Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 1 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K WELCOME COASTAL TOOL HIRE is now the largest and best known tool hire brand in Southern Africa with over 40 stores operating nationally. This has been achieved by Coastal’s franchise system which ensures you are being looked after by the individual who owns the business as well as our commitment to the highest standards of equipment, excellent hire rates, and friendly service. You can always be sure that with Coastal you will be well looked after. Please enjoy using our very popular DIY booklet which has already been used by over 100,000 Coastal customers and will make every job just a little easier. You can experience our wide range of modern equipment which is always in good condition and well maintained and get advice on how to use all of the equipment from our helpful franchisees. All you DIY-ers - increase the value of your home and do all the home improvement jobs you always wanted to do. At Coastal our sound advice and great equipment make the tasks simple at a fraction of the cost. COASTAL TOOL HIRE welcomes you to contact us with any queries regarding Hire or Sales of Construction, Building or Tiling Equipment from any of our Branches. COASTAL TOOL HIRE FRANCHISE Box 50244, Randjesfontein 1683 Tel: 011 314 4844 Fax: 011 314 2096 Email: email@example.com Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 2 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K INDEX Safety 1 Floor Sanding 2 S a n d i n g Te c h n i q u e 3 Basic Floor Tiling 5 B a s i c Wa l l T i l i n g 6 Concrete Mixers 7 Pe t r o l E n g i n e s 15 Pa i n t i n g G u i d e l i n e s 17 H P Wa s h e r 17 Chainsaws 20 E l e c t r i c Po w e r To o l s 23 S o i l C o mp a c t i o n 25 Concrete Saws 26 D r i v e Un i t & Po k e r 28 S u b m e r s i b l e P u mp s 28 Wa t e r P u mp s 29 Generators 30 Member of the Franchise Association of Southern Africa Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 3 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K This HANDY GUIDE has been specially compiled to give you brief product and user knowledge of machines available from “Coastal Tool Hire”. All machinery is dangerous - BE CAREFUL!! SAFETY Proper Clothing Clothing must be sturdy and snug-fitting, but allow complete freedom of movement. Avoid loose-fitting jackets, scarfs, neckties, jewellery, flared or cuffed pants, unconfined long hair or anything that could become entangled in the machine. Wear overalls with a reinforced cut retardant insert. Protect your hands with gloves when handling a machine. Heavy-duty, nonslip gloves improve your grip and protect your hands. Good footing is most important in chainsaw work. Wear sturdy boots with nonslip soles. Steel-toed safety boots are recommended. To reduce the risk of injury to your eyes never operate a machine unless wearing goggles or properly fitted safety glasses. Always wear ear plugs or ear mufflers to protect your hearing. WARNING! Prolonged use of machinery exposes the operator to vibrations which may produce whitefinger disease (Raynnauds's phenomenon) or carpal tunnel syndrome. These conditions reduce the hand's ability to feel and regulate temperature, produce numbness and burning sensations and may cause nerve and circulation damage and tissue necrosis. Anti-vibration systems and heated handles do not guarantee that you will not sustain whitefinger disease or carpal tunnel syndrome. Therefore, continual and regular users should monitor closely the condition of their hands and fingers. If any of the above symptoms appear, seek medical advice immediately.. 1 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 4 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K FLOOR SANDING PREPARATION 1. Where possible remove all furniture from the area or room. Floor Sanders feature an efficient dust pick-up. However, some dust will escape. 2. Remove all tacks, staples and other unwanted fixing from the floor. Failure to do so will result in damage to the abrasive paper and sanding drum. 3. Punch all nails below the surface of the floor using a suitable nail punch and hammer. Any screws used to fix boards should be counter sunk below the surface. During sanding any nails or screws that become exposed must be punched or countersunk further. 4. Firmly fix all loose boards or blocks. 5. Remove heavy wax, grease and dirt deposits by hand. 6. Sweep and vacuum the floor thoroughly to remove dirt and discarded fixings. 7. Ensure good ventilation by opening windows. OPERATION Floor sanders are powerful machines. Always ensure that you have a firm grip before switching on. CAUTION: To prevent damage to the floor surface, work piece or machine follow these rules. 1. Always ensure that the floor sander is moving when in operation and sanding drum is in contact with the floor. 2. Never lift the back of the machine when sanding. 3. Never apply pressure to try and increase the rate of sanding. Damage to the floor and machine will occur. 4. Never bounce or drop the floor sander on to the floor. Always lower the machine gently. 5. Never dwell in one place, move steadily at all times. 6. Never allow the power cable to come into contact with the sanding drum. Never leave the floor sander unattended with dust in the dust bag. Always remove the dust bag and dispose of into a suitable container. Handy tip: Why not save thousands by bringing out the natural beauty of your wooden floor yourself. Coastal Tool Hire has the best quality imported floor sanders and sound advice from our friendly managers. Why not use our excellent weekend special prices and sand your floor this weekend. 2 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 5 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K SANDING TECHNIQUE DRUM FLOOR SANDER Load the sander with abrasive making sure that it is skin tight around the drum. Loose sheets will tear. Place on the right hand wall (unless you are making an angled cut on uneven floors) with about two- thirds of the floor in front of you. Start the sander with the drum off the floor then walk forward at an even pace and ease the drum to the floor. As you near the end of the pass, gradually raise the drum off the floor. Practise this technique before turning the sander on. Cover the same path you made on the forward cut by pulling the machine backwards and easing the drum to the floor as you begin the backward pass until you reach the original point, then ease the drum off the floor. SANDING PLANK & STRIP FLOORS Floors in good condition - when the floor is in good condition - no uneven edges, cupping or crowning of planks and strips - start sanding in the direction of the planks or strips, with the wood grain. Start with a coarse or medium abrasive. Complete the first cut with the drum floor sander then sand up to the skirting board (baseboards) and door thresholds with the edger, using a medium grit abrasive, blending the edges in with the main floor area. Sweep the floor. Using a medium grit abrasive, sand the main floor area with the drum sander and then complete the floor. Finish sanding the main floor area with the drum floor sander using a fine grit abrasive. Uneven floors - when the floor is uneven, sand diagonally at 450 across the floor in both directions using a course grit abrasive. Only make one cut on both diagonals, this will achieve a basic level. Now complete the floor as for a level strip or plank floor. Use the same grit abrasive as was used on the 450 cut for the first cut parallel to the planks or strips. Floors with an existing finish - when refinishing a floor remove as little of the existing surface as possible. If only a light sanding is required to prepare the floor for refinishing use an orbital floor sander. If the floor is badly marked and scratched and has to be sanded back to new wood, it may be necessary to use coarse open coat abrasive to remove the old finish but take care as they are very aggressive. Always try a medium grit paper first, particularly on a diagonal cut. If 90% of the old finish is removed and the floor is generally leveled, you do not need to use a coarse grit abrasive. 