Is South Africa ready to deal with Football - THE POLICING OF by sdsdfqw21

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									     THE POLICING OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANS
    DURING 2010 SOCCER WOLRD CUP IN SOUTH
                    AFRICA




DR MOSES MONTESH
UNISA: COLLEGE OF LAW
School of Criminal Justice
Department of Police Practice
             WARNING!!!




• THIS PRESENTATION IS NOT SUITABLE FOR
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EEEEEIIIIIIISHHH!!!!!!!
      FRAMEWORK OF THE PRESENTATION


•   INTRODUCTION
•   METHODOLOGY
•   CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
•   BACKGROUND
•   CAUSES
•   FIFA/UEFA REPORTED INCIDENTS FOR 2009
•   CASE STUDIES
•   REPORTED DISASTERS
•   VICTIMS
•   CHALLENGES
•   CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
•   2010: THE AFRICAN LEGACY
•   END
                                   INTRODUCTION

•   The Orkney disaster: The Openheimer Stadium incident of 1991 (Pirates VS Chiefs)

•   42 died on scene

•   180 injured


•   The Ellis Park Disaster of 2002 where 42 people died during a soccer match between Chiefs & Pirates
    should not be ignored


•   The 2010 Soccer World Cup is taking place in South Africa

•   Safety at Sports and Recreational Events Bill of 2009: This paper was submitted to the Parliament’s
    Standing Committee on Sports & Recreation as a response to the gaps identified in the Bill

•   A soccer match between Kaizer Chiefs & Ajax Cape Town, resulted in incidents of crowd misbehaviour
    (Hooliganism)

•   England: A League Cup match between Millwall & Westham United         resulted in incidents of
    Hooliganism (2009)
Introduction (cont …) Ellis Park 2002
Introduction (Cont …) Newlands 2009
INTRODUCTION: MILLWALL vs WEST HAM 2009
             METHODOLOGY




•Literature study

•Media Reports

•Case studies

•Observations
        FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS


•   There is no precise definition of “football hooliganism”

•   The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is known that it appeared in a 1898
    London police report

•   One theory says the name Hooligan comes from an Irish hoodlum (criminal)
    from London named Patrick Hooligan

•   Another theory say, hooligan comes from a street gang in Islington named
    "Hooley", and a third lists "Hooley" as an Irish word which means a wild,
    spirited party.

•   1960’s: “spontaneous and usually low level disorder caused by fans at or
    around football matches and deliberate and intentional violence involving
    organized gangs who attach themselves to football clubs” (Pearson, 2002).

•   Inter-fan group fighting and fighting between fans and the police
                    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

•   The behaviour now known as “football hooliganism” originated in England.
    This is the reason it is now commonly known as the “British disease” on
    many occasions. Football hooliganism is not limited to England. Other
    countries affected by football hooliganism include Germany, Holland,
    France, Italy, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Austria, Russia and Sweden.
•   Became more prevalent in the 1960’s, 1970’s and 1980’s
•   However, Pearson (2002:2) states that it is difficult to know whether the
    amount of disorder increased or whether the growing media interest and
    coverage of crowd disorder has meant it is reported far more regularly.
•   In countries such as Spain, Italy and Russia, monkey-chanting is still rife.
•   Racism: The Samuel Et’o incident? (Monkey chants)
•   BOTTOM LINE: FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM IS A CRIMINAL ACT!!!!!
                 CAUSES OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM


•   It is difficult to speculate on what makes a person become involved in
    football related violence because there are so many possible causal factors.

