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        frican                              rmed   orces
Covering the African Military Renaissance            August 2009

                                                       R 20-00
                                                     African Armed Forces Journal
                                                                                     Established 1975

Editor: S J McIntosh

Published by the owners:                   Editorial ............................................................................................... 4
Military Publications (Pty) Ltd
105 Kingsgate                              SITREP ................................................................................................ 5
130 Louis Botha Avenue                     Tendency to Confuse ........................................................................ 10
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in this journal is expressly reserved.     Letters ................................................................................................ 34
However, consideration will be given
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to any requests for the use by others
of news reports, articles and photo-       Comment ........................................................................................... 38
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Submitting copy:
Contributions are welcome. Articles        ISSN 0379-6477
should be typed, double spaced, on
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will exercise all care but do not accept
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manuscripts.                               Report on page 13.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                                               3
                                       Exercise Golfino for the SADC Bri-          and should not need repeating. How-
                                       gade will be held at the SA Army’s          ever, it is the intangibles that need to
                                       Combat Training Centre from 1st to          be addressed: do they have a value,
Mission:                               25th September 2009, and will provide       and is that value exploitable?
                                       an indication of the degree that has
The AAFJ is committed to provid-                                                   It should be a subject that an experi-
                                       been achieved in readiness of the
ing its readership a quality service                                               enced military analyst can research.
                                       Brigade for any operational deploy-
in order to stimulate and improve      ment. There is no doubt that the            The associated Denel companies ap-
the defence debate in Africa.          bringing together of twelve different       pear to be making progress, and the
                                       elements of different defence forces        relationship with Brazil, with its devel-
Vision:                                will reveal hitches that have to be         oping aircraft industry, could open up
                                       sorted out for future operations, and       new opportunities.
To provide African military profes-    Goldfino will be an operation of well-
                                                                                   The SA National Defence Force's
sionals a public platform to discuss   spent time and effort.
                                                                                   need and value of an independent
issues of mutual interest.
                                                                                   supplier of military equipment; also
                                       Unfortunately, Africa does not enjoy
                                                                                   needs to be stated by the SANDF,
                                       the international structures such as
Objectives:                            NATO, the EU Force, or the PfP that
                                                                                   assuming there is a value.
     Champion the role of profes-      exist in Europe which have provided         Information is needed with a far
sional militaries within the context   established institutions for joint train-   greater degree of openness to be
of the African Union in securing the   ing. The forces that have been de-          able to establish a forum for discus-
peace and security required for        ployed in Europe, such as in Bosnia         sion of all the aspects that relate to
human and economic develop-            and Kosovo had the opportunity to           defence. It appears at times that
ment.                                  develop, but with the advantage of          there is a lack of information at all
                                       adequate equipment, funding, a com-         levels.
                                       plete linked infrastructures for move-
    Advocate appropriate civil-mili-                                               But it is not only Denel that seems to
                                       ment, and common command and
tary relations, especially non-par-                                                hiding their light under a bushel: the
                                       control. It is this experience that was
tisan parliamentary oversight.                                                     defence industry as a whole is ex-
                                       moved to Afghanistan when the need
                                                                                   tremely reluctant to report on its ac-
     Advance confidence and trust                                                  complishment when compared with
among African armed forces and         It took sometime for these different        those of other countries. Information
military professionals.                forces to work together and remove          is not readily available with press re-
                                       the obstacles as they arose. SADC           leases and other sources of informa-
                                       will face similar problems.                 tion falling into the category of an af-
    Encourage the establishment                                                    terthought.
of Reserve Officers' Associations                         §
and reserve components within                                                                         §
armed forces.                          Once again, Denel reports a loss in         Informed comment can very easily be
                                       its previous year’s operations, but in      blown-up out of its original concept
     Enhance and improve the           the report in this issue of African         and become a major issue. A recent
readership's level of professional     Armed Forces Journal, some aspects          example was the issue of the state
military education.                    of the value – intangible values – that     of readiness of the SA National De-
                                       could be considered when an over-           fence Force. What was overlooked
                                       view is taken of Denel’s role are pre-      was readiness for what. What was to
   Promote and market the indig-       sented. Elements such as the                be ready: Division, Brigade, Battalion,
enous defence industry.                number of people employed and the           and readiness for what?
                                       development of infrastructure are of-
                                       ten trotted out to justify their exist-
                                       ence; but these are obvious factors

4                                                                      African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                                  A Summary of International Defence Reports

SAUDI ORDERS EXTRA TANKERS                    and is better suited for air-to-ground       performed in Ladson, SC and is ex-
                                              missions such as destroying sophisti-        pected to be completed prior to Janu-
The Saudi Ministry of Defence and Avia-       cated enemy air defenses                     ary 31, 2010.
tion (MODA) has ordered three addi-
tional A330 Multi-role Tanker Transport       By fiscal 2020, the United States will       MORE DRONES FOR AFGHANI-
(MRTT) for the Royal Saudi Air Force,         have nearly 2,500 manned combat air-         STAN
bringing its total order to six aircraft.     craft in its inventory. Nearly 1,100 will
Saudi had signed a first contract for         be a combination of F-35s and F-22s.
three back in 2008. Delivery of the first     Secretary Gates has said that accel-         US military plans to use more drone
aircraft is due in 2011. The six aircraft     erating the production of the F-35 will      aircraft to target Taliban militants in Af-
will be configured with hose and drogue       offset job losses of those employed in       ghanistan. Although defeating the Al-
under-wing pods and the Airbus Mili-          F-22 production. Pentagon officials plan     Qaeda terror network remains an over-
tary Air Refuelling Boom System               to buy about 500 F-35s in the next five      riding goal for Washington, officials now
(ARBS). The contract includes an in-          years, and more than 2,400 over the          believe the best way to pursue that
service support package.                      life of the program. The F-22 pro-           objective is to ensure stability in Af-
                                              gramme is proposed to be capped at           ghanistan and neighboring Pakistan
SOUTH AMERICAN DEBATE                         187 of the fighter jets.                     instead of Al-Qaeda manhunts, the pa-
                                                                                           per said, citing US government and
                                              IAF TRAINER                                  Defense Department officials. It was
Brazil, Chile and Spain on Thursday
                                                                                           more important to prevent a slide to-
challenged the United States’ decision
                                                                                           wards violence and anarchy that could
to use and expand military bases in           Elbit Systems Limited has been
                                                                                           be exploited by Al-Qaeda, which used
Colombia, saying they feared the move         awarded a contract by the Israeli Min-
                                                                                           Afghanistan to stage its attacks on the
could heighten simmering tensions in          istry of Defence for the operation and
                                                                                           United States on September 11, 2001,
Latin America. Presidents Luiz Inacio         maintenance of the new Israeli Air
                                                                                           the officials said.
Lula da Silva of Brazil and Michelle          Force’s trainer, Beechcraft T-6
Bachelet of Chile said in Sao Paulo           (“Effroni”). The contract amount which
they would put the issue before an Au-        is not material to Elbit Systems, will       Eight drones that have been devoted to
gust 10 meeting of a nascent South            be delivered over the course of five         tracking Al-Qaeda in remote Afghan
American Defence Council in Ecuador.          years, with an option for an additional      mountains will be transferred to the
The Colombian government’s announce-          five years.                                  fight against insurgents, the paper said.
ment on July 15 that three of its mili-                                                    And the US Central Command plans
tary air bases were to be used by the         The IAF’s new T-6 replaces jet trainer       to send about 12 more drones to the
United States as part of joint anti-drug      Fouga Magister (“Zukit”) that has served     Afghan front, including some aircraft
operations, has ignited concerns and          the IAF’s flight school for decades. With    that have been assigned to Iraq—a move
anger among Colombia’s neighbours.            the procurement of the new trainer, the      resisted by US commanders there.
                                              Israeli Air Force joins leading air forces
U.S. PRESIDENT SUPPORTS F-22                  in training new pilots onboard turbo-
                                                                                           INDIAN AIRCRAFT CONTRACT
REACTIVATION                                  prop aircraft, considered safer for train-
                                              ing purposes and more cost-effective
United States Defense Secretary               than jet aircraft.                           India has begun the trials of fighter jets
Robert M. Gates recommended to the                                                         being offered by the world’s six top aero-
president earlier this year to end pro-       FORTY-EIGHT BUFFALO                          space giants vying for a 12-billion-dol-
duction of the F-22 at the conclusion                                                      lar military contract, officials said. The
of its current funding programme in fis-                                                   sale of 126 combat planes to the tech-
                                              Force Protection announced that it has
cal 2009. President Obama had prom-                                                        nology-starved Indian Air Force will be
                                              received a modification to contract
ised to veto a budget proposal from the                                                    the world’s most lucrative fighter jet
                                              W56HZV-08-C-0028 from the United
Congress that allowed for more money                                                       contract in more than a decade. The
                                              States Army Tank- automotive and Ar-
for the programme. In his 2010 budget                                                      assessment is due to continue for al-
                                              maments Command (TACOM) for ap-
recommendations, Secretary Gates                                                           most a year before New Delhi makes
                                              proximately 48 Buffalo Mine Protected
favored the newest manned aircraft, the                                                    its choice from the six companies, de-
                                              Clearance Vehicles (MPCV). This con-
F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter. The                                                fence ministry officials in New Delhi
                                              tract modification is subject to
F-35 carries a larger suite of weapons                                                     said.
                                              definitization ( ). The work will be

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                        5
SPY PLANES                                    at Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Production       AFGHANISTAN: US ANXIETY
                                              Test Centre. When testing concludes,
Russia is reported to be working on a         the full Aegis Weapon System will be        Al-Qaeda remains “very capable” of at-
series of spy airplanes that would be         ready for installation in HMAS          ,   tacking the United States, the top US
undetectable by air defence systems,          the first of three Australian Air Warfare   military officer said AS he tried to boost
the chief of Russia’s air force has said.     Destroyers under contract.                  waning US support for the conflict in
Russia currently relies on the Su-24MR
and MIG-25RB intelligence airplanes,
Zelin said, adding that the airforce had
“a sufficient number of them.”


China delivered the first of four state-
of-the-art frigates commissioned by
nuclear-armed Pakistan. The first F-22P
Frigate constructed for the Pakistan
navy at the Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard
in Shanghai was delivered to Pakistan
on Thursday,” said Lieutenant Com-
mander Shakeel Ahmed. In keeping
with contracts signed between China
and Pakistan in 2005, the frigates will
be equipped with anti-submarine heli-
copters, surface-to-surface and surface-
to-air missiles and other defence sys-
tems. China is Pakistan’s strongest
ally, and Islamabad relies heavily on
Beijing for its defence needs.


