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					Handy Guide Inside.fh8 12/8/04 3:30 pm Page 1
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                                   WELCOME
           COASTAL TOOL HIRE is now the largest and best known tool hire brand in Southern Africa
           with over 40 stores operating nationally. This has been achieved by Coastal’s franchise
           system which ensures you are being looked after by the individual who owns the business
           as well as our commitment to the highest standards of equipment, excellent hire rates, and
           friendly service. You can always be sure that with Coastal you will be well looked after.

           Please enjoy using our very popular DIY booklet which has already been used by over 100,000
           Coastal customers and will make every job just a little easier.

           You can experience our wide range of modern equipment which is always in good condition
           and well maintained and get advice on how to use all of the equipment from our helpful
           franchisees.

           All you DIY-ers - increase the value of your home and do all the home improvement jobs you
           always wanted to do. At Coastal our sound advice and great equipment make the tasks
           simple at a fraction of the cost.




             COASTAL TOOL HIRE welcomes you to contact us with any queries
             regarding Hire or Sales of Construction, Building or Tiling Equipment from
             any of our Branches.

                                    COASTAL TOOL HIRE FRANCHISE
                                      Box 50244, Randjesfontein 1683
                                  Tel: 011 314 4844 Fax: 011 314 2096
                                         Email: toolhire@mweb.co.za
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                                                INDEX


                          Safety                                                                            1

                          Floor Sanding                                                                     2

                          S a n d i n g Te c h n i q u e                                                    3

                          Basic Floor Tiling                                                                5

                          B a s i c Wa l l T i l i n g                                                      6

                          Concrete Mixers                                                                   7

                          Pe t r o l E n g i n e s                                                     15

                          Pa i n t i n g G u i d e l i n e s                                           17

                          H P Wa s h e r                                                               17

                          Chainsaws                                                                    20

                          E l e c t r i c Po w e r To o l s                                            23

                          S o i l C o mp a c t i o n                                                   25

                          Concrete Saws                                                                26

                          D r i v e Un i t & Po k e r                                                  28

                          S u b m e r s i b l e P u mp s                                               28

                          Wa t e r P u mp s                                                            29

                          Generators                                                                   30




                                                            Member of the
                                                         Franchise Association
                                                           of Southern Africa
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           This HANDY GUIDE has been specially compiled to give you brief product and
           user knowledge of machines available from “Coastal Tool Hire”. All machinery is
           dangerous - BE CAREFUL!!


                                              SAFETY
           Proper Clothing
           Clothing must be sturdy and snug-fitting, but allow complete
           freedom of movement. Avoid loose-fitting jackets, scarfs,
           neckties, jewellery, flared or cuffed pants, unconfined long
           hair or anything that could become entangled in the
           machine. Wear overalls with a reinforced cut
           retardant insert.


           Protect your hands with gloves when handling a machine.
           Heavy-duty, nonslip gloves improve your grip and protect
           your hands.


           Good footing is most important in chainsaw work. Wear
           sturdy boots with nonslip soles. Steel-toed safety boots
           are recommended.


           To reduce the risk of injury to your eyes never operate a
           machine unless wearing goggles or properly fitted
           safety glasses.

           Always wear ear plugs or ear mufflers to protect your hearing.


                                         WARNING!
                                         Prolonged use of machinery exposes the operator to vibrations which may
                                         produce whitefinger disease (Raynnauds's phenomenon) or carpal tunnel
                                         syndrome. These conditions reduce the hand's ability to feel and regulate
                                         temperature, produce numbness and burning sensations and may cause
                                         nerve and circulation damage and tissue necrosis.


                                         Anti-vibration systems and heated handles do
           not guarantee that you will not sustain whitefinger disease or carpal tunnel
           syndrome. Therefore, continual and regular users should monitor closely
           the condition of their hands and fingers. If any of the above symptoms
           appear, seek medical advice immediately..


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                         FLOOR SANDING
           PREPARATION
           1.   Where possible remove all furniture from the area or room. Floor Sanders feature an efficient dust
                pick-up. However, some dust will escape.
           2.   Remove all tacks, staples and other unwanted fixing from the floor. Failure to do so will result in
                damage to the abrasive paper and sanding drum.
           3.   Punch all nails below the surface of the floor using a suitable nail punch and hammer. Any screws
                used to fix boards should be counter sunk below the surface. During sanding any nails or screws
                that become exposed must be punched or countersunk further.
           4.   Firmly fix all loose boards or blocks.
           5.   Remove heavy wax, grease and dirt deposits by hand.
           6.   Sweep and vacuum the floor thoroughly to remove dirt and discarded fixings.
           7.   Ensure good ventilation by opening windows.


           OPERATION
           Floor sanders are powerful machines. Always ensure that you have a firm grip before switching on.


           CAUTION:           To prevent damage to the floor surface, work piece or machine follow these rules.


                                                1.    Always ensure that the floor sander is moving when in operation and
                                                      sanding drum is in contact with the floor.
                                                2.    Never lift the back of the machine when sanding.
                                                3.    Never apply pressure to try and increase the rate of sanding.
                                                      Damage to the floor and machine will occur.
                                                4.    Never bounce or drop the floor sander on to the floor. Always lower
                                                      the machine gently.
                                                5.    Never dwell in one place, move steadily at all times.
                                                6.    Never allow the power cable to come into contact with the
                                                      sanding drum.

           Never leave the floor sander unattended with dust
           in the dust bag. Always remove the dust bag and
           dispose of into a suitable container.


           Handy tip: Why not save thousands by bringing out the natural
           beauty of your wooden floor yourself. Coastal Tool Hire has the
           best quality imported floor sanders and sound advice from our
           friendly managers. Why not use our excellent weekend special
           prices and sand your floor this weekend.



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           SANDING TECHNIQUE
           DRUM FLOOR SANDER
           Load the sander with abrasive making sure that it is skin tight around the drum. Loose sheets will tear.
           Place on the right hand wall (unless you are making an angled cut on uneven floors) with about two-
           thirds of the floor in front of you. Start the sander with the drum off the floor then walk forward at
           an even pace and ease the drum to the floor. As you near the end of the pass, gradually raise the
           drum off the floor. Practise this technique before turning the sander on.


           Cover the same path you made on the forward cut by pulling the machine backwards and easing the
           drum to the floor as you begin the backward pass until you reach the original point, then ease the drum
           off the floor.



           SANDING PLANK & STRIP FLOORS
           Floors in good condition - when the floor is in good condition - no uneven edges, cupping or crowning
           of planks and strips - start sanding in the direction of the planks or strips, with the wood grain.


           Start with a coarse or medium abrasive. Complete the first cut with the drum floor sander then sand
           up to the skirting board (baseboards) and door thresholds with the edger, using a medium grit abrasive,
           blending the edges in with the main floor area. Sweep the floor.


           Using a medium grit abrasive, sand the main floor area with the drum sander and then complete the
           floor. Finish sanding the main floor area with the drum floor sander using a fine grit abrasive.


