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam will be
                                                             permanent.
Spatial Scale           Study area         Study area        Any possible impacts will be limited to
                                                             the study area.
Probability             Probable           Probable          This will most probably occur.



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Significance            No                 No                The inundation of the dam will have no
                        significance       significance      significant    impact    on    any of      the
                                                             species.


IMPACT IDENTIFIED:             LOSS OF AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE SPECIES OF
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE
Description of the Project Risk
The loss of habitat may impact negatively on aquatic invertebrate species of conservation
species within the study area.

Analysis of the Project Risk
The aquatic invertebrate taxa sampled during the EFR determination were all common and
typical of what was expected at the Nacala Dam ecosystem. The diversity and abundance in
the sampled taxa is relatively low which is indicative of a total river system that is under
severe ecological pressure. No members of taxa sampled are of conservation importance.

Environmental Significance Rating
CRITERIA                     RATING             RATING        RATIONALE FOR RATING
                             BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         No affect          No affect         No species of conservation importance
                                                              was encountered on site.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the dam                will be
                                                              permanent.
Spatial Scale            Study area         Study area        Any possible impacts will be limited to the
                                                              study area.
Probability              Probable           Probable          This will most probably occur.
Significance             No                 No                The inundation of the dam will have no
                         significance       significance      significant impact on any of the species.

7.4.     ECOSYSTEMS
IMPACT IDENTIFIED: LOSS OF HABITAT OF CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE
Description of the Project Risk
Ecosystems can be of any scale but in this study they are defined as habitats for floral and
faunal species. Three naturally occurring plant communities occur within the study area.
Consideration of the natural land-cover classes of these communities, it is estimated that
they make up approximately 53% of study area. These communities contain both
shrublands and closed woodlands. The raising of the dam wall will result in the inundation of
a portion of these areas.

Analysis of the Project Risks
The inundation is impossible to mitigate and therefore the impact of loss of habitat must be
assessed in terms of regional and local significance of ecosystems present. At a local scale


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the land-cover analysis has shown that the natural vegetation, although degraded, made up
approximately 53% of the study area. If the study area is extended by 200% to incorporate a
much larger area surrounding the Nacala Dam it is found that the natural vegetation make up
approximately 59% of the land-cover. It therefore suggests that the same shrubland and
woodland communities that occur on the Nacala Dam study area also occur further afield.

At a regional scale the study area falls within the broad vegetation type, Deciduous
Woodland Thicket – Dry Deciduous Miombo Savanna Woodland (Wild and Fernandes, 1968)
which extends up the coastline area for 300km and the affect of loosing 46ha of natural
vegetation around the Nacala Dam site becomes insignificant. It can therefore be
summarised that the loss of habitat and ecosystems is unavoidable, but the affect will be
negligible in the long-term.

Environmental Significance Rating
The use of land-cover analysis, together with a regional analysis of broad vegetation types,
provide for the assessment of potential impacts on ecosystems. This assessment is based
on the premise of using habitat and vegetation types as a surrogate for ecosystems.

CRITERIA                   RATING             RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Low                Low               Much habitat exists outside of the study
                         negative           negative          area and the expected permanent loss of
                                                              shrubland and woodland will have very
                                                              small impact on the ecosystems.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         The inundation of the area will be
                                                              permanent.
Spatial Scale            Study area         Study area        The inundation will be limited to the study
                                                              area.
Probability              Definite           Probable          If   mitigation measures      such   as
                                                              implementing an effective alien invader
                                                              programme during construction, the
                                                              impact on ecosystems will probably be
                                                              insignificant.
Significance             Low                Low               Much habitat exists outside of the study
                         negative           negative          area and the expected permanent loss of
                                                              shrubland and woodland will have very
                                                              small impact on the ecosystems.


IMPACT IDENTIFIED: FRAGMENTATION OF ECOSYSTEMS
Description of the Project Risk
A major way that habitat fragmentation affects biodiversity is by reduction in the amount of
available habitat for plants and animals. Habitat fragmentation invariably involves some
amount of habitat destruction. Mobile animals retreat into remnant patches of habitat. This

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can lead to crowding affects and increased competition. Since one of the major causes of
habitat destruction is agricultural development, habitat fragments are rarely representative
samples of the initial landscape.

Analysis of the Project Risk
The raising of the dam wall will result in a knock-on affect as local subsistence farmers
radiate further outwards away from the shore of the dam. Following the inundation of the
study area it is envisaged that a substantial amount of land outside the inundated area will be
converted from undisturbed habitat to areas of subsistence agriculture resulting in
fragmentation of vegetation which will have resultant impacts on the existing ecosystems.

Environmental Significance Rating
The existence of viable habitat is critical to the survival of any species and in many cases the
fragmentation of any remaining habitat can lead to local extinctions for certain species. A
possible mitigation measure to the problem of habitat fragmentation is to link the fragments
by persevering corridors linking native vegetation. Another possible mitigation measure is
the enlargement of small remnants of natural vegetation to increase the amount of interior
habitat. When looking at these two possible mitigation measures it must be taken into
account as to how practical they will be to implement on a local scale as in the case of the
Nacala Dam project.

CRITERIA                   RATING             RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Medium             Low               Much habitat exists outside the study area
                         negative           negative          and the expected permanent loss of
                                                              woodlands will have a very small impact
                                                              on the ecosystems.
Temporal Scale           Permanent          Permanent         Inundation and fluctuation of the water
                                                              levels are permanent.
Spatial Scale            Study area         Study area        The inundation will be limited to the study
                                                              area.
Probability              Definite           Definite          If   mitigation measures      such   as
                                                              implementing an effective alien invader
                                                              programme during construction, the
                                                              impact on ecosystems will probably be
                                                              insignificant.
Significance             Medium             Low               Much habitat exists outside the study area
                         negative           negative          and the expected permanent loss of
                                                              woodlands will have a very small impact
                                                              on the ecosystems.




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7.5.     ECOLOGICAL FLOW REQUIREMENTS
The EFR hydrology was undertaken using the Desktop Support System model (DSS) and
the REC. In this case, the Muecula River had a PES of a Class C, with the final REC also
being a Class C. The C Class REC was used in the DSS to simulate the EFR. The results of
the EFR determination, including the maintenance low flows (base flow) and the
maintenance high flows (floods and freshettes) require a release of 2.497 Mm3/ann (= 21.4%
MAR). Releases from the dam to support a downstream Class C EFR would cause a
decrease in yield for a 2m raised dam from 6.0 million m3/a to 4.3 million m3/a. The
implementation of the EFR has a significant impact on the yield of the system and
consideration should be given to postponing its implementation until alternative sources of
water are available to augment water supplies.

CRITERIA                   RATING             RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                           BEFORE             AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Moderate           Moderate          The Muecula River can be considered to
                                                              be in a moderately modified condition. The
                                                              river downstream of the dam since the
                                                              construction has been solely reliant on the
                                                              occasional flow out of the two radial
                                                              spillway gates on the dam structure during
                                                              the wet months of the year (January to
                                                              July) and on the leak in the dam wall. Flow
                                                              in Muecula River is semi-perennial.
Temporal Scale           Long Term          Long term         Water flow will mimic natural floods
Spatial Scale            Downstream         Downstream        Dam wall components will control volume
                         of Dam wall                          of water released
Probability              High               definite          Flows will be regulated by the new
                                                              spillway
Significance             Moderate           Low               Owing to semi-perennial nature of river,
                                                              flows are naturally thought to be linked to
                                                              rainfall.

