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					    Designing and making with textiles

    Describing the feel of fabric
                                                                                                TRT         1
    The feel of a fabric is one of its most important properties. For              Student’s Book:
    example, fabrics that are rough might be useful where grip is                  Words to describe fabrics
    important – on handles or the surface of gloves. But roughness in              page 118
    a vest would make it uncomfortable. When you are designing and
    making with fabrics, you need to be able to match what the fabric              Time available:
    feels like with the requirements of the design. So it is important
                                                                                   30 minutes
    that you are able to describe the feel of fabrics clearly. You will be
    given a range of fabrics to examine and describe.                              You will learn:
                                                                                   How to describe what fabrics
    What to do
                                                                                   feel like.
    1   Work with a partner so that you can discuss your findings.
                                                                                   You will need:
    2   For each of the fabrics you examine:
    	   ◆	 place it on your hand to see how it hangs;                              ❏	Your workbook
    	   ◆	 feel it between your fingers;                                           ❏	Pencil
    	   ◆	 scrunch it up to see what happens when you release it;                  ❏	Selection of fabrics
    	   ◆	 touch it against your cheek;
    	   ◆	 try to stretch it.




    What to write
    Use words from page 118 of the Students Book to help you to
    describe how the fabrics feel.
    Try to find four words that describe the feel of each fabric.
    You should then choose words so that the distinctive nature
    of the fabric is shown by the description – fabrics which feel
    different should have different key words.
    Use a table like this to record your findings.




    Homework suggestion
    Find five different fabrics at home and describe the way they feel.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    User trips with textile products
                                                                                                  TRT         2
                                                                                   Student’s Book:
    Part 1 – Groups and products                                                   User trip page 47
    What to do                                                                     Time available:
    1 For this task the class will be divided into five groups.                    Groups and products
                                                                                   10 minutes
    2 You will be told which textile products are available and which
      your group will use.                                                         Homework	       	      	         	
    Part 2 – Homework: Constructing a table                                        30 minutes

    What to do                                                                     Getting ready		        	         	
                                                                                   20 minutes
    1 Using a ‘table’ in a word-processing package, or a pencil
      and ruler, make a table like the one shown. Put in the type of               User trip	      	      	         	
      textile product each group will have.                                        30 minutes
    2 Think about the clothes that you and your friends wear. Work                 Opinions matter!	      	         	
      out why you like some clothes but not others. Choose two                     40 minutes
      items of clothing – one that you like and one that you don’t
      like. Write short notes explaining why you feel like this.                   You will learn:
                                                                                   To carry out a user trip and
                                                                                   share your results with others.

                                                                                   You will need:
                                                                                   ❏	A set of 5 textile products
                                                                                        – hats, bags, gloves, socks
                                                                                        or scarves
                                                                                   ❏	A6 card and felt-tip pens
                                                                                   ❏	PC and printer
                                                                                   Or

                                                                                   ❏	Workbook, ruler, pencil
                                                                                        and pen

    Part 3 – Getting ready
    What to do
    1 In your group, make five number
      cards.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    User trips with textile products
                                                                                            TRT  2
    2   Lay your products neatly on a surface. Put a number next to each product.
    3   Your teacher will discuss with you:
    	   ◆	 the questions in the table;
    	   ◆	 having respect for other people’s property and opinions.

    Part 4 – User trip
    What to do
    1 All groups move together, to one set of products at a time. Spend between 1 and 2 minutes
      looking at each product.
    	 ◆	 Handle them with respect – these belong to someone else.
    	 ◆	 Talk to each other about the products – with respect.
    	 ◆	 Fill in your table, giving marks out of ten for each question.

    Part 5 – Opinions matter!
    What to do
    1 Back in your group, add up your totals out of 40 for each line.
    	 ◆	 Put an X against your highest mark product in each set.
    	 ◆	 Put a – against your lowest mark product in each set.
    2 In your group, discuss each set of products in turn.
    	 ◆	 Do you have different or similar Xs and –s?
    	 ◆	 Try to explain why this might be.
    3 Going round the whole class, each group says which product in each set got the highest mark.
      The teacher makes a tally of the results so that everyone can see which products get the most
      marks.
    4 As a class, discuss why some of the products got high marks and others did not.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    Retailing: Why are shops different?
                                                                                                  TRT          3
    You can buy clothes and other textile products in many different               Student’s Book:
    sorts of shops and other places and in many different ways. Your               Identifying needs and likes
    task is to use the information provided and the results of your                pages 2-8
    investigation to find out why shops are different.
                                                                                   Time available:
    Part 1 – Some information to start you thinking                                Reading and thinking
    What to do                                                                     15 minutes

    1 Read the following carefully.                                                Investigating	 	        	             	
      You can now shop for textile products by post, via the Internet,             up to 120 minutes
      by visiting your local shopping centre or by travelling to                   Findings and conclusions 	
      another place, including abroad. So, customers have a lot of                 40 minutes
      choice, and competition to sell products is high.
                                                                                   You will learn:
                                                                                   About different sorts of outlets
                                                                                   for textile products.