3 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 6 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K SANDING TECHNIQUE VENEERED, LAMINATED AND THINNER FLOORS Use an orbital floor sander for veneered and laminated floors or thinner floors that may have been subjected to repeated sanding. The orbital floor sander will remove old surface finishes and prepare the floor for refinishing. Sand the floor using the same method as a strip, plank, or parquet floor. If the floor has deeper scratches or masks, these should be sanded out by hand and blended in with the main floor. PARQUET & BLOCK FLOORS The grain of the wood will run in a number of directions so sand the floor in the direction of the main source of natural light in the room. If there is no source of natural light sand in the direction of the longest side of the room or, if the room is square, in the direction the furniture is laid out and how people normally use the room. This technique will help mask any imperfections in the floor. Complete the sanding operation as detailed for plank or strip floors. ABRASIVE PAPER GUIDE Abrasive Paper Grade Floor Type and Condition Grit 30 (Coarse) For removing surface coatings such as varnish, stains and wax polishes from old floors. Use for rapid levelling of uneven floors. Do not use on well laid even floors. Grit 40 (Medium) For first sanding of new hardwood floors. Second sanding of old floors. Grit 80 (Fine) For final sanding of new or old wood floors. Second sanding of cork or composition floors. Grit 100 (Extra Fine) For final sanding of any floor where exceptionally high finish is required. 4 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 7 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K 1. Place a tile in the centre of the doorway and mark a line next to the tile across the floor and at right angles to the doorway. All work will be based on that line. NOTE: Line can be moved to the left or right once tiles have been set out to minimize cutting. 2. Place the first tile (A) next to line (Z). Lay tiles (without adhesive) along this line leaving space for the tile joints. Use a straight edge for a fixed nylon line to ensure tiles run in a straight line. Once tiles have been set out, mark a line (Y) at right angles to line (Z). Tiles can then be laid along this line. Depending on preference and tile size, tiles can be laid in a half bond pattern, or other desired configurations. 3. Without disturbing straight edge (or nylon line) remove loose tiles and apply adhesive to floor with a 10 x 10 x 6mm Notched Trowel. (Do not use the spot or blob method). Apply in squares not larger than one can stretch ( 1/2 m) so that surface drying does not occur. If surface is not level, tiles should be buttered with adhesive and then pressed into the wet bed. (Dovetailed or lugged tiles should also be buttered with adhesive before being bedded into wet adhesive.) Alternatively, the floor level must be built up in hollow spaces. NB: All tiles must make 100% contact with adhesive or else damage to tiles will occur. Tap tiles level with a rubber mallet bedding them fully. Lift a tile every couple of metres to check that full contact is being maintained. 4. Use Tile Spacers for neat accurate work. Minimum joint width to be 3mm. Never buttjoint tiles. 5. Cut border tiles to size with a Tile Cutter, or shape with Rod Saw or Tile Nipper. 6. Finish off edge of tiles at doorways or on steps with Edge Trim. 7. Remove excess adhesive in joints before adhesive sets. 8. Allow at least 24 hours drying before grouting joints with Tile Grout. See colour boards and grout specifications. 9. Allow for movement joints around the perimeter of the tiles and at intervals of not more than 4 mm in each direction. Joints must extend through the adhesive and be filled with a suitable flexible filler. NOTE: Make sure floor area is free of all dust and loose material. All paint, oil, bitumen or previous coverings must be removed completely. New screeds to be at least 2 weeks old and concrete 4 weeks. Use only clean water and clean tools. Clean with cleaning Sponge as work proceeds. Do not soak tiles in water. Handy tip: Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 8 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K B AS I C WA LL TILING 1. Find wall's lowest point with a spirit level, and nail wooden batten (A) with its top one tile width from floor (as per sketch). Check that the batten is level, and continue this line around the wall to be tiled. 2. Nail a vertical wooden batten or draw a line (B) at right angles to (A) to obtain a true vertical from which to be tiled. 3. It is advisable to start in the middle of a wall to ensure edge/corner tiles on both sides are cut to equal size for neat appearance. However tiles can first be set out dry so as to minimize cutting. 4. Read the instructions carefully before applying the adhesive. Use a 6 x 6 x 6mm Notched Trowel and do not apply to areas greater than can be tiled in 15 minutes ( 1/2m). For heavy tiles use a 10 x 10 x 6mm Notched Trowel (do not use the spot or blob method.) 5. Use Tile Spacers between tiles for neat accurate work. Minimum joint width to be 1,5mm. Never butt-joint tiles. 6. Bed tiles firmly into the wet adhesive and check vertical and horizontal with a spirit level. 7. Cut edge tiles with Tile Cutter and shape with Rod Saw or Nipper. 8. Finish off edge or tiling around doorways and windows with Edge Trim. 9. Remove excess adhesive in joints before adhesive sets. 10. Allow at least 24 hours drying time before grouting with Tile Grout. See colour boards and grout specifications. 11. Allow for movement joints where wall tiles meet floor tiles and at intervals of not more than 4mm in each direction. Joints must extend through the adhesive and be filled with a suitable flexible filler. NOTE: Make sure walls are free of all loose material. If previously coated refer to adhesive instructions for the treatment. Use only clean water and clean tools. Clean tiles with Cleaning Sponge as work proceeds. Do not soak tiles in water. 6 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 9 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CONCRETE MIXERS APPLICATIONS Concrete Mixers are used when: 1. The quantity of concrete to be mixed is too small to justify the ordering of ready mix. 2. The price of ready mix is higher than mixing concrete on site. This occurs when the site is far from a ready mix plant and a quarry with materials is nearby. 