•   Pearson (2002) the causes for spontaneous disorder are more complex and
    include; alcohol, xenophobia & racism

•   Unfinished business (Grudges)

•   Racism has been singled out as a major contributing factor in countries
    such as Russia, England, France, Italy, Germany, Bulgaria, Austria and
    Spain (Racist chanting at matches in these countries still occurs)
CAUSES OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM (Cont …) ALCOHOL
CAUSES OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM (Cont …)
CAUSES OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM: DRUGS
CAUSES OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM : INCITEMENT
              & PROVOCATION
     FIFA/EUFA (HOOLIGAN REPORTED INCIDENTS FOR 2009)


•   Alcohol related offences: 1186
•   Disorderly Behaviour: 655
•   Threatening Behaviour: 420
•   Violent disorder: 85
•   Assault: 137
•   Throwing missiles: 107
•   Breach of the peace: 351
•   Pitch invasion: 292
•   Racial chanting: 82
•   Drug related offences: 111
•   Possession of weapons: 165
•   Criminal damage: 91
•   (These incidents include official FIFA/UEFA/domestic matches)
                          CASE STUDIES

    1. Russia
•   Russia has a fearsome reputation for football violence
•   The main hooligan firms belong to CSKA Moscow, Spartak Moscow
    and Zenit St Petersburg.
•   Pre-arranged fights take place on the fields, car parks anywhere away
    from the public
•   One of the oldest firms in Russia is Spartak’s Gladiators who were
    formed in 1906
•   The rival firms of CSKA Moscow are called Gallant Steeds
•   The rivalry between these two firms is such that it spills over into ice
    hockey
•   The most active firm outside Moscow is Zenit St Peteresburg
•   The firm is called “Musichall” which back in 2004 was created by
    bringing together all the top fighters from Zenit’s different firms. The
    aim was to create an elite crew which could knock Moscows firms off
    top spot
CASE STUDIES: 1. RUSSIA (Cont …)
CASE STUDIES: 1. RUSSIA (Cot …. )
CASE STUDIES: 1. RUSSIA: CSKA vs SPARTAK (Cont …)
                  CASE STUDIES: (Cont ….)
    2. Turkey
•   Turkey is home to some of the world's most fanatical supporters
•    Fenerbahce and Galatasaray , are the two biggest clubs in Turkey
•   The Bosphorus Straits separates the two with Galatasaray on the European
    side and Fenerbahce on the Asian side of the city
•   Fenerbahce's firm are called KFI - Kill For You
•   Galatasaray's firm are called UltrAslan
•   The UltrAslan brand has become so successful they have sold more tops than
    the club has sold team shirts. (They once saved their club from bankruptcy)
•   Galatasaray were involved in a violent clash back in 2002 when two Leeds
    United fans were tragically stabbed to death
•   The Turks claimed that drunken Leeds fans were being rowdy and pulled
    monies on passers by, something which is a serious offence to Turkish
    customs
•   Leeds fans were attacked with iron bars, hatchets and knives
•   The two Leeds supporters were innocent fans caught up in the wrong place at
    the wrong time. (Arsenal got a rude awakening during a UEFA fixture)
•   The hatred between English and Turkish fans is known as the “UNFINISHED
    BUSINESS”.(Imagine, ENGLANG vs TURKEY: SEMI-FINAL DURING 2010!!!!)
CASE STUDIES: 2.TURKEY: GLATASARAY vs LEEDS 2002 (Cont …)
CASE STUDIES: 2.TURKEY: GALATASARAY vs POLICE
                 2002 (Cont …)
                       CASE STUDIES: (Cont ….)
    3. Italy
•   Italian ultras are famous for their passionate visual and vocal displays

•   The ultras organize choreography's involving banners, flares, smoke effects
    and fireworks to create electric atmospheres that are the envy of Europe