                                                                                   You will need:
                                                                                   ❏	 To visit a shopping centre
                                                                                   Or

                                                                                   ❏	PC with Internet
                                                                                        connection and printer
                                                                                   ❏	Home-shopping catalogue
                                                                                        which includes textile
                                                                                        products
                                                                                   ❏	Notebook and pen
                                                                                   ❏	Pencil, coloured pencils
                                                                                   ❏	Gluestick, scissors



    However, personal wants and needs and the amount of money customers can afford to spend
    are big factors. So, different outlets usually target different sorts of customers or different sorts
    of needs. Quality, price and the range of different styles are just some of the factors that may be
    important to customers.

    Part 2 – Investigation
    What to do
    1 Either:
      Use a PC with an Internet connection and a printer to search for on-line shops where you could
      buy, or at least view, textile products. You may find it useful to use a search engine.
      Or:
      Visit a shopping centre that has some shops, and perhaps a market, which sell textile products.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    Retailing: Why are shops different?
                                                                                                 TRT   3
    2 In both cases, you need to find two examples of each of at least four of the products listed
      below. One example should be ‘ordinary’, the other example should be ‘I would really want it’, of
      the	same kind of product.
    	 ◆	 T-shirt;
    	 ◆	 trainers;
    	 ◆	 single, plain white or natural, duvet cover;
    	 ◆	 teddy bear;
    	 ◆	 pull-on knitted cap;
    	 ◆	 outdoor jacket;
    	 ◆	 jumper;
    	 ◆	 sports bag.

    Part 3 – Findings and conclusions
    What to do
    1   Make notes of:
    	   ◆	 items you find;
    	   ◆	 the prices;
    	   ◆	 the	name	and		 	           	       	        	         	       	       	    	      	     	         	
           location of the
           outlet;
    	   ◆	 your impression
           of the quality of the item;
    	   ◆	 what sort of outlet it is/image it tries give if it is on the Internet;
    	   ◆	 the range of items that outlet sells (e.g. different sorts of
           products, wide or limited range of same sort of products).

    What to write
    ◆	 Write up your findings in a table like the one illustrated.
       Sketch or cut and paste examples of the items in the right-hand
       column or add sheets of illustrations with numbered references.
    ◆	 Complete the ‘Catalogue price’ column by looking in a home-shopping catalogue.
       Note: If your prices are from the Internet, you will need to put the original price and convert it to
       £UK. Currency exchange prices can be found on the Internet or in newspapers.
    ◆	 Using the information in your completed table, answer the following questions about two of the
       sets of items.
       – Is there a difference between the price of the ordinary item from the catalogue and from a
          retail outlet? Try to explain this difference.
       – Is there a difference between the price of the ‘I want it’ item from the catalogue and from a
          retail outlet? Try to explain this difference.
    ◆	 Which, of the ways you have investigated, do you think is the best way of shopping? Explain
       your answer.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    Costing: Why do some clothes cost
                                                                                                 TRT            4
    more than others?
    Your task is to use the information provided to help you think                 Student’s Book:
    about clothing manufacture and to make a collage that explains                 Identifying needs and likes
    niche market clothing.                                                         pages 2-8

    Part 1 – Some information to start you thinking                                Time available:
    What to do                                                                     Reading and thinking
                                                                                   15 minutes
    1 Read the following carefully.
                                                                                   Making a collage with notes	
                                                                                   60 minutes

                                                                                   You will learn:
                                                                                   About clothing manufacture
                                                                                   and price differences in textile
                                                                                   items.

                                                                                   You will need:
                                                                                   ❏	Magazines, newspapers or
                                                                                      web print-outs of fashion
                                                                                      pictures
                                                                                   ❏	Access to the Internet and
                                                                                      a printer (if possible)

    The wedding outfits in the illustration could well have been
                                                                                   ❏	Glue
    produced on a global scale. The map shows the places where                     ❏	Scissors
    they may have been designed, manufactured and eventually                       ❏	A3 (minimum) plain paper
    sold.
                                                                                   ❏	Pencil or pen
    We can’t tell from the illustration whether these clothes are very
    expensive or relatively cheap. They could be either.
    Labour costs for stitching are usually by far the largest cost in
    designing and manufacturing clothes.