The presidents of seven ex-Soviet
states have met for a summit of a Rus-
sia-led security grouping touted as an
eastern counterweight to NATO. The
creation of the force—officially called
the Collective Operational Reaction
Forces (CORF)—is a clear bid to rival
the Western military alliance’s own joint
operations. The CSTO is made up of
Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and


The Aegis Weapon System destined
for Australia’s first Air Warfare Destroyer
began a four month testing programme

6                                                                           African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
Afghanistan. Nearly eight years after
the September 11, 2001 attacks that
killed some 3,000 people, Al-Qaeda is
still very capable, according to the
chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Mike Mullen. According to Mullen, Al-
Qaeda is gaining from the support of
Taliban fighters in Afghanistan and Pa-
kistan, making the US fight against
extremism in Afghanistan all the more

The White House is also expecting
within two weeks an evaluation by the
commander of US forces in Afghani-
stan, General Stanley McChrystal, who
may cut the number of support staff to
free up US troops for combat against
Taliban insurgents. US media has re-
ported that McChrystal is considering
three options, including a strategy of
adding just 15,000 troops to the 68,000
troops that would be on the ground by
year’s end.
                                             paigns and industrial partnerships           MORE CHINOOKS
                                             there. The EADS Group already has a
                                             significant presence in the Japanese
                                                                                          The Boeing Company announced that
                                             market to build on: Eurocopter has
With an improved airframe, avionics and                                                   it has received a US$1.15 billion con-
                                             more than a 50% share of the civilian
propulsion system, the UH-60M heli-          helicopter market and is also a sup-         tract from the Canadian government for
copter is the latest in a series of Black    plier to the Ministry of Defence.            15 new CH-47F Chinook heavy-lift heli-
Hawk helicopter variants. These state-       Eurocopter Japan Co. Ltd. recently           copters. Under the contract, Boeing will
of-the-art helicopters will allow the US     bought a stake in the helicopter main-       match Canada’s purchase price by
Customs and Border Protection Agency         tenance operations of ANA Aircraft.          executing contracts and investments of
(CBP) to modernise its rotary-wing fleet                                                  equal value with Canadian industry. The
from the UH-60A aircraft it now uses to                                                   CH-147, which will be modified to meet
                                             SUPPORT FOR SOMALIA
protect the nation’s borders, and thus                                                    Canada’s operational environment, will
better achieve its mission.                                                               be powered by two 4,733-horsepower
                                             The United States plans to double the
                                             amount of arms and ammunition it is          Honeywell engines and feature ex-
The CBP is one of the Department of                                                       tended-range capabilities. It will be able
                                             providing Somalia’s transitional govern-
Homeland Security’s largest and most                                                      to transport more than 21,000 pounds
                                             ment, according to a US State Depart-
complex components, with the mission                                                      (9,525 kg) of cargo.
                                             ment official, signalling deeper US in-
of keeping terrorists and their weapons
                                             volvement in the conflict there. The offi-
out of the U.S., and its Office of Air and
                                             cial, who spoke on condition of ano-         BRITISH K.I.A.
Marine is the world’s largest aviation
                                             nymity, said the plan was to double
and maritime law enforcement organi-
                                             supplies of arms and ammunition from
zation.                                                                                   British Prime Minister Gordon Brown
                                             40 to 80 tonnes. The official also said
                                             Somalis were receiving military train-       said, as another fatality pushed the
EADS IN JAPAN                                ing in Djibouti, where the US military       British military death toll over 200, Brit-
                                             has a base covering the Horn of Africa.      ain would give its troops all the support
EADS has established a new subsidi-          An initial 40 tons of weapons and am-        that they need to succeed in this vital
ary in Japan to help coordinate and          munition was directed to Somalia last        mission. A total of 201 British troops
support the Group’s marketing cam-           June.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                        7
              NEW SHIP

USNS                    which will be the
newest ship in the U.S. Navy’s Lewis
and Clark-class of dry cargo/ammuni-         SOMETHING ODD ABOUT THIS PICTURE. SIMPLY WILL NOT
tion ships was christened and launched       PRINT OUT.
on 16 August.         is the ninth ship in
the Navy’s T-AKE class. These ships
are owned and operated by MSC and
                                             CAN YOU DO THE NECESSARYT, PERHAPS?
deliver ammunition, provisions, spare
parts, potable water and petroleum
products to U.S. Navy and other navy
ships at sea, allowing them to stay
underway and combat ready for ex-
tended periods of time.
The ships are crewed by 124 civil serv-
ice mariners working for MSC along with
11 U.S. Navy sailors, who provide sup-
ply coordination. MSC operates ap-
proximately 110 non-combatant, civil-
ian-crewed ships that replenish U.S.
Navy ships, conduct specialized mis-
sions, strategically preposition combat
cargo at sea around the world and move
military cargo and supplies used by
deployed U.S. forces and coalition part-

                                                                           Volume 1: 1880 - 1945 @ R140
                                                                           Volume II: 1945 - 1990 @ R120
                                                                            Packaging per volume: @ R3
                                                                           ** Postage Vol.I: RSA R7
                                                                                        Vol. II: RSA R4
    South African Irish Regiment
                                                                         The Secretary
                                                                         SA Irish Regimental Association
                                                                         P.O. Box 95
                                                                         Kengray 2100

                                                                               Telephone (011) 615-4911

8                                                             African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
have now died in Afghanistan since             KUWAIT WARNING                              The large Chinooks are playing an in-
2001, out of a total of 1,312 for all inter-                                               creasingly important role in Afghani-
national forces including 782 from the                                                     stan, and their use is being expanded
United States and 127 from Canada,             The US State Department has issued          in operations.
according to the               a warning to Americans based in Ku-
website.                                       wait that they should be aware of pos-
                                               sible terrorist actions that may involve    STRYKER BRIGADE
                                                                                           THE 5TH Stryker Brigade of the US Army
                                               FINISH CONTRACT                             has arrived for duty in Afghanistan. The
NATO has approved the establishment                                                        movement of over 3,800 troops and over
of an intermediate military headquar-                                                      900 items of large equipment, includ-
ters in Afghanistan. The headquarters          Elbit Systems Ltd. Has been awarded         ing 300 Stryker combat vehicles, in-
is a corps-level organization.                 a contract to provide Finland’s Minis-      volved a deployment of over 7,000
                                               try of Defense with high speed radio and    miles.
                                               data transmission communication sys-
GEORGIA FORCE FOR AFGHANI-                     tems to be delivered during 2010 -
STAN                                           2012.

As a Partnership for Peace member,             NEXT GENERATION VEHICLES
Georgia has undertaken to send a bat-
talion to join the forces in Afghanistan.
                                               Oshkosh Defense displayed the latest
                                               in autonomous vehicle advancements
UAE RED FLAG                                   and other next-generation vehicle tech-
                                               nologies at the National Defense Indus-
                                               trial Association’s (NDIA) Ground Ve-
United Arab Emirates Air Force pilots          hicle Systems Engineering and Tech-
and maintainers are participating in the       nology Symposium 2009, Aug. 18-20                   MediaMakers
             exercise for the first timer.     in Detroit.
For the Emirati pilots, the preparation
in Tuscon was a chance to become
familiar with US airspace and reunite          AIR DEFENCE SYSTEMS FOR IRAN                    CONTACT US FOR:
with their former instructors. Arizona
Guardsmen have trained UAE fighter
pilots for the past eight years, five years    President Dmitry Medvedev is to review
in UAE aircraft. Currently, the wing’s         Russia’s planned sale of its sophisti-               Video
148th Fighter Squadron is the only one         cated S-300 air defence system to Iran.
of UAE-owned G-16E Desert Falcons,
or block 60s, in the United States.                                                               Multimedia
                                               CHINOOK DOWN
KOSOVO                                                                                         Computer Graphics
                                               A Chinook helicopter serving with the
                                               British Forces in Afghanistan was
NATO is presently engaged in plans to          forced to make an emergency landing.
reduce the size of the 13,800-strong           The crew escaped injury. Apparently the
                                               helicopter came down in a hostile area           Tel: (012) 428 0970
force based in Kosovo. The reduction
of the NATO (KFOR) force will to some          as, after the evacuation of the crew, the        Fax: (012) 428 0975
extent be replaced with the establish-         helicopter was destroyed by friendly
ment of the 2,500-strong Kosovo Se-            forces.
curity Force consisting of locals.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                     9
                   Reports Have a Tendency to Confuse

                             the Actual Position which Exists

Two subjects that have been thrust into
the media’s attention by those who are        Various news reports and opinions expressed in the media
quoted as being “defence analysts.”           recently concerning the state of readiness of the SA National
Knowledge and understanding of com-           Defence Force and the National Conventional Arms Control
plete military matters is usually gained      Committee can easily be given too much credibility.
through elements like command, and
completion of the range of other inten-
sive military command and staff
courses, normally beginning with a 3-       prepared, to meet. When the question         icing of it requiring technical manpower
4 year officers commissioning study         of readiness was asked, it is a pity this    with high cost.
period, after which the Advanced Mili-      was not linked to the expected threat.
tary, Political Training is for selected    To have compared the SANDF of 2009           One of the major keys to ensuring the
students.                                   to the Union Defence Force of 1939           SANDF state of readiness is maintain-
                                            as an “unready” force was most unre-         ing and developing Africa’s largest
Unfortunately, the days of experienced      alistic. The UDF, then some 6,000            defence industry which is based in
writers on defence matters, such as         miles away from the area of expected         South Africa. And it has been well re-
Dr Cyril Falls and Captain Liddell Hart     conflict, had placed orders for equip-       ported – this time by qualified experts
of the 1930s, appear to be gone. Writ-      ment which it was unable to get. It had      – that one of the future’s largest mar-
ers who were able to indicate future        implemented training programmes that         kets for the defence industry is Africa.
developments. And South Africa does         resulted in a 40-plus squadron air
not even have a Tom Clancey, with his       force. It changed its industry in late       This is a market that is enjoying much
indepth writing of the United States’       1939 to defence production, and was          attention from the international indus-
defence formations.                         able, within months, to move a force         try, the Libyan market being no excep-
                                            to Kenya. Considering all the con-           tion. A major competitor will be the
                                            straints of “readiness” it did better than   South African industry, especially if the
                                            Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands and         stated aims and objectives of the vari-
Solutions can be propounded in                                                           ous African organizations to “buy Afri-
                                            Norway in creating a force.
   advance if there is no future                                                         can “ are followed.
 responsibility incurred. “Crying
Wolf” needs to be justified—there                                                        Any confusion that can be created in
  has at least to be a wolf on the           It would be unwise for a medical            South Africa in respect of credibility of
              horizon.                       student to start pontificating on           this industry and weakening its influ-
                                                      heart surgery.                     ence on the country’s foreign policy
Opinions that concentrate on only one                                                    would assist in the opening of the mar-
specific aspect that, to the totally                                                     kets to other potential suppliers.
un8informed, can result in alarming
                                            At present, the SANDF has a wide             The National Conventional Arms Con-
perceptions are not very far removed
                                            range of equipment; there will be later      trol Committee (NCACCA) has also
from misinformation.
                                            marks on the market with eager-bea-          come under the recent media spotlight
Defence forces have a history of be-        ver salesmen using all sorts of tactics      for its adopted procedures and the way
ing able to cobble together forces to       to achieve sales. The existing stocks        it works; but when it is considered that
meet unexpected situations: th UDF          are large but will never be large            there is very little that is secret in
did it in 1939, the United Kingdom did      enough. However, since the 1930s, the        present times, it could adopt a more
it after Dunkirk, and to some extent,       South African industry has grown and         open policy and closer working ar-
the South African Defence Force did it      it could at very short notice, fill many     rangements with the defence industry.
in Angola.                                  of the gaps that exist.
                                                                                         If Country A sells 120 main battle tanks
Questions have been posed in media          To stockpile and store all the needed        to Country B for anyone to think that
reports in respect of the state of readi-   equipment for an expanding SANDF             the transaction will or could be kept
ness of the SA National Defence             is not possible when considerations          under wraps is wishful thinking.
Force. No doubt the SANDF is not            such as shelf-life and cost, reliance
ready nor able to meet a state of war;      has to be placed on industry. Apart
but there might be other contingencies      from acquiring equipment, there is the
that the SANDF could well be able, and      problem of maintaining it; and the serv-

10                                                                         African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009

 Saab has a dual commitment to South Africa. At the same time as providing a                    PRACTICE    INDUSTRIAL CO-OPERATION
                                                                                             KEY FEATURE    TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
 wide range of cutting-edge military and security technologies to the nation, we
                                                                                            DUAL BENEFITS   PROSPERITY AND GROWTH
 invest extensively in the opportunities and growth of local industry.

 We combine our local South African expertise with proven international
 capabilities to develop the prosperity of the nation along with its protection.
 We employ over 2,000 staff locally, working across the defence and civil security
 spectrum, and along with our BBBEE partners we are dedicated to creating a
 future full of prospect.

 Take the Gripen fighter for example. Since signing the contract in 1999 the
 partnership has gone from strength to strength. As well as delivering the first aircraft
 as planned in 2008 we have also delivered on our promise of industrial co-operation,
 boosting South Africa’s assets in technology and business opportunities.