•   Ultra in Italian means beyond limit

•   Ultras are prepared to fight for the respect of their club colours

•   Their weapons include knives

•   In 2008, Manchester United vs AS Roma: 1 Italian policeman was killed.
CASE STUDIES: 3. ITALY: CATANIA vs PALERMO (Cont …)
                      CASE STUDIES: (Cont ….)
    4. England
•   England has the highest number of football hooligans
•   Almost every football club in England has an organized hooligan clubs
•   The most dangerous hooligans in England comes from Wet Ham United
    Football Club
•   West Ham's firm is known as the ICF - Inter City Firm (Most dangerous)
•   They derived their name from their use of the rail network to travel to meet
    with rival firms
•   The Inter City Firm's reputation has been immortalized by the films and
    books that have been devoted to the subject (Green Street Hooligans)
•   The Inter City Firm's biggest rivals are Chelsea's Headhunters, Millwall's
    Bushwhackers and Spurs YidArmy
•   Manchester United’s Red Army is the largest
•   What is worrying about the English hooligans is that when England plays
    against another team, all English hooligans unite and fight against a
    common enemy, “the opponent”. If so, what’s going to happen during 2010?
CASE STUDY: ENGLAND; PORTSMOUTH HOOLY (Cont ….)
    REPORTED INCIDENTS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND
                        CAUSES
    Belgium: The Heysel stadium disaster 1989

•   The Heysel disaster refers to the death of 39 fans, mostly Juventus FC
    supporters.
•   This happened during 1985 European Cup Final between Liverpool and
    Juventus.
•   The Disaster is one of the most high profile cases ever happened in
    European football
•   Approximately an hour before kick off, a group of Liverpool FC supporters
    breached a fence separating them from rival supporters of Juventus FC and
    attacked the Italian supporters.
•   The Juventus fans retreated, putting pressure on a dilapidated retaining
    wall, which collapsed away from them.
•   The crush of fans against the wall which collapsed led to the deaths of 39
    and 600 injured.
•   This incident has been dubbed “the darkest hour in the history of the EUFA
    competitions”. (FIFA.COM)
The aftermath of the Heysel disaster
      REPORTED INCIDENTS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND
                      CAUSES (Cont …)


    England: Hillsborough disaster

•   In 1989, England recorded her worst sports disaster when Liverpool played
    Nottingham Forest in an FA Cup semi-final

•   This happened after incoming rush of fans caused other fans in the stadium
    to be crushed against the barriers erected to contain hooligans

•   The stampede killed 95 fans and 200 were injured



•   After this incident, the British government instituted the Taylor Commission of
    enquiry which found that there were insufficient entrances to the stadium
England: Hillsborough disaster (Cont…)
     REPORTED INCIDENTS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND
                     CAUSES (Cont …)


    2000 Sydney Olympics Asian Qualifiers

•   In 1999, Malaysia played against Nepal

•   Immediately after Nepal scored the goal to level the score at 1-1 minutes
    before the final whistle, the Nepali supporters started to celebrate wildly

•   Unfortunately, one of the Nepali supporters ran onto the pitch and picked up
    the ball which had just been placed at the centre for the kick-off

•   This angered the Malaysian players and one of them kicked the Nepali
    supporter
•   As a result of this, a pandemonium broke out where players, officials and
    supporters attacked each other
     REPORTED INCIDENTS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND
                     CAUSES (Cont …)


    South Africa: The Ellis Park disaster

•   In 2002 Ellis Park stadium experienced the worst soccer disaster

•   43 soccer fans died and 158 were injured

•   This took place when Pirates FC played Chiefs in a league match

•   As a result a commission of inquiry (Ngwepe) was set up

•   The following findings were made: poor forecast of match attendance,
    failure to adhere to SAFA and FIFA guidelines and unbecoming spectator
    behaviour among others.
ELLIS PARK DISASTER
OTHER HOOLIGANS: GERMANS
POLISH HOOLIGANS
BELGIAN vs DUTCH FANS (CAR PARK)
SPANISH HOOLIGANS: VALENCIA vs BARCELONA
IVORY COAST: 2009
IVORY COAST, ABIDJAN: 2009
GHANA, ACCRA: 2001
VICTIMS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM
VICTIMS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM
VICTIMS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM
VICTIMS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM: MILWALL FAN
           IMPLICATIONS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM



•   FINANCIAL LOSSES (HEAVY FINES)

•   LOSS OF LIVES

•   TARNISHED IMAGE

•   BANS BY AUTHORITIES SUCH AS FIFA

•   LOSS OF INCOME (PLAYING IN AN EMPTY STADIUM-ITALY)
IMPLICATIONS OF FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM (Cont …)
CHALLENGES
                CHALLENGES: ARE WE READY?