    It is difficult to use CAD/CAM for most stitching tasks because fabric is very flexible and the head-
    hand decisions and movements of machinists are very difficult to replicate. Therefore, machining
    and other stitching are often done in those parts of the world where labour is relatively cheap. This
    means that a lot of transporting is needed. This may not be good for the environment.

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    Designing and making with textiles

    Costing: Why do some clothes cost
    more than others?
                                                                                            TRT     4
    The actual cost of manufacture is likely to be similar for garments which differ considerably in price.
    The price tag on a garment has little to do with manufacturing costs.
    The factors that make a big difference to the price of the garment may be any of the following.
    ◆	 Its uniqueness – is it a one-off garment – e.g. a tailor-made suit or a couture dress made to fit
       just one customer?
    ◆	 Its fashion status – is it a designer label?
    ◆	 Its speciality – is it a niche-market garment?
    ◆	 The profit margin.




    If the garment is made for just one person, it is understandable that it would cost more because
    batch or mass manufacture of identical products reduces the cost per garment (unit cost).
    A niche market is the phrase used when customers will pay a lot more than usual in order to get
    a specialised or more ‘exclusive’ product. Apart from tailor-made or couture garments, these
    products are often batch or mass manufactured. So they don’t necessarily cost more to design and
    produce than other similar products. Designer-label clothes, shoes, trainers and bags are good
    examples. So are wedding outfits.

    Part 2 – Making a collage with notes
    What to do
    1 Find some examples of priced niche-market clothes or textile accessories in magazines or
      newspapers, or print out some from the web.
    2 Cut out the examples neatly and paste them onto plain paper.
    3 Add notes to show:
    	 ◆	 the retail price of each item;
    	 ◆	 the designer, or designer label, if known;
    	 ◆	 what it is made of, if it says;
    	 ◆	 the fastenings used;
    	 ◆	 why you think it costs what it does;
    	 ◆	 whether you think it is really worth that price, giving reasons for your decision.




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    Designing and making with textiles

    Marketing: Why are only some
    clothes advertised?
                                                                                                 TRT         5
    Your task is to use the information about marketing and                        Student’s Book:
    advertising and the results of your investigation to find out why              Identifying needs and likes
    some clothes are advertised while others are not.                              pages 2-8
    Part 1 – Some information to start you thinking
                                                                                   Time available:
    What to do                                                                     Reading and thinking
                                                                                   15 minutes
    1 Read the following carefully.
    At one time, there was no such thing as marketing because                      Investigating         	
    everyone who made products for sale dealt individually with                    60 minutes
    their customers – other people in their community. In isolated                 Drawing conclusions	            	
    places, this is still the case. Once products were mass                        20 minutes
    manufactured, this situation changed.
                                                                                   You will learn:
    Shopping for groceries and everyday items has changed                          About the marketing and
    from a daily affair to a once-a-week major shop at a large                     advertising of clothes.
    supermarket. During those daily shopping visits, there were
    many opportunities to see other goods in shop windows.
                                                                                   You will need:
    This has decreased. Because makers want to sell their
    products, they need to promote demand for them in ways                         ❏	Lots of magazines with
    other than putting them in shop windows. So advertising and                       clothing adverts in them
    merchandising have expanded considerably.
                                                                                   ❏	Scisors
    Note that there are now other ways of window shopping. Mail-
    order distribution has grown enormously and Internet shopping
                                                                                   ❏	Access to a PC and word-
                                                                                      processing package
    is expanding quickly. Home-shopping catalogues and Internet
                                                                                      Or	
    browsing are now the main ways of window shopping. Without
    going out of the home, customers can order by phone, post or                   ❏	Paper, ruler and pen
    directly on-line and the products are delivered directly to them
    – often within 24 hours.
    All clothes are marketed in some way or other. Even the
    patterns, fabric, tools, equipment and haberdashery you
    use to make your own clothes are marketed. However,
    some clothes are advertised and others are not.

    Part 2 – Investigating why only some clothes
    are advertised
    What to do
    1 In a group of five or six, make a table like the first
       one illustrated on page 2 and discuss the following
       questions. Use your answers to fill in the table.
    ◆	 Would radio be a good way of advertising clothes?
       If not, why not?
    ◆	 What TV adverts have you seen for clothes?
    ◆	 Can you remember any TV adverts for clothes that
       have music you can name in them?
    ◆	 What bill-board adverts for clothes have you seen?
    ◆	 Do you get clothing adverts on the Internet? If so,
       where are they?