 Saab and South Africa stand as one. Together we’re safer. Together we’re stronger.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                     11
12   African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                      The last of the 23 A109s is towed out for its final test

         Denel Saab Aerostructures Completes Ground Tests
                   on Last Agusta A109 LUH for the S.A. Air Force

Denel Saab Aerostructures (DSA) suc-          The South African aeronautical in-          Upon being awarded the contract, DSA
cessfully completed a the series of           dustry now consists of five main            immediately integrated the production
stringent ground tests on the last of         manufacturers, each working in a            programme into its strategy for the
thirty Agusta A109 LUH helicopter for         specific area and basically support-        development of skills and product
the SA Air Force at its Kempton Park          ive of each other.                          knowledge. In this way optimal produc-
facility 0N 17 August. The tests mark                                                     tion flow was achieved throughout the
the final stage of production and qual-                                                   programme, while focusing on the
ity control before delivery of the last                                                   company’s core business.
A109 LUH to the South African Air             The final delivery of the remaining
Force (SAAF) on 30 September 2009.            Agusta A109 LUH is as per the con-          The initial contract risks managed by
                                              tract awarded to AgustaWestland in          DSA included the transfer of manufac-
The Agusta A109 LUH will be replac-           2000 for 30 helicopters—23 of which         turing technology and the local indus-
ing the SAAF’s older Alouette IIIs.           were manufactured and assembled in          trialisation of the helicopter. This ap-
These aircraft are anticipated to serve       South Africa by DSA. During the nine        proach to mitigating these risks was
the air force for the next 30 years, as       years it took for the contract to be con-   to ensure continuous skills develop-
part of the 17 Squadron in Pretoria, the      cluded, engineers from DSA partici-         ment and maintenance, manufactur-
19 Squadron in Hoedspruit, the 15             pated (for a three year period) in de-      ing equipment availability/reliability,
Squadron in Durban, and the 15                signing the helicopter changes that         supply chain efficiency and cost con-
Squadron “C” Flight in Port Elizabeth.        were required by the SAAF. DSA addi-        trol.
One helicopter will also be based at          tionally established and stabilised the
the SAAF’s test flight and development        technologies used to manufacture de-        With Turbomeca of South Africa sup-
centre at Bredasdorp.                         tail sheet metal, mechanical and com-       plying the power plants making the
                                              posite material parts of the aircraft, as   South African aviation industry an al-
The completion of the ground test             well as performing structural and final     most complete manufacturer of these
renders the aircraft ready for in-air test-   assembly. The company was also ac-          23 Agusta 109s.
ing during which all the mechanical and       credited as a supplier of vital dynamic
avionic systems of the helicopter was         assemblies of helicopter parts for the      Denel, through its holding in Saab, has
validated. The concluding flight test will    civilian and military market (i.e. main     a 80 percent share in Denel Saab
certify the readiness of all high level       rotor blades and main rotor heads) and      Aerostructure.
avionics systems such as the naviga-          as a supplier of structural assemblies
tion system and the automatic flight          (such as fuselages and tail booms)
control (auto pilot).                         during this time.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                     13
                       S.A. Engineering Corps At Home
                                  to the Public and Friends
The Engineer Formation of the South African Army held an Open Day, with a display of engineer equipment and a Tattoo
at the Kroonstad-based School of Engineers.

The Saturday event was well supported by the public, and events were spread over an open-type programme with time
between events to allow movement for an open day—a far better programme.

The static display and demonstrations of the SA Army equipment, especially that of the Sappers, showed that the Corps
did have the capacity to do the tasks allocated to them; and that the function of the Corps was not only to lift and caddy,
but that technical skills were needed to work some of the hi-tech equipment on show.

Like the SA Army and its other formations, the SAEC is presently introducing changes and in line with the other forma-
tions, is using its Reserve component to meet their foreign deployments, as shown the team from 19 Field Regiment,
based in Durban, which took the award for the Bridge-building contest.

                                                                                                     A main battle tank
                                                                                                     of the Armour For-
                                                                                                     mation lined up
                                                                                                     with the display of
                                                                                                     Engineering equip-

                                                                                                      The Pace Stick
                                                                                                      Team, which did
                                                                                                      very well in the re-
                                                                                                      cent United King-
                                                                                                      dom competition.

14                                                                    African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                             The Drill Team from
                                             the 2009 Intake of
                                             the MSO Intake un-
                                             dergoing training at
                                             the School of Engi-
                                             neers. The Drill
                                             Team was com-
                                             posed of this year’s
                                             female gender in-

                                             The Battle Tractor
                                             is an expensive
                                             piece of equip-
                                             ment, as is its serv-
                                             icing and mainte-

                                             Portable road-
                                             way for sandy
                                             and swampy sur-

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                      15
Hi-tech Research for Webbing:

                     Carrying Body Armour and Equipment

While body armor provides an indis-
pensable defense, its weight and
placement on the body exposes the
wearer to neck, shoulder and back dis-
comfort. The problem is not just the
armor, but also the heavy equipment
that soldiers routinely wear for hours
and days at a time that can weigh more
than 60 lbs - including rifles, ammuni-
tion, grenades, radios, medical kits,
backpacks, water, and other supplies.
A new generation of body armor sys-
tems is being developed. A body map-
ping pressure system by Sensor Prod-
ucts Inc., called Tactilus is developing
new vests and carriage systems that
optimally distribute the load that sol-
diers carry.

When a soldier complains that they
feel pressure in a certain area, the        provide coverage for the neck, shoul-       ality. The sensors were then melded
pressure points change on the com-          ders and trunk. A third sensor pad was      into the vest to serve as a guide for
puter screen and pinpoint where the         configured to wrap around the soldier’s     future prototypes
vest and armor need to be redesigned        waist. The software was broken up into
to improve the pressure distribution.       multiple pieces for full system function-
Besides increasing comfort, the team
says the new body armor will signifi-
cantly increase the soldier’s flexibility
and maneuverability, which has enor-                        Ever Wondered What Happened to
mous strategic advantages in the field.
                                                Those Guys you did Your Military Training With?
Previously Sensor Product’s systems
had supported square or rectangular                 That sergeant who used to work you over?
designs, such as mattresses for ergo-
nomic testing. While they were opti-         There are thousands of Cape Town Highlanders in South Africa that
mistic, there were questions about           we would like to include in our Tourri circulation. Our intention is to
whether the sensors’ electronic lines        start a new “ex-members” section at the back of our publication.
could be cut and reconfigured to the
vest. Three separate sensor pads             You can help by sending us the names and the addresses of ALL the guys
needed to be used for the chest, back        you can remember. Don’t worry about duplications as our computer
and waist, and clear color-coded body        will do the sorting.
images and precise statistics had to
                                             Please jot down the names and transmit to:
be produced without signal interfer-
ence.                                          The Editor                                      Fax: (012) 787-1242
                                               The Tourri                                  e-Mail:
Sensor Products split up the sensing           PO Box 3014
points; rows of sensors were distrib-          8000 CAPE TOWN
uted into two connecting L patterns,
with one L inverted to face the other to

16                                                                        African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                          Denel Reports an Ongoing Loss
                            There are Factors that do not
                     There are Factors that do not Show in Black
                                        on a Statement of Account
                                      Can these Values be Assessed?

Denel’s annual report for the year end-      converted into a joint venture with         The order book has improved, but de-
ing 31 March 2009 shows that there is        Turbomeca. Turbomeca introduced             fence materiel orders take time to meet
some movement in the right direction,        new management which greatly im-            and payment is therefore made at
but also indicates that there is a long      proved productivity and started on the      some future date.
way to go.                                   road to becoming a profitable concern.
                                             The example was there; and at last,         To be able to effect a faster turn-around
However, set against the ever present        similar procedures may be being in-         and reduce the ongoing losses, Denel
financial loss there are unknown fac-        troduced to the nine entities that are      is going to need all and more support
tors that can be taken into considera-       beginning to show a turnaround, per-        from all State departments.
tion.                                        haps a little late.
                                                                                         There have been suggestions that, in
Both the strategic and political values                                                  future, Denel should report to the Par-
                                             The increased expenditure of R1.2-bil-
of a defence industry, specifically in the                                               liamentary Portfolio Committee over-
                                             lion on research and development is
African context, are unknown and un-                                                     seeing the Department of Defence. If
                                             high but is likely to be aimed at using
accounted for in a financial review. Is                                                  this does take place, it could well re-
                                             and increasing the existing in-house
any value of these factors being ad-                                                     sult in greater support from Parliament
                                             expertise to support and attract out-
equately considered, or at all, by the                                                   and all departments of state.
                                             side interests. In addition, development
different departments of state. The
                                             costs are lower and results have been       It is going to need more export or-
supply of defence materiel is a major
                                             faster.                                     ders—something which the previous
tool used by many in achieving “diplo-
matic” objectives.                                                                       sales teams have not been able to
                                             Denel is not alone in having to face up     achieve, especially when it is consid-
In addition, this production capacity        to the results of having been part of       ered that in some areas, South Afri-
does, to some extent, make the South         the still confusing A400 aircraft acqui-    can products were the leader in the
African National Defence Force inde-         sition programme which still appears        field.
pendent. There is no reliance on for-        to be without any firm answers. The
eign suppliers.                              delay in the programme has, apart           An aspect which could hinder the
                                             from costs, involved uncertainty with       South African industry's entry into the
Since its inception, the South African       programmes having to change.                African market is the ties existing be-
military forces have always been ex-                                                     tween African countries and those from
tremely short of professional engi-          The missile programme, with co-op-          their past colonial history.
neers, and at times have relied on the       eration from Brazil, continues and
expertise that existed in Armscor and        there are hopes that one of the larger      Industry sources indicate that there is
Denel. At present, and in the future, to     international manufacturers of these        room for a better understanding of the
what extent will the SANDF have to rely      systems will come in as a joint part-       methods of the National Conventional
on Denel for support and maintenance.        ner, which will increase the much           Arms Control Committee (NCACCA)
                                             needed expansion into the interna-          to assist in easing marketing.
Also a question that needs to be posed       tional market. There have been uncon-
and answered: does local production                                                      In Africa, there are over fifty defence
                                             firmed reports that MBDA might be one
reduce the cost of the acquisition of                                                    forces, some being very small, some
                                             of the international organisations with
materials. It should be especially when                                                  impoverished. But all provide a poten-
                                             a possible interest.
all the attendant factors are taken into                                                 tial market that could be reached
consideration.                                                                           through the existing political and other
                                             Denel is still working off borrowed         existing structures and organisations.
While Denel state that nine of the           money with high interest costs and is
eleven entities reflect a turn-around,       still hoping for further State bail-outs;
individuals figures are at this stage not    and whether the State will assist in this
available; however, they could well be       respect with the present economic
in line with the example presented           situation has become more and more
many years back when Denel’s aircraft        doubtful. Has the possibility of an out-
engine manufacturing concern was             side investor been explored?

 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                    17
       An Afghan soldier covers his ears as a fellow soldier fires a D-30 122 mm howitzer artillery cannon
       during a live-fire exercise at Forward Operating Base Kalagush in Afghanistan’s Nuristan province, Aug.
       2, 2009. The training marked the first time 4th Kandak forward observers called in an artillery strike for
       Afghan artillerymen. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Matthew Moeller.