7.6.     HYDROLOGY
The hydrological impact assessment has determined internationally acceptable Safety
Evaluation Flood (SEF) and the Recommended Design Flood (RDF) levels that were used in
the preliminary design of the spillway and the raised embankment. This will result in a safer
environment that will benefit the local and regional communities in the long term. It will also
lead to the economic growth in the immediate project area.

7.7.     HYDROCENSUS
Many of the groundwater supply sources used by the local communities dry up in the dry season
and leave the communities with little to no potable water source in the near vicinity. Water security
is non-existent in this area, in spite of the dam being close to it.

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CRITERIA                    RATING            RATING          RATIONALE FOR RATING
                          BEFORE              AFTER
                         MITIGATION         MITIGATION
Nature of impact         Medium             Medium            Currently      water      sources      are    not
                         negative           positive          sustainable and are known to dry up in the
                                                              dry season.
Temporal Scale           Seasonal
Spatial Scale            Communities        Communities       Communities within the dam area should
                         around the         around the        be supplied with a clean source of potable
                         dam                dam               water
Probability              Definite           Probable          Clean source is a recommendation.
Significance             High               High positive     Supplying the local communities with a
                         Negative                             clean potable source of water is an impact
                                                              of high significance


It is recommended the Nacala Dam Rehabilitation and the Nacala Water Supply Programme
consider providing a sustainable and clean source of potable water for the communities
surrounding the dam and this will result in a more sustainable water supply.

7.8.     SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The key issues and related impacts that were identified during the SIA are summarised in
Table 7-4 and described in detail in this section.

Table 7-4:       Summary of issues and related impacts identified during SIA

                Issue                                                      Impact
Issue 1: Job Creation and Impact 1.1: Job opportunities
Stimulation of Economic growth Impact 1.2: Expansion of the local skills base
                               Impact 1.3: Small business opportunities
                               Impact 1.4: Enhanced access to markets for local farmers
                               Impact 1.5: Economic development in the region
                               Impact 1.6: Return of Young People to the Area
                               Impact 1.7: Lack of labour for traditional livelihood
                               strategies
Issue 2: Loss of, or Reduced Impact 2.1: Loss of or reduced access to agricultural land
Access to Livelihoods        Impact 2.2: Loss of and reduced access to natural
                             resources
Issue   3:        Disruption        of Impact 3.1: Disruption of Homesteads
Homesteads
Issue 4: Reduced Access to Impact 4.1: Loss of access routes
Social Infrastructure
Issue 5: Social Conflict and Impact 5.1: Decreased emotional well being and sense of
Social Problems              place


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               Issue                                                        Impact
                                           Impact 5.2: Occupational adjustment problems
                                           Impact 5.3: Changes in the traditional livelihood strategy
                                           of households
                                           Impact 5.4: Community conflict as a result of differential
                                           benefits from the Project
                                           Impact 5.5: Tensions between outsiders and local
                                           communities
                                           Impact 5.6: Problems related to influx into the area.
Issue 6: Health, Safety and Impact 6.1: Increase in communicable diseases
Security                    Impact 6.2: Traffic safety risks
                            Impact 6.3: Security risks

7.8.1.    Issue 1: Job Creation and Stimulation of Economic Growth
Currently, the standard of living of the local communities is low. The baseline study shows
that agriculture, which does not provide reliable or sufficient income, is the main livelihood
strategy in the area, and formal employment opportunities are very limited. Local
communities have high expectations of the Project’s benefits in terms of job creation and
stimulating economic growth in the area.


During construction, employment opportunities for members of the local communities will
supplement family incomes, particularly for women-headed households. Small local
businesses could benefit from providing services such as the provision of construction
materials for construction housing and other needs, transport services, and food and drink for
the workforce.

Impact 1.1: Job opportunities
The construction phase will require a large number of artisans to provide specialist services
or skills not available locally. The long construction period, however, will lead to the transfer
of many of these skills to local workers. This will raise the income and material standard of
living of those employed, thus enhancing opportunities for the education of children,
improving their financial security and increasing access to agricultural extension and social
services. In order to optimise the benefits of employment several measures can be taken.
These include:


   •     A Labour Desk/Employment Committee should be established with the developer
         allowing representatives from the affected villages in the area to design and
         implement an employment enhancement plan, which ensures that recruitment is
         carried out in a fair and transparent way and that job creation opportunities are
         maximised.
   •     The IFC Performance Standard 2: labour and working conditions must be adhered to
         in developing labour policy and operational guidelines.


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   •   As far as possible some of the local people involved in the construction phase should
       be incorporated in the permanent staff for the operational phase.
   •   Attention should be paid to opportunities for women and disabled persons.
   •   Directly affected residents should be given first priority in job offers and training
       opportunities.
   •  As a result of generations of subsistence living local people have not been exposed
      to long term financial planning in their livelihoods. Therefore they may not be
      equipped to invest their wages in a sustainable manner. Assistance (community
      workshops/training) with household budgeting and sustainable investment would
      enhance the positive effect of their employment.
Impact 1.1: Job opportunities, Construction Phase
Construction Phase
Without Mitigation                                With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Short      Study   Definite Beneficial Moderately Very       High positive
term       area                        positive   beneficial

Impact 1.1: Job opportunities, Operational Phase
Operational Phase
Without Mitigation                                                           With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance                             Severity Significance
Scale       Scale
Long term Study     Definite    Beneficial High positive                     Very       Very     high
            area                                                             beneficial positive

Impact 1.2: Expansion of the local skills’ base
Local people employed in the Project will obtain technical in-service training, as well as
training in health and safety matters, which will improve their capacities. Experience from
projects in developing countries indicates that a transfer of health and safety skills acquired
by employees to the community at large may occur (i.e. employees improve health and
safety measures in their households, such as home and road safety awareness, and
personal and nutritional hygiene). This impact is important, in the current Project, where
health and safety standards in the local community are relatively low.

In order to optimise the development of skills, it is recommended that:
   •   A thorough health and safety policy, including operational health and safety
       management plans and training modules are developed for the Project;
   •   The health and safety policy and training includes community outreach programmes?

Impact 1.2: Expansion of the local skills’ base
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                                                   With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity                     Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale


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Long term Study          Probable        Slight     Moderate                Beneficial High positive
          area                           beneficial positive

Impact 1.3: Small business opportunities
The Project will require goods and services. These may be purchased locally, creating local
income generating opportunities. It needs to be noted however that only a small number of
local artisans and businesses have been identified in the area and that general business and
financial management skills are lacking in the local population.