           Uneven floors - when the floor is uneven, sand diagonally at 450 across the floor in both directions using
           a course grit abrasive. Only make one cut on both diagonals, this will achieve a basic level. Now complete
           the floor as for a level strip or plank floor.


           Use the same grit abrasive as was used on the 450 cut for the first cut parallel to the planks or strips.


           Floors with an existing finish - when refinishing a floor remove as little of the existing surface as possible.
            If only a light sanding is required to prepare the floor for refinishing use an orbital floor sander. If the
           floor is badly marked and scratched and has to be sanded back to new wood, it may be necessary to
           use coarse open coat abrasive to remove the old finish but take care as they are very aggressive.


           Always try a medium grit paper first, particularly on a diagonal cut. If 90% of the old finish is removed
           and the floor is generally leveled, you do not need to use a coarse grit abrasive.




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           SANDING TECHNIQUE

           VENEERED, LAMINATED AND THINNER FLOORS
           Use an orbital floor sander for veneered and laminated floors or thinner floors that may have been
           subjected to repeated sanding. The orbital floor sander will remove old surface finishes and prepare
           the floor for refinishing. Sand the floor using the same method as a strip, plank, or parquet floor.
           If the floor has deeper scratches or masks, these should be sanded out by hand and blended in with
           the main floor.


           PARQUET & BLOCK FLOORS
           The grain of the wood will run in a number of directions so sand the floor in the direction of the main
           source of natural light in the room. If there is no source of natural light sand in the direction of the
           longest side of the room or, if the room is square, in the direction the furniture is laid out and how people
           normally use the room. This technique will help mask any imperfections in the floor.


           Complete the sanding operation as detailed for plank or strip floors.



           ABRASIVE PAPER GUIDE


                Abrasive Paper Grade            Floor Type and Condition


                Grit 30 (Coarse)                For removing surface coatings such as varnish, stains and wax
                                                polishes from old floors. Use for rapid levelling of uneven
                                                floors. Do not use on well laid even floors.


                Grit 40 (Medium)                For first sanding of new hardwood floors. Second sanding of
                                                old floors.


                Grit 80 (Fine)                  For final sanding of new or old wood floors. Second sanding of
                                                cork or composition floors.


                Grit 100 (Extra Fine)           For final sanding of any floor where exceptionally high finish
                                                is required.




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                    1. Place a tile in the centre of the doorway and mark a line next to the tile across the floor and
                       at right angles to the doorway. All work will be based on that line.
                         NOTE: Line can be moved to the left or right once tiles have been set out to minimize cutting.
                            2. Place the first tile (A) next to line (Z). Lay tiles (without adhesive) along this line leaving
                              space for the tile joints. Use a straight edge for a fixed nylon line to ensure tiles run in
                                 a straight line. Once tiles have been set out, mark a line (Y) at right angles to line (Z).
                                    Tiles can then be laid along this line. Depending on preference and tile size, tiles
                                      can be laid in a half bond pattern, or other desired configurations.
                                        3. Without disturbing straight edge (or nylon line) remove loose tiles and apply
                                           adhesive to floor with a 10 x 10 x 6mm Notched Trowel. (Do not use the
                                             spot or blob method). Apply in squares not larger than one can stretch
                                              ( 1/2 m) so that surface drying does not occur. If surface is not level,
                                             tiles should be buttered with adhesive and then pressed into the wet bed.
                                         (Dovetailed or lugged tiles should also be buttered with adhesive before being
                                 bedded into wet adhesive.) Alternatively, the floor level must be built up in hollow
                           spaces. NB: All tiles must make 100% contact with adhesive or else damage to tiles will
                   occur. Tap tiles level with a rubber mallet bedding them fully. Lift a tile every couple of metres
             to check that full contact is being maintained.
          4. Use Tile Spacers for neat accurate work. Minimum joint width to be 3mm. Never buttjoint tiles.
          5. Cut border tiles to size with a Tile Cutter, or shape with Rod Saw or Tile Nipper.
          6. Finish off edge of tiles at doorways or on steps with Edge Trim.
          7. Remove excess adhesive in joints before adhesive sets.
          8. Allow at least 24 hours drying before grouting joints with Tile Grout. See colour boards and
               grout specifications.
          9. Allow for movement joints around the perimeter of the tiles and at intervals of not more than 4 mm
          in each direction. Joints must extend through the adhesive and be filled with a suitable flexible filler.


          NOTE: Make sure floor area is free of all dust and
          loose material. All paint, oil, bitumen or previous
          coverings must be removed completely. New screeds
          to be at least 2 weeks old and concrete 4 weeks. Use
          only clean water and clean tools. Clean with cleaning
          Sponge as work proceeds. Do not soak tiles in water.

          Handy tip:
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                  B AS I C WA LL TILING




           1.    Find wall's lowest point with a spirit level, and nail wooden batten (A) with its top one tile width from
                 floor (as per sketch). Check that the batten is level, and continue this line around the wall to be tiled.
           2.    Nail a vertical wooden batten or draw a line (B) at right angles to (A) to obtain a true vertical from
                 which to be tiled.
           3.    It is advisable to start in the middle of a wall to ensure edge/corner tiles on both sides are cut to
                 equal size for neat appearance. However tiles can first be set out dry so as to minimize cutting.
           4.    Read the instructions carefully before applying the adhesive.
                 Use a 6 x 6 x 6mm Notched Trowel and do not apply to areas greater than can be tiled in 15 minutes
                 ( 1/2m).
                 For heavy tiles use a 10 x 10 x 6mm Notched Trowel (do not use the spot or blob method.)
           5.    Use Tile Spacers between tiles for neat accurate work. Minimum joint width to be 1,5mm. Never
                 butt-joint tiles.
           6.    Bed tiles firmly into the wet adhesive and check vertical and horizontal with a spirit level.
           7.    Cut edge tiles with Tile Cutter and shape with Rod Saw or Nipper.
           8.    Finish off edge or tiling around doorways and windows with Edge Trim.
           9.    Remove excess adhesive in joints before adhesive sets.
           10.   Allow at least 24 hours drying time before grouting with Tile Grout. See colour boards and grout
                 specifications.
           11.   Allow for movement joints where wall tiles meet floor tiles and at intervals of not more than 4mm
                 in each direction. Joints must extend through the adhesive and be filled with a suitable flexible filler.


           NOTE: Make sure walls are free of all loose material. If previously coated refer to adhesive instructions
           for the treatment. Use only clean water and clean tools. Clean tiles with Cleaning Sponge as work
           proceeds. Do not soak tiles in water.




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                 CONCRETE MIXERS
         APPLICATIONS
         Concrete Mixers are used when:
         1. The quantity of concrete to be mixed is too small to justify the ordering of ready mix.
         2. The price of ready mix is higher than mixing concrete on site. This occurs when the site is far from a
             ready mix plant and a quarry with materials is nearby.
         3. There is no ready mix available in the area.
         4. The requirement is for small loads of concrete at small but irregular intervals to allow the labour to
             perform the task at hand in between pours.
             Concrete mixers are not generally used for mixing mortar. This requires a different type of paddle system
             because of the lack of stone, which generally assists with the mixing process.