             Additional Benefits for U.S. Ex-servicemen
                                  Reservists Educational Support

The implementation of the Post-9/11        a books and supplies stipend paid to         have elected to participate in the sup-
United States GI Bill was signed into      the individual.                              plemental Yellow Ribbon Programme
law on June 20, 2008. The new GI Bill                                                   that permits eligible service members
is a Department of Veteran Affairs-        And as of Aug. 1, qualified career serv-     and veterans to attend private colleges
sponsored programme that provides          ice members have the option to trans-        and universities whose costs exceed
the most comprehensive educational         fer benefits to their spouses or chil-       the highest in-state rates at public un-
benefit package for veterans since the     dren. Most service members who have          dergraduate institutions.
original GI Bill—the Servicemen’s Re-      at least six years of military service and
adjustment Act of 1944—was author-         are in the armed forces on or after Aug.     Under the Yellow Ribbon Programme,
ized toward the end of World War II.       1 and agree to serve an additional four      VA “will match whatever is contributed
                                           years, qualify to transfer their benefits.   by those private colleges and univer-
With the Post-9/11 GI Bill, qualified                                                   sities, up to 50 percent of those total
active-duty and selected reserve serv-     Veterans Affairs Secretary Eric K.           costs,” Shinseki said. “We are grate-
ice members who have served after          Shinseki, who also spoke at the cer-         ful that so many schools have joined
Sept. 10, 2001, are eligible for 36        emony, exhorted Post-9/11 GI Bill par-       this effort and we thank them for their
months of state-school educational         ticipants to “make it count; make it         support of our veterans.”
benefits—the equivalent of four nine-      count for all of us. Make it count for
month academic years. Benefits in-         our country.”
clude tuition and fees that are paid di-
rectly to the school, a monthly living     Shinseki observed that more than
allowance paid to the participant, and     1,100 private educational institutions

  18                                                                        African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                              Multi-national Airlift
Defence officials representing 12 na-          under the control of HAW pilots from           firepower and oversized equipment
tions as well as NATO witnessed on             Norway, Sweden and the U.S. Boeing             weighing tens of tons from Papa to
July 27 the official activation of a first-    will deliver SAC’s two remaining C-17s         Afghanistan and back requires roughly
of-its-kind multinational strategic airlift    in September and October.                      15 flight hours.
unit at Papa Air Base, Hungary.
                                               Each nation also contributed a propor-         Furthermore, the programme provides
The nations committed to the 30-year           tionate share of the unit’s 131 person-        a model for future consortium acquisi-
SAC Program built the programme’s              nel.                                           tion and management of expensive
multinational operational-level unit,                                                         defence capabilities and for future
known as the Heavy Airlift Wing or             Many of the already-scheduled mis-             combined operations.
HAW, in just 10 months. The purpose            sions will fulfil the participating nations’
was to collectively create a heavy air-        commitments to ISAF. A typical mis-
lift solution with global reach to meet        sion transporting troops, mechanized
national obligations to the European
Union, United Nations and NATO. Pri-
mary among those obligations for all
the participants is support to the Inter-
national Security Assistance Force in                          Iraq—Afghanistan Rethink

The SAC programme, which will op-              Improving security in Iraq could allow         Under a drawdown approved by Presi-
erate independently of NATO’s military         the US military to speed up the pace           dent Barack Obama, all US combat
command, includes NATO member                  of withdrawal of troops from the coun-         troops are due to pull out of Iraq by
nations Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,            try. The current plan would have two           the end of August 2010. And a secu-
Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway,            combat brigade teams depart by the             rity pact with Baghdad requires all
Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the              end of the year but Gates said “maybe          American forces to leave by the end
United States, as well as Partnership          one more” brigade could be withdrawn           of 2011.
for Peace nations Finland and Swe-             as well before elections in January.
den.                                                                                          Only months ago US officers and ana-
                                               The precise number of additional               lysts warned of a fragile situation in Iraq
The nations’ varying investments in the        troops that might be withdrawn re-             that could be jeopardized if American
SAC Program dictate their proportion-          mained unclear but a combat brigade            forces were pulled out too quickly
ate share of the annual flying hours on        comprises about 3,000 to 4,000 troops
three jointly acquired Boeing C-17             and is often accompanied by support-
Globemaster III aircraft. The first C-17,      ing units. There are 14 combat brigade
SAC 01, landed at Papa AB July 18              teams now deployed in Iraq.

 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                           19
                             SADC Exercise Golfino
South Africa will be hosting the SADC Brigade-size exercise at the S.A. Army’s Combat Training Centre in the
northern Cape during the period 1—26 September2009.
The exercise is planned to indicate the state of readiness of the Brigade as part of the African Union’s Standby
Force and provide an opportunity to gauge the compatibility of the equipment in service with the different
elements making up the Brigade.
Command, communications logistic support doctrines and the force structure will also be tested for compat-

In addition, the mustering of the different elements will present an opportunity to test the mobility of the various
elements in reaching the mobilisation centre, as road, rail and air forms of transport will be used.

 Twelve of the SADC member countries will have                               Intervention Force
 their defence forces included and participating in
 Exercise Golfino. They are:                                  Parachute Bn                               RSA
                                                              Special Forces                             RSA
                                                              Special Forces                             MS
                                                              Path-finder Pl                             RSA
     Democratic Rep. of Congo
                                                              Mortar Platoon (82/120mm)                  MS
                                                              Air-supply Pl                              RSA
                                                              Medical                                    RSA
     South Africa
     Tanzania                                                            Peace-keeping Force: 1 Bn  st

     Zambia                                                   Bn HQ                                 MS 1
     Zimbabwe                                                 Infantry Coy                          MS 1
     The number of troops will be:                            Infantry Coy                          MS
                                                              Infantry Coy                          MS
 External:         3,140 Armed Forces/Police Members          De-mining Pl                          MS
 RSA:            ± 5,000                                      De-mining Pl                          MS
                   8,104 +                                    Intelligence Pl                       MS
                                                              Communication                         MS
                                                              2xMilitary Police Pl                  RSA & MS
               BDE HQ & Bde Troops
                                                              3XMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp
 Structured in accordance with accepted military

     Tactical HQ        South Africa                                     Peace-keeping Force: 2 Bn  nd

     Main HQ            South Africa
     Bde Admin Area South Africa                              Bn HQ                                 MS2
     Main HQ Unit       South Africa                          Infantry Coy                          MS2
                                                              Infantry Coy                          MS
     Comp Engr Sqn South Africa                               Infantry Coy                          MS
     Military Police Pl Member State                          Mortar Platoon(82/120mm)              MS
     Comp Maint Coy South Africa                              De-mining Pl                          MS
     Field Workshop (-) South Africa                          EOD Section                           MS
                                                              Intelligence Pl                       MS
     Signal Sqn         South Africa
                                                              Communication                         MS
                                                              Military Police Pl                    MS
 Base Maintenance Section MS
                                                              3xMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp

20                                                               African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                                                          Joint Naval Task Force
              Peace-keeping Force: 3 Bn
                                                                  Will operate in the area of Walvis Bay"
  Bn HQ                                    MS3          1xSA Navy MEKO A200 Frigate + 1 x additional Frigate
  Infantry Coy                             MS3          1xSA Navy Type 209 Submarine
  Infantry Coy                             MS           1xSA Navy Warrior-class Offshore Patrol Vessel
  Infantry Coy                             MS
                                                        2xSA Navy Landing Craft
  Mortar Pl                                MS           3XSA Navy Harbour Patrol Boats
  De-mining Pl                             MS           3xSA Navy/SA Police Inshore Patrol Vessels
  De-mining Sec                            MS           1XMS Inshore Patrol Vessel
  Intelligence Troop                       MS           1xSouth African Marine Platoon
                                                        1XMS Marine Platoon
  Communication Pl                         MS
                                                        1XMS Platoon
  Military Police Pl                       MS           15Xsouth African Divers
  Military Police Sec                      MS           Air Effort:

3xMilObs Teams; Medical Task Gp                             -      Lynx Mk 8 Helicopter on Frigate
                                                            -      AS32 Oryx
                                                            -      DC-47 Maritime Patrol AC

                         Air Assets
                                                                              Medical Support
  1xC-130                                    MS
                                                        Med Bn Gp: Level 2 Field Hospital & 4xLevel 1 Medi-
  2xHelicopter (Squirrel)                    MS         cal Facility will be four Groups with one attached to
  1XCASA 212                                 MS         each battalion and this Intervention Group supported
                                                        by a 2 Level hospital:
  1xTpt Aircraft (Y12)                       MS
  1xHelicopter (AB212/AB205)                 MS                 Med Task Gp1
                                                                - In support of Intervention Force
  4xMedium Helicopters (AS32 Oryx)           RSA
                                                                Med Task Gp 2
  2xLight Helicopters (A-109)                RSA
                                                                - In support of 2 Bn

  1xC-130                                    RSA                Med Task Gp 3
  1xDC-47                                    RSA                 -In support of 1 Bn

  1xOryx                                     RSA                Med Task Gp 4
  1xLynx Mk 8 Helicopter                     RSA                - In support of 3 Bn

  Brian Donald & Associates … … …
  Now in association with a leading international defence Market Research organisation, is able to offer a
  number of services that are vital to organisations involved in the military field.

    Political Economics can convert normally overt information into a covert operation.
    Marketing now needs strategic information that is not always available. Perhaps we can help?

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  PO Box 87561
  2041 Republic of South Africa

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                  21
                                               An impression of the two carriers at sea

                     Two New Royal Navy Aircraft Carriers
                                                 Construction Begins

Construction has begun on the Royal             the Appledore shipyards in Devon.
Navy’s new aircraft carriers, their larg-       Each block will be transported to
est ever warships. The steel-cutting            Rosyth dockyard where they will be
ceremony took place at BVT Surface              joined together to form the hull of the
Fleet’s shipyard in Govan in July 2009.         ship.

The Queen Elizabeth (QE) Class car-             While the hull construction is just be-
riers, together with the Joint Strike           ginning, the project has moved on             Of course not! Then why
Fighter aircraft and the brand new Type         apace since the manufacture contract
                                                                                               not use
45 destroyers, will form the corner-            was signed in July last year, with £700-
stone of Britain’s future ability to jointly    million worth of sub-contracts placed          services when trying
project airpower worldwide from land            for the equipment and furnishings that        to impress your clients?
or sea at a time and place of the UK’s          will kit out the ships from the weapons    When it comes to specialised
choosing.                                       systems to the galleys and cabins.         design, layout and authoring of
                                                                                           technical or military magazine
The QE Class represent a step change            The United Kingdom’s industry has
in Defence’s capability, enabling Brit-         also benefited from the development        marketing material and manuals,
ain to deliver airpower from the sea            phase of the Joint Strike Fighter air-     call us for a consultation, without obli-
wherever and whenever it is required.           craft and is well placed to win further    gation, about your needs.
This strategic effect, influence and,           work as this programme progresses          Our many years of relevant
where necessary, direct action will give        well into the 21st century.                experience and pertinent skills are
an unprecedented range of options to                                                       at your disposal.
deal with the challenges of an uncer-
tain world at a time and place of one’s
choosing.                                                                                     Dick Walrond
                                                                                                 & Associates.       P.O. Box 14941
                                                                                                Lynn East 0039, Gauteng, South Africa
Three major sections (called lower                                                              Tel & Fax. +27 (0)12 800 2111
blocks) of the ship will be assembled                                                                Cell: 082 689 8632
at yards at Portsmouth and Rosyth.
Other fabrication work will be done at

22                                                                            African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                                     A fitted CROWS system.

                                 New Vehicle Weapon System
                                             Deployed in Afghanistan
                                               By Army Staff Sgt. Marcos Alices

As U.S. forces fight insurgents in the        Soldiers will receive a five-day course   the last day of training, soldiers will fire
southern and eastern regions of Af-           on the weapon system, including train-    ammunition.
ghanistan, officials are working to pro-      ing on day and night operations. On
tect them with new technology, equip-
ment and vehicles.
                                                         Australian Contacts Illustrate
One of the newest tools in their arse-
nal is the common remotely operated
                                                                    the State and Scale
weapon station II, known as CROWS                                of the Afghanistan Conflict
II, which enables soldiers to acquire
and engage targets from the safety of
                                              Australian force elements have re-        while travelling in a Bushmaster Pro-
their armoured vehicle.
                                              cently faced four road-side bomb at-      tected Mobility Vehicle. There were no
                                              tacks, resulting in three wounded sol-    casualties as a result of that incident
The weapon system uses improved
                                              diers and two damaged Bushmaster
optics to help with the positive identifi-
                                              Protected Mobility Vehicles.              In a third incident, during a foot patrol,
cation of targets, and offers another                                                   an IED was initiated near MRTF sol-
method for finding homemade bombs,            In the first incident at midday on Fri-   diers but without effect. There were no
he said. In addition, the CROWS’              day (7 August 2009), two Australian       injuries reported.
three-axis, stabilized mount contains         soldiers operating with the 2nd
a sensor suite and fire-control soft-         Mentoring and Reconstruction Task         On Saturday 8 August, a Bushmaster
ware, enabling soldiers to engage tar-        Force (MRTF-2) were wounded after         was travelling to the scene of an ear-
gets while on the move. The sensor            a Bushmaster Protected Mobility Ve-       lier incident and struck an IED. One
suite makes it possible to identify, en-      hicle struck an improvised explosive      soldier was wounded and has been
gage and defeat targets under any             device (IED).                             aero-medically evacuated to Tarin
condition with its daytime video cam-                                                   Kowt for further treatment. The
                                              In a separate incident, a 2nd Mentoring   wounds are not life-threatening. The
era, thermal camera and laser range-
                                              and Reconstruction Task Force vehi-       bomb badly damaged the vehicle.
                                              cle patrol struck an anti-personal mine