    South Africa has a good track record for providing security at major sporting
    events. However, we have never been confronted with this challenge.

    The following events were successfully hosted by South Africa without
    problems:

•        The 1995 Rugby World Cup
•        The 1996 Africa Cup of Nations
•        The 2001 Racism Conference in Durban
•        The World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002
•        The Cricket World Cup in 2003
         The Indian Premier League (2009)
CHALLENGES: ARE WE READY?
CHALLENGES: ARE WE READY?
CHALLENGES: ARE WE READY? DETENTION CENTRES
CHALLENGES: ARE WE READY?
                       CHALLENGES (Cont ….)



•   Inadequate legislation

•   The role of INTERPOL South Africa

•   The role of Public Order Policing/Crime Combating Unit

•   The role of Intelligence agencies

•   The role of CCTV at stadiums

•   Too much reliance on private security
Too much reliance on private security
                CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS



    Conclusions

•   Most of football violence is caused by inept security organizational structure
•   Inefficient, untrained, ignorant and inexperienced security personnel
•   Failure to adhere to FIFA Safety Guidelines and Requirements and negligence
    of local soccer federations
•   Insufficient security officers deployed to contain the crowd
•   Underestimation of spectators attending the match
•   Capacity of the stadium
•   Ignorant and untrained police deployed to handle security for a football match
•   Insufficient entrances to the stadium
•   No evacuation plans and crisis management strategies, & insufficient exits
•   Lack of strategies to police major sporting events
•   Lack of intelligence-driven policing
•   Lack of CCTV in and around the stadiums
•   Lack of strategies to police fan parks, pubs, railway stations and shopping
    malls
          CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Cont…)



    Recommendations

•   Intelligence-led policing (NATJOINTS)
•   Establish a Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports
    Events
•   Hooligan hotline
•   Positive fan identity
•   Low profile policing
•   Visible policing
•   Undercover operations
•   (These approaches are also supported by Stott (2007) which were used by
    Portugal during Euro2004).
•   Strong Diplomatic ties: Extradition agreements
POLICING OF FAN PARKS
2010: AFRICAN LEGACY
              2010 FIFA World Cup: African Legacy


•   The 2010 FIFA World Cup Legacy agenda is not different from the legacy
    discourse associated with other major sporting events. There are three
    major aspects that legacy is intended to address:
•   1. Legacy benefits should not be confined to the host country (South Africa),
    especially the success stories on combating football hooliganism.
•   2. The host country has made an undertaking to make continent-wide
    legacy one of core the focus areas for the preparations for the event. South
    Africa is in Africa and cannot be separated from the rest of Africa. When
    fans come to South Africa will actually coming to Africa. Therefore it is vital
    to South Africa to host an event free of violence so that we can share our
    successes with the rest of Africa. By so doing, the goals of NEPAD will be
    achieved.
•   3. Peace and nation building as well as continental security cooperation.
    These are two of the seven clusters of the Legacy Initiative that South Africa
    is expected to contribute. Security at major sporting events is a big
    challenge in African football. By working jointly with the rest of Africa, South
    Africa will be building capacity for the whole of Africa.
CONCLUSION: DISEASE OR BRAINWASHING?
                     END


“PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE”

            THANK YOU VERY MUCH
               “Muinto obrigado”

                Dr Moses Montesh

                      UNISA

                 Tel: 011 471 2066
                 Fax: 011 471 2255
                 Cel: 082 332 0607
          E-mail: mmontesh@unisa.ac.za
       http://www.unisa.ac.za/policepractice

								
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