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Journal frican rmed orces Covering the African Military Renaissance August 2009 R 20-00 African Armed Forces Journal Established 1975 Contents Editor: S J McIntosh Published by the owners: Editorial ............................................................................................... 4 Military Publications (Pty) Ltd 105 Kingsgate SITREP ................................................................................................ 5 130 Louis Botha Avenue Tendency to Confuse ........................................................................ 10 2198 Yeoville, RSA Denel Saab’s Agusta Project ........................................................... 13 Postal Address: P O Box 87561 SA Engineers at Home ..................................................................... 14 Houghton Hi-tech Webbing ................................................................................ 16 2041 RSA Tel: (011) 487-3396 Denel Report ..................................................................................... 17 Fax: (011) 487-3397 Additional Benefits for US Servicemen ........................................... 18 e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.aafjournal.co.za Multi-national Airlift .......................................................................... 19 Exercise Golfino ............................................................................... 20 Printed by: Royal Navy’s New Carriers ............................................................... 22 Business Print Centre Silverton, Pretoria Vehicle Weapon Systems Deployed ................................................ 23 Subscriptions: US Navy’s 5th Fleet ............................................................................ 24 Barracuda Developments ................................................................. 25 Local: R 160.00 Airmail: Italy to protect Albanian Airspace25 ................................................ 25 United Kingdom, Europe; USA & Parliamentary Report ........................................................................ 26 Australia: US$: 150.00 Precision-guided Munitions ............................................................. 28 The copyright in all materials printed in this journal is expressly reserved. Letters ................................................................................................ 34 However, consideration will be given Books ................................................................................................. 36 to any requests for the use by others of news reports, articles and photo- Comment ........................................................................................... 38 graphs, on the condition that the source of the item is clearly stated. Submitting copy: Contributions are welcome. Articles ISSN 0379-6477 should be typed, double spaced, on one side of paper only. The publishers will exercise all care but do not accept responsibility for photographs and In flight. the Agusta A109 in service with the S.A. Air Force. manuscripts. Report on page 13. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 3 Editorial Exercise Golfino for the SADC Bri- and should not need repeating. How- gade will be held at the SA Army’s ever, it is the intangibles that need to Combat Training Centre from 1st to be addressed: do they have a value, Mission: 25th September 2009, and will provide and is that value exploitable? an indication of the degree that has The AAFJ is committed to provid- It should be a subject that an experi- been achieved in readiness of the ing its readership a quality service enced military analyst can research. Brigade for any operational deploy- in order to stimulate and improve ment. There is no doubt that the The associated Denel companies ap- the defence debate in Africa. bringing together of twelve different pear to be making progress, and the elements of different defence forces relationship with Brazil, with its devel- Vision: will reveal hitches that have to be oping aircraft industry, could open up sorted out for future operations, and new opportunities. To provide African military profes- Goldfino will be an operation of well- The SA National Defence Force's sionals a public platform to discuss spent time and effort. need and value of an independent issues of mutual interest. supplier of military equipment; also Unfortunately, Africa does not enjoy needs to be stated by the SANDF, the international structures such as Objectives: NATO, the EU Force, or the PfP that assuming there is a value. Champion the role of profes- exist in Europe which have provided Information is needed with a far sional militaries within the context established institutions for joint train- greater degree of openness to be of the African Union in securing the ing. The forces that have been de- able to establish a forum for discus- peace and security required for ployed in Europe, such as in Bosnia sion of all the aspects that relate to human and economic develop- and Kosovo had the opportunity to defence. It appears at times that ment. develop, but with the advantage of there is a lack of information at all adequate equipment, funding, a com- levels. plete linked infrastructures for move- Advocate appropriate civil-mili- But it is not only Denel that seems to ment, and common command and tary relations, especially non-par- hiding their light under a bushel: the control. It is this experience that was tisan parliamentary oversight. defence industry as a whole is ex- moved to Afghanistan when the need tremely reluctant to report on its ac- arose. Advance confidence and trust complishment when compared with among African armed forces and It took sometime for these different those of other countries. Information military professionals. forces to work together and remove is not readily available with press re- the obstacles as they arose. SADC leases and other sources of informa- will face similar problems. tion falling into the category of an af- Encourage the establishment terthought. of Reserve Officers' Associations § and reserve components within § armed forces. Once again, Denel reports a loss in Informed comment can very easily be its previous year’s operations, but in blown-up out of its original concept Enhance and improve the the report in this issue of African and become a major issue. A recent readership's level of professional Armed Forces Journal, some aspects example was the issue of the state military education. of the value – intangible values – that of readiness of the SA National De- could be considered when an over- fence Force. What was overlooked view is taken of Denel’s role are pre- was readiness for what. What was to Promote and market the indig- sented. Elements such as the be ready: Division, Brigade, Battalion, enous defence industry. number of people employed and the and readiness for what? development of infrastructure are of- ten trotted out to justify their exist- ence; but these are obvious factors 4 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 A Summary of International Defence Reports SAUDI ORDERS EXTRA TANKERS and is better suited for air-to-ground performed in Ladson, SC and is ex- missions such as destroying sophisti- pected to be completed prior to Janu- The Saudi Ministry of Defence and Avia- cated enemy air defenses ary 31, 2010. tion (MODA) has ordered three addi- tional A330 Multi-role Tanker Transport By fiscal 2020, the United States will MORE DRONES FOR AFGHANI- (MRTT) for the Royal Saudi Air Force, have nearly 2,500 manned combat air- STAN bringing its total order to six aircraft. craft in its inventory. Nearly 1,100 will Saudi had signed a first contract for be a combination of F-35s and F-22s. three back in 2008. Delivery of the first Secretary Gates has said that accel- US military plans to use more drone aircraft is due in 2011. The six aircraft erating the production of the F-35 will aircraft to target Taliban militants in Af- will be configured with hose and drogue offset job losses of those employed in ghanistan. Although defeating the Al- under-wing pods and the Airbus Mili- F-22 production. Pentagon officials plan Qaeda terror network remains an over- tary Air Refuelling Boom System to buy about 500 F-35s in the next five riding goal for Washington, officials now (ARBS). The contract includes an in- years, and more than 2,400 over the believe the best way to pursue that service support package. life of the program. The F-22 pro- objective is to ensure stability in Af- gramme is proposed to be capped at ghanistan and neighboring Pakistan SOUTH AMERICAN DEBATE 187 of the fighter jets. instead of Al-Qaeda manhunts, the pa- per said, citing US government and IAF TRAINER Defense Department officials. It was Brazil, Chile and Spain on Thursday more important to prevent a slide to- challenged the United States’ decision wards violence and anarchy that could to use and expand military bases in Elbit Systems Limited has been be exploited by Al-Qaeda, which used Colombia, saying they feared the move awarded a contract by the Israeli Min- Afghanistan to stage its attacks on the could heighten simmering tensions in istry of Defence for the operation and United States on September 11, 2001, Latin America. Presidents Luiz Inacio maintenance of the new Israeli Air the officials said. Lula da Silva of Brazil and Michelle Force’s trainer, Beechcraft T-6 Bachelet of Chile said in Sao Paulo (“Effroni”). The contract amount which they would put the issue before an Au- is not material to Elbit Systems, will Eight drones that have been devoted to gust 10 meeting of a nascent South be delivered over the course of five tracking Al-Qaeda in remote Afghan American Defence Council in Ecuador. years, with an option for an additional mountains will be transferred to the The Colombian government’s announce- five years. fight against insurgents, the paper said. ment on July 15 that three of its mili- And the US Central Command plans tary air bases were to be used by the The IAF’s new T-6 replaces jet trainer to send about 12 more drones to the United States as part of joint anti-drug Fouga Magister (“Zukit”) that has served Afghan front, including some aircraft operations, has ignited concerns and the IAF’s flight school for decades. With that have been assigned to Iraq—a move anger among Colombia’s neighbours. the procurement of the new trainer, the resisted by US commanders there. Israeli Air Force joins leading air forces U.S. PRESIDENT SUPPORTS F-22 in training new pilots onboard turbo- INDIAN AIRCRAFT CONTRACT REACTIVATION prop aircraft, considered safer for train- ing purposes and more cost-effective United States Defense Secretary than jet aircraft. India has begun the trials of fighter jets Robert M. Gates recommended to the being offered by the world’s six top aero- president earlier this year to end pro- FORTY-EIGHT BUFFALO space giants vying for a 12-billion-dol- duction of the F-22 at the conclusion lar military contract, officials said. The of its current funding programme in fis- sale of 126 combat planes to the tech- Force Protection announced that it has cal 2009. President Obama had prom- nology-starved Indian Air Force will be received a modification to contract ised to veto a budget proposal from the the world’s most lucrative fighter jet W56HZV-08-C-0028 from the United Congress that allowed for more money contract in more than a decade. The States Army Tank- automotive and Ar- for the programme. In his 2010 budget assessment is due to continue for al- maments Command (TACOM) for ap- recommendations, Secretary Gates most a year before New Delhi makes proximately 48 Buffalo Mine Protected favored the newest manned aircraft, the its choice from the six companies, de- Clearance Vehicles (MPCV). This con- F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter. The fence ministry officials in New Delhi tract modification is subject to F-35 carries a larger suite of weapons said. definitization ( ). The work will be African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 5 SPY PLANES at Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Production AFGHANISTAN: US ANXIETY Test Centre. When testing concludes, Russia is reported to be working on a the full Aegis Weapon System will be Al-Qaeda remains “very capable” of at- series of spy airplanes that would be ready for installation in HMAS , tacking the United States, the top US undetectable by air defence systems, the first of three Australian Air Warfare military officer said AS he tried to boost the chief of Russia’s air force has said. Destroyers under contract. waning US support for the conflict in Russia currently relies on the Su-24MR and MIG-25RB intelligence airplanes, Zelin said, adding that the airforce had “a sufficient number of them.” CHINA DELIVERS PAKISTAN FRIG- ATE China delivered the first of four state- of-the-art frigates commissioned by nuclear-armed Pakistan. The first F-22P Frigate constructed for the Pakistan navy at the Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai was delivered to Pakistan on Thursday,” said Lieutenant Com- mander Shakeel Ahmed. In keeping with contracts signed between China and Pakistan in 2005, the frigates will be equipped with anti-submarine heli- copters, surface-to-surface and surface- to-air missiles and other defence sys- tems. China is Pakistan’s strongest ally, and Islamabad relies heavily on Beijing for its defence needs. CSTO FORMATION The presidents of seven ex-Soviet states have met for a summit of a Rus- sia-led security grouping touted as an eastern counterweight to NATO. The creation of the force—officially called the Collective Operational Reaction Forces (CORF)—is a clear bid to rival the Western military alliance’s own joint operations. The CSTO is made up of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. AEGIS TEST PROGRAMME The Aegis Weapon System destined for Australia’s first Air Warfare Destroyer began a four month testing programme 6 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Afghanistan. Nearly eight years after the September 11, 2001 attacks that killed some 3,000 people, Al-Qaeda is still very capable, according to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mike Mullen. According to Mullen, Al- Qaeda is gaining from the support of Taliban fighters in Afghanistan and Pa- kistan, making the US fight against extremism in Afghanistan all the more urgent. The White House is also expecting within two weeks an evaluation by the commander of US forces in Afghani- stan, General Stanley McChrystal, who may cut the number of support staff to free up US troops for combat against Taliban insurgents. US media has re- ported that McChrystal is considering three options, including a strategy of adding just 15,000 troops to the 68,000 troops that would be on the ground by year’s end. paigns and industrial partnerships MORE CHINOOKS there. The EADS Group already has a BORDER PROTECTION significant presence in the Japanese The Boeing Company announced that market to build on: Eurocopter has With an improved airframe, avionics and it has received a US$1.15 billion con- more than a 50% share of the civilian propulsion system, the UH-60M heli- helicopter market and is also a sup- tract from the Canadian government for copter is the latest in a series of Black plier to the Ministry of Defence. 