To enhance the positive impact, the developer should develop a policy of local procurement
and outsourcing. To optimise small business opportunities, capacity building will be required.
This would involve:


   •   Conducting a skills audit to identify available skills
   •   Setting up a small business loan fund
   •   Conducting technical skills training (in particular agricultural skills)
   •   Conducting business skills training

The developer should employ qualified and experienced personnel to set up and run a
dedicated full time training and skills transfer operation. It should also assess the capacity of
NGOs active in the area to collaborate in their training programme.

Impact 1.3: Small business opportunities
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                                  With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial    Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Regional May         Beneficial Moderate  Very       High positive
                    occur                 positive  beneficial

Impact 1.4: Enhanced access to markets for local farmers
The baseline study revealed that marketing of local produce is hampered by long distances
to more affluent markets. The project construction phase will bring the markets to the area.
No mitigation is possible, or necessarily required, assuming local farmers take advantage of
the influx of potential purchasers.

Impact 1.4: Enhanced access to markets for local farmers
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    Probable Beneficial Moderate  N/A       N/A
           area                        positive

Impact 1.5: Economic development in the region

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It is envisaged that local people will be employed during the construction phase, and that
some of these people will be retained for operation of the rehabilitated dam. Increased
material wealth of employees will enhance their buying power, as such providing an impetus
for the development of a diversity of local businesses and the increase in demand for local
agricultural produce. No mitigation is possible or required.

Impact 1.5: Economic development in the region
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                                      With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial    Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Regional Definite    Beneficial High positive N/A       N/A

Impact 1.6: Return of Young People to the Area
As mentioned in the impact above, it is envisaged that a substantial number of people will be
employed (full time or temporary) during the operational phase. This will create opportunities
for young people, who have left the area as a result of lack of economic opportunities to
return and join their families. This would benefit the young people themselves as well as the
reunited families. Local residents, including those returning from outside should be prioritised
for employment

Impact 1.6: Return of Young People to the Area
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    Probably Severe  High         Beneficial High positive
           area                     negative

Impact 1.7: Lack of labour for traditional livelihood strategies
A substantial number of people could be required for the project. This could lead to a loss of
labour for the agricultural and other traditional tasks of the local population. This is
exacerbated by the already existing shortage of young labour for agriculture (i.e. young
people have left the area in search of employment). This situation may lead to decreased
food security. To avoid decreases in food security the following mitigation measures are
proposed:


   •   Encourage young people from local families who have left the area to return;
   •   Assist local populations with agricultural extension services to increase their yields
       and decrease labour intensity;
   •   Encourage communal food growing projects (i.e. women projects) for the local market
       (food can be purchased by those employed).

Impact 1.7: Lack of labour for traditional livelihood strategies
Construction and Operational Phases

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Without Mitigation                                                            With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance                              Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    Probably Beneficial Moderate                               Very       Very     high
           area                        positive                               beneficial positive

7.8.2.    Issue 2: Loss of or Reduced Access to Livelihood Assets
The raising and rehabilitation of the dam wall will result in an increased inundation area,
which in turn will result in the loss of terrestrial vegetation. A considerable number of
machambas are located in the potential inundation area, and the loss of machambas is likely
to be in the order of 20 to 30. The workforce will put pressure on natural resources such as
fuel-wood, forest products and fauna, and therefore the collection of firewood, forest
products, hunting and fishing by the workforce should not be allowed.

The Project will need land for its construction camp. This land is currently used by local
people for their needs. As described above, access to land and resources derived from that
land are of vital importance for the livelihood of the local communities, who are vulnerable as
a result of poverty and lack of access to income-generating activities. Loss of land and
consequently access to food and other resources could lead to a decreased standard of
living and decreased levels of nutrition which, in turn, leads to increased levels of morbidity.
In particular the very young, the elderly and the infirm would be affected.

The various impacts related to loss of land are described below. A critical recommendation
required to mitigate impacts associated with livelihoods is the development of a
comprehensive Resettlement Action Plan, in compliance with IFC PS 5.

Impact 2.1: Loss of or reduced access to agricultural land
Most people living in the affected area are heavily reliant on subsistence agriculture for food
security. As a result of poor farming practices they need access to relatively large areas of
land in order to rotate fields and obtain sufficient yields. Currently, most people do not
achieve full food security. The Project may cause a further threat to food security for those
households which cultivate land in the area earmarked for the Project. It is estimated that 30
machambas will no longer be available for cultivation (Appendix H). To mitigate against the
loss of agricultural land a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) needs to be developed and
executed. In terms of loss of agricultural land the RAP should include the following:


   •     a list and description of the affected people (these should include landowners and
         non landowners who rely on local land for their livelihoods);
   •     an inventory of affected peoples’ assets (considering both land owners and non
         landowners);
   •     potentially the identification of suitable alternative land of the same productive
         potential;


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   •   a livelihood restitution programme (with special attention for vulnerable groups);
   •   a strategy for community engagement during preparation and execution of the RAP;
   •   the formation of a compensation working committee, consisting of representatives of
       the District, the bairro, the landowners, non landowners and women in the villages
       affected, to develop the compensation;
   •   the timing of the start of the Project should be such that it causes least disruption to
       the agricultural seasonal calendar. The seasonal calendar provided in this report may
       assist the developer to plan activities;
   •   additional food (or financial compensation) may need to be provided during the period
       when affected people have no adequate access to crops. Most, if not all,
       developments will have to start in the dry season and farmers must be allowed to
       harvest standing crops before any development can take place.

Impact 2.1: Loss of or reduced access to agricultural land
Construction and Operation Phases
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    Probably Very    High         Moderate Moderate
           area              severe


Impact 2.2: Loss and reduced access to natural resources
From the SIA, it can be seen that natural resources are an important aspect of local peoples’
livelihoods in terms of income generation (i.e. charcoal, construction wood) and food (wild
fruits, fish) and fuel wood. The Project may lead to loss of access to these natural resources,
which will impact on the standard of living and food security of the local population.

To mitigate this impact the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) should include the following:
   •   a list and description of the affected communities;
   •   a description of the lost resources of the affected people;
   •   identification of suitable alternative access to these resources or compensation. This
       should include the development of woodlots to ensure sufficient access to fuel wood
       and potentially a sustainable charcoal production programme;
   •   a strategy for community engagement during preparation and execution of the RAP,
       ensuring that all stakeholder groups affected by loss of natural resources are
       included;
   •   it is recommended that harvesting of ethno-botanicals (e.g. wood) by the local people
       is facilitated before commencement of the Project.

Impact 2.2: Loss and reduced access to natural resources
Construction and Operation Phases
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance

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Scale     Scale
Long term Study           May             Severe        Moderate            Slight         Low
          area            occur
7.8.3.    Issue 3: Disruption of Homesteads
Impact 3.1: Disruption of Homesteads
The Nacala Dam project may involve physical and economic resettlement as a result of the
raising of the dam wall, expansion of the reservoir, and the temporary or permanent re-
routing of the N12 highway. Resettlement may be caused by:


   •     the detour road, whether temporary or permanent;
   •     the borrow pits;
   •     the enlarged footprint of the reservoir caused by raising the dam height;
   •     the rehabilitation of the dam and its associated works including the outlet works, the
         spillway, the fish way, and the embankment rehabilitation.