         Do's and don'ts
         1.   Do not grease the ring gear around the
              drum of a mixer (The result of greasing
              is the manufacture of a grinding
              paste which systematically
              wears the drive and ring gear away.)
         2.   Do run the engine with the engine
              cover open.
         3.   Do always put stone into the
              mixer first, then sand and then
              cement and water in that order.
              It mixes faster and more effectively.
         4.   Do find out the Mixing and Output
              capacities of the Concrete Mixer, so
              that the machine is not overloaded and
              to allow you to work out the production
              when planning the job.
         5.   Do check that your vehicle is large enough to carry
              the mixer or arrange for delivery.
         6.   Do check that you are able to load and off load safely at
              the site - if not hire a towable machine.
         7.   Do always wash the machine down thoroughly when the work for
              the day is complete.




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                CONCRETE MIXERS
           HANDY TIPS


                Items to check before the machine leaves the hire shop.
           1.   Vee-belts - are they in good condition and firm so that they do not slip when the drum is loaded.
           2.   Does the drum tilt easily under load. Ensure that the tilt gear is not worn so that the machine does not dump its
                load in an uncontrolled fashion when discharging.
           3.   Make sure that the drum turns easily under load (the drive pinion must be in good condition)
           4.   Make sure that the machine is securely fastened or properly hitched. Accidents happen so quickly and easily.
           5.   If the concrete sticks to the drum and does not mix, check the speed of the drum by making a mark on it
                and timing the revs per minute. If it is more than 25 you will need to bring the revs on the engine down



           USEFUL PRODUCTION FORMULAE FOR MIXING CONCRETE
           Volume
           1. Most concrete mixer brochures show output in litres (eg: 260 litres) and the amount of concrete needed for
                          the work at hand is usually in cubic metres.
                                    So if your machine is rated at 260 litres output, it can produce 0.26 cubic
                                       metres per mix.


                                              Production
                                                  2. Most brochures show a mixing cycle of 2 to 3 minutes. This is not an accurate
                                                  figure for all practical purposes. When using the standard coffee grinder
                                                 type mixer it is wise to use approx. 6 minutes as a mixing cycle. (Mixing
                                                cycle is the time it takes to fill the machine, mix the concrete and discharge
                                               it. Therefore we can pour: 60 minutes ÷ 6 minutes = 10 mixes per hour.
                                              We know that each mix is 0.26 of a cubic metre, so take 0.26 and multiply
                                              by 10 mixes per hour and we can produce 2.6 cubic metres per hour. This
                                             should assist you to work out how long you will need to hire the machine and
                                            your daily estimated production should be.




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               CONCRETE MIXERS
          LARGE BATCHES
                         CONCRETE
                         Low-strength concrete suitable for: House Foundations
               CEMENT                   CONCRETE SAND                                       STONE




               1 SACK                 2 WHEELBARROWS                                  2 WHEELBARROWS
                         To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need:
                         5 1/2 sacks cement + 0,75 cubic metres sand + 0,75 cubic metres stone.

                         Medium-strength concrete suitable for: House Floors, Footpaths and Driveways.
               CEMENT                  CONCRETE SAND                                       STONE




               1 SACK             1 1/2 WHEELBARROWS                             1 1/2 WHEELBARROWS
                         To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need:
                         7 sacks cement + 0,70 cubic metres sand + 0,70 cubic metres stone.

                         High-strength concrete suitable for: Precast Concrete & Heavy Duty Floors.
               CEMENT                  CONCRETE SAND                                       STONE




               1 SACK                1 WHEELBARROW                                  1 WHEELBARROW
                         To make 1 cubic metre of concrete you will need:
                         10 sacks cement + 0,65 cubic metres sand + 0,65 cubic metres stone.

                         MORTAR
                         Suitable for laying bricks and blocks

               CEMENT                                      BUILDING SAND




               1 SACK                                      3 WHEELBARROWS
                         To lay 1000 bricks you will need: 3 sacks cement + 0,6 cubic metres sand

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                  CONCRETE MIXERS
                                 PLASTER
                                 Suitable for: Exterior and Interior work

                 CEMENT                                           PLASTER SAND




                 1 SACK                                         3 WHEELBARROWS

                                 To plaster 100 square metres 15 millimetres thick you will need
                                 10 sacks cement + 2 cubic metres sand

           LARGE BATCHES
                                 Use containers such as buckets, drums or tins
                                 Use the same size container for measuring all the materials in a batch

                 CONCRETE            CEMENT                 CONCRETE SAND                                   STONE
                 Low-strength
                 concrete                1                         3 1/2                                    3 1/2
                 Medium-
                 strength
                 concrete                1                         2 1/2                                    2 1/2
                 High-strength
                 concrete
                                         1                         1 3/4                                    1 3/4

                 MORTAR              CEMENT                                      BUILDING SAND


                                         1                                                5

                 PLASTER             CEMENT                                      BUILDING SAND


                                         1                                                5

            NOTES:
            1.    The amount of water added to a mix must be enough to make the mix workable and plastic.
            2.    The following types of cement are suitable:
                  Ordinary portland cement
                  Ordinary portland cement 15 slag
                  Ordinary portland cement 15 fly ash
            3.    Stone for concrete should be 19mm or 16 mm size.
            4.    If you use a wheelbarrow for measuring, it should be a builder’s wheelbarrow which has a capacity of 65 litres.

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                        CEMENT MIXING
           HINTS

              A few hints on mixing. First add water - approximately 12 litres, depending on the type of mix. Cement
           should go in after some of the aggregate. Work consistently to the ratio of ingredients as listed below,
           for whatever type of concrete mix you are working to. Beware of low grade aggregates, this only leads
           to trouble later on with sinking, spoiling the appearance of the pour. Also, more importantly, do not get
           the concrete mix too wet as this can reduce the strength and is less able to withstand weathering.


             Never throw material into mixer, trickle it steadily over the rim or it will stick firmly to the back of the
           drum and can only be dislodged by stopping the mixer. The approximate mixing time for concrete is 2
           1/2 minutes, which is taken when all the material, including water, has entered the drum. Over mixing
           can reduce strength and cause segregation of the coarser aggregates.


               Keep your mixer clean, the slightest trace of material left in the drum will harden and attract more
           residue each time you use it until the machine is useless. Do not throw bricks into a mixer drum to clean
           it out. The best method is 19 mm gravel and clean water, use plenty of it, as this will do the job in half
           the time.