15 new CH-47F Chinook heavy-lift heli- Hawk helicopter variants. These state- Eurocopter Japan Co. Ltd. recently copters. Under the contract, Boeing will of-the-art helicopters will allow the US bought a stake in the helicopter main- match Canada’s purchase price by Customs and Border Protection Agency tenance operations of ANA Aircraft. executing contracts and investments of (CBP) to modernise its rotary-wing fleet equal value with Canadian industry. The from the UH-60A aircraft it now uses to CH-147, which will be modified to meet SUPPORT FOR SOMALIA protect the nation’s borders, and thus Canada’s operational environment, will better achieve its mission. be powered by two 4,733-horsepower The United States plans to double the amount of arms and ammunition it is Honeywell engines and feature ex- The CBP is one of the Department of tended-range capabilities. It will be able providing Somalia’s transitional govern- Homeland Security’s largest and most to transport more than 21,000 pounds ment, according to a US State Depart- complex components, with the mission (9,525 kg) of cargo. ment official, signalling deeper US in- of keeping terrorists and their weapons volvement in the conflict there. The offi- out of the U.S., and its Office of Air and cial, who spoke on condition of ano- BRITISH K.I.A. Marine is the world’s largest aviation nymity, said the plan was to double and maritime law enforcement organi- supplies of arms and ammunition from zation. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown 40 to 80 tonnes. The official also said Somalis were receiving military train- said, as another fatality pushed the EADS IN JAPAN ing in Djibouti, where the US military British military death toll over 200, Brit- has a base covering the Horn of Africa. ain would give its troops all the support EADS has established a new subsidi- An initial 40 tons of weapons and am- that they need to succeed in this vital ary in Japan to help coordinate and munition was directed to Somalia last mission. A total of 201 British troops support the Group’s marketing cam- June. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 7 NEW SHIP USNS which will be the newest ship in the U.S. Navy’s Lewis and Clark-class of dry cargo/ammuni- SOMETHING ODD ABOUT THIS PICTURE. SIMPLY WILL NOT tion ships was christened and launched PRINT OUT. on 16 August. is the ninth ship in the Navy’s T-AKE class. These ships are owned and operated by MSC and CAN YOU DO THE NECESSARYT, PERHAPS? deliver ammunition, provisions, spare parts, potable water and petroleum products to U.S. Navy and other navy ships at sea, allowing them to stay underway and combat ready for ex- tended periods of time. The ships are crewed by 124 civil serv- ice mariners working for MSC along with 11 U.S. Navy sailors, who provide sup- ply coordination. MSC operates ap- proximately 110 non-combatant, civil- ian-crewed ships that replenish U.S. Navy ships, conduct specialized mis- sions, strategically preposition combat cargo at sea around the world and move military cargo and supplies used by deployed U.S. forces and coalition part- ners. Volume 1: 1880 - 1945 @ R140 Volume II: 1945 - 1990 @ R120 Packaging per volume: @ R3 ** Postage Vol.I: RSA R7 Vol. II: RSA R4 South African Irish Regiment The Secretary by SA Irish Regimental Association P.O. Box 95 Kengray 2100 Telephone (011) 615-4911 8 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 have now died in Afghanistan since KUWAIT WARNING The large Chinooks are playing an in- 2001, out of a total of 1,312 for all inter- creasingly important role in Afghani- national forces including 782 from the stan, and their use is being expanded United States and 127 from Canada, The US State Department has issued in operations. according to the icasualties.org a warning to Americans based in Ku- website. wait that they should be aware of pos- sible terrorist actions that may involve STRYKER BRIGADE them. NATO AFGHANISTAN HQ THE 5TH Stryker Brigade of the US Army FINISH CONTRACT has arrived for duty in Afghanistan. The NATO has approved the establishment movement of over 3,800 troops and over of an intermediate military headquar- 900 items of large equipment, includ- ters in Afghanistan. The headquarters Elbit Systems Ltd. Has been awarded ing 300 Stryker combat vehicles, in- is a corps-level organization. a contract to provide Finland’s Minis- volved a deployment of over 7,000 try of Defense with high speed radio and miles. data transmission communication sys- GEORGIA FORCE FOR AFGHANI- tems to be delivered during 2010 - STAN 2012. As a Partnership for Peace member, NEXT GENERATION VEHICLES Georgia has undertaken to send a bat- talion to join the forces in Afghanistan. Oshkosh Defense displayed the latest in autonomous vehicle advancements UAE RED FLAG and other next-generation vehicle tech- nologies at the National Defense Indus- trial Association’s (NDIA) Ground Ve- United Arab Emirates Air Force pilots hicle Systems Engineering and Tech- and maintainers are participating in the nology Symposium 2009, Aug. 18-20 MediaMakers exercise for the first timer. in Detroit. For the Emirati pilots, the preparation in Tuscon was a chance to become familiar with US airspace and reunite AIR DEFENCE SYSTEMS FOR IRAN CONTACT US FOR: with their former instructors. Arizona Guardsmen have trained UAE fighter pilots for the past eight years, five years President Dmitry Medvedev is to review in UAE aircraft. Currently, the wing’s Russia’s planned sale of its sophisti- Video 148th Fighter Squadron is the only one cated S-300 air defence system to Iran. Animation of UAE-owned G-16E Desert Falcons, or block 60s, in the United States. Multimedia CHINOOK DOWN Photography KOSOVO Computer Graphics A Chinook helicopter serving with the British Forces in Afghanistan was NATO is presently engaged in plans to forced to make an emergency landing. reduce the size of the 13,800-strong The crew escaped injury. Apparently the helicopter came down in a hostile area Tel: (012) 428 0970 force based in Kosovo. The reduction of the NATO (KFOR) force will to some as, after the evacuation of the crew, the Fax: (012) 428 0975 extent be replaced with the establish- helicopter was destroyed by friendly ment of the 2,500-strong Kosovo Se- forces. curity Force consisting of locals. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 9 Reports Have a Tendency to Confuse the Actual Position which Exists Two subjects that have been thrust into the media’s attention by those who are Various news reports and opinions expressed in the media quoted as being “defence analysts.” recently concerning the state of readiness of the SA National Knowledge and understanding of com- Defence Force and the National Conventional Arms Control plete military matters is usually gained Committee can easily be given too much credibility. through elements like command, and completion of the range of other inten- sive military command and staff courses, normally beginning with a 3- prepared, to meet. When the question icing of it requiring technical manpower 4 year officers commissioning study of readiness was asked, it is a pity this with high cost. period, after which the Advanced Mili- was not linked to the expected threat. tary, Political Training is for selected To have compared the SANDF of 2009 One of the major keys to ensuring the students. to the Union Defence Force of 1939 SANDF state of readiness is maintain- as an “unready” force was most unre- ing and developing Africa’s largest Unfortunately, the days of experienced alistic. The UDF, then some 6,000 defence industry which is based in writers on defence matters, such as miles away from the area of expected South Africa. And it has been well re- Dr Cyril Falls and Captain Liddell Hart conflict, had placed orders for equip- ported – this time by qualified experts of the 1930s, appear to be gone. Writ- ment which it was unable to get. It had – that one of the future’s largest mar- ers who were able to indicate future implemented training programmes that kets for the defence industry is Africa. developments. And South Africa does resulted in a 40-plus squadron air not even have a Tom Clancey, with his force. It changed its industry in late This is a market that is enjoying much indepth writing of the United States’ 1939 to defence production, and was attention from the international indus- defence formations. able, within months, to move a force try, the Libyan market being no excep- to Kenya. Considering all the con- tion. A major competitor will be the straints of “readiness” it did better than South African industry, especially if the Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands and stated aims and objectives of the vari- Solutions can be propounded in ous African organizations to “buy Afri- Norway in creating a force. advance if there is no future can “ are followed. responsibility incurred. “Crying Wolf” needs to be justified—there Any confusion that can be created in has at least to be a wolf on the It would be unwise for a medical South Africa in respect of credibility of horizon. student to start pontificating on this industry and weakening its influ- heart surgery. ence on the country’s foreign policy Opinions that concentrate on only one would assist in the opening of the mar- specific aspect that, to the totally kets to other potential suppliers. un8informed, can result in alarming At present, the SANDF has a wide The National Conventional Arms Con- perceptions are not very far removed range of equipment; there will be later trol Committee (NCACCA) has also from misinformation. marks on the market with eager-bea- come under the recent media spotlight Defence forces have a history of be- ver salesmen using all sorts of tactics for its adopted procedures and the way ing able to cobble together forces to to achieve sales. The existing stocks it works; but when it is considered that meet unexpected situations: th UDF are large but will never be large there is very little that is secret in did it in 1939, the United Kingdom did enough. However, since the 1930s, the present times, it could adopt a more it after Dunkirk, and to some extent, South African industry has grown and open policy and closer working ar- the South African Defence Force did it it could at very short notice, fill many rangements with the defence industry. in Angola. of the gaps that exist. If Country A sells 120 main battle tanks Questions have been posed in media To stockpile and store all the needed to Country B for anyone to think that reports in respect of the state of readi- equipment for an expanding SANDF the transaction will or could be kept ness of the SA National Defence is not possible when considerations under wraps is wishful thinking. Force. No doubt the SANDF is not such as shelf-life and cost, reliance ready nor able to meet a state of war; has to be placed on industry. Apart but there might be other contingencies from acquiring equipment, there is the that the SANDF could well be able, and problem of maintaining it; and the serv- 10 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 TOGETHER WE STAND Saab has a dual commitment to South Africa. At the same time as providing a PRACTICE INDUSTRIAL CO-OPERATION KEY FEATURE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER wide range of cutting-edge military and security technologies to the nation, we DUAL BENEFITS PROSPERITY AND GROWTH invest extensively in the opportunities and growth of local industry. We combine our local South African expertise with proven international capabilities to develop the prosperity of the nation along with its protection. We employ over 2,000 staff locally, working across the defence and civil security spectrum, and along with our BBBEE partners we are dedicated to creating a future full of prospect. Take the Gripen fighter for example. Since signing the contract in 1999 the partnership has gone from strength to strength. As well as delivering the first aircraft as planned in 2008 we have also delivered on our promise of industrial co-operation, boosting South Africa’s assets in technology and business opportunities. Saab and South Africa stand as one. Together we’re safer. Together we’re stronger. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 11 www.saabgroup.com 12 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 The last of the 23 A109s is towed out for its final test Denel Saab Aerostructures Completes Ground Tests on Last Agusta A109 LUH for the S.A. Air Force Denel Saab Aerostructures (DSA) suc- The South African aeronautical in- Upon being awarded the contract, DSA cessfully completed a the series of dustry now consists of five main immediately integrated the production stringent ground tests on the last of manufacturers, each working in a programme into its strategy for the thirty Agusta A109 LUH helicopter for specific area and basically support- development of skills and product the SA Air Force at its Kempton Park ive of each other. knowledge. In this way optimal produc- facility 0N 17 August. The tests mark tion flow was achieved throughout the the final stage of production and qual- programme, while focusing on the ity control before delivery of the last company’s core business. A109 LUH to the South African Air The final delivery of the remaining Force (SAAF) on 30 September 2009. Agusta A109 LUH is as per the con- The initial contract risks managed by tract awarded to AgustaWestland in DSA included the transfer of manufac- The Agusta A109 LUH will be replac- 2000 for 30 helicopters—23 of which turing technology and the local indus- ing the SAAF’s older Alouette IIIs. were manufactured and assembled in trialisation of the helicopter. This ap- These aircraft are anticipated to serve South Africa by DSA. During the nine proach to mitigating these risks was the air force for the next 30 years, as years it took for the contract to be con- to ensure continuous skills develop- part of the 17 Squadron in Pretoria, the cluded, engineers from DSA partici- ment and maintenance, manufactur- 19 Squadron in Hoedspruit, the 15 pated (for a three year period) in de- ing equipment availability/reliability, Squadron in Durban, and the 15 signing the helicopter changes that supply chain efficiency and cost con- Squadron “C” Flight in Port Elizabeth. were required by the SAAF. DSA addi- trol. One helicopter will also be based at tionally established and stabilised the the SAAF’s test flight and development technologies used to manufacture de- With Turbomeca of South Africa sup- centre at Bredasdorp. tail sheet metal, mechanical and com- plying the power plants making the posite material parts of the aircraft, as South African aviation industry an al- The completion of the ground test well as performing structural and final most complete manufacturer of these renders the aircraft ready for in-air test- assembly. The company was also ac- 23 Agusta 109s. ing during which all the mechanical and credited as a supplier of vital dynamic avionic systems of the helicopter was assemblies of helicopter parts for the Denel, through its holding in Saab, has validated. The concluding flight test will civilian and military market (i.e. main a 80 percent share in Denel Saab certify the readiness of all high level rotor blades and main rotor heads) and Aerostructure. avionics systems such as the naviga- as a supplier of structural assemblies tion system and the automatic flight (such as fuselages and tail booms) control (auto pilot). during this time. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 13 S.A. Engineering Corps At Home to the Public and Friends The Engineer Formation of the South African Army held an Open Day, with a display of engineer equipment and a Tattoo at the Kroonstad-based School of Engineers. The Saturday event was well supported by the public, and events were spread over an open-type programme with time between events to allow movement for an open day—a far better programme. The static display and demonstrations of the SA Army equipment, especially that of the Sappers, showed that the Corps did have the capacity to do the tasks allocated to them; and that the function of the Corps was not only to lift and caddy, but that technical skills were needed to work some of the hi-tech equipment on show. Like the SA Army and its other formations, the SAEC is presently introducing changes and in line with the other forma- tions, is using its Reserve component to meet their foreign deployments, as shown the team from 19 Field Regiment, based in Durban, which took the award for the Bridge-building contest. A main battle tank of the Armour For- mation lined up with the display of Engineering equip- ment. The Pace Stick Team, which did very well in the re- cent United King- dom competition. 14 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 The Drill Team from the 2009 Intake of the MSO Intake un- dergoing training at the School of Engi- neers. The Drill Team was com- posed of this year’s female gender in- take. The Battle Tractor is an expensive piece of equip- ment, as is its serv- icing and mainte- nance. Portable road- way for sandy and swampy sur- faces. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 15 Hi-tech Research for Webbing: Carrying Body Armour and Equipment While body armor provides an indis- pensable defense, its weight and placement on the body exposes the wearer to neck, shoulder and back dis- comfort. The problem is not just the armor, but also the heavy equipment that soldiers routinely wear for hours and days at a time that can weigh more than 60 lbs - including rifles, ammuni- tion, grenades, radios, medical kits, backpacks, water, and other supplies. A new generation of body armor sys- tems is being developed. A body map- ping pressure system by Sensor Prod- ucts Inc., called Tactilus is developing new vests and carriage systems that optimally distribute the load that sol- diers carry. When a soldier complains that they feel pressure in a certain area, the provide coverage for the neck, shoul- ality. The sensors were then melded pressure points change on the com- ders and trunk. A third sensor pad was into the vest to serve as a guide for puter screen and pinpoint where the configured to wrap around the soldier’s future prototypes vest and armor need to be redesigned waist. The software was broken up into to improve the pressure distribution. multiple pieces for full system function- Besides increasing comfort, the team says the new body armor will signifi- cantly increase the soldier’s flexibility and maneuverability, which has enor- Ever Wondered What Happened to mous strategic advantages in the field. Those Guys you did Your Military Training With? Previously Sensor Product’s systems had supported square or rectangular That sergeant who used to work you over? designs, such as mattresses for ergo- nomic testing. While they were opti- There are thousands of Cape Town Highlanders in South Africa that mistic, there were questions about we would like to include in our Tourri circulation. Our intention is to whether the sensors’ electronic lines start a new “ex-members” section at the back of our publication. could be cut and reconfigured to the vest. Three separate sensor pads You can help by sending us the names and the addresses of ALL the guys needed to be used for the chest, back you can remember. Don’t worry about duplications as our computer and waist, and clear color-coded body will do the sorting. images and precise statistics had to Please jot down the names and transmit to: be produced without signal interfer- ence. The Editor Fax: (012) 787-1242 The Tourri e-Mail: email@example.com Sensor Products split up the sensing PO Box 3014 points; rows of sensors were distrib- 8000 CAPE TOWN uted into two connecting L patterns, with one L inverted to face the other to 16 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Denel Reports an Ongoing Loss There are Factors that do not There are Factors that do not Show in Black on a Statement of Account Can these Values be Assessed? Denel’s annual report for the year end- converted into a joint venture with The order book has improved, but de- ing 31 March 2009 shows that there is Turbomeca. Turbomeca introduced fence materiel orders take time to meet some movement in the right direction, new management which greatly im- and payment is therefore made at but also indicates that there is a long proved productivity and started on the some future date. way to go. road to becoming a profitable concern. The example was there; and at last, To be able to effect a faster turn-around However, set against the ever present similar procedures may be being in- and reduce the ongoing losses, Denel financial loss there are unknown fac- troduced to the nine entities that are is going to need all and more support tors that can be taken into considera- beginning to show a turnaround, per- from all State departments. tion. haps a little late. There have been suggestions that, in Both the strategic and political values future, Denel should report to the Par- The increased expenditure of R1.2-bil- of a defence industry, specifically in the liamentary Portfolio Committee over- lion on research and development is African context, are unknown and un- seeing the Department of Defence. If high but is likely to be aimed at using accounted for in a financial review. Is this does take place, it could well re- and increasing the existing in-house any value of these factors being ad- sult in greater support from Parliament expertise to support and attract out- equately considered, or at all, by the and all departments of state. side interests. In addition, development different departments of state. The costs are lower and results have been It is going to need more export or- supply of defence materiel is a major faster. ders—something which the previous tool used by many in achieving “diplo- matic” objectives. sales teams have not been able to Denel is not alone in having to face up achieve, especially when it is consid- In addition, this production capacity to the results of having been part of ered that in some areas, South Afri- does, to some extent, make the South the still confusing A400 aircraft acqui- can products were the leader in the African National Defence Force inde- sition programme which still appears field. pendent. There is no reliance on for- to be without any firm answers. The eign suppliers. delay in the programme has, apart An aspect which could hinder the from costs, involved uncertainty with South African industry's entry into the Since its inception, the South African programmes having to change. African market is the ties existing be- military forces have always been ex- tween African countries and those from tremely short of professional engi- The missile programme, with co-op- their past colonial history. neers, and at times have relied on the eration from Brazil, continues and expertise that existed in Armscor and there are hopes that one of the larger Industry sources indicate that there is Denel. At present, and in the future, to international manufacturers of these room for a better understanding of the what extent will the SANDF have to rely systems will come in as a joint part- methods of the National Conventional on Denel for support and maintenance. ner, which will increase the much Arms Control Committee (NCACCA) needed expansion into the interna- to assist in easing marketing. Also a question that needs to be posed tional market. There have been uncon- and answered: does local production In Africa, there are over fifty defence firmed reports that MBDA might be one reduce the cost of the acquisition of forces, some being very small, some of the international organisations with materials. It should be especially when impoverished. But all provide a poten- a possible interest. all the attendant factors are taken into tial market that could be reached consideration. through the existing political and other Denel is still working off borrowed existing structures and organisations. While Denel state that nine of the money with high interest costs and is eleven entities reflect a turn-around, still hoping for further State bail-outs; individuals figures are at this stage not and whether the State will assist in this available; however, they could well be respect with the present economic in line with the example presented situation has become more and more many years back when Denel’s aircraft doubtful. Has the possibility of an out- engine manufacturing concern was side investor been explored? African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 17 An Afghan soldier covers his ears as a fellow soldier fires a D-30 122 mm howitzer artillery cannon during a live-fire exercise at Forward Operating Base Kalagush in Afghanistan’s Nuristan province, Aug. 2, 2009. The training marked the first time 4th Kandak forward observers called in an artillery strike for Afghan artillerymen. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Matthew Moeller. Additional Benefits for U.S. Ex-servicemen Reservists Educational Support The implementation of the Post-9/11 a books and supplies stipend paid to have elected to participate in the sup- United States GI Bill was signed into the individual. plemental Yellow Ribbon Programme law on June 20, 2008. The new GI Bill that permits eligible service members is a Department of Veteran Affairs- And as of Aug. 1, qualified career serv- and veterans to attend private colleges sponsored programme that provides ice members have the option to trans- and universities whose costs exceed the most comprehensive educational fer benefits to their spouses or chil- the highest in-state rates at public un- benefit package for veterans since the dren. Most service members who have dergraduate institutions. original GI Bill—the Servicemen’s Re- at least six years of military service and adjustment Act of 1944—was author- are in the armed forces on or after Aug. Under the Yellow Ribbon Programme, ized toward the end of World War II. 1 and agree to serve an additional four VA “will match whatever is contributed years, qualify to transfer their benefits. by those private colleges and univer- With the Post-9/11 GI Bill, qualified sities, up to 50 percent of those total active-duty and selected reserve serv- Veterans Affairs Secretary Eric K. costs,” Shinseki said. “We are grate- ice members who have served after Shinseki, who also spoke at the cer- ful that so many schools have joined Sept. 10, 2001, are eligible for 36 emony, exhorted Post-9/11 GI Bill par- this effort and we thank them for their months of state-school educational ticipants to “make it count; make it support of our veterans.” benefits—the equivalent of four nine- count for all of us. Make it count for month academic years. Benefits in- our country.” clude tuition and fees that are paid di- rectly to the school, a monthly living Shinseki observed that more than allowance paid to the participant, and 1,100 private educational institutions 18 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Multi-national Airlift Defence officials representing 12 na- under the control of HAW pilots from firepower and oversized equipment tions as well as NATO witnessed on Norway, Sweden and the U.S. Boeing weighing tens of tons from Papa to July 27 the official activation of a first- will deliver SAC’s two remaining C-17s Afghanistan and back requires roughly of-its-kind multinational strategic airlift in September and October. 15 flight hours. unit at Papa Air Base, Hungary. Each nation also contributed a propor- Furthermore, the programme provides The nations committed to the 30-year tionate share of the unit’s 131 person- a model for future consortium acquisi- SAC Program built the programme’s nel. tion and management of expensive multinational operational-level unit, defence capabilities and for future known as the Heavy Airlift Wing or Many of the already-scheduled mis- combined operations. HAW, in just 10 months. The purpose sions will fulfil the participating nations’ was to collectively create a heavy air- commitments to ISAF. A typical mis- lift solution with global reach to meet sion transporting troops, mechanized national obligations to the European Union, United Nations and NATO. Pri- mary among those obligations for all the participants is support to the Inter- national Security Assistance Force in Iraq—Afghanistan Rethink Afghanistan. The SAC programme, which will op- Improving security in Iraq could allow Under a drawdown approved by Presi- erate independently of NATO’s military the US military to speed up the pace dent Barack Obama, all US combat command, includes NATO member of withdrawal of troops from the coun- troops are due to pull out of Iraq by nations Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, try. The current plan would have two the end of August 2010. And a secu- Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, combat brigade teams depart by the rity pact with Baghdad requires all Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the end of the year but Gates said “maybe American forces to leave by the end United States, as well as Partnership one more” brigade could be withdrawn of 2011. for Peace nations Finland and Swe- as well before elections in January. den. Only months ago US officers and ana- The precise number of additional lysts warned of a fragile situation in Iraq The nations’ varying investments in the troops that might be withdrawn re- that could be jeopardized if American SAC Program dictate their proportion- mained unclear but a combat brigade forces were pulled out too quickly ate share of the annual flying hours on comprises about 3,000 to 4,000 troops three jointly acquired Boeing C-17 and is often accompanied by support- Globemaster III aircraft. The first C-17, ing units. There are 14 combat brigade SAC 01, landed at Papa AB July 18 teams now deployed in Iraq. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 19 SADC Exercise Golfino South Africa will be hosting the SADC Brigade-size exercise at the S.A. Army’s Combat Training Centre in the northern Cape during the period 1—26 September2009. The exercise is planned to indicate the state of readiness of the Brigade as part of the African Union’s Standby Force and provide an opportunity to gauge the compatibility of the equipment in service with the different elements making up the Brigade. Command, communications logistic support doctrines and the force structure will also be tested for compat- ibility. In addition, the mustering of the different elements will present an opportunity to test the mobility of the various elements in reaching the mobilisation centre, as road, rail and air forms of transport will be used. Twelve of the SADC member countries will have Intervention Force their defence forces included and participating in Exercise Golfino. They are: Parachute Bn RSA Special Forces RSA Angola Special Forces MS Botswana Path-finder Pl RSA Democratic Rep. of Congo Mortar Platoon (82/120mm) MS Lesotho Air-supply Pl RSA Malawi Medical RSA Mozambique Namibia South Africa Tanzania Peace-keeping Force: 1 Bn st Zambia Bn HQ MS 1 Zimbabwe Infantry Coy MS 1 The number of troops will be: Infantry Coy MS Infantry Coy MS External: 3,140 Armed Forces/Police Members De-mining Pl MS RSA: ± 5,000 De-mining Pl MS 8,104 + Intelligence Pl MS Communication MS 2xMilitary Police Pl RSA & MS BDE HQ & Bde Troops 3XMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp Structured in accordance with accepted military practice: Tactical HQ South Africa Peace-keeping Force: 2 Bn nd Main HQ South Africa Bde Admin Area South Africa Bn HQ MS2 Main HQ Unit South Africa Infantry Coy MS2 Infantry Coy MS Comp Engr Sqn South Africa Infantry Coy MS Military Police Pl Member State Mortar Platoon(82/120mm) MS Comp Maint Coy South Africa De-mining Pl MS Field Workshop (-) South Africa EOD Section MS Intelligence Pl MS Signal Sqn South Africa Communication MS Military Police Pl MS Base Maintenance Section MS 3xMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp 20 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Joint Naval Task Force Peace-keeping Force: 3 Bn rd Will operate in the area of Walvis Bay" Bn HQ MS3 1xSA Navy MEKO A200 Frigate + 1 x additional Frigate Infantry Coy MS3 1xSA Navy Type 209 Submarine Infantry Coy MS 1xSA Navy Warrior-class Offshore Patrol Vessel (Strikecraft) Infantry Coy MS 2xSA Navy Landing Craft Mortar Pl MS 3XSA Navy Harbour Patrol Boats De-mining Pl MS 3xSA Navy/SA Police Inshore Patrol Vessels De-mining Sec MS 1XMS Inshore Patrol Vessel Intelligence Troop MS 1xSouth African Marine Platoon 1XMS Marine Platoon Communication Pl MS 1XMS Platoon Military Police Pl MS 15Xsouth African Divers Military Police Sec MS Air Effort: 3xMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp - Lynx Mk 8 Helicopter on Frigate - AS32 Oryx - DC-47 Maritime Patrol AC Air Assets Medical Support 1xC-130 MS Med Bn Gp: Level 2 Field Hospital & 4xLevel 1 Medi- 2xHelicopter (Squirrel) MS cal Facility will be four Groups with one attached to 1XCASA 212 MS each battalion and this Intervention Group supported by a 2 Level hospital: 1xTpt Aircraft (Y12) MS 1xHelicopter (AB212/AB205) MS Med Task Gp1 - In support of Intervention Force 4xMedium Helicopters (AS32 Oryx) RSA Med Task Gp 2 2xLight Helicopters (A-109) RSA - In support of 2 Bn nd 1xC-130 RSA Med Task Gp 3 1xDC-47 RSA -In support of 1 Bn st 1xOryx RSA Med Task Gp 4 1xLynx Mk 8 Helicopter RSA - In support of 3 Bn rd Brian Donald & Associates … … … Now in association with a leading international defence Market Research organisation, is able to offer a number of services that are vital to organisations involved in the military field. Political Economics can convert normally overt information into a covert operation. Marketing now needs strategic information that is not always available. Perhaps we can help? Brian Donald & Associates PO Box 87561 HOUGHTON 2041 Republic of South Africa African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 21 An impression of the two carriers at sea Two New Royal Navy Aircraft Carriers Construction Begins Construction has begun on the Royal the Appledore shipyards in Devon. Navy’s new aircraft carriers, their larg- Each block will be transported to est ever warships. The steel-cutting Rosyth dockyard where they will be ceremony took place at BVT Surface joined together to form the hull of the Fleet’s shipyard in Govan in July 2009. ship. The Queen Elizabeth (QE) Class car- While the hull construction is just be- riers, together with the Joint Strike ginning, the project has moved on Of course not! Then why Fighter aircraft and the brand new Type apace since the manufacture contract not use 45 destroyers, will form the corner- was signed in July last year, with £700- stone of Britain’s future ability to jointly million worth of sub-contracts placed services when trying project airpower worldwide from land for the equipment and furnishings that to impress your clients? or sea at a time and place of the UK’s will kit out the ships from the weapons When it comes to specialised choosing. systems to the galleys and cabins. design, layout and authoring of technical or military magazine The QE Class represent a step change The United Kingdom’s industry has in Defence’s capability, enabling Brit- also benefited from the development marketing material and manuals, ain to deliver airpower from the sea phase of the Joint Strike Fighter air- call us for a consultation, without obli- wherever and whenever it is required. craft and is well placed to win further gation, about your needs. This strategic effect, influence and, work as this programme progresses Our many years of relevant where necessary, direct action will give well into the 21st century. experience and pertinent skills are an unprecedented range of options to at your disposal. deal with the challenges of an uncer- tain world at a time and place of one’s choosing. Dick Walrond & Associates. P.O. Box 14941 Lynn East 0039, Gauteng, South Africa Three major sections (called lower Tel & Fax. +27 (0)12 800 2111 blocks) of the ship will be assembled Cell: 082 689 8632 at yards at Portsmouth and Rosyth. Other fabrication work will be done at 22 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 A fitted CROWS system. New Vehicle Weapon System Deployed in Afghanistan By Army Staff Sgt. Marcos Alices As U.S. forces fight insurgents in the Soldiers will receive a five-day course the last day of training, soldiers will fire southern and eastern regions of Af- on the weapon system, including train- ammunition. ghanistan, officials are working to pro- ing on day and night operations. On tect them with new technology, equip- ment and vehicles. Australian Contacts Illustrate One of the newest tools in their arse- nal is the common remotely operated the State and Scale weapon station II, known as CROWS of the Afghanistan Conflict II, which enables soldiers to acquire and engage targets from the safety of Australian force elements have re- while travelling in a Bushmaster Pro- their armoured vehicle. cently faced four road-side bomb at- tected Mobility Vehicle. There were no tacks, resulting in three wounded sol- casualties as a result of that incident The weapon system uses improved diers and two damaged Bushmaster optics to help with the positive identifi- Protected Mobility Vehicles. In a third incident, during a foot patrol, cation of targets, and offers another an IED was initiated near MRTF sol- method for finding homemade bombs, In the first incident at midday on Fri- diers but without effect. There were no he said. In addition, the CROWS’ day (7 August 2009), two Australian injuries reported. three-axis, stabilized mount contains soldiers operating with the 2nd a sensor suite and fire-control soft- Mentoring and Reconstruction Task On Saturday 8 August, a Bushmaster ware, enabling soldiers to engage tar- Force (MRTF-2) were wounded after was travelling to the scene of an ear- gets while on the move. The sensor a Bushmaster Protected Mobility Ve- lier incident and struck an IED. One suite makes it possible to identify, en- hicle struck an improvised explosive soldier was wounded and has been gage and defeat targets under any device (IED). aero-medically evacuated to Tarin condition with its daytime video cam- Kowt for further treatment. The In a separate incident, a 2nd Mentoring wounds are not life-threatening. The era, thermal camera and laser range- and Reconstruction Task Force vehi- bomb badly damaged the vehicle. finders. cle patrol struck an anti-personal mine African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 23 The U.S. Navy’s 5 Fleet Mission th Iraq, Afghanistan and