Mozambican environmental law underscores citizens’ rights to information, justice and
compensation if any environmental entitlements, including the loss of crops or profits and the
temporary or definitive interruption of economic activities, are infringed upon. International
good practice entails assisting displaced person in their efforts to improve their standards of
living or at least restore them to pre-project levels.

Resettlement (economic or physical displacement) may involve one or more of the following:
   •     land acquisition;
   •     other asset acquisition (e.g., homes or other physical structures, trees, crops);
   •     physical relocation;
   •     loss of access to resources (e.g. grazing lands, pastures, fishing grounds or collection
         areas for medicinal plants, weaving materials or similar resources).

A fundamental requirement of resettlement activities is to restore, at least, standards of living
and preferably improve the livelihoods of those households, families, extended families and
individuals who are losing land, assets or access to resources due to the implementation of a
project. Compensation for lost assets can be monetary, in-kind (e.g., new land, housing and
social infrastructure, work places or other replacement for lost assets) or a combination of
both. Compensation to address economic rehabilitation can be in the form of restoration of
conditions for pursuit of economic activities or training for new vocations where the original
source of livelihood cannot be restored.

Several additional important principles of resettlement activities relate to consultation and the
form of compensation payments. Project-affected persons (PAPs) are to be:
   •     informed about their options and rights pertaining to resettlement;




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   •   consulted on, offered choices among, and provided with technically and economically
       feasible resettlement alternatives;
   •   provided with prompt and effective compensation at full replacement cost for losses
       of assets attributable directly to the project.

When land taken is the primary source of income and livelihood, PAPs should be provided
with land for which a combination of productive potential, locational advantages, and other
factors is at least equivalent to the advantages of the land taken. In some situations, moving
assistance or allowances and compensation for lost income during the move and the cost of
re-establishing a livelihood (for example, prior to planting a new crop) will be provided. When
new housing or machambas are more distant from each other than prior to resettlement,
interim transportation allowances may be required in order to avoid loss of income. The RAP
will describe the entire compensation package as applicable to the various situations of
PAPs and will include a grievance process which includes informal as well as formal or
administrative measures to deal with disputes when they arise. The RAP will also include a
detailed budget and description of the particular mechanisms for any monetary
compensation.

Affected parties that have formal title or ownership rights over the land or asset are entitled to
compensation for the land and any improvements upon that land. Those who are living on or
using land for which they do not have a recognizable legal right or claim (for example,
“squatters” on public land within an existing right of way or tenant farmers) are entitled to
resettlement assistance, such as compensation for the improvements upon that land (homes,
market stalls, crops,), but not for the land itself.

To mitigate against this impact the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) needs to include:


   •   a list and description of the affected people;
   •   a list of assets of affected people;
   •   identification of a suitable host area;
   •   an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of any the host areas identified,
       unless the displaced households can be absorbed into the existing community;
   •   accepted compensation for lost dwellings (may be reconstruction of replacement
       housing);
   •   a livelihood restitution programme;
   •   transitional support during resettlement.

Impact 3.1: Disruption of Homesteads
Construction and Operational Phases
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale


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Medium       Study       May             Severe        Moderate            Slight         Low
term         area        occur

7.8.4.   Issue 4: Reduced Access to Social Infrastructure
From the baseline it can be seen that the social infrastructure in the area is poorly developed
with a shortage of schools, clinics, and commercial enterprises. There is a commitment from
the Project not to affect existing social infrastructure and this commitment is feasible.
However, currently local residents often travel long distances to receive social services. A
disruption of the current roads system may exacerbate access to social infrastructure.

Impact 4.1: Loss of access routes
The use of land for the Project may temporarily cause inconvenience with regards to access
to travel routes and between homesteads and social infrastructure, resulting in people being
cut off from resources and traditional authority networks, and potentially affecting their
physical safety. Peoples’ loss of access routes may have an important negative impact on
their sense of wellbeing and standard of living.

To mitigate this impact the use of the routes being affected will need to be assessed and
alternative routes, fulfilling the functions lost, will need to be created. Alternatively additional
social infrastructure will need to be provided. In the no-go option residents would not benefit
from an upgrade of alternative routes. Despite these mitigation strategies, it is anticipated
that the development will be disruptive to peoples’ way of life, and may increase the
distances they need to walk to get to certain areas.

Impact 4.1: Loss of access routes
Construction and Operational Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    Probable Severe  Moderate     Slight    Moderate
           area
7.8.5.   Issue 5: Social Conflict and Social Problems
The Project may result in temporary changes in the social systems and structures in the
area. The importance of identifying these changes is not to try to prevent them, but rather to
understand where project-related changes will impact negatively on the social environment
and to manage those changes.

The income generating and development opportunities provided by the Project may create
several indirect negative social impacts. Project employees may experience problems in
terms of adjusting to formal employment and increased income. Tensions and conflicts may
arise between different groupings within the local community as a result of perceived unequal
access to opportunities created by the Project, and tensions may equally develop between


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the local community and externally sourced Project staff. These various tensions may lead to
an increase in social problems in the local area. The specific negative social impacts are
described below.

Impact 5.1: Decreased emotional well being and sense of place
Changes in well being and in ‘sense of place’ are difficult to measure. As a result these
impacts are often ignored. However the initiation of the Project will most probably have an
impact on peoples’ feeling of security and well being. In discussions with landowners, land
was repeatedly identified as their strength and security for the present and the future. The
potential loss of agricultural land will change peoples’ perspectives on their livelihoods and
the possible future for their children. In other words the social equilibrium will be disturbed.

To mitigate this impact ongoing communication between the project and the communities is
recommended throughout the process. This should be iterated in the Stakeholder
Engagement Plan (SEP).

Impact 5.1: Decreased emotional well being and sense of place
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Study   Probable Moderate Moderate    Moderate Low
term       area

Impact 5.2: Occupational adjustment problems
Local peoples’ current economic activities differ substantially from formal employment. Their
work schedule is flexible with a large degree of freedom, their activities seasonal, their
responsibilities shared and their income irregular and pursued when in need. Direct and/or
indirect employment by the Project requires a very different approach to work and may lead
to adaptation problems in employees. These include:


   •   failure to adapt to corporate culture and earning of wages;
   •   failure to adapt to regular income (failure to budget earnings);
   •   increase in alcoholism or other drug use and extra-marital sex – leading to marital
       problems.

To mitigate this impact, the capacity of local employees to adjust to a different, if temporary,
occupational lifestyle needs to be developed. . This could include:


   •   organising community workshops to help households improve budgeting skills;
   •   encouraging and facilitating the use of banking facilities for those people who trade in
       Nacala and can access the facilities;



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   •   organising community awareness campaigns in terms of alcoholism and sexual
       behaviour (especially focused on the youth);
   •   organising employee workshops to increase awareness of employer’s expectations
       and to assist workers with adaptation to formal employment;
   •   developing employment conditions which are sensitive to the local culture;
   •   Organising workshops in partnership with relevant NGOs.

However, this impact will be difficult to mitigate.

