everything you ever wanted to know by sdsdfqw21


									Sassda brochure.qxp                    2009/08/21      02:13 PM   Page 1

             you ever
             wanted to
             know ...

                     southern africa stainless steel
                       development association
Sassda brochure.qxp      2009/08/21     02:14 PM      Page 2


     the abc of stainless steel

     WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL                          and moisture. The rust, or iron oxide film, is     tures to maintain the strength.
                                                      active and accelerates corrosion by forming        • Where high strength over mass is required.
     The magic ingredient in stainless steel is the   more iron oxide. In contrast, stainless steel      • Where hygienic conditions and easy clean-
     chrome that’s added to it – chrome allows for    has chromium present which blocks corrosion        ibility is a priority.
     the formation of a tough, invisible, chromi-     or rust from spreading into the metal’s internal   • Stainless steel is preferred when aesthetics
     um oxide film on the steel surface which is      structure.                                         are important. It does not rust and paint is
     resistant to scratches and corrosion and is             Stainless steel’s resistance to staining,   therefore not necessary.
     exceptionally hygienic and easy to clean.        its low maintenance, low cost, and
            Stainless steel is commonly used in the   renowned shine make it perfect for a host          KEY CONSIDERATIONS
     manufacture of cutlery, pots and pans, but its   of applications.
     strength is also appreciated for the more                                                           Know the grade of material:
     industrial applications.                         WHEN TO CHOOSE STAINLESS STEEL                       Selecting the correct grade is vital as risk
            The largest consumer of stainless steel                                                      taking is costly.
     is the car manufacturing market for the          • Where quality with a timeless appeal is          Know the design:
     production of catalytic converters and           required.                                            Good design ensures savings for fabricator
     components. It is also used extensively in       • Cost savings over the longer term.               and user.
     architecture and design and can be found in      • In corrosive environments, such as on the        Know your surface finishes:
     a range of places from hospital bathrooms        coast.                                               Good finishes perform well and looks great.
     and surgeries to designer boardrooms and         • Environments with very low temperatures          Apply good housekeeping:
     homes.                                           to prevent brittleness.                              Proper care and maintenance, which is min-
            Carbon steel rusts when exposed to air    • Environments with extremely high tempera-        imal, will ensure timeless quality.
Sassda brochure.qxp         2009/08/21       02:14 PM       Page 3


     benefits of stainless
     The many unique values of stainless steel make it the best option for any project

     LONG TERM VALUE                                        CORROSION RESISTANCE                              HYGIENE

     When the total life cycle costs are considered,        Lower alloy grades resist corrosion in normal     Internationally recognised as the most hygien-
     stainless steel is often the least expensive option.   atmospheric and potable water environments,       ic surface for the preparation of food. The
                                                            while the more highly alloyed grades can resist   unique surface of stainless steel has no pores
     LOW MAINTENANCE COSTS                                  corrosion in many acids and alkaline solutions,   or cracks to harbour dirt, grime or bacteria.
                                                            and some chloride bearing environments,           This cleanability far exceeds other surfaces
     Stainless Steel normally only requires a               properties that are found in process plants.      making it the first choice for strict hygienic
     periodic wash using a dilute solution of house-                                                          conditions, such as hospitals, commercial
     hold detergent and water. Surfaces should be           STRENGTH                                          kitchens, abattoirs and other food and bever-
     washed with a soft sponge and water.                                                                     age processing plants.
                                                            The mechanical properties of stainless steel
     EASE OF FABRICATION                                    allows thinner sections to be used than with      AESTHETIC APPEARANCE
                                                            other materials, thus reducing weight without
     Modern steel manipulation techniques mean              compromising strength. Austenitic grades          The bright, easily maintained surface of stain-
     that stainless steel can be cut, welded, formed        harden with cold working and duplex steel         less steel provides an attractive and contempo-
     and fabricated as readily as traditional steel         allows for reduced thicknesses over traditional   rary appearance, ideal for a wide and growing
     and other materials.                                   grades. Costs are therefore reduced.              range of applications.
Sassda brochure.qxp      2009/08/21      02:15 PM      Page 4


     life cycle costing
     The correct choice of material can ensure peace of mind for a lifetime