Indian Ocean In the U.S. 5th Fleet Area of Respon- sibility, more than 24,000 Sailors are operating on the ground and at sea and carrying out a full spectrum of missions that support the U.S. maritime strat- egy. Approximately 10,000 Sailors are serv- ing at sea aboard more than 30 U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and fleet auxiliary ships and conducting combat and maritime security operations to forward U.S. interests, deter and counter dis- ruptive countries, defeat violent ex- tremism and strengthen partner na- tions’ maritime capabilities in order to promote a secure maritime environ- ment. U.S. 5th Fleet is supporting both Op- erations Enduring and Iraq Freedom and helping to provide an opportunity The carrier-borne air component of the US 5th Maritime Fleet. for the governments of Iraq and Af- (Photo: U.S. Navy) ghanistan to establish secure founda- tions for democracy. In response to the increase in piracy released, 235 were turned over for More than 5,300 Sailors are serving in off the coast of Somalia, the U.S. Navy prosecution. Iraq and 3,100 Sailors in Afghanistan is leading a multinational effort to pa- in riverine squadrons, explosive ord- trol the waters in the Gulf of Aden and As part of Joint Task Force Crisis Re- nance disposal platoons, Seabee na- off Somalia’s eastern coast. sponse (JTF-CR), the U.S. Navy is val construction forces, provincial re- also trained and prepared to respond construction teams, Navy expedition- Established in January 2009, the to any disaster or humanitarian con- ary logistics support groups and as in- counterpiracy task force CTF 151 ac- tingency in the region. dividual augmentees. tively deters, disrupts and suppresses piracy in order to protect global mari- In December 2004, U.S. and coalition Currently operating in the Gulf of time security and secure freedom of maritime forces were called on to sup- Oman, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) navigation for the benefit of all nations. port tsunami relief efforts both within and embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) It operates in the Gulf of Aden and the the region and outside after a cata- 14 are providing 30 percent of close eastern coast of Somalia, covering an strophic tsunami struck parts of South- air support for Coalition troops on the area of approximately 1.1 million east Asia, Sri Lanka, India, Seychelles ground in Afghanistan. square miles. and Somalia Dec. 26, 2004. Coalition maritime assets were flexible enough The U.S. Navy also leads the Com- Piracy impacts less than one percent to continue the maritime operation mis- bined Maritime Forces (CMF), a coali- of shipping with more than 33,000 ves- sion while simultaneously equipped to tion of 22 nations that conducts MSO sels transit the Gulf of Aden annually. help deliver relief supplies, provide throughout the region and are as- In 2009, there have been 136 at- medical support and assist with clean- signed to CMF’s three principle task tempted attacks - of which, 28 were up efforts. forces - Combined Task Forces (CTF) successful and 103 were unsuccess- 150, 151 and 52. CMF is committed to ful. defeating terrorism, preventing piracy, reducing illegal trafficking of people CTF 151 and other cooperating naval and drugs and promoting the maritime forces have encountered more than environment as a safe place for mari- 527 pirates; 282 were disarmed and ners with legitimate business. 24 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Barracuda Developments: Further Test Flights EADS Defence & Security (DS) has tions, which had so far only existed as mature next-generation UAV prod- successfully tested the unmanned computer models, have now been suc- ucts—either alone or in cooperation flight system (UAV—Unmanned Aerial cessfully tried and tested in flight on with European partners. With this dem- Vehicle) ‘Barracuda’ the Barracuda. The flexibility of the onstrator, EADS Defence & Security software and the modular capabilities will gain practical experience in the The new, successfully tested have also been enhanced. This makes interoperability of unmanned systems unmanned aerial system is a further the system even easier to adapt to a within Network-Centric Operations development of the first Barracuda wide range of UAV missions which will conducted in line with the latest NATO technology test bed which performed then be verified and validated using the criteria and in autonomous operation its maiden flight in April 2006. Since Barracuda built by EADS Defence & involving interaction with other sys- that time the software, systems and Security. tems. This also makes it possible to solutions for the methods and proc- reduce any risks involved in develop- esses carried out under the Agile UAV Even if this new version of the UAV ing the planned new UAV Talarion. programme have been continuously demonstrator is not destined for series developed to form an integrated sys- production, EADS will be able to gather tem. The results of these modifica- fundamental insights for operationally Italy to protect Albanian Airspace The Typhoons of the Gioia del Colle The Italian Typhoons are the first of the air policing role within the air Air Base’s 36th Stormo of Italian Air Eurofighters committed to the air po- forces that operate the new-generation Force have started their air policing licing task for nations lacking any such European aircraft. The Typhoon has task over the Albanian air space as capability as requested by NATO. been designed from the beginning as requested by NATO. This is not the first a multi-role aircraft but with a specific time that NATO members have taken The air policing role includes the sur- air superiority focus. over air policing of other NATO mem- veillance of the air space; the protec- bers’ airspace. tion of borders and infrastructures; in- The Eurofighter Typhoon is the best terception of aircraft flying without the platform available in the six nations Albania, as a new NATO member, proper authorisation and the assist- that have the aircraft in service for the lacks any assets able to perform this ance to aircraft with communication air defence tasks. task as its air force is only equipped problems. with helicopters and light aircraft which support land forces, perform search This new task confirms the capabili- and rescue and civil protection roles. ties of the Typhoon as the backbone African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 25 Parliamentary Report: An Insight as to the Application of Oversight By the Defence Committees The functions and authority of the Parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Defence and that of the Portfolio Committee on Defence, and the role they play within the defence structure are not clearly understood. In the parliamentary system, the final authority is parliament, as these extracts from the ‘minutes’ of the proceedings of the committees show; but the committees have to be fully informed to be able to execute their authority. These extracts will present a clearer picture of developments that are taking place within the South African National Defence Force, and the overview role of the committees. Defence & Military Veterans Portfolio Committee Strategic Planning Workshop Date of Meeting: 5 August 2009 Chairperson: Mr M Booi (ANC) Documents handed out: Parliamentary Committee on Defence & Military Veterans Draft Second Term Programme. Department of Defence & Military Veterans 2009 Information Session. Summary those for religious services. Questions were posed on the defence committee, how the programmes were structured, The Acting Secretary for Defence briefed the Committee why Audit Services had been moved to the Defence Secre- on the mandate, structure, planning cycle, policy and legis- tariat, how many members were deployed on peacekeep- lation of the Department. Other Departmental officials then ing missions. Members then moved on to whether the De- provided extensive briefings on the Department’s planning partment was ready to deal with the various issues allo- Cycle, reporting timelines and accountability, the function cated to specific dates on the programme. There was an of the quarterly reports and strategic business plans, and issue over the State of Readiness Report and an outstand- the budgetary process. The Department also outlined what ing report from the National Conventional Arms Control legislative issues were being worked upon at the moment. Committee (NCACC). It was clarified that the Department Members questioned the timelines, when the Strategic Plan would only be able to brief the Committee on the state of would be completed, when quarterly reports could be pre- readiness after briefing the Minister. Members noted that if sented, and the process that had to be followed prior to the NCACC was not ready to report, then it must explain submitting those reports to the Committee. They further the matter, but could not dictate the Committee programme. questioned the role and structure of the Secretariat for Some changes to the programme were agreed upon. Defence and Chief of the National Defence Force, and how this compared to other countries’ systems, whether the sys- Minutes: tem was flexible enough to deal with change of policies, such as that of inclusion of military veterans. A specific ques- Mr D Maynier (DA) asked whether a system where the tion was asked as to why the Chief of Defence Intelligence Constitution required civilian supremacy, the Defence Sec- had left the Department. The issue of the section to be es- retariat should not be moved above the SA National De- tablished for military veterans was examined, and ques- fence Force (SANDF) in the structure, as both were level 1 tions were asked about the sub-programmes, particularly entities. Mr Maynier asked further how this structure com- 26 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 pared with other structures in democracies around the world. Rev Tolo (COPE) asked how many persons in the armed forces were participating in the defence and security struc- Mr Motumi, Acting Secretary of Defence, replied that the tures of the United Nations, African Union or SADC. structure and offices of the Secretary for Defence and of the Chief of the National Defence Force performed sepa- Mr Motumi replied that he could safely say that 3,000 mem- rate and distinct functions, but were complementary. The bers of the SANDF were deployed in peace support opera- legislation made it clear that the Secretary for Defence was tions. The majority of the members were with the UN mis- the head of the Department, and the Accounting Officer sions, mainly in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in and the Chief of the National Defence Force were the Com- Sudan. There was also a large AU contingent in Burundi, manders. This emphasis was often lost. which was going to come to an end quite soon. Mr C Gololo (ANC) asked where issues of Procurement The Chairperson said that the issue of Military Veterans and Acquisition fitted into the organogram. He asked where was proceeding very slowly, as the Department was not the newly established section for Military Veterans would offering much for military veterans. He asked where this be located in the new different macro-organisational de- was currently placed, in the organogram of the Department. sign. He further noted that the Department needed to have a more sensible approach, and needed to tell the Committee Mr Motumi replied that an entity already 4existed for Mili- exactly what it wanted to do. tary Veterans. There used to be a small Directorate of Mili- tary Veterans’ Affairs, which had been in existence for some The Chairperson noted that the Department had stated it time, and which took its mandate from the Military Veter- was not ready to report on the matters scheduled for 11, 12 ans Affairs Act of 1999. that would form the nucleus for the and 19 August. He commented that this was an important successor entity. The Minister had set up a Task Team on issue, as the Constitution required this Committee to find Military Veterans, to look at implementation of a decision to answers and be able to tell the public that its Defence Force set up a Military Veterans entity. The Task Team was cur- would be able to defend the country, yet the Department rently headed by the Deputy Minister of Defence, and would advised that it was unable to deal with the matter. appear before the Portfolio Committee to report on this ini- tiative. MR Maynier commented that the Committee should urgently meet with the NCACC to get to the bottom of the matter. The Chairperson asked what was implied by the National Conventional Arms Control Amendment Act. The Chairperson said the Committee had already alerted the public to the fact that it had not received the report on Mr Motumi said that in terms of the defence commitment, the NCACC and that there was not consistent reporting on there were joint inter-departmental and multi-national ex- this matter. The Committee Secretariat was in contact with ercises that were required during the year, to prepare for the NCACC to alert them to the Committee’s concerns about operations. Mr Motumi explained that Air Defence capabili- accounting to the public. This issue was on the agenda for ties and Maritime Defence capabilities were also part of 2 September, so that a way could be found to organise the the SANDF output. Military Health was a support capability. agenda. Defence Diplomacy included the deployment of Defence Attachés. Participation