Impact 5.2: Occupational adjustment problems
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Study   May       Moderate Moderate   Moderate Low
term       area    occur

Impact 5.3: Changes in the traditional livelihood strategy of households
The change in households from a traditional livelihood to a livelihood where one or more
household member, even if it is only for a short time, has formal employment and ready
cash, may besides having a positive impact also result in negative impacts. These include:


   •   unfavourable changes in nutritional regime (purchased food instead of fresh
       produce);
   •   marital problems resulting from changed status of the spouse (especially if women
       are employed)

This indirect impact is difficult to mitigate, since the Project does not have a direct influence
on local households, nor a direct responsibility for household dynamics. However the
following mitigation measures can be put in place:


   •   running gender workshops with local communities;
   •   running health and nutrition workshops with communities (especially women) to
       encourage continuation of farming/gardening activities.

Impact 5.3: Changes in the traditional livelihood strategy of households
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Study   May       Moderate Low        Slight    Low
term       area    occur

Impact 5.4: Community conflict as a result of differential benefits from the Project


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The baseline shows that the standard of living in the local communities is low and
employment almost non existent. The Project may lead to community conflicts. These
include conflict within households and between households resulting from:


   •   increased economic disparities between those with jobs and those without;
   •   increased power of the landowning families versus the landless;
   •   changes in values and changes in ‘way of life’ of those with jobs;
   •   changes in power relations between employed youth and elders;
   •   perceived unfair or preferential recruitment strategies;
   •   perceived unfair compensation for land and other assets (this issue will be particularly
       sensitive);
   •   corruption of local officials and leadership.

Ensuring fair access to the benefits of the Project, as well as transparent and effective
communication with local stakeholders (development and implementation of a
comprehensive stakeholder engagement plan) will be required to manage this impact.

Communications should include:


   •   the labour and local hiring policy;
   •   the community development plan;
   •   the resettlement action plan;
   •   a grievance mechanism;
   •   a Community Relations Officer will need to be appointed to monitor the potential
       problems and to address them through a dedicated community structure;
   •   regular contact with traditional leaders will need to be maintained to ensure
       transparency of the Project’s activities.

Impact 5.4: Community conflict as a result of differential benefits from the Project
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                                  With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial    Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Regional Probable Sever     High         Moderate Moderate
term

Impact 5.5: Tensions between outsiders and local communities
The educational level and the skills base in the area are very poor. The Project will require
the importation of skilled personnel from outside of the region, who will reside in the
construction area on site. Outsiders could be expats or Mozambicans from other provinces.
This may lead to tensions and conflict between the local population and non-locals due to
differences in wealth, differential access to facilities (schools, clinics and entertainment),
different cultural norms and political conviction and the feeling that outsiders ‘steal’ jobs of

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local people. Already, local residents have expressed the fear that they will not be
adequately considered for job opportunities.

The following mitigation measures should be considered:


   •   development and implementation of a transparent recruitment and employment
       policy;
   •   keeping regular and consistent information regarding employment and other
       opportunities and constraints in the public domain, in collaboration with local leaders
       and government officials;
   •   implementing a training programme to build capacity in local people;
   •   development of a workers’ social code of conduct;
   •   development and implementation of a compulsory community induction course for all
       outsiders, contractors and sub contractors entering the local community. This code
       should include policies concerning interactions with communities and government
       officials, protection of community assets, STD prevention, and other issues.

Impact 5.5: Tensions between outsiders and local communities
Construction and Operational Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Study   Probable Severe  Moderate     Slight    Low
term       area

Impact 5.6: Problems related to influx into the area
Poverty and lack of employment opportunities are endemic in the whole region. The Project
will definitely attract outsiders in search of employment, or attracted by potential indirect
business opportunities. This may create several problems including:


   •   additional stress on social and physical infrastructure;
   •   additional stress on agricultural land and natural resources;
   •   disruption of the local social equilibrium;
   •   increase in social problems such as crime and prostitution.

Mitigating influx of people is difficult since the Project does not really have direct control over
this. However, it is recommended that the Project:


   •   together with the local authority structures, develop a strategy to deal with the influx
       of outsiders and a monitoring system of influx and related problems would need to be
       developed;
   •   maintains good communications with the local security forces;



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   •     collaborates with the district to evaluate the local development plan in terms of
         increased need for social facilities;
   •     contributes to the local social infrastructure as part of their Community Development
         Plan.

Impact 5.6: Problems related to influx into the area.
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                                  With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial    Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Regional Definite   Severe  High         Moderate Moderate
term
7.8.6.    Issue 6: Health, Safety and Security
Some important health and safety impacts of the Project are summarised below.
Impact 6.1: Increase in communicable diseases
The potential influx of people combined with poor housing, inadequate sanitary facilities and
lack of prevention measures in the area may result in an increased prevalence of diseases
such as malaria, cholera and HIV amongst the local population (including local labour force).
Similarly, the use of borrow pits may lead to depressions in the topography which could
become breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

To mitigate this impact the following is recommended:


   •     conducting a full epidemiological study in the area;
   •     developing a Community Health and Safety plan based on the outcomes of the health
         study (Health Impact Assessment);
   •     developing and implementing a clear HIV/AIDS policy for employees, contractors and
         suppliers (this should include relations between the migrant workers and local
         communities);
   •     engaging specialised NGOs to run ongoing community awareness workshops on safe
         sex and HIV/Aids (Involve employees and all community stakeholder but specifically
         target local women {prostitutes} and youth organisations);
   •     developing and implementing a malaria prevention programme;
   •     engaging specialised NGOs to run hygiene workshops with local women;
   •     collaborating with the local health facilities in term of quick responses to any
         outbreaks of disease.
   •     Borrow areas are to be appropriately rehabilitated (refer to EMP).

Impact 6.1: Increase in communicable diseases
Construction and Operational Phase
Without Mitigation                                          With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial            Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance


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Scale     Scale
Long term Regional May                     Severe        Moderate            Moderate Low
                   occur

Impact 6.2: Traffic safety risks
There are currently no large projects in the immediate area and concentrated road traffic is
relatively low. Vehicle and pedestrian traffic will increase as a result of Project activities, as
well as an influx of people. There may also be Project infrastructure and project activities
which carry safety risks. This may increase the potential for accidents.

It is recommended that the Project develops a Community Health and Safety Plan, which
includes traffic safety rules and which ensures that infrastructure is adequately fenced off
and that people in the affected area are made aware of the safety risks of their operation
(notice boards and information workshops). Safety guards may need to be employed in
certain construction phases. The Project will also need to develop a Community Emergency
Preparedness Plan in case the Project causes the need for an emergency response.

Impact 6.2: Traffic safety risks
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Medium     Study   May       Severe Moderate     Severe    Low
term       area    occur

Impact 6.3: Security risks
The Project will need to employ security guards to protect project infrastructure and activities.
It is important that these security guards do not pose a threat to the local community in terms
of their behaviour. The security guards should preferably be employed from within the local
community. To ensure the appropriate behaviours of security guards, it is important to:


   •   enforce the adherence to the Voluntary principles amongst recruited guards;
   •   develop criteria for the recruitment of guards (in collaboration with local leaders);
   •   involve local leaders in the assessment of selected candidates for the position of
   •   guards;
   •   develop a code of conduct for guards;
   •   Inform the population about the responsibilities and code of conduct of the guards.