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                      23
                         The U.S. Navy’s 5 Fleet Mission            th

                             Iraq, Afghanistan and Indian Ocean

In the U.S. 5th Fleet Area of Respon-
sibility, more than 24,000 Sailors are
operating on the ground and at sea and
carrying out a full spectrum of missions
that support the U.S. maritime strat-

Approximately 10,000 Sailors are serv-
ing at sea aboard more than 30 U.S.
Navy, Coast Guard and fleet auxiliary
ships and conducting combat and
maritime security operations to forward
U.S. interests, deter and counter dis-
ruptive countries, defeat violent ex-
tremism and strengthen partner na-
tions’ maritime capabilities in order to
promote a secure maritime environ-

U.S. 5th Fleet is supporting both Op-
erations Enduring and Iraq Freedom
and helping to provide an opportunity
                                                    The carrier-borne air component of the US 5th Maritime Fleet.
for the governments of Iraq and Af-
                                                                            (Photo: U.S. Navy)
ghanistan to establish secure founda-
tions for democracy.
                                           In response to the increase in piracy        released, 235 were turned over for
More than 5,300 Sailors are serving in
                                           off the coast of Somalia, the U.S. Navy      prosecution.
Iraq and 3,100 Sailors in Afghanistan
                                           is leading a multinational effort to pa-
in riverine squadrons, explosive ord-
                                           trol the waters in the Gulf of Aden and      As part of Joint Task Force Crisis Re-
nance disposal platoons, Seabee na-
                                           off Somalia’s eastern coast.                 sponse (JTF-CR), the U.S. Navy is
val construction forces, provincial re-
                                                                                        also trained and prepared to respond
construction teams, Navy expedition-
                                           Established in January 2009, the             to any disaster or humanitarian con-
ary logistics support groups and as in-
                                           counterpiracy task force CTF 151 ac-         tingency in the region.
dividual augmentees.
                                           tively deters, disrupts and suppresses
                                           piracy in order to protect global mari-      In December 2004, U.S. and coalition
Currently operating in the Gulf of
                                           time security and secure freedom of          maritime forces were called on to sup-
Oman, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76)
                                           navigation for the benefit of all nations.   port tsunami relief efforts both within
and embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW)
                                           It operates in the Gulf of Aden and the      the region and outside after a cata-
14 are providing 30 percent of close
                                           eastern coast of Somalia, covering an        strophic tsunami struck parts of South-
air support for Coalition troops on the
                                           area of approximately 1.1 million            east Asia, Sri Lanka, India, Seychelles
ground in Afghanistan.
                                           square miles.                                and Somalia Dec. 26, 2004. Coalition
                                                                                        maritime assets were flexible enough
The U.S. Navy also leads the Com-
                                           Piracy impacts less than one percent         to continue the maritime operation mis-
bined Maritime Forces (CMF), a coali-
                                           of shipping with more than 33,000 ves-       sion while simultaneously equipped to
tion of 22 nations that conducts MSO
                                           sels transit the Gulf of Aden annually.      help deliver relief supplies, provide
throughout the region and are as-
                                           In 2009, there have been 136 at-             medical support and assist with clean-
signed to CMF’s three principle task
                                           tempted attacks - of which, 28 were          up efforts.
forces - Combined Task Forces (CTF)
                                           successful and 103 were unsuccess-
150, 151 and 52. CMF is committed to
defeating terrorism, preventing piracy,
reducing illegal trafficking of people
                                           CTF 151 and other cooperating naval
and drugs and promoting the maritime
                                           forces have encountered more than
environment as a safe place for mari-
                                           527 pirates; 282 were disarmed and
ners with legitimate business.

24                                                                        African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
         Barracuda Developments: Further Test Flights
EADS Defence & Security (DS) has            tions, which had so far only existed as     mature next-generation UAV prod-
successfully tested the unmanned            computer models, have now been suc-         ucts—either alone or in cooperation
flight system (UAV—Unmanned Aerial          cessfully tried and tested in flight on     with European partners. With this dem-
Vehicle) ‘Barracuda’                        the Barracuda. The flexibility of the       onstrator, EADS Defence & Security
                                            software and the modular capabilities       will gain practical experience in the
The new, successfully tested
                                            have also been enhanced. This makes         interoperability of unmanned systems
unmanned aerial system is a further
                                            the system even easier to adapt to a        within Network-Centric Operations
development of the first Barracuda
                                            wide range of UAV missions which will       conducted in line with the latest NATO
technology test bed which performed
                                            then be verified and validated using the    criteria and in autonomous operation
its maiden flight in April 2006. Since
                                            Barracuda built by EADS Defence &           involving interaction with other sys-
that time the software, systems and
                                            Security.                                   tems. This also makes it possible to
solutions for the methods and proc-
                                                                                        reduce any risks involved in develop-
esses carried out under the Agile UAV       Even if this new version of the UAV
                                                                                        ing the planned new UAV Talarion.
programme have been continuously            demonstrator is not destined for series
developed to form an integrated sys-        production, EADS will be able to gather
tem. The results of these modifica-         fundamental insights for operationally

                            Italy to protect Albanian Airspace

The Typhoons of the Gioia del Colle         The Italian Typhoons are the first          of the air policing role within the air
Air Base’s 36th Stormo of Italian Air       Eurofighters committed to the air po-       forces that operate the new-generation
Force have started their air policing       licing task for nations lacking any such    European aircraft. The Typhoon has
task over the Albanian air space as         capability as requested by NATO.            been designed from the beginning as
requested by NATO. This is not the first                                                a multi-role aircraft but with a specific
time that NATO members have taken           The air policing role includes the sur-     air superiority focus.
over air policing of other NATO mem-        veillance of the air space; the protec-
bers’ airspace.                             tion of borders and infrastructures; in-    The Eurofighter Typhoon is the best
                                            terception of aircraft flying without the   platform available in the six nations
Albania, as a new NATO member,              proper authorisation and the assist-        that have the aircraft in service for the
lacks any assets able to perform this       ance to aircraft with communication         air defence tasks.
task as its air force is only equipped      problems.
with helicopters and light aircraft which
support land forces, perform search         This new task confirms the capabili-
and rescue and civil protection roles.      ties of the Typhoon as the backbone

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                   25
                                       Parliamentary Report:
              An Insight as to the Application of Oversight
                                         By the Defence Committees
  The functions and authority of the Parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Defence and that of
  the Portfolio Committee on Defence, and the role they play within the defence structure are not
  clearly understood.

  In the parliamentary system, the final authority is parliament, as these extracts from the ‘minutes’ of
  the proceedings of the committees show; but the committees have to be fully informed to be able to
  execute their authority.

  These extracts will present a clearer picture of developments that are taking place within the South
  African National Defence Force, and the overview role of the committees.

                             Defence & Military Veterans Portfolio Committee
                                           Strategic Planning Workshop

Date of Meeting: 5 August 2009
Chairperson: Mr M Booi (ANC)

Documents handed out:
Parliamentary Committee on Defence & Military Veterans Draft Second Term Programme.
Department of Defence & Military Veterans 2009 Information Session.

Summary                                                            those for religious services. Questions were posed on the
                                                                   defence committee, how the programmes were structured,
The Acting Secretary for Defence briefed the Committee
                                                                   why Audit Services had been moved to the Defence Secre-
on the mandate, structure, planning cycle, policy and legis-
                                                                   tariat, how many members were deployed on peacekeep-
lation of the Department. Other Departmental officials then
                                                                   ing missions. Members then moved on to whether the De-
provided extensive briefings on the Department’s planning
                                                                   partment was ready to deal with the various issues allo-
Cycle, reporting timelines and accountability, the function
                                                                   cated to specific dates on the programme. There was an
of the quarterly reports and strategic business plans, and
                                                                   issue over the State of Readiness Report and an outstand-
the budgetary process. The Department also outlined what
                                                                   ing report from the National Conventional Arms Control
legislative issues were being worked upon at the moment.
                                                                   Committee (NCACC). It was clarified that the Department
Members questioned the timelines, when the Strategic Plan
                                                                   would only be able to brief the Committee on the state of
would be completed, when quarterly reports could be pre-
                                                                   readiness after briefing the Minister. Members noted that if
sented, and the process that had to be followed prior to
                                                                   the NCACC was not ready to report, then it must explain
submitting those reports to the Committee. They further
                                                                   the matter, but could not dictate the Committee programme.
questioned the role and structure of the Secretariat for
                                                                   Some changes to the programme were agreed upon.
Defence and Chief of the National Defence Force, and how
this compared to other countries’ systems, whether the sys-        Minutes:
tem was flexible enough to deal with change of policies,
such as that of inclusion of military veterans. A specific ques-   Mr D Maynier (DA) asked whether a system where the
tion was asked as to why the Chief of Defence Intelligence         Constitution required civilian supremacy, the Defence Sec-
had left the Department. The issue of the section to be es-        retariat should not be moved above the SA National De-
tablished for military veterans was examined, and ques-            fence Force (SANDF) in the structure, as both were level 1
tions were asked about the sub-programmes, particularly            entities. Mr Maynier asked further how this structure com-

26                                                                        African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
pared with other structures in democracies around the world.    Rev Tolo (COPE) asked how many persons in the armed
                                                                forces were participating in the defence and security struc-
Mr Motumi, Acting Secretary of Defence, replied that the        tures of the United Nations, African Union or SADC.
structure and offices of the Secretary for Defence and of
the Chief of the National Defence Force performed sepa-         Mr Motumi replied that he could safely say that 3,000 mem-
rate and distinct functions, but were complementary. The        bers of the SANDF were deployed in peace support opera-
legislation made it clear that the Secretary for Defence was    tions. The majority of the members were with the UN mis-
the head of the Department, and the Accounting Officer          sions, mainly in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in
and the Chief of the National Defence Force were the Com-       Sudan. There was also a large AU contingent in Burundi,
manders. This emphasis was often lost.                          which was going to come to an end quite soon.

Mr C Gololo (ANC) asked where issues of Procurement             The Chairperson said that the issue of Military Veterans
and Acquisition fitted into the organogram. He asked where      was proceeding very slowly, as the Department was not
the newly established section for Military Veterans would       offering much for military veterans. He asked where this
be located in the new different macro-organisational de-        was currently placed, in the organogram of the Department.
sign.                                                           He further noted that the Department needed to have a
                                                                more sensible approach, and needed to tell the Committee
Mr Motumi replied that an entity already 4existed for Mili-     exactly what it wanted to do.
tary Veterans. There used to be a small Directorate of Mili-
tary Veterans’ Affairs, which had been in existence for some    The Chairperson noted that the Department had stated it
time, and which took its mandate from the Military Veter-       was not ready to report on the matters scheduled for 11, 12
ans Affairs Act of 1999. that would form the nucleus for the    and 19 August. He commented that this was an important
successor entity. The Minister had set up a Task Team on        issue, as the Constitution required this Committee to find
Military Veterans, to look at implementation of a decision to   answers and be able to tell the public that its Defence Force
set up a Military Veterans entity. The Task Team was cur-       would be able to defend the country, yet the Department
rently headed by the Deputy Minister of Defence, and would      advised that it was unable to deal with the matter.
appear before the Portfolio Committee to report on this ini-
tiative.                                                        MR Maynier commented that the Committee should urgently
                                                                meet with the NCACC to get to the bottom of the matter.
The Chairperson asked what was implied by the National
Conventional Arms Control Amendment Act.                        The Chairperson said the Committee had already alerted
                                                                the public to the fact that it had not received the report on
Mr Motumi said that in terms of the defence commitment,         the NCACC and that there was not consistent reporting on
there were joint inter-departmental and multi-national ex-      this matter. The Committee Secretariat was in contact with
ercises that were required during the year, to prepare for      the NCACC to alert them to the Committee’s concerns about
operations. Mr Motumi explained that Air Defence capabili-      accounting to the public. This issue was on the agenda for
ties and Maritime Defence capabilities were also part of        2 September, so that a way could be found to organise the
the SANDF output. Military Health was a support capability.     agenda.
Defence Diplomacy included the deployment of Defence
Attachés. Participation in the defence and security struc-      The Chairperson said the NCACC matter would be put on
tures of the United Nations, the African Union and South-       the agenda for a meeting on 11 August.
ern African Development Community (SADC) were also key
to the output of the Department. The Department was also
involved in the provision of defence-related policy and min-                      Acknowledgements:
isterial advice, and was responsible for providing
cryptographic security services to the government.