3. There is no ready mix available in the area. 4. The requirement is for small loads of concrete at small but irregular intervals to allow the labour to perform the task at hand in between pours. Concrete mixers are not generally used for mixing mortar. This requires a different type of paddle system because of the lack of stone, which generally assists with the mixing process. Do's and don'ts 1. Do not grease the ring gear around the drum of a mixer (The result of greasing is the manufacture of a grinding paste which systematically wears the drive and ring gear away.) 2. Do run the engine with the engine cover open. 3. Do always put stone into the mixer first, then sand and then cement and water in that order. It mixes faster and more effectively. 4. Do find out the Mixing and Output capacities of the Concrete Mixer, so that the machine is not overloaded and to allow you to work out the production when planning the job. 5. Do check that your vehicle is large enough to carry the mixer or arrange for delivery. 6. Do check that you are able to load and off load safely at the site - if not hire a towable machine. 7. Do always wash the machine down thoroughly when the work for the day is complete. 7 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 10 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CONCRETE MIXERS HANDY TIPS Items to check before the machine leaves the hire shop. 1. Vee-belts - are they in good condition and firm so that they do not slip when the drum is loaded. 2. Does the drum tilt easily under load. Ensure that the tilt gear is not worn so that the machine does not dump its load in an uncontrolled fashion when discharging. 3. Make sure that the drum turns easily under load (the drive pinion must be in good condition) 4. Make sure that the machine is securely fastened or properly hitched. Accidents happen so quickly and easily. 5. If the concrete sticks to the drum and does not mix, check the speed of the drum by making a mark on it and timing the revs per minute. If it is more than 25 you will need to bring the revs on the engine down USEFUL PRODUCTION FORMULAE FOR MIXING CONCRETE Volume 1. Most concrete mixer brochures show output in litres (eg: 260 litres) and the amount of concrete needed for the work at hand is usually in cubic metres. So if your machine is rated at 260 litres output, it can produce 0.26 cubic metres per mix. Production 2. Most brochures show a mixing cycle of 2 to 3 minutes. This is not an accurate figure for all practical purposes. When using the standard coffee grinder type mixer it is wise to use approx. 6 minutes as a mixing cycle. (Mixing cycle is the time it takes to fill the machine, mix the concrete and discharge it. Therefore we can pour: 60 minutes ÷ 6 minutes = 10 mixes per hour. We know that each mix is 0.26 of a cubic metre, so take 0.26 and multiply by 10 mixes per hour and we can produce 2.6 cubic metres per hour. This should assist you to work out how long you will need to hire the machine and your daily estimated production should be. 8 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 11 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CONCRETE MIXERS LARGE BATCHES CONCRETE Low-strength concrete suitable for: House Foundations CEMENT CONCRETE SAND STONE 1 SACK 2 WHEELBARROWS 2 WHEELBARROWS To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need: 5 1/2 sacks cement + 0,75 cubic metres sand + 0,75 cubic metres stone. Medium-strength concrete suitable for: House Floors, Footpaths and Driveways. CEMENT CONCRETE SAND STONE 1 SACK 1 1/2 WHEELBARROWS 1 1/2 WHEELBARROWS To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need: 7 sacks cement + 0,70 cubic metres sand + 0,70 cubic metres stone. High-strength concrete suitable for: Precast Concrete & Heavy Duty Floors. CEMENT CONCRETE SAND STONE 1 SACK 1 WHEELBARROW 1 WHEELBARROW To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need: 10 sacks cement + 0,65 cubic metres sand + 0,65 cubic metres stone. MORTAR Suitable for laying bricks and blocks CEMENT BUILDING SAND 1 SACK 3 WHEELBARROWS To lay 1000 bricks you will need: 3 sacks cement + 0,6 cubic metres sand 9 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 12 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CONCRETE MIXERS PLASTER Suitable for: Exterior and Interior work CEMENT PLASTER SAND 1 SACK 3 WHEELBARROWS To plaster 100 square metres 15 millimetres thick you will need 10 sacks cement + 2 cubic metres sand LARGE BATCHES Use containers such as buckets, drums or tins Use the same size container for measuring all the materials in a batch CONCRETE CEMENT CONCRETE SAND STONE Low-strength concrete 1 3 1/2 3 1/2 Medium- strength concrete 1 2 1/2 2 1/2 High-strength concrete 1 1 3/4 1 3/4 MORTAR CEMENT BUILDING SAND 1 5 PLASTER CEMENT BUILDING SAND 1 5 NOTES: 1. The amount of water added to a mix must be enough to make the mix workable and plastic. 2. The following types of cement are suitable: Ordinary portland cement Ordinary portland cement 15 slag Ordinary portland cement 15 fly ash 3. Stone for concrete should be 19mm or 16 mm size. 4. If you use a wheelbarrow for measuring, it should be a builder’s wheelbarrow which has a capacity of 65 litres. 10 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 13 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CEMENT MIXING HINTS A few hints on mixing. First add water - approximately 12 litres, depending on the type of mix. Cement should go in after some of the aggregate. Work consistently to the ratio of ingredients as listed below, for whatever type of concrete mix you are working to. Beware of low grade aggregates, this only leads to trouble later on with sinking, spoiling the appearance of the pour. Also, more importantly, do not get the concrete mix too wet as this can reduce the strength and is less able to withstand weathering. Never throw material into mixer, trickle it steadily over the rim or it will stick firmly to the back of the drum and can only be dislodged by stopping the mixer. The approximate mixing time for concrete is 2 1/2 minutes, which is taken when all the material, including water, has entered the drum. Over mixing can reduce strength and cause segregation of the coarser aggregates. Keep your mixer clean, the slightest trace of material left in the drum will harden and attract more residue each time you use it until the machine is useless. Do not throw bricks into a mixer drum to clean it out. The best method is 19 mm gravel and clean water, use plenty of it, as this will do the job in half the time. TABLE OF CONCRETE BATCH QUANTITIES APPROX. MIXES MIX Cement LITRES Sand Stone 50 kg Shovels Shovels OUTPUT Bag LOW STRENGTH 1:3 :3 (House Foundations) 1 40 40 170 MEDIUM STRENGTH (House Floors, Foot 40 40 170 Paths) 1:2 :2 1 HIGH STRENGTH (Heavy Duty Floors) 1:1 :1 2 40 40 170 1 SHOVEL SAND = ± 3 LITRES 1 SHOVEL STONE = ± 3 LITRES 1 BUILDERS WHEELBARROW = ± 65 LITRES 11 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 14 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K 12 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 15 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K ANYTHING YOU NEED - WE CAN GET IT FOR YOU • EX Engines are 2 dBA quieter and softer in tone Towable Mixer Compactor Honda petrol & Yanmar diesel than other engines engines in the same class. 