Impact 6.3: Security risks
Construction and Operation Phase
Without Mitigation                               With Mitigation
Temporal Spatial Certainty Severity Significance Severity Significance
Scale      Scale
Long term Study    May       Severe Moderate     Severe    Low
           area    occur

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7.9.      HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT
A summary of the main health determinants and impacts identified during the HIA are listed in Table 7-5. The environmental health areas (EHAs)
include communicable diseases linked to housing design; vector related diseases; soil, water and waste-related diseases; sexually transmitted
diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS; Food and Nutrition-related issues; Incidents and Accidents; Hazardous Materials, Noise and Malodors; Social
Determinants of Health; and Health Systems Issues.

Table 7-5:       Summary of Environmental Health Areas including Health Determinants and Health Impacts

   Impacts                                                                       Health Determinants                                                Health Impact
EHA #1 – Communicable Diseases linked to Housing Design
                    Housing in the area is basic and mostly constructed from traditional materials. Rooms are poorly ventilated. Overcrowding
                    may occur. Indoor cooking is performed mainly with wood/charcoal. Housing was generally affordable. Improvement of
                    housing was described as a priority project in many households
                    TB is a major public health challenge although to a lesser degree than the southern provinces. There is no diagnostic
                    capability available in Muhecule and potential cases are referred for diagnosis and management. HIV/AIDS prevalence is
Transmission
                    important co-factor for increased TB incidence.
of
                    The project may increase risks mainly through potential in-migration. Make shift housing and housing inflation may increase
communicable                                                                                                                                          Moderate
                    overcrowding. This could give rise to increased transmission of TB and other viral and bacterial disease spread through close
disease due to
                    contact.
overcrowding
                    The construction camp workforce accommodation could place pressure on local housing through potential for rental income.
                    Overcrowding in the locally resident workforce must be prevented.
                    Origin of workforce is important as diseases can be introduced into communities. Higher TB prevalence’s and potentially drug
                    resistant TB strains must be avoided from employees from other locations (China, Philippines South Africa and southern
                    Mozambique).
EHA #2 – Vector related diseases
                    Malaria is the biggest public health threat.
                    Knowledge and health seeking behaviour was adequate but not consistent- traditional medicine still played a role. Prevention
Malaria                                                                                                                                                 High
                    activities were limited to bed nets with very low ownership and utilization. Nacala Port has more integrated approaches
                    absent in Nacala-A-Velha.



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   Impacts                                                                        Health Determinants                                                    Health Impact
                     Project is unlikely to play a significant role in the transmission of malaria in the short to medium term. The construction and
                     associated land use activities may increase vector breeding sites but these will be localized. Increasing the height of the dam
                     wall will not increase vector breeding through a large water surface. In upstream areas or in areas where emergent vegetation
                     can grow along the banks this may be the reverse and there may be an increase in activity.
                     Change of land use linked to subsistence agriculture may influence vector proliferation if located closer to settlements. In-
                     migration may increase parasite burden in community and change environment through makeshift housing developments and
                     town planning.
                     Malaria burden may be reduced at the local level through positive effects of the dam.
                     No other arthropod related disease is expected from the project.
EHA #3 – Soil, Water and Waste-related Diseases
Access to safe       There is an existing limited access to improved water supplies. This is in terms of quality and accessibility. Diarrheal, eye and
drinking water       skin diseases are common.
                     There are minimal organized sanitation facilities. Indiscriminate defecation is common and there is a high degree of sharing of
Sanitation and       latrines. Soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis are highly prevalent in area. This is linked to sanitation and waste
waste                management.
                                                                                                                                                             High
management           There is the potential for inequality in services if the intended recipients (Nacala Port) receive all the benefits of improved
                     water supplies and the rural communities (Muhecule) do not.
                     Decaying organic material, total suspended and potential increased pollution in the dam water are potential impacts. Algae
                     blooms may have a health impact
                     In-migration and pressure on limited services may have an impact.
EHA #4 – Sexually-transmitted Infections, including HIV/AIDS
Transmission         Significant problem. Opportunistic sex work is common and accepted practice. Women and children are extremely vulnerable.
of STIs      and     Muhecule serves as truck stop for drivers to Nacala Port.
HIV/AIDS             HIV/AIDS prevalence is increasing in area. STIs are common.
                     Awareness is adequate but prevention activities are extremely limited and high risk sexual behavior predominates. Stigma                High
                     toward HIV/AIDS and STI was high but discrimination appeared low.
                     Project may lead to an increase in casual sexual relationships and support existing commercial sex activities. More
                     disposable income will be available at the local level through direct and indirect opportunities. In-migration may play a role.


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      Impacts                                                                     Health Determinants                                                Health Impact
                      Regional growth and expansion may add additional burden but this will be a regional more than a local issue.



EHA #5 – Food and Nutrition-related Issues
Malnutrition          Food security was reported as an existing concern especially in February and March. Lack of food, availability of a balanced
and        food       diet and poor feeding practices all play a role. Access to land is important to sustaining local livelihoods.
security              Rising dam levels and access to land may affect current wetland machamba’s. Downstream communities rely on water
                                                                                                                                                         High
                      supply for manual crop irrigation.
                      Malnutrition is a health concern in the district and nutritional support programs have addressed these. Good local data on
                      stunting (chronic under nourishment) is not available.
EHA #7 – Accidents/Injuries
Road        traffic   The community is located on the main road between Nacala and Nampula and thus exposed high loads of traffic.
accidents             The construction activity will add to this traffic and slow moving vehicles on the main road may pose risks for road traffic
                      accidents.
Dam Safety            Use of heavy machinery in and around the community also poses risks especially to children.
                                                                                                                                                         High
                      There is a risk of dam failure with the potential for flooding in downstream communities.
Work       related    Naïve local workforce with limited health and safety exposure. Workplace accidents and physical risks are most significant.
illness       and     Limited emergency response activity. Limited health care services in area to manage workplace injuries.
injuries              Other health risks related to construction will be addressed in occupational health risk assessment.
EHA #9 – Hazardous Materials, Noise and Malodors
Air    pollution,     Exposure to dust with PM10 is the major air borne pollutant risk from vehicle entrained dust. S02 and CO from construction
noise    and          vehicles should play no role. There are unlikely to be any chemical risks of note.                                                 Low
malodors
EHA #10 – Social Determinants of Health
Domestic              Domestic violence is a challenge in area linked to alcohol and substance abuse. Disposable income may increase this.
violence,             Women and children are vulnerable groups.
                                                                                                                                                       Moderate
alcohol       and     Influx may play a role.
drugs.



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   Impacts                                                                       Health Determinants                                                  Health Impact
Social              There are a number of factors that may effects social cohesion and general quality of life/well being. Resettlement and ability
cohesion and        to access different communities after increased reservoir size may lead to social disruption.                                       Moderate
well-being          Influx may play a role.
EHA #12 – Health Systems Issues
Health              Adequate health services at local level. Limited referral capability results in delays for transfers.
                                                                                                                                                          Low
systems             In-migration may place stress on existing health service.