The Chairperson said that the Committee now had a sense
of how the Department operated.

He said there had been a question whether the Depart-
ment was ready to deal with the ‘State of Readiness Brief-
ings’ as outlined in the Portfolio Committee programme
document. The Chairperson made reference to the Joint
Standing Committee (JSC) on Defence. The two Commit-
tees had been in existence together for years, but this ar-
rangement and questions would be dealt with by the JSC
on Defence.

African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                27
                                    Precision-guided Munitions
                                                 for BCT Commanders
                           By Major General (Retd) David C Ralston and Patrecia Slayden Hollis

The objective of the US military kinetic operations always has            Colonel David B Haight, commander of the 3d BCT, 10 Moun- th

been to defeat the enemy while minimising risks to friendly forces,       tain Division, recently deployed his brigade to Afghanistan. Be-
casualties among the innocent population, and undesired col-              fore he deployed, he ensured his fire battalion had the capability
lateral damage. Today, more than any era in the past, we have             to fire Excalibur. ‘In June 2008, I went to the Fires Conference at
technologies to achieve that objective across the spectrum of             Fort Sill and received a briefing on Excalibur’s global positioning
conflict. Even successful stability and nation-building operations        system accuracy. With Excalibur’s pinpoint accuracy, I can put
have brief spikes of intensity, calling for rapid, pinpoint lethality.    one round into the bad guys’ exact location and take them out
                                                                          while causing minimum collateral damage and safeguarding the
Force commanders require, and have asked for, precision indi-             Afghan populace. Excalibur was exactly what we needed.
rect-fire capabilities, and the field artillery is committed to pro-
viding these capabilities—tactical precision-guided (PGMs),               ‘We had identified an operational need for Excalibur, so we made
which allow commanders to turn defeat into victory, save lives,           the case for M777A2s in the brigade to fire the round—A777s
and minimise collateral damage.                                           are not organic to IBCTs [infantry BCTs]. FORSCOM [Force Com-
                                                                          mand] approved the request for the capability and resourced us
In his survey of corps, division and brigade combat team (BCT)
                                                                          with 12 M777 howitzers, which our 4-25 FAR [4 Battalion, 25
                                                                                                                             th               th

commanders, Major General Peter M Vangjel, chief of field artil-
                                                                          Field Artillery Regiment] quickly trained and certified on. The
lery and commanding general of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, reported
                                                                          M777 has the added advantage of being lighter than the M198
that manoeuvre commanders’ fire support priority was precision.      1

                                                                          and is very mobile; we can move it around the Afghan battle-
The field artillery has been working diligently to answer the call.
                                                                          field, sling-loaded under a helicopter to fire Excalibur.’
The commander of ground forces in the highly successful surge
in Iraq during 2007, then Lt General Raymond T Odierno, com-              Excalibur has become a joint and combined effort as both the
mander, Multinational Corps-Iraq (MNC-1) endorsed the effec-              US Marines and Canadians are using it in theatre.
tiveness of the relatively new 155mm Excalibur and guided mul-
tiple-launch rocket system (GMLRS) unitary PGMs, ‘ … they were            In September 2005, 3d Battalion, 13 Field Artillery FA), 214 FA
                                                                                                               th                        th

extremely effective. In fact, GMLRS and Excalibur were my bri-            Brigade, fired GMLRS in support of MNC-1 for the first time in
gade commanders’ weapons of choice.        '2                             combat during Operation Restoring Rights at Tal Afar and the
                                                                          next day during Operation Sayaidi in the Al Anbar Province. In
We have entered a remarkable era of all-weather, all-terrain pre-         Tal Afar, eight GMLRS destroyed two insurgent strongholds and
cision effects, available to manoeuvre commanders 24/7, with              killed forty-eight insurgents from 50 kilometres away. In the Al
Excalibur GMLRS unitary, and the near-future nonline-of-sight             Abnar Province, six rockets destroyed a bridge frequently used
launch system (NLOS-LS) precision attack missile (PAM), pro-              by insurgents.
jected to be fielded in FY12.
                                                                          Colonel Kenneth J Lull, former commander, 169 Fires Brigade,

Six Metres and Closing                                                    Colorado Army National Guard, and the Force FA Headquar-
                                                                          ters, MND-N, 25 Infantry Division, Iraq, reported experiences

Indirect-fire PGMs are proving to be more accurate than the 10
                                                                          with GMLRS during Operation Arrowhead Ripper. ‘We shot more
metres required of a PGM. Excalibur and GMLRS test results
                                                                          than 100 GMLRS in support of 3-2 SBCT [3d Stryker BCT, 2d
and combat records of their impacts catalogue their accuracy to
                                                                          Infantry Division, attached to the 25 Infantry Division] in a two-

within a six-metre radius of intended targets, bringing us closer
                                                                          to three-week period—a magnificent round.’
than ever to the ideal ‘one-round, one-hit’ capability.

As the enemy was being cleared out of Baghdad during the 2007             Aided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), combat observation
surge, many ran north to Baqubah in the Multinational Division-           lasing teams (COLTs), forward observers (FOs), joint terminal
North (MND-N) area of operation. Major Jack E Vantress, S3, 5        th   attack controllers (JTACs), and other detection assets, precision
Battalion, 20 Infantry (5-20 IN), the lead task force during Op-
              th                                                          strike suite-special operations forces (PSS-SOF) software can
eration Arrowhead Ripper in Baqubah, discusses in an e-mail,              be used to locate the target precisely enough to fire PGMs quickly.
on 17 December 2007, Excalibur’s precision and how the task               PSS-SOF has been incorporated into forward observer software
force achieved its desired effects on a two-storey building. ‘We          (FOS) and rapidly determines three-dimensional grid co-ordi-
fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy             nates accurately enough to employ PGMs against time-sensi-
was such that the second round entered the building at the same           tive targets (TSTs) or targets in support of troops in contact.
point of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired pen-
etration to the first floor.’                                             Major Vantress commented in an e-mail dated 17 December
                                                                          2008, on the impact PGMs and PSS-SOF had on his task force
Employed in conjunction with other joint firepower assets,                operations during Operation Arrowhead Ripper, ‘For both PGMs,
Excalibur gives the enemy no way out. In July 2007, two Excalibur         our biggest combat multiplier was PSS-SOF. Used in combina-
rounds were fired on a house containing top al-Qaeda leader,              tion with UAVs and FOS, we can cut down the delivery time im-
Abu Jurah, and fourteen other insurgents in Arab Jabour, south            mensely. We loaded PSS-SOF in all our fire support Stryker vari-
of Baghdad. An AH-64 Apache helicopter attacked a vehicle, and            ants to allow the forward fire support teams to quickly gain fidel-
as insurgents fled from the rubble, an F-16 dropped two 500-              ity from their observers. Simply put, GMLRS and Excalibur were
pound bombs to destroy a house three of the fleeing insurgents            our weapons of choice in the close urban fight. They saved count-
had entered. The enemy never had a chance.                                less lives … while allowing us to maintain the momentum.’

28                                                                                African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009   29
30   African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
This speaks not only to precision, but also to responsiveness.         December 2008, he describes his ability to shoot GMLRS faster
                                                                       than he could air-drop a bomb on HBIEDs, and the level of com-
Precision is the ‘coin of the realm’ at the BCT and below. With        fort they developed with GMLRS’ accuracy and effectiveness,
Excalibur organic to BCTs, PGM allows small unit commanders            ‘We were in the midst of clearing a neighbourhood when one of
to gain overmatch and a decisive advantage. In Operation Iraqi         my companies came upon a confirmed HBIED. I was on the
Freedom (OIF), MLRS or high-mobility artillery rocket system           ground with the company commander when he requested
(HIMARS) ‘packages’ have supported BCTs with GMLRS—also                GMLRS to attack the HBIED. Because there was direct fire con-
very responsively.                                                     tact with the enemy, and I was extremely confident in my com-
                                                                       manders and all my FSOs [fire support officers], I immediately
Minimum Collateral Damage                                              agreed to the request. After they called in the fire mission, I asked
                                                                       the company commander exactly where the target was—it was
Precision munitions mean more than just accuracy of impact             two houses to the west of the one we were standing in. The
and effects on the intended target; PGMs provide precise ef-           testament to GMLRS is that we called it in on a target 50-metres
fects with minimum collateral damage in the target areas. Com-         from our own location with great confidence.’
manders can safely employ Excalibur, GMLRS and beginning in
FY12, PAM, in appropriate circumstances. Close to troops in con-       The United Kingdom has modified twelve of its M270 MLRS
tact for immediate fire missions. These munitions reduce troop         launchers to employ GMLRS unitary in Afghanistan. In the past
standoff distances, giving commanders options such as enter-           year, the UK has fired more than 300 GMLRS rockets in Afghani-
ing a building to collect time-sensitive intelligence just seconds     stan with the same 98% reliability as US missions enjoy.
after the building is engaged.
                                                                       Coming Soon: Moving Target Attack
Colonel Lull, in an e-mail dated 8 November 2008, shares his
experiences with employing Excalibur in Iraq. ‘We fired 17                In 2012, PGMs will be organic to BCTs, which will add a long-
Excalibur rounds for the 3-2 SABCT when it cleared Baqubah of             needed capability, PAM, to attack moving targets—a global first.
insurgents in intense combat during Operation Arrowhead Rip-
per. In one mission, we fired Excalibur on a known enemy safe             This US Army-Navy all-terrain 24/7 missile has an effective range
house. Although it did not level the building, it killed everyone in      from 500 metres to 50 kms. Each of the fifteen missiles per PAM
the building without harming children who were playing outside            container-launch unit (CLU) has an explosive shaped-charge
in front of the house next door about thirty yards away. Excalibur        warhead for armoured targets with fragmentation for soft targets.
is an incredible round. I called MNC-I and
asked for every Excalibur round I could get
my hands on.’
                                                                ‘We fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy
                                                               ‘We fired two rounds nearly simultaneously … Excalibur’s accuracy
In his e-mail dated 16 December 2008,                           was such that the second round entered the building at the same point
                                                               was such that the second round entered the building at the same point
Brigadier General Stephen J Townsend,                           of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired penetration to the
                                                               of impact as the first, thereby achieving the desired penetration to the
commander, 3-2 SBCT, Operation Arrow-                           first floor.’
                                                               first floor.’
head Ripper, discusses employing GMLRS
to detonate improvised explosive devices
(IEDs) in Baqubah. The alternative was to
uncover and destroy the deep-buried IEDs
(DBIEDs or house-borne IEDs (HBIEDs) with
successive shots manually emplaced by an
explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team:
‘Our pre-assault intel proved quite accu-
rate—that we faced up to 175 DBIEDs and
also booby-trapped houses, or HBIEDS, in
Baqubah. By the time we were done, we had
recorded more than 200 emplaced IEDS in-
side the city and about forty-one rigged

‘We were desperate for a solution to the
problem of DBIEDs—al-Qaeda had dug in
an overlapping network of DBIEDS, the
equivalent of a deliberate interlocking mine-
field in depth. Bottom line: GMLRS worked
by neutralising known and suspected
DBIEDs and allowed us to maintain the mo-
mentum of our attack with minimum expo-
sure to our force and minimum collateral
damage to the Iraqi infrastructure.’