67mm (Bore) x 48mm (Stroke) • Reliable Starting and Less Pulling Force Concrete saw • Extreme ease Chainsaw Brushcutter of Maintenance High pressure cleaner Generators 1 to 100Kva 67mm (Bore) x 60mm (Stroke) Centrifugal pump Petrol/Diesel 2” & 3” Welder 200Amp + Brick/Block 7 Neutron Road 7Kva Genset mould PO Box 12174 Chloorkop, 1624 Tel: 011 - 393 1216 Fax: 011 - 976 4807 Jhb 011 618-2820 Cape Town 021 551-9605 Welkom 057 357-3045 Pretoria 012 325-0977 Nelspruit 031 752-3120 Port Eliz 041 485-2950 Wynberg 011 887-7730 Strand 021 564-7812 www.turnermorris.co.za Boksburg 011 894-7743 Durban 031 701-1482 firstname.lastname@example.org CE Concrete Mixers, Drive Units, Vibrators, Concrete Saws, SIN 3 6 19 Power Floats, Breakers, Drills, Angle Grinders, Generators Conveyors, Dumpers, Survey Equipment, Floor Grinder, Scarifiers Floor sanders, Tile cutters, Brick Croppers, Blades, Plate Compactors, Round compactors, Rammers, Compaction Rollers, Screed Beams, Welders 13 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 16 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Rammer Operation & basic maintenance tips The following tips are crucial to optimum Rammer performance and protection. Failure to follow them will result in serious damage and failure to the machine, poor or unsatisfactory compaction results as well as injury to the operator, resulting in substantial financial implications for the user or hirer. • Always – ensure the correct petrol – oil mix is used in 2 stroke Rammers. 50: 1 (25 l of petrol & 500ml of 2 stroke oil) or 40: 1 (20 l of petrol & 500ml of 2 stroke oil) as an alternative. Use only pre-mix fuel supplied by your local Coastal Tool Hire branch. • Always – check the oil level daily in the Ramming system sight glass. Oil level must be a maximum of 3/4 full on the sight glass. • Always – ensure that suitable trained operators operate the Rammer. Contact your Coastal Tool Hire branch for operator training if required. • Always – immediately report or return Rammers which are not performing properly or show any signs of damage or unusual noises, to your Coastal Tool Hire branch for repair or exchange, to prevent any further damage. • Never – operate a Rammer without an airfilter. This will result in serious engine wear and failure. • Never – overcompact! Stop compaction as soon as the Rammer starts to jump erratically and becomes difficult to control. Failure to do so will result in serious damage to the Ramming mechanism, as well as break up the compacted layer. • Never – run the Rammer on hard or solid surfaces, such as Concrete, Rock, Asphalt etc. This will result in serious damage to the shoe and the ramming mechanism. • Never – push the Rammer forward or pull the Rammer back while compacting. The Rammer will naturally move forward & only needs to be guided or steered by the operator. Shoe damage or breakage will be caused as a result of incorrect operation. • Never – operate the Rammer at 1/2 throttle, always ensure full throttle during compaction and idle throttle when standing. This will cause serious damage to the clutch mechanism as well as give very poor compaction results. • Never – run or lean the bellows against sharp objects or abrasive and hard surfaces. • Avoid – damage to Rammers during transportation. Tie down properly and do not pack other equipment on top. Practical tips for best compaction results. • Rammers are extremely powerful compactors, and should never be used on layers less than approx. 300mm thick. • Very dry or very wet soil cannot be compacted. Always ensure that the soil or material to be compacted is slightly moist (NOT WET & NOT DRY) • Best compaction results are usually achieved after 3-4 passes of a Wacker Rammer. 14 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 17 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K PETROL ENGINES STATIONARY PETROL ENGINES The life of an engine depends upon the conditions under which it operates, and the care it receives. Some applications such as compactors, pumps and mowers, are very often used in dusty or dirty conditions, which can cause what appears to be premature wear. Such wear when caused by dirt, dust, spark plug cleaning grit, or other abrasive material that has entered the engine because of improper maintenance, will severely reduce the life of an engine. SAFETY DO NOT run engine in an enclosed area. (Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide, an odourless and deadly poison). DO NOT strike flywheel with a hammer or hard object as this may cause flywheel to shatter in operation. (Use correct tool to service engine). DO NOT operate engine without a muffler. (Inspect periodically and replace if worn or leaking. If engine is equipped with muffler deflector, inspect periodically and, if necessary replace with correct deflector. DO NOT operate engine with an accumulation of grass, leaves or other combustible material in muffler area. DO NOT start engine with air cleaner or air cleaner cover removed. (Or cover of carburetor intake). DO NOT refuel indoors or in unventilated area. DO NOT remove fuel tank nor fill fuel tank while engine is hot or running. (Allow engine to cool for 2 minutes before refuelling). MAINTENANCE OIL 1. Check oil level regularly. Be sure correct oil level is maintained. Check every 5 hours or daily, before starting engine. 2. Changing oil (Follow Maintenance Schedule). Change oil after first 5 hours of operation. Change oil while engine is warm. Refill with new oil of recommended grade. Oil should be changed every 50 hours of Normal Operation. (Every 25 hours under Heavy Load or High Temperatures.) 15 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 18 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K P E T R OL E NGIN ES AIR CLEANER 1. Loosen screw(s) or remove knob then remove cover. 2. Remove pre-cleaner, if so equipped, and cartridge very carefully to prevent debris from entering carburetor. To service pre-cleaner, wash in liquid detergent and water. Squeeze dry in a clean cloth. Saturate in engine oil. If very dirty or damaged, replace it. (Depending on engine Type Number, your engine may not have pre-cleaner). To service cartridge, clean by tapping gently on a flat surface. If very dirty or damaged, replace it. Do not oil cartridge. NOTE: Do not use petroleum solvents, e.g., Petrol, not pressurised air to clean cartridge. They will cause cartridge to deteriorate. 3. Reinstall cartridge and pre-cleaner. 4. Replace cover and tighten screws or knob securely. KEEP ENGINE & PARTS CLEAN 1. Remove dirt and debris with a cloth or brush. Do not clean with a forceful spray of water because water could contaminate fuel system. 2. Grass, chaff or dirt may clog engine's air cooling systems, especially after prolonged operation. Remove blower housing and clean area shown to prevent overheating and engine damage. 3. To assure smooth operation, keep governor linkage, springs and controls free of debris. 4. Replace or clean spark plug. Do not blast clean. Clean by brushing and washing with a commercial solvent. 