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8.       PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS
A Public Participation Process (PPP) is required by the EIA Regulations for the
Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Decree No. 45/2004 of 29 September 2004).
The proposed PPP has been developed based on the General Directive for the Public
Participation Process in the EIA Process (Diploma No. 130/2006 of 19 July). The approach
for the EIA phase PPP is as follows and does not differ significantly from that followed during
the EPDA Phase:

8.1.     NOTIFICATION OF INTERESTED & AFFECTED PARTIES
Interested & Affected Parties (I&APs) include individuals or organisations that are directly
affected by the project or are simply interested in being part of the EIA process. For the
purposes of this EIA, 5 key stakeholder categories have been established as follows:

     1. National Government Departments and/or Authorities
     2. Regional and Provincial Government Department and/or Authorities
     3. Local authorities and Traditional Leadership Structure via the Community Council
        System
     4. Local communities and directly affected households
     5. Local Environmental and Community based Non-Governmental Based Organizations

The notification process will include direct phone calls, email and post for individuals and
organisations with sufficient resources. Notification of local communities and directly affected
households will be via the local authority and traditional authority structures.

All planned meetings will be advertised in national and local newspapers and radio stations
fifteen (15) days prior to the planned meetings.

8.2.     WORKSHOP AND MEETING
Consultation with each of the 5 major stakeholder groups will be primarily via a series of
meetings and workshops for national and provincial organisations. Local communities will be
consulted via community meetings and direct interviews.

All workshops, meetings and interviews will be minuted and included in the Public
Consultation Report, or Specialist Studies. A register will be taken of all I&APs who are
consulted and will include name, address, stakeholder group and signatures.

All comments and representations made will be minuted and included in the Public
Consultation Report. This will include any issues, comments and suggestions related to the
project as well as any discussions, responses or agreements made.

8.3.     PUBLIC CONSULTATION REPORT
A Public Consultation Report will be prepared as part of the EIA. This report will include:

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   •     Introduction
   •     Interested and affected parties register
   •     Issues and representations raised
   •     Response to issues and representations raised
   •     Resolutions and compromises reached
   •     Synthesis and conclusions

8.4.      PUBLIC REVIEW OF DOCUMENTATION
The EIA Report will be made available at public venues for public review. To facilitate open
communication, the results of this report will also be presented at the various public
meetings.

8.5.      PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS UNDERTAKEN TO DATE
This chapter provide a summary of the PPP undertaken to date (EPDA Phase).

8.5.1.    Awareness Building
In initial Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) list was established that included national,
provincial, district and local authorities that were considered either directly or indirectly
affected by the proposed project or were able to identify other relevant I&APs.

To promote the dissemination of information and to build awareness of the project, letters of
introduction and a Background Information Document (BID) was delivered to the key I&APs.
The letter of introduction and the BID provided a short description of the project, potential
environmental and social impacts, the proposed public meetings and the contact details
where more information could be obtained.

In addition, advertisements were placed in the Noticias and Savanna newspapers 15 days
prior to the public meetings informing potential I&APs of the availability of a Draft EPDA
report and the public meeting schedule.

Radio advertisements were also placed in one national (Antena Nacional) and one provincial
radio station (Emissor Provincial de Nampula). These advertisements repeated the
notification of public meetings.

Finally, to allow the maximum dissemination of information, copies of the draft EPDA reports
were made available, in hardcopy, at 10 venues in Maputo, Nampula, Nacala Port and
Nacala-a-Velha (Nacala Dam). Digital copies were made available on the Jeffares & Green
and MCA-Moçambique websites.

8.5.2.    Issues and Concerns raised
Consultation was provided via public meetings at a number of venues including Maputo,
Nampula, Nacala Port and Nacala Dam. Public meeting provided suitable forums from which


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national, provincial, district and local I&APs were able to voice their opinions. A register was
kept and minutes were taken for all meetings.

By far the highest attendance, in terms of the public meetings, were the local community
meetings held at Nacala Dam. This was expected as the local communities would be directly
impacted and would therefore have a significant interest in the project. The attendance at
national and provincial level was low, which is likely attributed to the distance from the
project.

The local community meetings were split into two – men and women were separated to allow
both groups to voice their opinions and concerns openly. Approximately 300 people attended
these two meetings.

A number of issues and concerns were raised during the public meetings which were
recorded in the Public Consultation Report and appended to the EPDA. These are
summarised into the following major themes:

   1. Impact on the ecology: I&APs were concerned in terms of how the proposed project
      would impact on the local ecology including terrestrial flora and fauna, and also in
      terms of the local riverine function.

       It was responded that an Ecological Assessment study would be undertaken as part
       of the EIA. However, much of the area has been transformed by either the
       establishment of the dam or by human action (farming, houses etc.) therefore much
       of the local ecology has already been transformed.

   2. Impact on riverine function: Linked to the previous point, I&APs were concerned in
       terms of how the Muecula River would function once Nacala Dam has been
       rehabilitated.

       It was responded that an Ecological Flow Requirements study would be undertaken
       to determine the amount of water that needs to be released to allow for the Muecula
       River to continue functioning. It was noted that the river is non-perennial (i.e. dries up
       in the drier winter season), however the failure of the spillways has allowed for
       continued water releases for the last seven years.

   3. Water quality and pollution: I&APs were concerned in terms of the current water
      quality and the potential for water pollution during the rehabilitation of Nacala Dam.

       It was responded that the rehabilitation of Nacala Dam would not result in significant
       water pollution. The primary concern of I&APs seems to be the impact on water
       quality by the local communities who use the dam for washing, fishing and drinking.

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4. Community access to water: This was the dominant concern voiced by local
   communities, whom were concerned about the lack of water available at present, and
   whether this would get worse during construction. Also there has been some conflict
   between the local communities and the dam managers in terms of access to water.

   It was responded that neither the proponent, nor the project team want to impact
   negatively on the local communities and their water supply. Access to water during
   and after construction is seen as an important issue that will need to be addressed in
   the EIA.

5. Resettlement: The loss of homesteads and machambas was raised as a concern by
   local community members. While this was raised as a serious concern, the project
   team considers the level of controversy in this respect to be low.

   It was responded that some households and machambas would need to be resettled
   or compensated for. It was stated that a Resettlement Policy Framework was being
   developed to determine who would be impacted and how the resettlement and
   compensation should be undertaken.

   The local community was asked to openly engage and assist the resettlement
   specialist team to ensure that all affected households are registered and are allowed
   to engage in the resettlement process.

6. Community investment: The communities around Nacala Dam have little
   community infrastructure (water, clinics, markets etc.) and have requested that the
   proponent explore the option of aiding them in developing local infrastructure notably
   in terms of piped water, health infrastructure and markets.

   It was responded that the proponent would like to ensure that the local communities
   are not impacted negatively, but also benefit from the project. The request for
   community investment would be discussed with the proponent.

7. Employment: A concern for the communities around Nacala Dam was the provision
   of employment. This was raised at both local community meetings where the women
   requested equal employment opportunities.