            TABLE OF CONCRETE                                          BATCH QUANTITIES                     APPROX.
                  MIXES                       MIX           Cement                                           LITRES
                                                                             Sand              Stone
                                                             50 kg          Shovels           Shovels       OUTPUT
                                                              Bag

            LOW STRENGTH                1:3     :3
            (House Foundations)                                1               40               40             170



            MEDIUM STRENGTH
            (House Floors, Foot                                                40               40             170
            Paths)                      1:2     :2            1



            HIGH STRENGTH
            (Heavy Duty Floors)         1:1     :1             2               40               40             170




           1 SHOVEL SAND                             = ± 3 LITRES
           1 SHOVEL STONE                            = ± 3 LITRES
           1 BUILDERS WHEELBARROW                    = ± 65 LITRES




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                                                                               ANYTHING YOU NEED - WE CAN GET IT FOR YOU

        • EX
          Engines are
          2 dBA quieter
          and softer in tone                                                  Towable Mixer       Compactor        Honda petrol & Yanmar diesel
          than other engines                                                                                                 engines
          in the same class.
                                           67mm (Bore) x 48mm (Stroke)
        • Reliable Starting and
          Less Pulling Force
                                                                                                                   Concrete saw
        • Extreme ease                                                         Chainsaw              Brushcutter
          of Maintenance                                                                                                          High pressure
                                                                                                                                     cleaner



                                                                                                              Generators 1 to
                                                                                                                 100Kva
                                       67mm (Bore) x 60mm (Stroke)            Centrifugal pump                 Petrol/Diesel
                                                                                  2” & 3”
                                                                                              Welder 200Amp +                      Brick/Block
            7 Neutron Road                                                                     7Kva Genset                           mould
            PO Box 12174 Chloorkop, 1624
            Tel: 011 - 393 1216
            Fax: 011 - 976 4807




                   Jhb         011 618-2820        Cape Town    021 551-9605     Welkom 057 357-3045
                   Pretoria    012 325-0977        Nelspruit    031 752-3120     Port Eliz 041 485-2950
                   Wynberg     011 887-7730        Strand       021 564-7812     www.turnermorris.co.za
                   Boksburg    011 894-7743        Durban       031 701-1482     info@turnermorris.co.za

                                                                                               CE
                      Concrete Mixers, Drive Units, Vibrators, Concrete Saws,              SIN 3 6
                                                                                             19
                      Power Floats, Breakers, Drills, Angle Grinders, Generators
                      Conveyors, Dumpers, Survey Equipment, Floor Grinder, Scarifiers
                      Floor sanders, Tile cutters, Brick Croppers, Blades, Plate Compactors,
                      Round compactors, Rammers, Compaction Rollers, Screed Beams, Welders



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       Rammer Operation & basic maintenance tips
       The following tips are crucial to optimum Rammer performance and protection. Failure to follow them will result in serious damage and failure
       to the machine, poor or unsatisfactory compaction results as well as injury to the operator, resulting in substantial financial implications for
       the user or hirer.

       •    Always – ensure the correct petrol – oil mix is used in 2 stroke Rammers. 50: 1 (25 l of petrol & 500ml of 2 stroke oil) or 40: 1
            (20 l of petrol & 500ml of 2 stroke oil) as an alternative. Use only pre-mix fuel supplied by your local Coastal Tool Hire branch.
       •    Always – check the oil level daily in the Ramming system sight glass. Oil level must be a maximum of 3/4 full on the sight glass.
       •    Always – ensure that suitable trained operators operate the Rammer. Contact your Coastal Tool Hire branch for operator training if required.
       •    Always – immediately report or return Rammers which are not performing properly or show any signs of damage or unusual noises, to
            your Coastal Tool Hire branch for repair or exchange, to prevent any further damage.
       •    Never – operate a Rammer without an airfilter. This will result in serious engine wear and failure.
       •    Never – overcompact! Stop compaction as soon as the Rammer starts to jump erratically and becomes difficult to control. Failure to do
            so will result in serious damage to the Ramming mechanism, as well as break up the compacted layer.
       •    Never – run the Rammer on hard or solid surfaces, such as Concrete, Rock, Asphalt etc. This will result in serious damage to the shoe
            and the ramming mechanism.
       •    Never – push the Rammer forward or pull the Rammer back while compacting. The Rammer will naturally move forward & only needs to
            be guided or steered by the operator. Shoe damage or breakage will be caused as a result of incorrect operation.
       •    Never – operate the Rammer at 1/2 throttle, always ensure full throttle during compaction and idle throttle when standing. This will cause
            serious damage to the clutch mechanism as well as give very poor compaction results.
       •    Never – run or lean the bellows against sharp objects or abrasive and hard surfaces.
       •    Avoid – damage to Rammers during transportation. Tie down properly and do not pack other equipment on top.

       Practical tips for best compaction results.
       •    Rammers are extremely powerful compactors, and should never be used on layers less than approx. 300mm thick.
       •    Very dry or very wet soil cannot be compacted. Always ensure that the soil or material to be compacted is slightly moist
            (NOT WET & NOT DRY)
       •    Best compaction results are usually achieved after 3-4 passes of a Wacker Rammer.

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                       PETROL ENGINES
           STATIONARY PETROL ENGINES
           The life of an engine depends upon the conditions under which it operates, and the care it receives. Some
           applications such as compactors, pumps and mowers, are very often used in dusty or dirty conditions,
           which can cause what appears to be premature wear. Such wear when caused by dirt, dust, spark plug
           cleaning grit, or other abrasive material that has entered the engine because of improper maintenance,
           will severely reduce the life of an engine.

           SAFETY
           DO NOT        run engine in an enclosed area. (Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide, an odourless and
                         deadly poison).


           DO NOT        strike flywheel with a hammer or hard object as this may cause flywheel to shatter in
                         operation. (Use correct tool to service engine).


           DO NOT        operate engine without a muffler. (Inspect periodically and replace if worn or leaking. If engine
                         is equipped with muffler deflector, inspect periodically and, if necessary replace with correct
                         deflector.


           DO NOT        operate engine with an accumulation of grass, leaves or other combustible material in
                         muffler area.


           DO NOT        start engine with air cleaner or air cleaner cover removed. (Or cover of carburetor intake).


           DO NOT        refuel indoors or in unventilated area.


           DO NOT        remove fuel tank nor fill fuel tank while engine is hot or running. (Allow engine to cool for 2
                         minutes before refuelling).



           MAINTENANCE
           OIL
           1.    Check oil level regularly. Be sure correct oil level is maintained. Check every 5 hours or daily, before
                 starting engine.

           2. Changing oil (Follow Maintenance Schedule). Change oil after first 5 hours of operation. Change oil
              while engine is warm. Refill with new oil of recommended grade. Oil should be changed every 50
              hours of Normal Operation. (Every 25 hours under Heavy Load or High Temperatures.)


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                      P E T R OL E NGIN ES
           AIR CLEANER
                1.   Loosen screw(s) or remove knob then remove cover.
                2.   Remove pre-cleaner, if so equipped, and cartridge very carefully to prevent debris from
                     entering carburetor.