5. Daily or more often, before running engine, clean muffler area to remove all grass and combustible. STORAGE INSTRUCTION 1. Engine stored over 30 days need to be protected or drained of fuel to prevent gum from forming in fuel system or on essential carburetor parts. 2. While engine is still warm, drain oil from crankcase. Refill with fresh oil of recommended grade. 3. Remove spark plug and pour about 15ml of engine oil into cylinder. Replace spark plug and crank slowly to distribute oil. 4. Clean dirt and chaff from cylinder, cylinder head fins, blower housing, rotating screen and muffler areas. 5. Store in a clean and dry area, but NOT near a stove, furnace or water heater which uses a pilot light or any device that can create a spark. 16 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 19 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K PA I N T I N G G UID ELIN ES Labour is costly and the cost of applying poor quality material is exactly the same as applying a top quality product from a recognised paint manufacturer. Contact the paint manufacturer for free technical advice before you purchase paint products to protect your property. PRODUCT APPROXIMATE SPREADING RATE M2/LITRE Bonding Liquid 7- 10 Sheen Acrylic 8 -10 Enamel 8 - 10 Galvanised Iron Primer 7-9 Masonary Paint 6-8 Texture Coating 4-5 Acrylic PVA 8-9 Plaster Primer (Alkali Resistant) 7-8 Wood Primer 8-9 GUIDELINES FOR AVERAGE Universal Undercoat 7-8 SPREADING RATES Non Drip Polyurethane Enamel 8 - 10 Spreading rates are given in good faith Acrylic Fillercoat 5-7 for top quality paint product but is Acrylic Roof Paint 4-6 totally dependant on application Exterior Timber Varnish 8 - 10 methods and skill of application. Metal Primer 7-9 PA I N T I N G T I P S * The success of any paint system is directly dependant on the degree of surface preparation. * Never paint under adverse conditions i.e. Rain or damp conditions - extreme cold or heat. * Never stop painting in the middle of a wall. Finish in or on a corner. Add your leftover paint to the fresh paint, and stir thoroughly before starting in or on a corner again. * Always ensure that batch numbers correspond or mix different batch numbers together to eliminate colour variations between batches. * Always allow paint to dry, according to instructions, between coats. Make sure that the correct primer and undercoat is used. * Always stir paint thoroughly with a flat paddle. * Protect the inside of your paint tray by using a plastic shopping bag as a liner - simply put the tray inside the bag and discard the bag when finished painting. * Store paint tins upside down for long periods. * Apply Vaseline to lids and bottles during long storage to prevent rusting. * When painting ceilings by brush - tie a piece of rag around the handle above your hand to absorb paint droplets running from the brush. * Clean PVA/Acrylic spillage immediately with water and enamel spillage with mineral turpentine. 17 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 20 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K * When painting/varnishing window frames - cut newspaper to size of window pane, wet and fit to glass. Simply pull off when painting is finished. * Clean brushes and rollers immediately after each painting session. Protect clean brushes by wrapping in cloth. * Always use best quality brushes. * Remove door handles and switch plates before painting. * Tape a short length of masking tape ±10cm along the lip of the tin when pouring paint out. This will prevent paint running into the lip of the can. * A nail in the brush makes for easy hanging on a stepladder or on the side of the paint tin during painting. * Scrape paint spots off window panes with an old razor. * When rolling on textured paint your roller should be cleaned periodically during painting to prevent excessive clogging. * A broomstick makes a very handy extension to a roller for painting ceilings. H P WA S H E R HIGH PRESSURE WASHERS: have the following uses: • Cleaning the deposits off roofs, paving and precast walls • Removing mortar from face brick walls • Cleaning greasy dirty engines and under carriages of vehicles. (cars, bakkies, etc) • Farming industry, floors of dairies etc • Fishing industry, factory floors, walls etc Do’s and dont’s When using the machine a) Never run pump without water b) Never run pump with spray gun closed for longer than 5 minutes c) Check pump oil levels regulary Before starting the machine a) Check the Pump and gearbox oil levels b) Check the engine oil and fuel levels (if it is a petrol driven machine) c) Connect the water supply & open the supply. It is always preferable to use the Municipal water supply as it has some pressure, which assists the machine to operate more efficiently. When using suction water supply from a drum a) Use only 20mm or larger diameter supply hose b) Suction hose must not be longer than 3.5m c) Prime the pump via supply hose with clean water d) Run the engine at half speed (if petrol) to bleed the pump until spray pressure is achieved. High Pressure Cleaners Handy tip: BEFORE HIRING a machine insist on having the machine tested in front of you. Make sure you know how to operate the high pressure washer, that it is in perfect working order and that all the parts are given to you when you load. e.g. the nozzle, gun and hoses are together and that there is a hose for detergent with a filter at the end. 18 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 21 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K C A L C U L AT I O N S OF WALL AREAS IN M2 NORMAL WALL HEIGHT = 2.8M LENGTH OF ROOM 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 2 22.4 25.2 28.0 30.8 33.6 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 2.5 25.2 28.2 30.8 33.6 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 3 28.0 30.8 33.6 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 3.5 30.8 33.6 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 WIDTH OF ROOM 4 33.6 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 4.5 36.4 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 5 39.2 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 64.4 5.5 42.0 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 64.4 67.2 6 44.8 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 64.4 67.2 70.0 6.5 47.6 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 64.4 67.2 70.0 72.8 7 50.4 53.2 56.0 58.8 61.6 64.4 67.2 70.0 72.8 75.6 7.5 53.2 56.0 58.5 61.6 64.4 67.2 70.0 72.8 75.6 78.4 19 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 22 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K C H A I N S AW S WARNING! Your chain saw is a one-person saw. Do not allow other persons to be near the running chain saw. Start and operate your saw without assistance. WARNING! To reduce the risk of serious or fatal injury to the operator or bystanders, never use the saw with one hand. You cannot control reactive forces and you may lose control of the saw, which can result in the bar and chain skating or bouncing along the limb or log. WARNING! Avoid stumbling on obstacles such as stumps, roots or rocks and watch out for holes and ditches. Be extremely cautious when working on slopes or uneven ground. CUTTING INSTRUCTIONS GRIP: Always hold the saw firmly with both hands when the engine is running. Place your left hand on front handle bar and your right hand on rear handle and throttle trigger. Lefthanders should follow these instructions too. CONVENTIONAL CUT A=felling notch - determines the direction of the fall FOR A CONVENTIONAL CUT: Properly place felling notch perpendicular to the line of fall, close to the ground. Cut down at app. 45-degree angle to a depth of about 1/5 to 1/4 of the trunk diameter. Make second cut horizontal. Remove resulting 45-degree piece. 