History The Diamante citron was one of the most important varieties candied by the largest factories at Leghorn Italy; it was gathered from Liguria, Naples, Calabria & Sicily and then shipped into England and the United States. Cedro Ordinario as illustrated by Volckamer. Genoa was known to supply etrog for the Jews since the times of the Tosafists, along with Sanremo, Bordighera, and the rest of Liguria. The city is located in the province of Liguria which have an old history of citron cultivation, thanks to the massive mountain chain which protects it from turbulant winds. Genoa has also a known history of banking, and they may have also traded the citron grown in the rest of the country, being a well established Seaport as well. Although little is known about the Genuese variety they used to grow, Volkamer indicated that it was very similar (besides the taste in which the Genuese was reported to be not as good) to the one illustrated by him as well as by Ferrari as the Cedro Ordinario. Therefore, it is considered to be of oldest Ashkenazic tradition for the Jewish ritual during the Feast of Tabernacles. Most adherent to the Diamante variety of Calabria are still the Chabad's who's late Rabbi's were always in support for this traditional variety. Among the other Hasidic sects it is most used by the Satmars. A Citron Tree in Calabria supported with sticks. Kashrus Supervision The citron in Calabria was celebrated by poets like Byron and D'Annunzio, but is only saved from extinction, thanks to the Jewish tradition. While Calabria is at the southern point of Italy, and its climate most Mediterranean, it is the most suitable for the citron. Even though, during the winter it is still too cold for the citron, and this is why the farmers need to protect them with blue or green plastic covers. Most of the citron trees in the area are grafted onto foreign rootstock, to save them from freeze and all different kinds of illness. While this practice renders their fruits to non-kosher for the ritual, no citron is to be picked off unless the tree is carefully inspected by a mashgiach. A double graft union, one at the stem and one at the branch. A Jewish delegation comes from Israel to Santa Maria del Cedro every year between July and August to choose the best fruit to be used in the most important holiday for the Jewish community. The selection of the best fruit is a virtual ritual. The mashgichim, each followed by a peasant carrying a box and a pair of scissors, go to the citron farms at five in the morning. The mashgiach proceeds slowly looking left and right. Then he stops and looks at the base of the tree, right where the trunk comes up from the ground. A smooth trunk means the tree has not been grafted and the fruit can be picked. The mashgiach lies down on the ground to examine better the lower branches between the leaves. Citron varieties Acidic-pulp varieties: Diamante citron Greek citron Balady citron Florentine citron Non-acidic varieties: Moroccan citron Corsican citron Pulpless varieties: Buddha's hand Yemenite citron Related Articles: Citrus Succade Hybrid Grafting Chimera Etrog Sukkoth Four Species This box: view??talk??edit Once the good fruit is found, the mashgiach shows it to the peasant who cuts it off leaving a piece of the stalk. Then the mashgiach analyses the picked citron one more time and if he decides it is worthy he wraps it in oakum and puts it in the box. The farmer receives the agreed sum for each picked fruit. Then the boxes are sealed and sent to the Lamezia Terme airport with a final destination Tel Aviv. Although Diamante is also growing in Puerto Rico, Sicily and Sardinia, their etrogs are not used for the Jewish ritual, since no kashrut certification was present at tranplantation. Seeds and cuttings of inspected trees were planted in the Israeli village of Kfar Chabad, with the hechsher certification by major kashrut organizations. Each Tree is inspected for Grafting signs. The methods for tree checking to verify if the tree is grafted or not, were established by a board of rabbis in Israel by year 1877 as described in Kuntres Pri Etz Hadar which was published in Jerusalem a year after. Other Citron Varieties Different Citron varieties used as Etrog, are the Greek Citron, the Balady Citron, Moroccan Citron and Yemenite Citron. Citron varieties, or hybrids not used for the ritual, are the Fingered Citron and Florentine Citron. References Footnotes ^ The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons The Pharmaceutical Journal-Consular report The Gardeners Chronical Biennial Report Report Google Books Parliamantery Papers The Dublin REview Monthly Consular Bulletin Victoria Science ^ The citrus Industry citation by Google Books The Citrus Industry online in name of Georges Gallesio Trait du citrus By Giorgio Gallesio in French p. 256 ""-""-- ^ Orange Insects Biennial Reports (Consular report Foods Treatise and Hand-book of Orange Culture in Florida, Louisiana and California ^ an Easter Holiday in Liguria ^ Cedro ordinario illustration of Nrbergisches Hesperides oder grndliche Beschreibung. ^ Malum Citreum Volgura from Hesperides sive de malorum aureorum. ^ Oekonomische Encyklopdie Trait du citrus By Giorgio Gallesio Manuale di arboricoltura by Giuseppe Antonio Enciclopedia di scienze politiche The Gardener's Monthly and Horticulturist Descrizione di Genova e del Genovesato Lettere sopra i buccheri Dell'idioma e della letteratura genovese ^ A world known statement by rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn ^ Discovery Jewish Italy academy article ^ Ansa Mediterraneo- RELIGION ROME JEWISH LEADERS VISIT COSENZA CITRON FARMS Notations Isaac, Erich. (1959). Influence of religion on the spread of citrus: The religious practices of the Jews helped effect the introduction of citrus to Mediterranean lands. Science, 129: 179-186. Article by Rabbi Tzinner about Yanove Etrog See also History of the Jews in Calabria External links HaLevanon 11 - no 7, HaLevanon 12 - no 4, page 2 gives a detailed list of cultivation areas and shipping system of ritual citron in Italy. The wanderings of plants and animals from their first home; By Victor Hehn, James Steven Stallybrass, digitized by Google Books ChabadPedia about Calabria citron Universo Cedro an Italian university about citron providing information and good pictures. The Diamante Variety described by The Purdue University The Citrus Variety Collection by the University of California Citrus Pages with pictures The tree inspection by rabbis, including Pictures. Chabad Website. The Official Website of Flohr's Esrogim The Mesoreh about the Calabrian Etrog Center for the Study of Jewry in Calabria and Sicily Academy Article describing the Etrog crop in Calabria Essential Oils A study on glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozymes of citron cultivars A DNA Comparison study Postcard from Calabria Zitrus Freunde Compare the biggest to the smallest Etrog in Crown Heights HaAros Categories: Citron Jewish Italian history Calabria I am an expert from China Computer Parts, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as nolan motorcycle helmets , flip up helmets.