Colonel Bruce P Antonia, former com-
mander, Task Force (TF) 5-20 IN, and his
Sykes’ Regulars fought in Baqubah three
months before the remainder of 3-2 SBCT
joined them in June 2008 for the final as-
sault to clear the city. In an e-mail dated 17

 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                             31
PAM is designed to attack armoured and lightly designed mov-             Recently, an infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) fires battalion
ing and stationary vehicles, small boats, and some bunkers with          was tailored with attached M777A2s to provide a capability to
pinpoint accuracy. Causing minimum collateral damage, it can             deliver PGMs in Afghanistan. This organisation, for the first time,
be employed in urban/complex terrain less than 110-metres from           provides the IBCT commander with the ability to deliver preci-
friendly forces.                                                         sion munitions without waiting on an external asset to deliver
                                                                         long-range precision.
PAM’s dual-mode seeker, the semi-active laser and infrared heat
seeker, can be used separately or in unison for precision target         LTC Michael P Gabel, commander, 4-25 FAR, 10th Mountain Di-
engagement after its GPS navigation has guided the missile to            vision, deployed to Afghanistan in late 2008. In an e-mail dated
the target area.                                                         9 December 2008, he wrote about tailoring his field artillery bat-
                                                                         talion to OEF [Operation Enduring Freedom] VI and VII. It was
Networked and platform-independent, PAM is a smart missile. It           the first brigade in Afghanistan to have its rotation extended to
can acquire specific types of targets in flight and attack them,         sixteen months. The good news is we brought back a lot of les-
including moving targets. A missile flies along a non-ballistic route    sons; for example, the importance of range and firepower in that
to the target to avoid crowded airspace, receiving target location       mountainous terrain.
updates while in flight. Each missile transmits a picture of the
target back to the control cell just prior to impact.                    ‘During OEF VI and VII, the artillery had to fire its M119 [105mm]
                                                                         howitzers at high angle with maximum charge to get the range
NLOS-LS completed nine tests in 2008, which have demon-                  required by the terrain. So for our 2009 rotation, we requested
strated its design and performance parameters. During Novem-             and got twelve [155mm] M777A2s—not only to increase our
ber 2008, at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, PAM used             range and firepower, but also to improve our precision and limit
its digital SAL seeker to score a direct hit against a T-72 tank         collateral damage into urban operations with the Excalibur round.
from a range of nine kilometres; two days later, PAM demon-
strated its SAL and IR seekers for another direct hit on a T-72,         ‘We reorganised into a multi-capable battalion with twelve triple
this time from 19 kms away.                                              sevens and kept four M119s for air assault operations. (I turned
                                                                         HHB [headquarters battery] into a M119 platoon). We shot 15,000
The US Army is considering an air defence application for this
                                                                         rounds under this organisation in preparation for deployment. I
munition, which has tested very well. The variant would fill the
                                                                         think this multi-capable FA battalion organisation may be the way
requirement to destroy low- and slow-moving UAV and rotary
                                                                         to go—it gives manoeuvre commanders options. We’ll know
wing threats, protecting the future combat system (FCS) BCT,
                                                                         better after we have been in Afghanistan for awhile.’
the future brigade combat team (FBCT), during counterinsur-
gency operations. No current organic capability protects the bri-
                                                                         These PGMs are not only all-weather, but also all terrain; and
gade from these threats.
                                                                         effective in urban, complex, mountainous or open terrain. Be-
                                                                         cause of their near vertical angle of attack, these weapons
The Current Fight
                                                                         optimise lethality and minimise collateral damage. Reduced col-
These PGMs are designed to provide commanders the flexibility            lateral damage permits their use and ability to deliver the de-
to manage the precision effects to achieve desired results.              sired effect within the rules of engagement (RoE) in some of the
Excalibur has a 50-lb warhead and GMLRS unitary has a 200-lb             most complex terrain.
warhead, which can be employed against larger targets, yet both
can be employed in close support of friendly troops. Note: PAM           With Excalibur’s non-ballistic trajectory, it is not limited to clear
will have a 12-lb warhead and also be employable in close sup-           fields of fire or tied to gun-target lines—it can be fired up to 300
port of troops.                                                          millimetres off the line, and will manoeuvre to hit whatever target
                                                                         the manoeuvre commander wants to hit.
Indirect-fire PGMs allow commanders to attack an enemy mor-
tar crew setting up in downtown Kabul with Excalibur, producing          US Army and Air Force command systems can be automated to
minimum collateral damage or destroy a two-storey duplex with            deconflict airspace faster and more accurately than before. The
GMLRS unitary, leaving half the duplex standing. To increase             advanced FA tactical data system (AFATDS) now shares infor-
precision strike flexibility, the field artillery is developing ‘scal-   mation through the battlefield co-ordination detachment (BCD)
able lethality:’ a future GMLRS ‘dial-an-effect’ capability.             to Air Force systems to provide airspace information, enabling
                                                                         rapid co-ordination to deconflict flight routes in the vicinity of a
Commanders have the ability to fire Excalibur from as close as           PGM trajectory.
7.5 kms and GMLRS from as far away as 70-plus kms. The US
Marines in Iraq first gave GMLRS its now famous title ’70-               The lower the level of the tactical PGMs release authority, the
kilometer sniper rifle.’ With the fielding of PAM, the missile can       faster its fires are cleared. When clearance and control of
be fired from as close as 500- metres from its target.                   Excalibur is delegated down to the task force commander, ‘it is
                                                                         more responsive that CAS [close air support] or attack aviation,’
Enhancements to Excalibur in FY10 extend the round’s range to            states Lt Col Stephen J Maranian, in an e-mail dated 11 Novem-
35-kms on current firing platforms. When PAM comes into the              ber 2008, whose attached M777A2 battery (from 3d Battalion,
inventory in FY12, commanders will have the ability to precisely         321st FA, 18th Fires Brigade) fired Excalibur. Marianian com-
attack moving targets from 40 kms away.                                  manded 4th Battalion, 319th Airborne FA Regiment, 173d Airborne
                                                                         BCT (ABCT) Afghanistan, from the summer of 2007 until July
In the past two years, two operational needs statements from             2008.
US Central Command (CENTCOM) commanders called for a
120mm mortar PGM in theatre, another precision strike option             Colonel Charles A Preysler, recent commander of the 173d ABCT
to fill a gap. A mortar PGM would be highly mobile, organic to           in Afghanistan, said ‘Excalibur worked as advertised … Once
manoeuvre battalions (therefore responsive), and reduce the              we understood the time required to fire the round, it became
system-to-target range whilst still maintaining a maximum range          clear we needed to get permission and authorities down to the
that ensures munition versatility.                                       battalion level.’

 32                                                                               African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
                                                                                      M31 GMLRS unitary. Fires by the M270A1 MLRS
                                                                                      launcher and the M142 HIMARS, GMLRS unitary
                                                                                      has been highly successful in Iraq and Afghani-
                                                                                      stan. It has a 200-lb pre-formed fragmentation
                                                                                      warhead and a 1,000 IMU-guided, GPS-aided
                                                                                      GMLRS have been fired in Iraq and Afghanistan
                                                                                      since its initial limited 2005 fielding in Iraq. Many
                                                                                      of these rockets were fired safely with impact
                                                                                      within 200 metres of friendly troops.

                                                                                      Its original primary target sets are self-propelled
                                                                                      and towed howitzers, logistics sites, command
                                                                                      posts, and radars and other non-armoured tar-
                                                                                      gets. In CENTCOM, it has been employed effec-
                                                                                      tively in congested urban environments against
                                                                                      buildings or structures intersections, DEIEDs and

                                                                                      Commanders can fire up to six rockets (five-sec-
                                                                                      ond intervals) at six different aimpoints in the tar-
                                                                                      get area from MLRS or HIMARS. The launcher
                                                                                      parks, lays, aims and fires the rockets in as fast
                                                                                      as five-second salvoes, automatically program-
                                                                                      ming each rocket to its co-ordinate.

Because the risk of collateral damage associated with these           Other critical lessons, such as intelligence and precise target
PGMs is smaller, PGMs, such as Excalibur and GMLRS, allow             location, are paramount for employing PGMs effectively. Com-
the commander to delegate release authority for entire catego-        manders must have the intelligence that the target is high-payoff
ries of targets down the chain of command.                            and locate the target precisely or the PGM will attack a no-value
                                                                      target or the wrong location precisely. It is also important to know
For large-scale precision, US AIR Force PGMs are brought to           what Excalibur will and will not do—it will not level most build-
commanders by their FSO. In addition to the FA suite of PGMs,         ings, but can destroy rooms inside a building while causing very
commanders have the option to air-deliver PGMs, such as the           little collateral damage. This munition is effective against softer
small diameter bomb (SDB), with a 250-lb warhead, and the joint       targets.
direct attack munition (JDAM), with options for 500-, 1,000- and
2,000-pound warheads. These weapons are precise in their de-          Today, Excalibur and GMLRS provide BCT commanders all-
struction of larger infrastructures or concentrations of enemy        weather, day and night responsive, precision strike capabilities
forces. The only aerial-delivered munition that equals the limited    on planned and unplanned targets in all terrain—PGMs that are
collateral damage estimates (CDES) OFExcalibur, GMLRS uni-            organic to a brigade or readily available in the ground force. In
tary, or PAM as the Hellfire missile.                                 the near future, PAM will bring an additional precision strike ca-
                                                                      pability—attack moving targets—to the BCT. Together, they pro-
Excalibur Lessons Learned                                             vide commanders precision effects and range options and re-
                                                                      duce collateral damage and logistics burden.
While GMLRS has been in the inventory and well appreciated
for several years, Excalibur is relatively new and often unfamil-     The field artillery continues to work on future precision indirect
iar to BCT commanders. In his e-mail of 11 November 2008 LTC          fire as voiced by the current Chief of FA, Major General Vangjel,
Maranian further discusses several lessons he learned about           ‘As your fire supporters, we are totally committed to giving you
Excalibur in Afghanistan, which have been echoed by other FA          the precision strike capabilities you need—we won’t let you down.’
commanders, ‘We need to educate our manoeuvre counterparts
that Excalibur is not Copperhead. Copperhead has left some            Notes
‘scar tissue’ with manoeuvre battalion commanders from their          1 Maj-Gen Peter Vangjel ‘State of the Field Artillery 2007’; Fires. Sep-
days as company commanders as they remember the cumber-                 tember-December 2007, available online
some nature of that old PGM. Further, the default is that com-
                                                                      2 Interview with LTG Odierno ’2007 Surge of Ground Forces in Iraq –
manders want to fire two Excalibur rounds in case one fails.
                                                                        Risks, Challenges and Successes’; Fires, March-April 2008.
Needless to say, the task force FSOs and FSCOORDs [fire sup-
port coordinators] need to coach their manoeuvre commanders
that while there are times when more than one Excalibur should                              Reprinted from Armor
be employed to achieve the desired effects, the reliability of this                           March-April 2009
round far exceeds that of Copperhead, and we do not need to
default to firing more than one round. Our experience was that
Excalibur has an accuracy of within six metres of the target. With
the right target selection standards and delegation of release
authority to the task force level, Excalibur can provide reliable
first-round accuracy for troops in contact when collateral dam-
age must be minimised.’