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    Designing and making with textiles

    Marketing: Why are only some
    clothes advertised?
                                                                                            TRT       5


    2 Using different sorts of magazines, look for advertisements (not editorial pictures) for clothes.
      Cut out the whole advertisement. Note on it which magazine it was from and the date of the
      magazine. You should each find at least ten different adverts.
    3 In your group, pool all your adverts. Throw away any duplicates from the same magazine.
    4 Sort your adverts into product type piles, e.g. jeans, dresses, shirts, underwear, coats and
      jackets.
    5 Use the adverts to fill in a table like the one below.




    Part 3 — Drawing conclusions
    What to do
    1   Using both your tables, with another group or as a whole class, discuss your findings.
    	   ◆	 Which clothing products are advertised most?
    	   ◆	 What are these clothes worn for?
    	   ◆	 Are the situations in which they would be worn similar, or not?
    	   ◆	 At whom are these clothes adverts aimed?
    	   ◆	 Are the people at whom they are aimed very similar, or not?
    	   ◆	 Do the people at whom the products are aimed usually have money to spend?
    	   ◆	 Are most of these clothes expensive compared with others like them, or fairly cheap?
    	   ◆	 Does it look as though these products are advertised regularly over time?
    	   ◆	 Were there any other marketing strategies for the same product at the same time?
    	   ◆	 Which are advertised least?
    	   ◆	 Why are some clothing products advertised more than others?




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    Designing and making with textiles

    Care: Looking after clothing
                                                                                                  TRT        6
    The main thing we all need to know is what fibres are used in                  Student’s Book:
    the fabrics from which the clothes are made. Once we know this,                Textiles pages 117-23
    we can decide things like ‘Will it wash?’, ‘Will it crease?’ Then
    when we have worn a particular garment, we are able to decide                  Time available:
    whether to hang it up, or whether folding will do.                             Setting up your data set
                                                                                   30 minutes
    Your task is to:
    ◆	 set up a database or file-card index called ‘Fabric Properties              Looking at care labels and
       and Care’;                                                                  clothes              	
    ◆	 show that you understand about care labels and codes and                    40 minutes
       how to care for at least one item of clothing.                              Showing you understand	 	
    Part 1 – Setting up your data set                                              40 minutes
    What to do                                                                     You will learn:
                                                                                   How to care for clothes made
    1 On a PC use a database program to begin a database on
                                                                                   from different fabrics by
      ‘Fabric Properties and Care’. Or use a set of file-cards with
                                                                                   investigating their care labels.
      dividers to keep them in alphabetical order. Use these fields:
                                                                                   You will need:
                                                                                   ❏	PC with database software
                                                                                        and printer
                                                                                   Or

                                                                                   ❏	Set of file-cards and
                                                                                        dividers, and pen
                                                                                   ❏	Clothes with care labels to
                                                                                        look at
                                                                                   ❏	Drawing paper, pencils,
                                                                                        colour pens, pencils or
                                                                                        paints




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    Designing and making with textiles
                                                                                            TRT  6
    Part 2 – Looking at care-labels and clothes
    What to do
    1 Look at the illustration with the care symbols
      and read what each symbol means.
    2 Look at some of the clothes you are wearing or
      use for sports or other lessons. Don’t forget
      to look at your jacket or coat. Some shoes and
      trainers have labels, too. A friend can help you
      to read labels in awkward places!
    3 The label should tell you:
    	 ◆	 what fabrics the item of clothing is made of;
    	 ◆	 whether you can: wash it, dry clean it, tumble-
          dry it, bleach it, iron it;
    	 ◆	 if you can wash it, at what temperature and
          strength of wash;
    	 ◆	 if you can iron it, at what heat.
    4 Enter the fibre/fabric name into your database or
      onto a new file-card.
    5 Enter the name of the clothing example.
    6 Add as many details of the care needs as you can
      – from the care-code label.
    7 To help you fill in some of the property details, use
      the following sections in the Students Book:
    	 ◆	 Fabrics Chooser Chart, page 124;
    	 ◆	 Testing fabrics, page 125;
    	 ◆	 Explaining choices, page 126.
    Part 3 – Showing you understand
    What to do
    1 Choose any one of the items of clothing you have investigated.
    	 ◆	 Draw the item of clothing (see page 58 in the Student’s
          Book for examples of drawings).
    	 ◆	 Draw the care label with any writing and symbols.
    2 Illustrate, with notes, the answers to the following questions:
    	 ◆	 Where and when it would be most appropriate to wear it
          and for doing what?
    	 ◆	 How would you clean it?
    	 ◆	 How would you iron, press or steam it?
    	 ◆	 What on it might need mending or re-surfacing (e.g. de-bobbling)?
    	 ◆	 Would you hang or fold it?
    	 ◆	 How would you store it?
    	 ◆	 How would you transport it?




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