           To service pre-cleaner, wash in liquid detergent and water. Squeeze dry in a clean cloth. Saturate in
           engine oil. If very dirty or damaged, replace it. (Depending on engine Type Number, your engine may
           not have pre-cleaner).
           To service cartridge, clean by tapping gently on a flat surface.
           If very dirty or damaged, replace it. Do not oil cartridge.


           NOTE: Do not use petroleum solvents, e.g.,
           Petrol, not pressurised air to clean cartridge.
           They will cause cartridge to deteriorate.
               3. Reinstall cartridge and pre-cleaner.
               4. Replace cover and tighten screws or knob securely.


           KEEP ENGINE & PARTS CLEAN
           1.   Remove dirt and debris with a cloth or brush. Do not clean with a forceful spray of water because
                water could contaminate fuel system.
           2.   Grass, chaff or dirt may clog engine's air cooling systems, especially after prolonged operation.
                Remove blower housing and clean area shown to prevent overheating and engine damage.
           3.   To assure smooth operation, keep governor linkage, springs and controls free of debris.
           4.   Replace or clean spark plug. Do not blast clean. Clean by brushing and washing with a
                commercial solvent.
           5.   Daily or more often, before running engine, clean muffler area to remove all grass and combustible.

           STORAGE INSTRUCTION
           1.   Engine stored over 30 days need to be protected or drained of fuel to prevent gum from forming
                in fuel system or on essential carburetor parts.
           2.   While engine is still warm, drain oil from crankcase. Refill with fresh oil of recommended grade.
           3.   Remove spark plug and pour about 15ml of engine oil into cylinder. Replace spark plug and crank
                slowly to distribute oil.
           4.   Clean dirt and chaff from cylinder, cylinder head fins, blower housing, rotating screen and
                muffler areas.
           5.   Store in a clean and dry area, but NOT near a stove, furnace or water heater which uses a pilot light
                or any device that can create a spark.



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          PA I N T I N G G UID ELIN ES
           Labour is costly and the cost of applying poor quality material is exactly the same as applying a top quality
           product from a recognised paint manufacturer. Contact the paint manufacturer for free technical advice
           before you purchase paint products to protect your property.

                                                          PRODUCT APPROXIMATE SPREADING
                                                          RATE M2/LITRE
                                                          Bonding Liquid                                  7- 10
                                                          Sheen Acrylic                                   8 -10
                                                          Enamel                                          8 - 10
                                                          Galvanised Iron Primer                          7-9
                                                          Masonary Paint                                  6-8
                                                          Texture Coating                                 4-5
                                                          Acrylic PVA                                     8-9
                                                          Plaster Primer (Alkali Resistant)               7-8
                                                          Wood Primer                                     8-9
           GUIDELINES FOR AVERAGE
                                                          Universal Undercoat                             7-8
           SPREADING RATES                                Non Drip Polyurethane Enamel                    8 - 10
           Spreading rates are given in good faith        Acrylic Fillercoat                              5-7
           for top quality paint product but is           Acrylic Roof Paint                              4-6
           totally dependant on application               Exterior Timber Varnish                         8 - 10
           methods and skill of application.              Metal Primer                                    7-9



                            PA I N T I N G T I P S
           *   The success of any paint system is directly dependant on the degree of surface preparation.
           *   Never paint under adverse conditions i.e. Rain or damp conditions - extreme cold or heat.
           *   Never stop painting in the middle of a wall. Finish in or on a corner. Add your leftover paint to the
               fresh paint, and stir thoroughly before starting in or on a corner again.
           *   Always ensure that batch numbers correspond or mix different batch numbers together to eliminate
               colour variations between batches.
           *   Always allow paint to dry, according to instructions, between coats. Make sure that the correct
               primer and undercoat is used.
           *   Always stir paint thoroughly with a flat paddle.
           *   Protect the inside of your paint tray by using a plastic shopping bag as a liner - simply put the tray
               inside the bag and discard the bag when finished painting.
           *   Store paint tins upside down for long periods.
           *   Apply Vaseline to lids and bottles during long storage to prevent rusting.
           *   When painting ceilings by brush - tie a piece of rag around the handle above your hand to absorb paint
               droplets running from the brush.
           *   Clean PVA/Acrylic spillage immediately with water and enamel spillage with mineral turpentine.

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           *   When painting/varnishing window frames - cut newspaper to size of window pane, wet and fit
               to glass. Simply pull off when painting is finished.
           *   Clean brushes and rollers immediately after each painting session. Protect clean brushes by
               wrapping in cloth.
           *   Always use best quality brushes.
           *   Remove door handles and switch plates before painting.
           *   Tape a short length of masking tape ±10cm along the lip of the tin when pouring paint out. This will
               prevent paint running into the lip of the can.
           *   A nail in the brush makes for easy hanging on a stepladder or on the side of the paint tin during painting.
           *   Scrape paint spots off window panes with an old razor.
           *   When rolling on textured paint your roller should be cleaned periodically during painting to prevent
               excessive clogging.
           *   A broomstick makes a very handy extension to a roller for painting ceilings.


                                   H P WA S H E R
           HIGH PRESSURE WASHERS: have the following uses:
              • Cleaning the deposits off roofs, paving and precast walls
              • Removing mortar from face brick walls
              • Cleaning greasy dirty engines and under carriages of vehicles.
                 (cars, bakkies, etc)
              • Farming industry, floors of dairies etc
              • Fishing industry, factory floors, walls etc

           Do’s and dont’s

           When using the machine
               a) Never run pump without water
               b) Never run pump with spray gun closed for longer than 5 minutes
               c) Check pump oil levels regulary
           Before starting the machine
               a) Check the Pump and gearbox oil levels
               b) Check the engine oil and fuel levels (if it is a petrol driven machine)
               c) Connect the water supply & open the supply. It is always preferable to use the Municipal water
                  supply as it has some pressure, which assists the machine to operate more efficiently.
           When using suction water supply from a drum
               a) Use only 20mm or larger diameter supply hose
               b) Suction hose must not be longer than 3.5m
               c) Prime the pump via supply hose with clean water
               d) Run the engine at half speed (if petrol) to bleed the pump until spray pressure is achieved.
           High Pressure Cleaners
           Handy tip: BEFORE HIRING a machine insist on having the machine tested in front of you.
           Make sure you know how to operate the high pressure washer, that it is in perfect working order and
           that all the parts are given to you when you load. e.g. the nozzle, gun and hoses are together and that
           there is a hose for detergent with a filter at the end.