 African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                              33
Letters on Defence subjects are most welcome, but it is necessary for the
authors to include their names and addresses, which will not be published
if so desired: The address for your letters is : P O Box 87561, Houghton,
2041, RSA; or e-Mail:

                    BLOEMFONTEIN            formative when it comes to defence            ing the longer Cape of Good Hope
Dear Sir                                    matters in the broader African context.       route far outweigh any intervention?
                                            I must however, take issue with afore-
Some months back, AAFJ published            said article as it deviates from recount-     Yours sincerely
a report that was prepared by a sen-        ing a military operation to editorialising    P. Carlos de Mateus
ior SA Army officer that threw some         about political matters which should          (Via e-mail)
light on the duties of the Army units       have no bearing on how professional
that are now serving in the Sudan; and      men-at-arms should conduct them-              Editor:
in another issue there was a report         selves.
                                                                                          Comment in the box should have
dealing with units from Pakistan also
                                            In my opinion, the writer’s adverse           made it clear to readers to place their
on duty in the Sudan.
                                            opinions on US president Obama’s              own interpretation on the report. To
South Africa has some thousands of          alleged actions during the crisis de-         have censored the article would have
troops away on duty in Africa, but there    mean the commitment and profes-               altered the context.
is little or no information about what      sionalism of all involved in the heroic
they are doing.                             deeds in the high seas off Somalia.
                                            For example, the writer does not pro-                                      DURBAN
AAFJ seems to be carrying more in-          vide any sources for his purported
formation about Afghanistan than            conversations between Obama and               Dear Sir
about the troops serving in many            his staff. More telling, is the reference
countries in Africa.                        to Obama as BHO, which, whilst ac-            It is understandable that the major
                                            curately depicting Obama’s full name,         changes taking place in the defence
These are members of the SA Army,           was used during the US election by            forces of the Nations of Europe are
and surely there should be informa-         the far-right to emphasize Obama’s            not dealt with in any detail; nor under-
tion of what they are doing.                so-called Islamic “real” nature. Equally      stood in this faraway part of the world.
                                            revealing is the reference to the US
Yours faithfully                                                                          However, the very detailed response
                                            military—an entirely voluntary force—
LJ Joubert                                                                                by Dr Mihal Atanisoara, the Romanian
                                            as “GW’s military”, which one as-
                                            sumes means George W Bush.                    Minister of Defence to the questions
                                                                                          posed provided an unusually clear in-
The information is just not available       Whilst one appreciates the contextual         sight into the approach and support
about the SANDF. We will be publish-        box that you placed next to the arti-         of the countries towards change.
ing an article about the Pakistan           cle, more effort should have been un-
                                            dertaken to alert your readers to the         These changes have apparently taken
Forces serving in the DRC.
                                            party-political shadings clouding the         time to implement, but from the an-
                         CAPE TOWN          article.                                      swers provided, a better overall de-
                                                                                          gree of co-operation, co-ordination
Dear Sir                                    These merely served to detract from           and the important result is that they
                                            what was an informative read.                 are working.
The article, “Real story of the rescue
from pirates of Captain of the Ala-         ps: Re the Somalia piracy issue: any          It is obvious that the large and smaller
bama” (May 2009) refers. Whilst I           light to shed on the persistent rumours       defence forces are working together
might not have any military experi-         that the SA Navy is not allowed to play       with good results and have been of
ence, I am an avid reader of your pub-      its part due to political calculations that   benefit to all the members of the three
lication as I find it one of the more in-   the economic benefits of shipping us-         relevant organisations.

34                                                                           African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
However, to the outsider, it is still a bit    fence Force and the questions that       items that cover the activities of the
confusing: how do NATO, the EU and             were answered by their Minister of       Romanian Defence Force and the in-
the Partnership for Peace work to-             Defence was, to my way of thinking,      terview with the Minister provides an
gether, and their exact roles, struc-          both informative and instructive.        opportunity to fully understand the
tures and functions. To the unin-                                                       approach of a member of NATO, the
formed, it would appear to provide an          In the very detailed answers to the      EU and PfP to defence subjects.
excellent opportunity for a bureau-            questions, the Minister has shown just
cratic nightmare!                              how the three main structures of the     Perhaps you could conduct a similar
                                               defence forces of the countries of       interview with another member of
Yours faithfully                               Europe function.                         these organisations?
DJ Willis
                                               Generally, there has been an under-      Yours faithfully
Editor                                         standing of how the long-established     R Hoffman
                                               NATO operates and the responsibility
There is opportunity for the Defence           of its members to the organisation.
Minister of another member of these
organisations to be interviewed. We            The Minister’s detailed response to
will try and address the points you            the questions relating to the Partner-
have raised.                                   ship for Peace and the European Un-
                                               ion provide both insight and under-
                             PRETORIA          standing of achievements, roles and
                                               functions of these organisations
Dear Sir                                       which, I am sure, will give your read-
                                               ers a better understanding of them.
The article which appeared in the last
issue of African Armed Forces Jour-            I have noted that in a number of re-
nal dealing with the Romanian De-              cent issues of AAFJ there have been

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African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                  35
Tony le Tissier’s                            Less known is the existence of the           Also of considerable interest, and new
      fills in a critical hole in English    armed units of the                           in English, is Le Tissier’s treatment of
language histories on the final days of      (RAD, Reich Labour Service), some            the combat and diversionary activities
World War Two on the Eastern Front.          four divisions at war’s end; the SA’s        of Soviet                     named for
                                             Army-sponsored                               General Walther von Seydlitz-
It is probably the definitive account of                                    Joseph        Kurzbach who surrendered to the So-
events in the Oder River valley be-          Goebbels’        Volkssturm,      the        viets at Stalingrad and afterwards be-
tween February and April 1945 and                            (Navy) improvised in-        came involved in the National Commit-
recounts the arrival of Soviet forces on     fantry and even the        Armoured          tee for a Free Germany, an anti-Nazi
the last natural barrier before Berlin       Reconnaissance Battalion of the Or-          propaganda organisation sponsored
and the desperate German effort to           ganisation Todt!                             by Soviet intelligence.
halt them there.
                                             Even more incredulously, Le Tissier          Goebbels made much of this group in
There is no shortage of English-lan-         notes that after the July 20, 1944 coup      his counterpropaganda and German
guage books on the Battle of Berlin that     attempt the Nazis were phasing in a          troops called all German-speaking in-
followed, including that by Anthony                        (lit: people’s defence)        filtrators by this name. There is still no
Beevor, Cornelius Ryan and John              “which were intended to form the nu-         authoritative text – in English, at least
Erickson. But they all gloss over the        cleus of a more politically reliable post-   – on the                     but the re-
Oder battles, treating it as mere cur-       war army.”                                   viewer suspects they were more likely
tain-raisers to the main event. But as                                                    to be drawn from the ranks of the vari-
Le Tissier writes this was mainly be-        This fine work, part of a part of            ous German settler communities in
cause the severely depleted Germans          quadrilogy, broadly divides into two         Russia, such as the “Volga Germans”
could not mass the men, equipment,           parts – efforts to contain Soviet bridge-    and the German communist commu-
ammunition and other supplies needed         heads across the Oder, notably at            nity in Moscow that fled into exile after
to mount an exhaustive defence.              Reitwein and Vogelsang; and the So-          the rise of the Nazis in 1933, of whom
                                             viet breakthrough battle of April 16 to
                                                                                          the later East German spymaster
Indeed, a constant refrain in this book,     19 . Both are amply illustrated with
                                                                                          Markus Wolf was a prime example.
amply illustrated by maps, was just          accurate small-scale maps, arguably
how improvised the German defences           the best the reviewer has encountered        While they often operated singly or in
were – and the extent to which the           to date.                                     small groups behind German lines,
competing Nazi overlords dissipated
the overall effort in their pursuit of own
fiefdoms within Hitler’s empire.

It is well known that by war’s end the
SS fielded close to 40 divisions in com-
petition with the    , the constitutional
                                             Is your
Army. Equally well-known is the exist-
ence of the Luftwaffe field formations,
some of high calibre but most so poorly
organised, trained and equipped for
land-warfare as to pose only a danger
                                             en                            nment
to their inmates and flanking forma-

 36                                                                         African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
disguised as German soldiers in the                ”. No two accounts seem to             has walked the battlefield. This is ob-
same way as SS Obersturm-                   agree on the composition, combat or           viously not always possible and the
bannführer Otto Skorzeny’s special          fate of this formation; or the                alternative is seeking out the works of
troops in the Ardennes in December          Müncheberg Panzer Division; or…               those who have, such as Le Tissier.
1944 (Unternehmen Greif), they clearly      or…
also operated as field units, a battal-
ion of these troops taking part in an       As perhaps one of the most recent
attack on Küstrin on March 9 as part        books to tackle this subject Le Tissier’s
of Colonel General Vassily Chuikov’s        order of battle carries the reviewer’s
8 Guards Army, the victors of
                                            vote. The author had access to all the
Stalingrad.                                 conflicting material and was otherwise
                                            well-qualified to sort wheat from chaff.
Should this be Le Tissier’s next assign-    A former military police lieutenant-colo-
ment?                                       nel, Le Tissier was British governor of
                                            Spandau Prison between 1981 and
Le Tissier also takes time to pick apart    1987 and has since conducted numer-
the origins and composition of the          ous battlefield tours over the terrain.
many scratch, alarm and            units
the German command had scratched            As someone who has done the same,
together, one example being the 32     nd
                                            the reviewer believes one cannot un-
SS Volunteer Grenadier Division “           derstand the totality of a battle until one

                        New Honorary Colonel for Regt RNT

Professor Vil-Nkomo received his in-
signia of rank during his induction cer-
emony as Honorary Colonel of the
Regiment Noord Transvaal. The induc-
tion of the Honorary Colonel was in-
cluded in a medal presentation by the
Regimental Commander, Lt Col m M
Roos. Colonel Prof. Vil-Nkomo stud-
ied at a number of universities in the
United States, and has the advantage
of being familiar with the US military
systems in place at American univer-
sities of the Reserve Officer training
programmes (ROTC) which provide
the majority of officers for the armed

Prof Vil-Nkomo has served as an ad-
viser to the World Bank, United Na-
tions Development Programme,
United Nations Educational Training         He was appointed in 2009 as adviser           ternational, and assists in fund-raising
Programme for Southern Africa, So-          to the Vice Chancellor and Principal of       activities while serving on the Execu-
cial Science Research Council,              the University of Pretoria, where he          tive.
Rockerfeller Foundation, and the gov-       deals with government and private
ernment of South Africa.                    sector relations, both national and in-

      African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009                                                                                 37

PARKING                                                    RESERVES INCREASING ROLE                                              Internationally, it is not the general prin-
                                                                                                                                 ciple to place the affairs and care of
For anyone visiting the SA Army head-                      Over the past few years the Pipe and
                                                                                                                                 veterans under the Department of De-
quarters, parking has never been easy                      Drum bands of the Reserve Force regi-
                                                                                                                                 fence; they either fall under a special
– but with the new arrangements, it is                     ments of the SA Army Infantry Forma-
even more of a problem. It could be a                      tion has expanded and these bands are                                 responsible authority, or the Depart-
function of the Headquarters Company                       in demand at military parades, as well                                ment of Pensions.
and if so, perhaps they could ensure                       as at national ceremonial events, such
there is always at least one Military                      as the opening of parliament, and the                                 The ISSUP paper provides interesting
Policeman on duty to assist visitors.                      national Ceremony of Remembrance.                                     reading.
                                                           They are also in demand internation-
                                                           ally as well as locally for public events,
                                                           such as tattoos.
NEW HONORARY COLONEL                                                                                                             RESERVE ADMIRAL IN COMMAND
The SA National Defence Force has                          The SA Army Infantry Formation is re-
recently appointed a number of Honor-                      ported to be proud of these achieve-                                  The combined task force of international
ary Colonels and has published a code                      ments and thanked the pipers and                                      navies that counter piracy off the coast
for their guidance.                                        drummers for their commitment to the                                  of Somalia and throughout the Gulf of
                                                           maintenance and development of these                                  Aden was returned to U.S. Rear Adm.
There are two aspects of the appoint-                      military traditions. The officers com-                                Scott Sanders assumed command of
ment of honorary ranks in the United                       manding of these units are also                                       Combined Task Force 151 aboard the
States that warrant attention: Honorary                    thanked for the support they give to                                  flagship USS Anzio. Sanders became
Colonels are appointed for a set time                      these bands.                                                          the first selective reserve admiral to
period. The other is the appointment of                                                                                          command a combined task force at
Honorary Warrant Officers.                                                                                                       sea.
                                                           VETERAN AFFAIRS
Often, RSM hold their posts for a
number of years to ensure their exper-                     While there appears to be differences
tise is not lost to the unit, blocking the                 of opinion regarding the support of mili-
coveted position. If this expertise can                    tary veterans, the responsibility for this
be retained in some form while at the                      was recently placed under the Defence
same time speeding up the opportunity                      Department Ministry. The University of
for promotion, there could be advan-                       Pretoria’s Institute for Strategic Stud-
tages, at the same time, the knowledge                     ies (ISSUP) has published a paper ti-
and expertise of the RSM would not be                      tled, Military Veterans Affairs in South
completely lost.                                           Africa.

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 38                                                                                                        African Armed Forces Journal - August 2009
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