   It was responded that, where possible, local labour would be used. However the
   community was made aware that not everyone would be employed as the project is
   not very large. Equal employment opportunities for women would be addressed with
   the proponent.



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   8. Health Impacts: Health impacts were raised as an issue as there is limited health
      infrastructure around Nacala Dam. Potential impacts would be associated with the
      increase in water borne diseases and the influx of workers during construction.

       It was responded that a Health Impact Assessment would be undertaken by a
       specialist to determine whether there would be any health impacts. The health study
       would form part of the social surveys and the local community was requested to
       openly engage with the specialists.

   9. Borrow Pits: Borrow pits would be required for obtaining aggregate materials.
      Should any new or existing sources be used, then the EIA is expected to ensure that
      environmental licenses have been obtained.

       It was responded that the borrow pits were still being explored as part of the
       Geotechnical Study. Should existing private borrow pits be used then the EIA will
       review whether the appropriate licenses have been obtained. Should any new
       sources be opened by the project then the new borrow pits will form part of the EIA.

8.6.    SOLUTIONS
Potential solutions have been developed during this EIA phase, via the specialist studies,
additional consultation with relevant authorities, and in the development of the EMP. The
solutions will be presented in the final Public Consultation Report that will be submitted for
approval and review as an appendix of the final EIA report.




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9.       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The Project has the potential to significantly enhance the standard of living of those directly
affected as well as of the population in the Moilete Bairro as a whole in terms of employment,
agricultural capacity building, creation of small businesses and social development. These
impacts are particularly important in an area where poverty is endemic and employment
opportunities are few. Expectations of job opportunities and development projects are high
amongst local residents. It is very important to instil realistic expectations with regards to
benefits from the project, and to develop a strategy of equitable distribution of job
opportunities and benefits amongst the affected parties. The skills base in the area is poor. In
order to optimise local employment opportunities skills training will be necessary. Particular
attention will need to be given to women and the youth.

The project will cause negative impacts which need to be managed. The relative increase in
wealth as a result of employment may also have negative aspects. The insecure situation of
the local population, as a result of lack of permanent employment, does not favour long-term
planning. Local people may search for personal short-term benefits to satisfy immediate
basic needs. The extra income of employees may not necessarily contribute to greater
security and reconstruction of livelihoods, but may increase the “immediate need
gratification” and may lead to certain social ills. The potential substantial benefits from the
project may also lead to conflicts in households, and between those who have been directly
affected and therefore compensated individually and those who have been indirectly affected
and therefore not compensated individually. These impacts are difficult to manage and
largely beyond the control of the Project. They will need long term capacity-building and
behavioural change.

Potential loss of livelihoods and other assets also needs to be considered. Although the
Project is committed to minimal resettlement, land, which is the most important asset of local
residents, will be affected. A fair and transparent Resettlement Action Plan and Stakeholder
Engagement Plan will be critical to mitigate the loss of assets and livelihoods. In particular
the landless population needs to be considered in the Resettlement Plan. In order to fully
assess loss of livelihoods, it is recommended that an additional natural resource use study is
conducted.

An influx of migrants to the area potentially leading to prostitution and HIV/AIDS, increases in
crime, prices of goods and services increasing, increased stress on local social services and
land speculation are impacts that are particularly difficult to manage, because the Project
does not have direct control over these and will need to work in collaboration with other
stakeholders to minimise the impacts, realising that full mitigation is not possible.

Local government technical bureaus are the natural partners for the developer in maintaining
sustainable water and sanitation activities. Partnerships with government technical bureaus

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and the private sector should be established as early as possible in the planning phase. As a
key stakeholder in long-term project sustainability, the local government through its technical
bureaus should be involved in overall program implementation, especially during project
construction.

Water security is non-existent in this area, in spite of the dam being close to it. It is therefore
recommended the Nacala Dam Rehabilitation and the Nacala Water Supply Programme
considers providing a sustainable and clean source of potable water for the communities
surrounding the dam. Presently, the only water that is supplied to the communities from the
Nacala Dam is from the dual widget standpipe.




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10.     REFERENCES
Baker, 2006. Nacala Dam and Reservoir Revised Technical Review and Interim Report
1. October 2006. Report prepared by Michael Baker Jr, Inc as part of the Millennium
Challenge Corporation (MCC) Mozambique Water & Sanitation Project (Contract W912ER-
05-D-0002) for the Transatlantic Programs Centre US Army Corps of Engineers.

Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2007: Census 2007 Preliminary Findings, Instituto
Nacional de Estatística, Retrieved from http://ine.co.mz.

International Finance Corporation, 2006: Performance Standards on Social &
Environmental Sustainability, International Finance Corporation, Millennium Challenge
Corporation, Washington, USA.

Jeffares & Green, 2010: Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment, Design and Supervision, Volume 2 Hydrology Investigation Report,
Report Number FS/2010/HI02, Jeffares & Green, Hilton, South Africa.

Michael Baker Jr., Inc., 2006: Nacala Dam and Reservoir Revised Technical reviews and
Interim Report 1, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Mozambique water and
Sanitation Project, W912ER-05-D-0002, Michael Baker Jr., Inc., USA

Millennium Challenge Account – Moçambique (2009) Plan for the Integration of Gender
Issues, Millennium Challenge Account – Moçambique, Maputo, Moçambique.

Millennium Challenge Corporation, 2008: MCC Guidance on the Implementation of
Resettlement Activities, Millennium Challenge Corporation, Washington, USA
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Assessment, Millennium Challenge Corporation, Washington, USA.

Millennium Challenge Corporation,               2006a:      Gender        Policy,     Millennium       Challenge
Corporation, Washington, USA.

MCC, 2009. Rainfall Data. 31 August 2009. Email message sent by FE Mazuze of the
Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) to S Johnson of Jeffares & Green (Pty) Ltd.

SANCOLD, 1991. Guidelines on Safety in Relation to Floods. South African National
Committee on Large Dams. Safety Evaluation of Dams, Report No. 4, Pretoria.

World Bank, 1999: The World Bank Operational Manual, Bank Procedures,
Environmental Assessment, BP 4.01, World Bank, Washington, USA.




                  Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
       Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision


World Wildlife Fund, 2001: Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest Mosaic
(AT0128), Retrieved from http://www.worldwildlife.org




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Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




             APPENDIX A:                 MICOA CERTIFICATION




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




   APPENDIX B:                 MICOA PROJECT REQUIREMENTS




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
    Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




APPENDIX C:           TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL SPECIALIST STUDY




              Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




APPENDIX D: ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW REQUIREMENTS




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
  Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




APPENDIX E:              SUMMARY OF HYDROLOGICAL SPECIALIST
                                STUDY




            Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision



APPENDIX F:                  HYDROCENSUS RESOURCE SHEETS




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




      APPENDIX G:                 SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




APPENDIX H:                  RESETTLEMENT PLAN FRAMEWORK




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




     APPENDIX I:                  HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision




APPENDIX J:                ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN




          Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report
         Nacala Dam Feasibility Study, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Design and Supervision


Insert Back cover page with the following information:
Name and address of applicant,
Name and address of consultant undertaking the EIA,
Start and conclusion date of the EIA.




                   Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Assessment Report

				
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