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                                   C A L C U L AT I O N S
                                   OF WALL AREAS IN M2

                                                 NORMAL WALL HEIGHT = 2.8M



                                                        LENGTH OF ROOM

                                    2     2.5     3     3.5     4         4.5         5        5.5          6   6.5


                             2     22.4   25.2   28.0   30.8   33.6       36.4       39.2      42.0     44.8    47.6


                             2.5   25.2   28.2   30.8   33.6   36.4       39.2       42.0      44.8     47.6    50.4


                             3     28.0   30.8   33.6   36.4   39.2       42.0       44.8      47.6     50.4    53.2


                             3.5   30.8   33.6   36.4   39.2   42.0       44.8       47.6      50.4     53.2    56.0
             WIDTH OF ROOM




                             4     33.6   36.4   39.2   42.0   44.8       47.6       50.4      53.2     56.0    58.8


                             4.5   36.4   39.2   42.0   44.8   47.6       50.4       53.2      56.0     58.8    61.6


                             5     39.2   42.0   44.8   47.6   50.4       53.2       56.0      58.8     61.6    64.4


                             5.5   42.0   44.8   47.6   50.4   53.2       56.0       58.8      61.6     64.4    67.2


                             6     44.8   47.6   50.4   53.2   56.0       58.8       61.6      64.4     67.2    70.0


                             6.5   47.6   50.4   53.2   56.0   58.8       61.6       64.4      67.2     70.0    72.8


                             7     50.4   53.2   56.0   58.8   61.6       64.4       67.2      70.0     72.8    75.6


                             7.5   53.2   56.0   58.5   61.6   64.4       67.2       70.0      72.8     75.6    78.4




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                                  C H A I N S AW S
                                         WARNING!
                                         Your chain saw is a one-person saw. Do not allow other persons to be
                                         near the running chain saw. Start and operate your saw without assistance.



                                         WARNING!
                                         To reduce the risk of serious or fatal injury to the operator or bystanders,
                                         never use the saw with one hand. You cannot control reactive forces and
                                         you may lose control of the saw, which can result in the bar and chain
                                         skating or bouncing along the limb or log.



                                         WARNING!
                                         Avoid stumbling on obstacles such as stumps, roots or rocks and watch
                                         out for holes and ditches. Be extremely cautious when working on slopes
                                         or uneven ground.


           CUTTING INSTRUCTIONS
           GRIP: Always hold the saw firmly with both hands when the engine is running. Place your left hand on
           front handle bar and your right hand on rear handle and throttle trigger. Lefthanders should follow these
           instructions too.


           CONVENTIONAL CUT
           A=felling notch - determines the direction of
           the fall
           FOR A CONVENTIONAL CUT:
           Properly place felling notch perpendicular to the line
           of fall, close to the ground.
           Cut down at app. 45-degree angle to a depth of about
           1/5 to 1/4 of the trunk diameter.
           Make second cut horizontal.
           Remove resulting 45-degree piece.




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                                  C H A I N S AW S
           KICKBACK
           Kickback occurs when the upper quadrant of the bar nose
           contacts a solid object or is pinched. The reaction of the cutting
           force of the chain causes a rotational force on the chain saw in
           the direction opposite to the chain movement.


           TO AVOID KICKBACK
           The best protection from personal injury that may result from
           kickback situations:
           1. Hold the chain saw firmly with both hands and maintain a
               secure grip.
           2. Be aware of the location of the guide bar nose at all times.
           3. Never let the nose of the guide bar contact any object. Do not cut limbs with the nose of the guide
               bar. Be especially careful when cutting small, tough limbs, small size brush and saplings which may
               easily catch the chain.
           4. Don't overreach.
           5. Don't cut above shoulder height.
           6. Begin cutting and continue at full throttle.
           7. Cut only one log at a time.
           8. Use extreme caution when re-entering a previous cut.
           9. Do not attempt to plunge cut if you are not experienced with these cutting techniques.
           10. Be alert for shifting of the log or other forces that may cause the cut to close and pinch the chain.
           11. Maintain saw chain properly. Cut with a correctly sharpened, properly tensioned chain at all times.
           12. Stand to the side of the cutting path of the chain saw.


           PUSH-BACK
           Push-back occurs when the chain on the top of the bar is suddenly stopped when it is pinched, caught
           or encounters a foreign object in the wood. The reaction of chain
           drives the saw straight back toward the operator and may cause
           loss of saw control. Push-back frequently occurs when the top
           of the bar is used for cutting.


           TO AVOID PUSH-BACK:
           1. Be alert to forces or situations that may cause material to
               pinch the top of the chain. Do not cut more than one log at
               a time.
           2. Do not twist the saw when withdrawing the bar from a plunge
               cut or underbuck cut because the chain can pinch.


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                                  C H A I N S AW S
           PULL-IN
           Pull-in occurs when the chain on the bottom of the bar is suddenly
           stopped. The chain on the bottom of the bar stops when it is
           pinched, caught or encounters a foreign object in the wood. The
           reaction of the chain pulls the saw forward and may cause the
           operator to lose control.


           Pull-in frequently occurs when the bumper spike of the saw is
           not held securely against the tree or limb and when the chain is
           not rotating at full speed before it contacts the wood.


           TO AVOID PULL-IN
           1. Always start a cut with the chain rotating at full speed and the bumper spike in contact with the wood.
           2. Pull-in may also be prevented by using wedges to open the kerf cut.



                                     WARNING!
                                     Use extreme caution when cutting small
                                     size brush and saplings which may easily
                                     catch the chain and pull you off balance.



                                     WARNING!
                                     Never touch a chain with your hand or
                                     any part of your body when the engine
                                     is running, even when the chain is not
                                     rotating. The chain continues to rotate
                                     for a short period after the throttle
                                     trigger is released.



                                     WARNING!
                                     Do not cut any material other than wood
                                     or wooden objects. Use your chain saw
                                     for cutting only. It is not designed for
                                     prying or shoveling away limbs, roots or
                                     other objects.



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          ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS
           GENERAL PRECAUTION FOR SAFER OPERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER TOOLS


           Because they are powered by electricity and function through the operation of cutting tools and other
           parts that move at high speed, electric tools are inherently dangerous if used carelessly. However, they
           can be utilized safely and effectively if the user observes a few basic safety rules in their operation. For
           handy reference to enhance safe operation, some important rules and precautions in the use of electric
           power tools are listed below.


                      If an extension cord is necessary, ensure it has a thickness and
                      capacity appropriate for the tool.


                      Keep blades, drill bits and other cutting tools sharp and clean.


                      Always ensure a damaged cord is properly and safely repaired.


                      Prior to operation carefully inspect the tool for abnormalities.
                      Immediately stop operation if any abnormalities are noted.


                      Do not operate the tool when your hands are wet with water, sweat, etc.,
                      Thoroughly dry your hands before handling the tool.


                      Do not drop the tool or otherwise treat it roughly. Mishandling the tool can damage or weaken
                      its insulation and other safety features.


                      Ensure that motor ventilation openings are kept clean and fully open.


                      Always handle the tool with respect and care.




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          SOIL COMPACTION TIPS
           SOIL COMPACTION TIPS WITH A PLATE COMPACTOR
           The plate vibratory soil compactor is used for consolidating soil,
           close up to steel sheet pilings and foundation structures, fill under
           floors and foundation and back fill in pipe trenches. It is extremely
           easy to operate and can readily be turned even in extremely
           confined spaces.