20 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 23 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K C H A I N S AW S KICKBACK Kickback occurs when the upper quadrant of the bar nose contacts a solid object or is pinched. The reaction of the cutting force of the chain causes a rotational force on the chain saw in the direction opposite to the chain movement. TO AVOID KICKBACK The best protection from personal injury that may result from kickback situations: 1. Hold the chain saw firmly with both hands and maintain a secure grip. 2. Be aware of the location of the guide bar nose at all times. 3. Never let the nose of the guide bar contact any object. Do not cut limbs with the nose of the guide bar. Be especially careful when cutting small, tough limbs, small size brush and saplings which may easily catch the chain. 4. Don't overreach. 5. Don't cut above shoulder height. 6. Begin cutting and continue at full throttle. 7. Cut only one log at a time. 8. Use extreme caution when re-entering a previous cut. 9. Do not attempt to plunge cut if you are not experienced with these cutting techniques. 10. Be alert for shifting of the log or other forces that may cause the cut to close and pinch the chain. 11. Maintain saw chain properly. Cut with a correctly sharpened, properly tensioned chain at all times. 12. Stand to the side of the cutting path of the chain saw. PUSH-BACK Push-back occurs when the chain on the top of the bar is suddenly stopped when it is pinched, caught or encounters a foreign object in the wood. The reaction of chain drives the saw straight back toward the operator and may cause loss of saw control. Push-back frequently occurs when the top of the bar is used for cutting. TO AVOID PUSH-BACK: 1. Be alert to forces or situations that may cause material to pinch the top of the chain. Do not cut more than one log at a time. 2. Do not twist the saw when withdrawing the bar from a plunge cut or underbuck cut because the chain can pinch. 21 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 24 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K C H A I N S AW S PULL-IN Pull-in occurs when the chain on the bottom of the bar is suddenly stopped. The chain on the bottom of the bar stops when it is pinched, caught or encounters a foreign object in the wood. The reaction of the chain pulls the saw forward and may cause the operator to lose control. Pull-in frequently occurs when the bumper spike of the saw is not held securely against the tree or limb and when the chain is not rotating at full speed before it contacts the wood. TO AVOID PULL-IN 1. Always start a cut with the chain rotating at full speed and the bumper spike in contact with the wood. 2. Pull-in may also be prevented by using wedges to open the kerf cut. WARNING! Use extreme caution when cutting small size brush and saplings which may easily catch the chain and pull you off balance. WARNING! Never touch a chain with your hand or any part of your body when the engine is running, even when the chain is not rotating. The chain continues to rotate for a short period after the throttle trigger is released. WARNING! Do not cut any material other than wood or wooden objects. Use your chain saw for cutting only. It is not designed for prying or shoveling away limbs, roots or other objects. 22 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 25 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 26 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS GENERAL PRECAUTION FOR SAFER OPERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER TOOLS Because they are powered by electricity and function through the operation of cutting tools and other parts that move at high speed, electric tools are inherently dangerous if used carelessly. However, they can be utilized safely and effectively if the user observes a few basic safety rules in their operation. For handy reference to enhance safe operation, some important rules and precautions in the use of electric power tools are listed below. If an extension cord is necessary, ensure it has a thickness and capacity appropriate for the tool. Keep blades, drill bits and other cutting tools sharp and clean. Always ensure a damaged cord is properly and safely repaired. Prior to operation carefully inspect the tool for abnormalities. Immediately stop operation if any abnormalities are noted. Do not operate the tool when your hands are wet with water, sweat, etc., Thoroughly dry your hands before handling the tool. Do not drop the tool or otherwise treat it roughly. Mishandling the tool can damage or weaken its insulation and other safety features. Ensure that motor ventilation openings are kept clean and fully open. Always handle the tool with respect and care. 24 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 27 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K SOIL COMPACTION TIPS SOIL COMPACTION TIPS WITH A PLATE COMPACTOR The plate vibratory soil compactor is used for consolidating soil, close up to steel sheet pilings and foundation structures, fill under floors and foundation and back fill in pipe trenches. It is extremely easy to operate and can readily be turned even in extremely confined spaces. The machine moves forward under its own power at a speed that is dependent on the type of soil. Speed on naturally moist gravel is approximately 20m/minute. Sand and gravel are effectively compacted down to a depth of approximately 30cm. For better compaction results soil should be slightly damp. In fine soils it may be necessary to soak well and compact later (e.g. sea sand). DESIGN The plate compactor consists of two main parts: a base plate with vibrating element and an engine mounting plate with engine. The vibrating element is mounted on the front upturned part of the base plate, which causes the machine to move forward when in use. Drive from engine to vibrating element is by a high capacity V-belt. Four heavy-duty steel springs effectively insulate the engine mounting plate from the base plate. A steering handle with throttle lever is fitted to the engine mounting plate. Forward speed of the soil compactor can be regulated between 0 and 20m/min. by means of this throttle lever. Normally the engine should run at 3500 r.p.m. A rubber mat is attached to the plate compactor for use on brick paving for the final finishing, levelling and grouting. Handy tip; Paving your driveway - use the compactor with a roller attachment to get even layout. It is easy to use and our staff will gladly assist you and demonstrate the compactor for you. The rewards are great. 