in the defence and security struc- The Chairperson said the NCACC matter would be put on tures of the United Nations, the African Union and South- the agenda for a meeting on 11 August. ern African Development Community (SADC) were also key to the output of the Department. The Department was also involved in the provision of defence-related policy and min- Acknowledgements: isterial advice, and was responsible for providing cryptographic security services to the government. The Chairperson said that the Committee now had a sense of how the Department operated. He said there had been a question whether the Depart- ment was ready to deal with the ‘State of Readiness Brief- ings’ as outlined in the Portfolio Committee programme document. The Chairperson made reference to the Joint Standing Committee (JSC) on Defence. The two Commit- tees had been in existence together for years, but this ar- rangement and questions would be dealt with by the JSC on Defence. African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 27 Precision-guided Munitions for BCT Commanders By Major General (Retd) David C Ralston and Patrecia Slayden Hollis The objective of the US military kinetic operations always has Colonel David B Haight, commander of the 3d BCT, 10 Moun- th been to defeat the enemy while minimising risks to friendly forces, tain Division, recently deployed his brigade to Afghanistan. Be- casualties among the innocent population, and undesired col- fore he deployed, he ensured his fire battalion had the capability lateral damage. Today, more than any era in the past, we have to fire Excalibur. ‘In June 2008, I went to the Fires Conference at technologies to achieve that objective across the spectrum of Fort Sill and received a briefing on Excalibur’s global positioning conflict. Even successful stability and nation-building operations system accuracy. With Excalibur’s pinpoint accuracy, I can put have brief spikes of intensity, calling for rapid, pinpoint lethality. one round into the bad guys’ exact location and take them out while causing minimum collateral damage and safeguarding the Force commanders require, and have asked for, precision indi- Afghan populace. Excalibur was exactly what we needed. rect-fire capabilities, and the field artillery is committed to pro- viding these capabilities—tactical precision-guided (PGMs), ‘We had identified an operational need for Excalibur, so we made which allow commanders to turn defeat into victory, save lives, the case for M777A2s in the brigade to fire the round—A777s and minimise collateral damage. are not organic to IBCTs [infantry BCTs]. FORSCOM [Force Com- mand] approved the request for the capability and resourced us In his survey of corps, division and brigade combat team (BCT) with 12 M777 howitzers, which our 4-25 FAR [4 Battalion, 25 th th commanders, Major General Peter M Vangjel, chief of field artil- Field Artillery Regiment] quickly trained and certified on. The lery and commanding general of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, reported M777 has the added advantage of being lighter than the M198 that manoeuvre commanders’ fire support priority was precision. 1 and is very mobile; we can move it around the Afghan battle- The field artillery has been working diligently to answer the call. field, sling-loaded under a helicopter to fire Excalibur.’ The commander of ground forces in the highly successful surge in Iraq during 2007, then Lt General Raymond T Odierno, com- Excalibur has become a joint and combined effort as both the mander, Multinational Corps-Iraq (MNC-1) endorsed the effec- US Marines and Canadians are using it in theatre. tiveness of the relatively new 155mm Excalibur and guided mul- tiple-launch rocket system (GMLRS) unitary PGMs, ‘ … they were In September 2005, 3d Battalion, 13 Field Artillery FA), 214 FA th th extremely effective. In fact, GMLRS and Excalibur were my bri- Brigade, fired GMLRS in support of MNC-1 for the first time in gade commanders’ weapons of choice. '2 combat during Operation Restoring Rights at Tal Afar and the next day during Operation Sayaidi in the Al Anbar Province. In We have entered a remarkable era of all-weather, all-terrain pre- Tal Afar, eight GMLRS destroyed two insurgent strongholds and cision effects, available to manoeuvre commanders 24/7, with killed forty-eight insurgents from 50 kilometres away. In the Al Excalibur GMLRS unitary, and the near-future nonline-of-sight Abnar Province, six rockets destroyed a bridge frequently used launch system (NLOS-LS) precision attack missile (PAM), pro- by insurgents. jected to be fielded in FY12. Colonel Kenneth J Lull, former commander, 169 Fires Brigade, th Six Metres and Closing Colorado Army National Guard, and the Force FA Headquar- ters, MND-N, 25 Infantry Division, Iraq, reported experiences th Indirect-fire PGMs are proving to be more accurate than the 10 with GMLRS during Operation Arrowhead Ripper. ‘We shot more metres required of a PGM. Excalibur and GMLRS test results than 100 GMLRS in support of 3-2 SBCT [3d Stryker BCT, 2d and combat records of their impacts catalogue their accuracy to Infantry Division, attached to the 25 Infantry Division] in a two- th within a six-metre radius of intended targets, bringing us closer to three-week period—a magnificent round.’ than ever to the ideal ‘one-round, one-hit’ capability. As the enemy was being cleared out of Baghdad during the 2007 Aided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), combat observation surge, many ran north to Baqubah in the Multinational Division- lasing teams (COLTs), forward observers (FOs), joint terminal North (MND-N) area of operation. Major Jack E Vantress, S3, 5 th attack controllers (JTACs), and other detection assets, precision Battalion, 20 Infantry (5-20 IN), the lead task force during Op- th strike suite-special operations forces (PSS-SOF) software can eration Arrowhead Ripper in Baqubah, discusses in an e-mail, be used to locate the target precisely enough to fire PGMs quickly. on 17 December 2007, Excalibur’s precision and how the task PSS-SOF has been incorporated into forward observer software force achieved its desired effects on a two-storey building. ‘We (FOS) and rapidly determines three-dimensional grid co-ordi- fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy nates accurately enough to employ PGMs against time-sensi- was such that the second round entered the building at the same tive targets (TSTs) or targets in support of troops in contact. point of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired pen- etration to the first floor.’ Major Vantress commented in an e-mail dated 17 December 2008, on the impact PGMs and PSS-SOF had on his task force Employed in conjunction with other joint firepower assets, operations during Operation Arrowhead Ripper, ‘For both PGMs, Excalibur gives the enemy no way out. In July 2007, two Excalibur our biggest combat multiplier was PSS-SOF. Used in combina- rounds were fired on a house containing top al-Qaeda leader, tion with UAVs and FOS, we can cut down the delivery time im- Abu Jurah, and fourteen other insurgents in Arab Jabour, south mensely. We loaded PSS-SOF in all our fire support Stryker vari- of Baghdad. An AH-64 Apache helicopter attacked a vehicle, and ants to allow the forward fire support teams to quickly gain fidel- as insurgents fled from the rubble, an F-16 dropped two 500- ity from their observers. Simply put, GMLRS and Excalibur were pound bombs to destroy a house three of the fleeing insurgents our weapons of choice in the close urban fight. They saved count- had entered. The enemy never had a chance. less lives … while allowing us to maintain the momentum.’ 28 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 29 30 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 This speaks not only to precision, but also to responsiveness. December 2008, he describes his ability to shoot GMLRS faster than he could air-drop a bomb on HBIEDs, and the level of com- Precision is the ‘coin of the realm’ at the BCT and below. With fort they developed with GMLRS’ accuracy and effectiveness, Excalibur organic to BCTs, PGM allows small unit commanders ‘We were in the midst of clearing a neighbourhood when one of to gain overmatch and a decisive advantage. In Operation Iraqi my companies came upon a confirmed HBIED. I was on the Freedom (OIF), MLRS or high-mobility artillery rocket system ground with the company commander when he requested (HIMARS) ‘packages’ have supported BCTs with GMLRS—also GMLRS to attack the HBIED. Because there was direct fire con- very responsively. tact with the enemy, and I was extremely confident in my com- manders and all my FSOs [fire support officers], I immediately Minimum Collateral Damage agreed to the request. After they called in the fire mission, I asked the company commander exactly where the target was—it was Precision munitions mean more than just accuracy of impact two houses to the west of the one we were standing in. The and effects on the intended target; PGMs provide precise ef- testament to GMLRS is that we called it in on a target 50-metres fects with minimum collateral damage in the target areas. Com- from our own location with great confidence.’ manders can safely employ Excalibur, GMLRS and beginning in FY12, PAM, in appropriate circumstances. Close to troops in con- The United Kingdom has modified twelve of its M270 MLRS tact for immediate fire missions. These munitions reduce troop launchers to employ GMLRS unitary in Afghanistan. In the past standoff distances, giving commanders options such as enter- year, the UK has fired more than 300 GMLRS rockets in Afghani- ing a building to collect time-sensitive intelligence just seconds stan with the same 98% reliability as US missions enjoy. after the building is engaged. Coming Soon: Moving Target Attack Colonel Lull, in an e-mail dated 8 November 2008, shares his experiences with employing Excalibur in Iraq. ‘We fired 17 In 2012, PGMs will be organic to BCTs, which will add a long- Excalibur rounds for the 3-2 SABCT when it cleared Baqubah of needed capability, PAM, to attack moving targets—a global first. insurgents in intense combat during Operation Arrowhead Rip- per. In one mission, we fired Excalibur on a known enemy safe This US Army-Navy all-terrain 24/7 missile has an effective range house. Although it did not level the building, it killed everyone in from 500 metres to 50 kms. Each of the fifteen missiles per PAM the building without harming children who were playing outside container-launch unit (CLU) has an explosive shaped-charge in front of the house next door about thirty yards away. Excalibur warhead for armoured targets with fragmentation for soft targets. is an incredible round. I called MNC-I and asked for every Excalibur round I could get my hands on.’ ‘We fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy ‘We fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy In his e-mail dated 16 December 2008, was such that the second round entered the building at the same point was such that the second round entered the building at the same point Brigadier General Stephen J Townsend, of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired penetration to the of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired penetration to the commander, 3-2 SBCT, Operation Arrow- first floor.’ first floor.’ head Ripper, discusses employing GMLRS to detonate improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in Baqubah. The alternative was to uncover and destroy the deep-buried IEDs (DBIEDs or house-borne IEDs (HBIEDs) with successive shots manually emplaced by an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team: ‘Our pre-assault intel proved quite accu- rate—that we faced up to 175 DBIEDs and also booby-trapped houses, or HBIEDS, in Baqubah. By the time we were done, we had recorded more than 200 emplaced IEDS in- side the city and about forty-one rigged houses. ‘We were desperate for a solution to the problem of DBIEDs—al-Qaeda had dug in an overlapping network of DBIEDS, the equivalent of a deliberate interlocking mine- field in depth. Bottom line: GMLRS worked by neutralising known and suspected DBIEDs and allowed us to maintain the mo- mentum of our attack with minimum expo- sure to our force and minimum collateral damage to the Iraqi infrastructure.’ Colonel Bruce P Antonia, former com- mander, Task Force (TF) 5-20 IN, and his Sykes’ Regulars fought in Baqubah three months before the remainder of 3-2 SBCT joined them in June 2008 for the final as- sault to clear the city. In an e-mail dated 17 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 31 PAM is designed to attack armoured and lightly designed mov- Recently, an infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) fires battalion ing and stationary vehicles, small boats, and some bunkers with was tailored with attached M777A2s to provide a capability to pinpoint accuracy. Causing minimum collateral damage, it can deliver PGMs in Afghanistan. This organisation, for the first time, be employed in urban/complex terrain less than 110-metres from provides the IBCT commander with the ability to deliver preci- friendly forces. sion munitions without waiting on an external asset to deliver long-range precision. PAM’s dual-mode seeker, the semi-active laser and infrared heat seeker, can be used separately or in unison for precision target LTC Michael P Gabel, commander, 4-25 FAR, 10th Mountain Di- engagement after its GPS navigation has guided the missile to vision, deployed to Afghanistan in late 2008. In an e-mail dated the target area. 9 December 2008, he wrote about tailoring his field artillery bat- talion to OEF [Operation Enduring Freedom] VI and VII. It was Networked and platform-independent, PAM is a smart missile. It the first brigade in Afghanistan to have its rotation extended to can acquire specific types of targets in flight and attack them, sixteen months. The good news is we brought back a lot of les- including moving targets. A missile flies along a non-ballistic route sons; for example, the importance of range and firepower in that to the target to avoid crowded airspace, receiving target location mountainous terrain. updates while in flight. Each missile transmits a picture of the target back to the control cell just prior to impact. ‘During OEF VI and VII, the artillery had to fire its M119 [105mm] howitzers at high angle with maximum charge to get the range NLOS-LS completed nine tests in 2008, which have demon- required by the terrain. So for our 2009 rotation, we requested strated its design and performance parameters. During Novem- and got twelve [155mm] M777A2s—not only to increase our ber 2008, at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, PAM used range and firepower, but also to improve our precision and limit its digital SAL seeker to score a direct hit against a T-72 tank collateral damage into urban operations with the Excalibur round. from a range of nine kilometres; two days later, PAM demon- strated its SAL and IR seekers for another direct hit on a T-72, ‘We reorganised into a multi-capable battalion with twelve triple this time from 19 kms away. sevens and kept four M119s for air assault operations. (I turned HHB [headquarters battery] into a M119 platoon). We shot 15,000 The US Army is considering an air defence application for this rounds under this organisation in preparation for deployment. I munition, which has tested very well. The variant would fill the think this multi-capable FA battalion organisation may be the way requirement to destroy low- and slow-moving UAV and rotary to go—it gives manoeuvre commanders options. We’ll know wing threats, protecting the future combat system (FCS) BCT, better after we have been in Afghanistan for awhile.’ the future brigade combat team (FBCT), during counterinsur- gency operations. No current organic capability protects the bri- These PGMs are not only all-weather, but also all terrain; and gade from these threats. effective in urban, complex, mountainous or open terrain. Be- cause of their near vertical angle of attack, these weapons The Current Fight optimise lethality and minimise collateral damage. Reduced col- These PGMs are designed to provide commanders the flexibility lateral damage permits their use and ability to deliver the de- to manage the precision effects to achieve desired results. sired effect within the rules of engagement (RoE) in some of the Excalibur has a 50-lb warhead and GMLRS unitary has a 200-lb most complex terrain. warhead, which can be employed against larger targets, yet both can be employed in close support of friendly troops. Note: PAM With Excalibur’s non-ballistic trajectory, it is not limited to clear will have a 12-lb warhead and also be employable in close sup- fields of fire or tied to gun-target lines—it can be fired up to 300 port of troops. millimetres off the line, and will manoeuvre to hit whatever target the manoeuvre commander wants to hit. Indirect-fire PGMs allow commanders to attack an enemy mor- tar crew setting up in downtown Kabul with Excalibur, producing US Army and Air Force command systems can be automated to minimum collateral damage or destroy a two-storey duplex with deconflict airspace faster and more accurately than before. The GMLRS unitary, leaving half the duplex standing. To increase advanced FA tactical data system (AFATDS) now shares infor- precision strike flexibility, the field artillery is developing ‘scal- mation through the battlefield co-ordination detachment (BCD) able lethality:’ a future GMLRS ‘dial-an-effect’ capability. to Air Force systems to provide airspace information, enabling rapid co-ordination to deconflict flight routes in the vicinity of a Commanders have the ability to fire Excalibur from as close as PGM trajectory. 7.5 kms and GMLRS from as far away as 70-plus kms. The US Marines in Iraq first gave GMLRS its now famous title ’70- The lower the level of the tactical PGMs release authority, the kilometer sniper rifle.’ With the fielding of PAM, the missile can faster its fires are cleared. When clearance and control of be fired from as close as 500- metres from its target. Excalibur is delegated down to the task force commander, ‘it is more responsive that CAS [close air support] or attack aviation,’ Enhancements to Excalibur in FY10 extend the round’s range to states Lt Col Stephen J Maranian, in an e-mail dated 11 Novem- 35-kms on current firing platforms. When PAM comes into the ber 2008, whose attached M777A2 battery (from 3d Battalion, inventory in FY12, commanders will have the ability to precisely 321st FA, 18th Fires Brigade) fired Excalibur. Marianian com- attack moving targets from 40 kms away. manded 4th Battalion, 319th Airborne FA Regiment, 173d Airborne BCT (ABCT) Afghanistan, from the summer of 2007 until July In the past two years, two operational needs statements from 2008. US Central Command (CENTCOM) commanders called for a 120mm mortar PGM in theatre, another precision strike option Colonel Charles A Preysler, recent commander of the 173d ABCT to fill a gap. A mortar PGM would be highly mobile, organic to in Afghanistan, said ‘Excalibur worked as advertised … Once manoeuvre battalions (therefore responsive), and reduce the we understood the time required to fire the round, it became system-to-target range whilst still maintaining a maximum range clear we needed to get permission and authorities down to the that ensures munition versatility. battalion level.’ 32 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 M31 GMLRS unitary. Fires by the M270A1 MLRS launcher and the M142 HIMARS, GMLRS unitary has been highly successful in Iraq and Afghani- stan. It has a 200-lb pre-formed fragmentation warhead and a 1,000 IMU-guided, GPS-aided GMLRS have been fired in Iraq and Afghanistan since its initial limited 2005 fielding in Iraq. Many of these rockets were fired safely with impact within 200 metres of friendly troops. Its original primary target sets are self-propelled and towed howitzers, logistics sites, command posts, and radars and other non-armoured tar- gets. In CENTCOM, it has been employed effec- tively in congested urban environments against buildings or structures intersections, DEIEDs and HBIEDS. Commanders can fire up to six rockets (five-sec- ond intervals) at six different aimpoints in the tar- get area from MLRS or HIMARS. The launcher parks, lays, aims and fires the rockets in as fast as five-second salvoes, automatically program- ming each rocket to its co-ordinate. Because the risk of collateral damage associated with these Other critical lessons, such as intelligence and precise target PGMs is smaller, PGMs, such as Excalibur and GMLRS, allow location, are paramount for employing PGMs effectively. Com- the commander to delegate release authority for entire catego- manders must have the intelligence that the target is high-payoff ries of targets down the chain of command. and locate the target precisely or the PGM will attack a no-value target or the wrong location precisely. It is also important to know For large-scale precision, US AIR Force PGMs are brought to what Excalibur will and will not do—it will not level most build- commanders by their FSO. In addition to the FA suite of PGMs, ings, but can destroy rooms inside a building while causing very commanders have the option to air-deliver PGMs, such as the little collateral damage. This munition is effective against softer small diameter bomb (SDB), with a 250-lb warhead, and the joint targets. direct attack munition (JDAM), with options for 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-pound warheads. These weapons are precise in their de- Today, Excalibur and GMLRS provide BCT commanders all- struction of larger infrastructures or concentrations of enemy weather, day and night responsive, precision strike capabilities forces. The only aerial-delivered munition that equals the limited on planned and unplanned targets in all terrain—PGMs that are collateral damage estimates (CDES) OFExcalibur, GMLRS uni- organic to a brigade or readily available in the ground force. In tary, or PAM as the Hellfire missile. the near future, PAM will bring an additional precision strike ca- pability—attack moving targets—to the BCT. Together, they pro- Excalibur Lessons Learned vide commanders precision effects and range options and re- duce collateral damage and logistics burden. While GMLRS has been in the inventory and well appreciated for several years, Excalibur is relatively new and often unfamil- The field artillery continues to work on future precision indirect iar to BCT commanders. In his e-mail of 11 November 2008 LTC fire as voiced by the current Chief of FA, Major General Vangjel, Maranian further discusses several lessons he learned about ‘As your fire supporters, we are totally committed to giving you Excalibur in Afghanistan, which have been echoed by other FA the precision strike capabilities you need—we won’t let you down.’ commanders, ‘We need to educate our manoeuvre counterparts that Excalibur is not Copperhead. Copperhead has left some Notes ‘scar tissue’ with manoeuvre battalion commanders from their 1 Maj-Gen Peter Vangjel ‘State of the Field Artillery 2007’; Fires. Sep- days as company commanders as they remember the cumber- tember-December 2007, available online some nature of that old PGM. Further, the default is that com- 2 Interview with LTG Odierno ’2007 Surge of Ground Forces in Iraq – manders want to fire two Excalibur rounds in case one fails. Risks, Challenges and Successes’; Fires, March-April 2008. Needless to say, the task force FSOs and FSCOORDs [fire sup- port coordinators] need to coach their manoeuvre commanders that while there are times when more than one Excalibur should Reprinted from Armor be employed to achieve the desired effects, the reliability of this March-April 2009 round far exceeds that of Copperhead, and we do not need to default to firing more than one round. Our experience was that Excalibur has an accuracy of within six metres of the target. With the right target selection standards and delegation of release authority to the task force level, Excalibur can provide reliable first-round accuracy for troops in contact when collateral dam- age must be minimised.’ African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 33 Letters on Defence subjects are most welcome, but it is necessary for the authors to include their names and addresses, which will not be published if so desired: The address for your letters is : P O Box 87561, Houghton, 2041, RSA; or e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org BLOEMFONTEIN formative when it comes to defence ing the longer Cape of Good Hope Dear Sir matters in the broader African context. route far outweigh any intervention? I must however, take issue with afore- Some months back, AAFJ published said article as it deviates from recount- Yours sincerely a report that was prepared by a sen- ing a military operation to editorialising P. Carlos de Mateus ior SA Army officer that threw some about political matters which should (Via e-mail) light on the duties of the Army units have no bearing on how professional that are now serving in the Sudan; and men-at-arms should conduct them- Editor: in another issue there was a report selves. Comment in the box should have dealing with units from Pakistan also In my opinion, the writer’s adverse made it clear to readers to place their on duty in the Sudan. opinions on US president Obama’s own interpretation on the report. To South Africa has some thousands of alleged actions during the crisis de- have censored the article would have troops away on duty in Africa, but there mean the commitment and profes- altered the context. is little or no information about what sionalism of all involved in the heroic they are doing. deeds in the high seas off Somalia. For example, the writer does not pro- DURBAN AAFJ seems to be carrying more in- vide any sources for his purported formation about Afghanistan than conversations between Obama and Dear Sir about the troops serving in many his staff. More telling, is the reference countries in Africa. to Obama as BHO, which, whilst ac- It is understandable that the major curately depicting Obama’s full name, changes taking place in the defence These are members of the SA Army, was used during the US election by forces of the Nations of Europe are and surely there should be informa- the far-right to emphasize Obama’s not dealt with in any detail; nor under- tion of what they are doing. so-called Islamic “real” nature. Equally stood in this faraway part of the world. revealing is the reference to the US Yours faithfully However, the very detailed response military—an entirely voluntary force— LJ Joubert by Dr Mihal Atanisoara, the Romanian as “GW’s military”, which one as- sumes means George W Bush. Minister of Defence to the questions Editor posed provided an unusually clear in- The information is just not available Whilst one appreciates the contextual sight into the approach and support about the SANDF. We will be publish- box that you placed next to the arti- of the countries towards change. ing an article about the Pakistan cle, more effort should have been un- dertaken to alert your readers to the These changes have apparently taken Forces serving in the DRC. party-political shadings clouding the time to implement, but from the an- CAPE TOWN article. swers provided, a better overall de- gree of co-operation, co-ordination Dear Sir These merely served to detract from and the important result is that they what was an informative read. are working. The article, “Real story of the rescue from pirates of Captain of the Ala- ps: Re the Somalia piracy issue: any It is obvious that the large and smaller bama” (May 2009) refers. Whilst I light to shed on the persistent rumours defence forces are working together might not have any military experi- that the SA Navy is not allowed to play with good results and have been of ence, I am an avid reader of your pub- its part due to political calculations that benefit to all the members of the three lication as I find it one of the more in- the economic benefits of shipping us- relevant organisations. 