           The machine moves forward under its own power at a speed
           that is dependent on the type of soil. Speed on naturally moist
           gravel is approximately 20m/minute. Sand and gravel are
           effectively compacted down to a depth of approximately 30cm.


           For better compaction results soil should be slightly damp. In
           fine soils it may be necessary to soak well and compact later
           (e.g. sea sand).


           DESIGN
           The plate compactor consists of two main parts: a base plate with vibrating element and an engine
           mounting plate with engine. The vibrating element is mounted on the front upturned part of the base
           plate, which causes the machine to move forward when in use.


           Drive from engine to vibrating element is by a high capacity V-belt. Four heavy-duty steel springs effectively
           insulate the engine mounting plate from the base plate. A steering handle with throttle lever is fitted
           to the engine mounting plate. Forward speed of the soil compactor can be regulated between 0 and
           20m/min. by means of this throttle lever. Normally the engine should run at 3500 r.p.m.


           A rubber mat is attached to the plate compactor for use on brick paving for the final finishing, levelling
           and grouting.


           Handy tip; Paving your driveway - use the compactor with a roller attachment to get even layout. It is easy
           to use and our staff will gladly assist you and demonstrate the compactor for you. The rewards are great.


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                       C O N C R E T E S AW S
           APPLICATIONS
           The following are some of the most common:
           1) Expansion and contraction joints in new concrete. Concrete tends to contract after being poured and this
                often causes cracking. By cutting the concrete the cracking is controlled. Expansion and contraction takes place
                due to heat and cold and this also causes cracking. The joint allows this movement to take place in a controlled fashion.
           2) Cutting and neatening of the edges of asphalt roads for casting in situ concrete storm water gutters.
           3) Cutting of concrete or asphalt for road crossings (where pipes, cables etc. are going to be laid or replaced)
           4) Reaming out of expansion and contraction joints to prepare concrete roads or slabs for the insertion of strips
                to seal joints. The strips prevent the cut joints from filling up with sand and grit. If these are not inserted and the
                cuts fill with sand and grit the edges of the concrete begin to break off.
           5) Cutting where breaking and excavations are going to be done, where repairs are needed in concrete or
                asphalt areas.


           There are 3 different types of saws on the market. Push type, semi self propelled (propelled by a wheel by hand) and
           a self propelled (propelled by a gearbox directly onto the axles of the machine). All these machines may be fitted with
           different sizes and types of Engines.


           Do's and don'ts
           1) Do make sure that the correct blade for the
              correct application is used. i.e. Old
              concrete, New concrete and
              Asphalt. This will make
              the whole exercise more cost effective.
           2) Do make sure that when starting the
              engine that the diamond blade is
              not in contact with the surface
              which is to be cut.
           3) Do make sure that the adjustment arm
              is locked before starting the cutting
              process.
           4) Do make sure that there is sufficient water
              available on site and if not
              then use a laser welded blade
              for the particular application.
              These blades are able to work without water,
              but will perform better if used with some water.




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                        CONCRETE SAWS
           5) Do guide the machine; don't force the machine to cut. Apply pressure so that the engine does not labour

               and the revs do not drop dramatically.

           6) Do make sure that the correct machine is used for the application. A normal expansion and contraction

               job uses 22 to 30 mm-deep cuts - a 13-hp push type machine is adequate. Use a self propelled 20hp

               for road cutting where a depth of 75 mm is required and a production of kilometers each day

               is necessary.

           7) When cutting to depths of more than 50mm, it is recommended that this be done in stages of 25mm

               per pass. I.E. 75mm 3 passes at 25 mm per cut

           8) Do try to cut uphill and not downhill where possible.



           Handy tips

           Items to check before the machine leaves the hire shop.

           1) Vee belts - are tensioned firmly and in good condition (no slippage when pressure is applied)

           2) Blade shaft - for any play (are the bearings in need of replacement) If there is play the blade can be

               destroyed.

           3) Check that the wheels are running evenly. Wheels that are worn unevenly can also contribute to

               damaging the blade. This is usually caused by bearings on the shaft being in need of replacement.

           4) Check that the water feed is correctly directed onto the blade.

           5) Make sure that the diamond blade is always put onto the machine the same way, so that it cuts in the

               same direction each time. Take note on the top of the blade at the cutting surface - each diamond

               stands out a fraction and behind it should be what looks like a comets tail. The diamond should be in

               front of the comet and that should show the direction in which the blade should turn.

           6) Make sure that the blade guide is correctly aligned to the blade.

           7) Make sure that the blade is tightened, blade flanges are in position and that the inside faces of the

               flanges are perfectly clean.


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          DRIVE UNIT & POKER
           Drive units are mainly used in conjunction with two items
           for different applications.
           1. Vibrating pokers
           2. Submersible pumps

           Both items need a flexible shaft to be driven at approx. 2850
           revs per minute for the items of machinery to be able to
           operate.

           Do's and don'ts
           1. Do not try to increase the revs of the engine to increase
               the performance of the machine driven. This will result
               in the destruction of the innercore of the item that is being driven.
           2. Do have the engine started up to confirm that it is in good running order.
           3. Do make sure that the drive unit is placed so that it will not move off the edge of a building and cause damage
               to staff or property. Drive units tend to move around on solid surfaces.

           Handy tips
           Before leaving the shop make sure that:
           1. The rev's on the machine are approx. 2850 revs per minute.
           2. Make sure that the drive dog in the sleeve is not worn out to ensure efficient operation
           3. Make sure there is a clean air filter in the machine.


          SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
           Submersible Pumps are used for pumping water in similar circumstances to the clean water centrifugal
           pump, but is a cheaper option when one already has a drive unit on site as it is then only necessary to
           hire a submersible pump and layflat hose.
           Do's and don'ts
           1. Do make sure that the flexible hose is not bent to any extreme degree as this will damage the pump
              immediately, render it useless and incur you a costly repair bill.
           2. Do make sure that the engine of the drive unit is not running over 2850 revs per minute.
           3. Do make sure that it is properly submersed below the surface of the water when pumping. It cannot
              pump when sucking in air.
           4. Do switch off the engine and lift the pump out of the water regularly to remove any debris
              stuck to the inlet areas where the water being pumped is not clean.


           Handy tip: When pumping water out of a muddy trench, place a brick on the bottom of the trench and
           then place the pump on top. This will help avoid the ingestion of mud and debris, which cause damage
           to the pump. Make sure that the pump is tested before it leaves the shop floor.