25 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 28 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K C O N C R E T E S AW S APPLICATIONS The following are some of the most common: 1) Expansion and contraction joints in new concrete. Concrete tends to contract after being poured and this often causes cracking. By cutting the concrete the cracking is controlled. Expansion and contraction takes place due to heat and cold and this also causes cracking. The joint allows this movement to take place in a controlled fashion. 2) Cutting and neatening of the edges of asphalt roads for casting in situ concrete storm water gutters. 3) Cutting of concrete or asphalt for road crossings (where pipes, cables etc. are going to be laid or replaced) 4) Reaming out of expansion and contraction joints to prepare concrete roads or slabs for the insertion of strips to seal joints. The strips prevent the cut joints from filling up with sand and grit. If these are not inserted and the cuts fill with sand and grit the edges of the concrete begin to break off. 5) Cutting where breaking and excavations are going to be done, where repairs are needed in concrete or asphalt areas. There are 3 different types of saws on the market. Push type, semi self propelled (propelled by a wheel by hand) and a self propelled (propelled by a gearbox directly onto the axles of the machine). All these machines may be fitted with different sizes and types of Engines. Do's and don'ts 1) Do make sure that the correct blade for the correct application is used. i.e. Old concrete, New concrete and Asphalt. This will make the whole exercise more cost effective. 2) Do make sure that when starting the engine that the diamond blade is not in contact with the surface which is to be cut. 3) Do make sure that the adjustment arm is locked before starting the cutting process. 4) Do make sure that there is sufficient water available on site and if not then use a laser welded blade for the particular application. These blades are able to work without water, but will perform better if used with some water. 26 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 29 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K CONCRETE SAWS 5) Do guide the machine; don't force the machine to cut. Apply pressure so that the engine does not labour and the revs do not drop dramatically. 6) Do make sure that the correct machine is used for the application. A normal expansion and contraction job uses 22 to 30 mm-deep cuts - a 13-hp push type machine is adequate. Use a self propelled 20hp for road cutting where a depth of 75 mm is required and a production of kilometers each day is necessary. 7) When cutting to depths of more than 50mm, it is recommended that this be done in stages of 25mm per pass. I.E. 75mm 3 passes at 25 mm per cut 8) Do try to cut uphill and not downhill where possible. Handy tips Items to check before the machine leaves the hire shop. 1) Vee belts - are tensioned firmly and in good condition (no slippage when pressure is applied) 2) Blade shaft - for any play (are the bearings in need of replacement) If there is play the blade can be destroyed. 3) Check that the wheels are running evenly. Wheels that are worn unevenly can also contribute to damaging the blade. This is usually caused by bearings on the shaft being in need of replacement. 4) Check that the water feed is correctly directed onto the blade. 5) Make sure that the diamond blade is always put onto the machine the same way, so that it cuts in the same direction each time. Take note on the top of the blade at the cutting surface - each diamond stands out a fraction and behind it should be what looks like a comets tail. The diamond should be in front of the comet and that should show the direction in which the blade should turn. 6) Make sure that the blade guide is correctly aligned to the blade. 7) Make sure that the blade is tightened, blade flanges are in position and that the inside faces of the flanges are perfectly clean. 27 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 30 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K DRIVE UNIT & POKER Drive units are mainly used in conjunction with two items for different applications. 1. Vibrating pokers 2. Submersible pumps Both items need a flexible shaft to be driven at approx. 2850 revs per minute for the items of machinery to be able to operate. Do's and don'ts 1. Do not try to increase the revs of the engine to increase the performance of the machine driven. This will result in the destruction of the innercore of the item that is being driven. 2. Do have the engine started up to confirm that it is in good running order. 3. Do make sure that the drive unit is placed so that it will not move off the edge of a building and cause damage to staff or property. Drive units tend to move around on solid surfaces. Handy tips Before leaving the shop make sure that: 1. The rev's on the machine are approx. 2850 revs per minute. 2. Make sure that the drive dog in the sleeve is not worn out to ensure efficient operation 3. Make sure there is a clean air filter in the machine. SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS Submersible Pumps are used for pumping water in similar circumstances to the clean water centrifugal pump, but is a cheaper option when one already has a drive unit on site as it is then only necessary to hire a submersible pump and layflat hose. Do's and don'ts 1. Do make sure that the flexible hose is not bent to any extreme degree as this will damage the pump immediately, render it useless and incur you a costly repair bill. 2. Do make sure that the engine of the drive unit is not running over 2850 revs per minute. 3. Do make sure that it is properly submersed below the surface of the water when pumping. It cannot pump when sucking in air. 4. Do switch off the engine and lift the pump out of the water regularly to remove any debris stuck to the inlet areas where the water being pumped is not clean. Handy tip: When pumping water out of a muddy trench, place a brick on the bottom of the trench and then place the pump on top. This will help avoid the ingestion of mud and debris, which cause damage to the pump. Make sure that the pump is tested before it leaves the shop floor. 28 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 31 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K WAT E R P U M P S APPLICATIONS Water Pumps (Centrifugal) standard clean water pumps can be used for the following: 1) Pump water out of swimming pools, reservoirs, sumps in lift shafts, water carts etc. 2) Remove rain water from trenches 3) Pump water from rivers to reservoirs 4) Pump water from water carts to what ever location is necessary Do's and don'ts 1) Do make sure that all these items are included when hiring a centrifugal pump: Seals x2, wing nuts x2, nipples x2, hose clamps x3, strainer x1, layflat and suction hose. 2) Don't ever use the pump without the strainer. This item controls the size of the particles that pass through the pump. Without it, the impeller or casing will be destroyed, as larger particles will be sucked into the system than can pass through the pump. 3) Do always prime the pump when you first use it. It must always have water in the chamber before starting up. 4) Don't hire a standard 3-bar pump to do irrigation work, as the pressure needed to do this is not sufficient to do