34 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 However, to the outsider, it is still a bit fence Force and the questions that items that cover the activities of the confusing: how do NATO, the EU and were answered by their Minister of Romanian Defence Force and the in- the Partnership for Peace work to- Defence was, to my way of thinking, terview with the Minister provides an gether, and their exact roles, struc- both informative and instructive. opportunity to fully understand the tures and functions. To the unin- approach of a member of NATO, the formed, it would appear to provide an In the very detailed answers to the EU and PfP to defence subjects. excellent opportunity for a bureau- questions, the Minister has shown just cratic nightmare! how the three main structures of the Perhaps you could conduct a similar defence forces of the countries of interview with another member of Yours faithfully Europe function. these organisations? DJ Willis Generally, there has been an under- Yours faithfully Editor standing of how the long-established R Hoffman NATO operates and the responsibility There is opportunity for the Defence of its members to the organisation. Minister of another member of these organisations to be interviewed. We The Minister’s detailed response to will try and address the points you the questions relating to the Partner- have raised. ship for Peace and the European Un- ion provide both insight and under- PRETORIA standing of achievements, roles and functions of these organisations Dear Sir which, I am sure, will give your read- ers a better understanding of them. The article which appeared in the last issue of African Armed Forces Jour- I have noted that in a number of re- nal dealing with the Romanian De- cent issues of AAFJ there have been THE WITWATERSRAND RIFLES ** To All ex-Members ** YOUR REGIMENT IS NOW OVER 100 YEARS OLD, WHICH IS SOMETHING TO BE VERY PROUD OF We want to keep in touch with you by means of our Newsletter or E-mail ... Contact: NIC KORFF Cell: 082 445 2576 E-mail. email@example.com OR: TERRY O’HALLORAN (011) 867 1558 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 35 Tony le Tissier’s Less known is the existence of the Also of considerable interest, and new fills in a critical hole in English armed units of the in English, is Le Tissier’s treatment of language histories on the final days of (RAD, Reich Labour Service), some the combat and diversionary activities World War Two on the Eastern Front. four divisions at war’s end; the SA’s of Soviet named for Army-sponsored General Walther von Seydlitz- It is probably the definitive account of Joseph Kurzbach who surrendered to the So- events in the Oder River valley be- Goebbels’ Volkssturm, the viets at Stalingrad and afterwards be- tween February and April 1945 and (Navy) improvised in- came involved in the National Commit- recounts the arrival of Soviet forces on fantry and even the Armoured tee for a Free Germany, an anti-Nazi the last natural barrier before Berlin Reconnaissance Battalion of the Or- propaganda organisation sponsored and the desperate German effort to ganisation Todt! by Soviet intelligence. halt them there. Even more incredulously, Le Tissier Goebbels made much of this group in There is no shortage of English-lan- notes that after the July 20, 1944 coup his counterpropaganda and German guage books on the Battle of Berlin that attempt the Nazis were phasing in a troops called all German-speaking in- followed, including that by Anthony (lit: people’s defence) filtrators by this name. There is still no Beevor, Cornelius Ryan and John “which were intended to form the nu- authoritative text – in English, at least Erickson. But they all gloss over the cleus of a more politically reliable post- – on the but the re- Oder battles, treating it as mere cur- war army.” viewer suspects they were more likely tain-raisers to the main event. But as to be drawn from the ranks of the vari- Le Tissier writes this was mainly be- This fine work, part of a part of ous German settler communities in cause the severely depleted Germans quadrilogy, broadly divides into two Russia, such as the “Volga Germans” could not mass the men, equipment, parts – efforts to contain Soviet bridge- and the German communist commu- ammunition and other supplies needed heads across the Oder, notably at nity in Moscow that fled into exile after to mount an exhaustive defence. Reitwein and Vogelsang; and the So- the rise of the Nazis in 1933, of whom viet breakthrough battle of April 16 to th the later East German spymaster Indeed, a constant refrain in this book, 19 . Both are amply illustrated with th Markus Wolf was a prime example. amply illustrated by maps, was just accurate small-scale maps, arguably how improvised the German defences the best the reviewer has encountered While they often operated singly or in were – and the extent to which the to date. small groups behind German lines, competing Nazi overlords dissipated the overall effort in their pursuit of own fiefdoms within Hitler’s empire. It is well known that by war’s end the SS fielded close to 40 divisions in com- petition with the , the constitutional Is your Army. Equally well-known is the exist- ence of the Luftwaffe field formations, some of high calibre but most so poorly organised, trained and equipped for land-warfare as to pose only a danger en nment secure? to their inmates and flanking forma- tions. 36 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 disguised as German soldiers in the ”. No two accounts seem to has walked the battlefield. This is ob- same way as SS Obersturm- agree on the composition, combat or viously not always possible and the bannführer Otto Skorzeny’s special fate of this formation; or the alternative is seeking out the works of troops in the Ardennes in December Müncheberg Panzer Division; or… those who have, such as Le Tissier. 1944 (Unternehmen Greif), they clearly or… also operated as field units, a battal- ion of these troops taking part in an As perhaps one of the most recent attack on Küstrin on March 9 as part books to tackle this subject Le Tissier’s of Colonel General Vassily Chuikov’s order of battle carries the reviewer’s 8 Guards Army, the victors of th vote. The author had access to all the Stalingrad. conflicting material and was otherwise well-qualified to sort wheat from chaff. Should this be Le Tissier’s next assign- A former military police lieutenant-colo- ment? nel, Le Tissier was British governor of Spandau Prison between 1981 and Le Tissier also takes time to pick apart 1987 and has since conducted numer- the origins and composition of the ous battlefield tours over the terrain. many scratch, alarm and units the German command had scratched As someone who has done the same, together, one example being the 32 nd the reviewer believes one cannot un- SS Volunteer Grenadier Division “ derstand the totality of a battle until one New Honorary Colonel for Regt RNT Professor Vil-Nkomo received his in- signia of rank during his induction cer- emony as Honorary Colonel of the Regiment Noord Transvaal. The induc- tion of the Honorary Colonel was in- cluded in a medal presentation by the Regimental Commander, Lt Col m M Roos. Colonel Prof. Vil-Nkomo stud- ied at a number of universities in the United States, and has the advantage of being familiar with the US military systems in place at American univer- sities of the Reserve Officer training programmes (ROTC) which provide the majority of officers for the armed forces. Prof Vil-Nkomo has served as an ad- viser to the World Bank, United Na- tions Development Programme, United Nations Educational Training He was appointed in 2009 as adviser ternational, and assists in fund-raising Programme for Southern Africa, So- to the Vice Chancellor and Principal of activities while serving on the Execu- cial Science Research Council, the University of Pretoria, where he tive. Rockerfeller Foundation, and the gov- deals with government and private ernment of South Africa. sector relations, both national and in- African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 37 Comment PARKING RESERVES INCREASING ROLE Internationally, it is not the general prin- ciple to place the affairs and care of For anyone visiting the SA Army head- Over the past few years the Pipe and veterans under the Department of De- quarters, parking has never been easy Drum bands of the Reserve Force regi- fence; they either fall under a special – but with the new arrangements, it is ments of the SA Army Infantry Forma- even more of a problem. It could be a tion has expanded and these bands are responsible authority, or the Depart- function of the Headquarters Company in demand at military parades, as well ment of Pensions. and if so, perhaps they could ensure as at national ceremonial events, such there is always at least one Military as the opening of parliament, and the The ISSUP paper provides interesting Policeman on duty to assist visitors. national Ceremony of Remembrance. reading. They are also in demand internation- ally as well as locally for public events, such as tattoos. NEW HONORARY COLONEL RESERVE ADMIRAL IN COMMAND The SA National Defence Force has The SA Army Infantry Formation is re- recently appointed a number of Honor- ported to be proud of these achieve- The combined task force of international ary Colonels and has published a code ments and thanked the pipers and navies that counter piracy off the coast for their guidance. drummers for their commitment to the of Somalia and throughout the Gulf of maintenance and development of these Aden was returned to U.S. Rear Adm. There are two aspects of the appoint- military traditions. The officers com- Scott Sanders assumed command of ment of honorary ranks in the United manding of these units are also Combined Task Force 151 aboard the States that warrant attention: Honorary thanked for the support they give to flagship USS Anzio. Sanders became Colonels are appointed for a set time these bands. the first selective reserve admiral to period. The other is the appointment of command a combined task force at Honorary Warrant Officers. sea. VETERAN AFFAIRS Often, RSM hold their posts for a number of years to ensure their exper- While there appears to be differences tise is not lost to the unit, blocking the of opinion regarding the support of mili- coveted position. If this expertise can tary veterans, the responsibility for this be retained in some form while at the was recently placed under the Defence same time speeding up the opportunity Department Ministry. The University of for promotion, there could be advan- Pretoria’s Institute for Strategic Stud- tages, at the same time, the knowledge ies (ISSUP) has published a paper ti- and expertise of the RSM would not be tled, Military Veterans Affairs in South completely lost. Africa. Become a Subscriber – Complete this Form TODAY ! African Armed Forces Journal P.O.Box 87561, HOUGHTON, 2041 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org for further details : Website: www.aafjournal.co.za) Name: ........................................................................................................................................................ Address: .................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................Postal Code:..........................Tel. No: .................................................... Military connection, if any: ....................................................................................................................... For Overseas Rates, see Contents Page. 38 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009 Communications & IT Systems Aerostat TPS-79 Mobile Command & Control Base Camp Construction & Operations Desert Hawk C-130J Vessel Traffic Management Logistics & Supply Chain Management B E T W E E N PA R T N E R S H I P S P R O M I S E D A N D PA R T N E R S H I P S A C H I E V E D, T H E R E I S O N E I M P O R TA N T W O R D : H O W. In a world that continues to change dramatically, governments increasingly seek to accomplish their most vital goals by working with advanced technology companies from around the globe. Building and sustaining partnerships that achieve their objectives is a question of how. And it is the how that makes all the difference.
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