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                              WAT E R P U M P S
           APPLICATIONS
           Water Pumps (Centrifugal) standard clean water pumps can be used for the following:
           1) Pump water out of swimming pools, reservoirs, sumps in lift shafts, water carts etc.
           2) Remove rain water from trenches
           3) Pump water from rivers to reservoirs
           4) Pump water from water carts to what ever location is necessary

           Do's and don'ts
           1) Do make sure that all these items are included when hiring a centrifugal pump: Seals x2, wing nuts x2, nipples
              x2, hose clamps x3, strainer x1, layflat and suction hose.
           2) Don't ever use the pump without the strainer. This item controls the size of the particles that pass through
              the pump. Without it, the impeller or casing will be destroyed, as larger particles will be sucked into the system
              than can pass through the pump.
           3) Do always prime the pump when you first use it. It must always have water in the chamber before starting up.
           4) Don't hire a standard 3-bar pump to do irrigation work, as the pressure needed to do this is not sufficient
              to do the required work. A 7 or 9 bar pump is necessary. These specifications are some times quoted in
              head. 30m head is approx. equal to 3 bar and 70m-head approx. equal to 7 bar.
           5) Do not run the pump for any time at all without water as the mechanical seal will be damaged.

           Handy tips
           1.   BEFORE HIRING a machine insist on having it tested.
                Make sure you know how to operate the pump and that it is in perfect working order. E.g. Water leaking out
                between the pump and the engine indicates a damaged mechanical seal.
           2.   When using a machine that does not pump as it should, check the following before returning it to the shop
           a)   Is there water in the priming chamber
           b)   Are either of the non return valves sticking
           c)   Are the suction clamps loose (top and bottom)
           d)   Is the suction pipe damaged?
           e)   Is there a blockage in the suction pipe
           f)   Are the seals fitted correctly
           3.   Before hiring a machine, make sure that you have the measurements of the suction head (vertical distance
                from water level to the inlet of the pump) and delivery head. (Vertical distance from pump outlet to the point of
                the water leaving the outlet hose.) This will assist in choosing the correct pump for the work at hand.
           4.   When looking at the performance curve on the brochure to assess if the machine can do the work needed,
                make sure that you take in to account the altitude at which you are working. All curves are based on tests done
                at sea level.
           5.   The size of the particles passing through the pump and the volume of water needed per minute are the determining
                factors when deciding what kind of pump is needed for a particular application.
           a.   Clean water centrifugal pump will allow a particle of 10mm's to pass through its pump body safely. The impeller
                has 3 closed fins that stand out 12mm from the face. This pump should never be allowed to run dry.
           b.   Trash pump (80 or 100mm diameter) will allow particles of 30mm through the pump body safely. The impeller
                is open and has only 2 fins and stands proud of the impeller 35mm. This pump should never be allowed to run
                dry. This pump generally is specially designed to allow for instant opening with out special tools to facilitate the
                cleaning if large particles get stuck in the chamber.
           c.   Diaphragm pump does not have an impeller and can take some solids. It can be allowed to run dry and is most
                useful in pumping seepage from trenches in areas where the water table is high. It can be left unattended (except
                for the petrol model) and will pump as the water seeps into the hole or trench.




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                               G E N E R AT O R S
           Generators are used to supply electricity in areas
           where electricity is not available or power failures
           take place. It does require careful assessment of
           the application for which required.


           Do's and don'ts
           1) Do make sure that the machine is able to do
              the work for which it is required. I.E. is the
              application for a resistive type load (a kettle
              or other element type appliance) or is
              it an induction motor (electric motor with an
              armature that needs some extra power to get
              it moving) which is going to be run off the generator. If the load is
              a. Resistive - all that needs to be done, is to add up the wattage of all the appliances which will
                    give you more or less the size that is needed. If you are working at altitude for example,
                    Johannesburg, it is wise to add approx. 35 % to the original value. (If you are at the coast
                    allow 15% extra for safety)
                    E.g.
                    kettle                           = 1800watts
                    lights 6 x 60 watt light bulbs = 360watts
                    television                       = 250 watts.
              The total is 2410 watts or 2.410kw. At sea level the recommended generator would be 3kva but
              in Johannesburg 5kVa would be used.
              b. Induction type loads - It is necessary to check the running amps stated on the specification
                    plate on the appliance. Multiply the value by 4 to estimate the size of generator that is needed.
                    E.g. Running amps = 5
                    Take 5 x 4 = 20 amps.
                    Using the formula Volts x amps = watts
                    220V x 20amps =4400 watts.
              In this case the recommended size should be 5kva at sea level and a 6 or 6.5 kVa generator in
              Johannesburg.
              These may seem somewhat conservative but it is always a good idea to hire a machine that is a
              little larger than what is necessary to save time and extra expense. The machine may well not be
              new and the engine rings may be slightly worn so the output may not be what is stated. If the
              machine does not put out the required power it may result in damage to your own tools.




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                              G E N E R AT O R S
           2) Do make sure that the machine is tested for you before it leaves the shop floor.


           3) Do not overload the machine. It is relatively easy to hear the engine pitch change when the machine
               has extra load added. The engine revs drop temporarily and then pick up and the engine then goes
               on running normally. If this does not happen and the revs stay low and you can hear the engine
               labouring, rather remove an instrument from the generator if more than one is being used.
               The result of overloading is that the engine revs drop, the fan slows down, the alternator heats
               up and eventually burns out.


           4) Do not ever try to increase the output of the machine by increasing the revs of the engine. The
               engine on the smaller single phase generators are set to run at 3000 revs and 50 hertz. Should
               you disturb the correct settings the following problems may occur.
               a.   A diode may blow
               b.   The engine may be damaged from over revving
               c.   The tool or instrument may be damaged in the process as the her tz increases.




           Handy tips

           1) Do not couple generators to welders as they burn out easily - please remember that you are responsible
               for damages caused in this manner.            Rather use a welder generator for this task.


           2) Small borehole pumps also require a great deal of power. Below is a small schedule to assist.


               Motor        Generator       Generator         H.P        kW            kVa sea level      kVa Altitude
               Size         Size            Size
               0.33         0.25            1.5               2.0        0.50          1.9                2.6
               0.75         0.55            2.5               3.5        1.00          3.8                5.0


           3) When converting from hp to kW multiply the hp by 0.746


           4) When converting from kW to hp divide the kW by 0.746




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                       WHY BUY WHEN
                       YOU CAN HIRE
                          Some good reasons why you will save
                             time and money by calling us.

           • Save time and money by hiring Coastal equipment with the
             convenience of having all your required equipment under one
             roof. With the increasing cost of equipment it is much more
             cost effective to hire, particulary when equipment is used
             irregulary & you can avoid the hassles of storage.

           • All Coastal equipment is cleaned, serviced and tested before
             being hired out.

           • Collections and deliveries: Coastal has branches nationwide - you
             will find a Coastal wherever you need us & we deliver & collect
             to most areas.

           • We hire a wide range of top quality modern equipment:
             construction, plumbing, gardening and DIY. If we do not have it
             we will do our best to find it. Our interbranch hire system means
             that required equipment can be sourced swiftly from other
             Coastal branches if not immediately available.

           • Free advice on how to use equipment from your friendly Coastal
             franchisee.

           • Half day and weekend rates.

				
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