the required work. A 7 or 9 bar pump is necessary. These specifications are some times quoted in head. 30m head is approx. equal to 3 bar and 70m-head approx. equal to 7 bar. 5) Do not run the pump for any time at all without water as the mechanical seal will be damaged. Handy tips 1. BEFORE HIRING a machine insist on having it tested. Make sure you know how to operate the pump and that it is in perfect working order. E.g. Water leaking out between the pump and the engine indicates a damaged mechanical seal. 2. When using a machine that does not pump as it should, check the following before returning it to the shop a) Is there water in the priming chamber b) Are either of the non return valves sticking c) Are the suction clamps loose (top and bottom) d) Is the suction pipe damaged? e) Is there a blockage in the suction pipe f) Are the seals fitted correctly 3. Before hiring a machine, make sure that you have the measurements of the suction head (vertical distance from water level to the inlet of the pump) and delivery head. (Vertical distance from pump outlet to the point of the water leaving the outlet hose.) This will assist in choosing the correct pump for the work at hand. 4. When looking at the performance curve on the brochure to assess if the machine can do the work needed, make sure that you take in to account the altitude at which you are working. All curves are based on tests done at sea level. 5. The size of the particles passing through the pump and the volume of water needed per minute are the determining factors when deciding what kind of pump is needed for a particular application. a. Clean water centrifugal pump will allow a particle of 10mm's to pass through its pump body safely. The impeller has 3 closed fins that stand out 12mm from the face. This pump should never be allowed to run dry. b. Trash pump (80 or 100mm diameter) will allow particles of 30mm through the pump body safely. The impeller is open and has only 2 fins and stands proud of the impeller 35mm. This pump should never be allowed to run dry. This pump generally is specially designed to allow for instant opening with out special tools to facilitate the cleaning if large particles get stuck in the chamber. c. Diaphragm pump does not have an impeller and can take some solids. It can be allowed to run dry and is most useful in pumping seepage from trenches in areas where the water table is high. It can be left unattended (except for the petrol model) and will pump as the water seeps into the hole or trench. 29 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 32 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K G E N E R AT O R S Generators are used to supply electricity in areas where electricity is not available or power failures take place. It does require careful assessment of the application for which required. Do's and don'ts 1) Do make sure that the machine is able to do the work for which it is required. I.E. is the application for a resistive type load (a kettle or other element type appliance) or is it an induction motor (electric motor with an armature that needs some extra power to get it moving) which is going to be run off the generator. If the load is a. Resistive - all that needs to be done, is to add up the wattage of all the appliances which will give you more or less the size that is needed. If you are working at altitude for example, Johannesburg, it is wise to add approx. 35 % to the original value. (If you are at the coast allow 15% extra for safety) E.g. kettle = 1800watts lights 6 x 60 watt light bulbs = 360watts television = 250 watts. The total is 2410 watts or 2.410kw. At sea level the recommended generator would be 3kva but in Johannesburg 5kVa would be used. b. Induction type loads - It is necessary to check the running amps stated on the specification plate on the appliance. Multiply the value by 4 to estimate the size of generator that is needed. E.g. Running amps = 5 Take 5 x 4 = 20 amps. Using the formula Volts x amps = watts 220V x 20amps =4400 watts. In this case the recommended size should be 5kva at sea level and a 6 or 6.5 kVa generator in Johannesburg. These may seem somewhat conservative but it is always a good idea to hire a machine that is a little larger than what is necessary to save time and extra expense. The machine may well not be new and the engine rings may be slightly worn so the output may not be what is stated. If the machine does not put out the required power it may result in damage to your own tools. 30 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 33 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K G E N E R AT O R S 2) Do make sure that the machine is tested for you before it leaves the shop floor. 3) Do not overload the machine. It is relatively easy to hear the engine pitch change when the machine has extra load added. The engine revs drop temporarily and then pick up and the engine then goes on running normally. If this does not happen and the revs stay low and you can hear the engine labouring, rather remove an instrument from the generator if more than one is being used. The result of overloading is that the engine revs drop, the fan slows down, the alternator heats up and eventually burns out. 4) Do not ever try to increase the output of the machine by increasing the revs of the engine. The engine on the smaller single phase generators are set to run at 3000 revs and 50 hertz. Should you disturb the correct settings the following problems may occur. a. A diode may blow b. The engine may be damaged from over revving c. The tool or instrument may be damaged in the process as the her tz increases. Handy tips 1) Do not couple generators to welders as they burn out easily - please remember that you are responsible for damages caused in this manner. Rather use a welder generator for this task. 2) Small borehole pumps also require a great deal of power. Below is a small schedule to assist. Motor Generator Generator H.P kW kVa sea level kVa Altitude Size Size Size 0.33 0.25 1.5 2.0 0.50 1.9 2.6 0.75 0.55 2.5 3.5 1.00 3.8 5.0 3) When converting from hp to kW multiply the hp by 0.746 4) When converting from kW to hp divide the kW by 0.746 31 Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 34 C M Y CM MY CY CMY K WHY BUY WHEN YOU CAN HIRE Some good reasons why you will save time and money by calling us. • Save time and money by hiring Coastal equipment with the convenience of having all your required equipment under one roof. With the increasing cost of equipment it is much more cost effective to hire, particulary when equipment is used irregulary & you can avoid the hassles of storage. • All Coastal equipment is cleaned, serviced and tested before being hired out. • Collections and deliveries: Coastal has branches nationwide - you will find a Coastal wherever you need us & we deliver & collect to most areas. • We hire a wide range of top quality modern equipment: construction, plumbing, gardening and DIY. If we do not have it we will do our best to find it. Our interbranch hire system means that required equipment can be sourced swiftly from other Coastal branches if not immediately available. • Free advice on how to use equipment from your friendly Coastal franchisee. • Half day and weekend rates.