     Stainless steel is typically selected over other
     materials because it is the most economical solution
     over time. Although it may be true that stainless
     steel is not often the most inexpensive price
     candidate, its durability and ease of maintenance
     compensate for the higher initial purchasing cost.
            This ability to provide long-term performance
     with a minimum of downtime and cost associated
     with maintenance is determined by calculating the
     material’s life cycle costing (LCC), which is of par-
     ticular importance to the stainless steel industry.
            LCC is a technique developed for identifying
     and quantifying all costs, initial and ongoing,
     associated with a project or installation over a
     given period.
            LCC uses the standard accountancy principle
     of discounted cash flow, so that total costs incurred
     during a lifecycle period are reduced to present day
     values. This allows a realistic comparison to be
     made of the options available. As far as material
     selection is concerned, LCC enables potential
     long-term benefits to be assessed against short-
     term expediency.
            Materials costs are assessed with their impli-
     cations, for example initial outlay, maintenance and
     its frequency, downtime effects, production losses,
     repair, replacement, and other operationally related
     costs such as manpower and energy consumption.
            The LCC model is more than a philosophy of
     forward-thinking. It has been refined to a detailed
     system of specific calculations; comprehensive LCC
     software is available to aid decision makers to
     compare accurate forecasts that have taken all the
     pertinent factors into consideration.
            In general terms the total LCC can be broken
     down into components:
            LCC = Acquisition Cost + Fabrication and
     Installation Cost + Maintenance Costs (periodic) +
     Replacement Costs (periodic) + Cost of Lost
     Production (periodic) – Residual (Scrap) Value.
            Each of these terms must be known if a
     realistic result is to be calculated.
            The environment and scope of usage, men-
     tioned earlier, are therefore crucial in determining
     the LCC benefits when choosing stainless steel.
Sassda brochure.qxp   2009/08/21      02:15 PM      Page 5


     stainless steel
                                                           & the environment

                                Green Tips: One of the most      With the onset of environmental awareness and the increased need to
                                carbon-emission and energy-      reduce carbon footprints, business and industry are looking for better
                           intensive processes in the average    ways to ensure their products are environmentally friendly.
                       house is heating water. Stainless steel           Stainless steel is a green product. It is 100% recyclable, as it is
                solar hot water systems can save you money       not coated with any toxic material it does not produce toxic run-off.
                      and lessen your environmental impact.      A huge difference can be made by companies and individuals by
                                                                 simply choosing stainless steel over non-recyclable materials.
                         Think about green tips for keeping
                                                                         During production, stainless steel uses scrap metal as its
                           your house cool through summer
                                                                 primary raw material, with up to 70% of the product coming from
                          and warm during winter. It can be
                                                                 recycled material. Increased efficiency in process technology has
                   as simple as the position of the windows
                                                                 also decreased the amount of energy required to manufacture
                 in your house or installing a wood burning
                          fireplace and planting some trees.     stainless steel.
                                                                         Even if stainless steel is not recycled and it does find its way to
                                 Light emitting diode (LED)      a landfill or disposal site, it will have no detrimental effect to the soil
                            technology has come a long way,      or groundwater.
                            becoming cheaper and even more               Stainless steel is the preferred material for green building
                efficient. LED may soon challenge compact        throughout the world. Its impact on the environment is minimal when
                      fluorescent lamps (CFL) as the leading     compared to other materials and its life impact reduces significantly
                        energy saving, green lighting choice.    as it is used and recycled..
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     Correct cleaning can ensure the lifespan of all your stainless steel possessions

     The stain resistance of stainless steel comes      cleaner (such as Handy Andy®) and fine syn-         Tea and coffee stains – Use a thin paste of
     from an extremely thin but tenacious and self-     thetic scourer may be used. Routine cleaning        washing soda (sodium carbonate) or fine
     repairing film that forms on the surface. This     over several days will generally remove heavy       household cleaners (such as Handy Andy®,
     film also ensures non-tainting of food,            soiling and staining rather than a single           Vim® or Ajax®) made with hot water, on a
     hygiene, cleanability and the aesthetic            aggressive cleaning. Do not use course              synthetic scourer. Follow with routine cleaning.
     appearance that make stainless steel the ideal     abrasive powders, metallic scourers or silver       Finger prints – Pre-treat marks with alcohol or
     choice for many household products.                or brass cleaners.                                  organic solvent. Follow with routine cleaning.
     Stainless steel is unaffected by the normal                                                            Grease, fats and oils – Wipe off excess with
     conditions of household use. Routine gentle        PROBLEM CLEANING                                    soft paper towel. Pre-soak in warm detergent.
     cleaning will ensure a flawless appearance for                                                         Follow with routine cleaning.
     many years despite constant daily use.             Removing labels – Soak in a hot soapy solu-         Water marks or lime scale – Soak for a pro-
                                                        tion and rub with a cloth or sponge. If label       longed time in a 25% vinegar solution to
     ROUTINE CLEANING                                   remains, remove with a soft cloth soaked in         loosen the deposit. Continue cleaning as for
                                                        alcohol (methylated spirits) or organic solvent     food stains.
     The best way to clean stainless steel is simply    (benzene). Follow with routing cleaning.            Chemicals – For chemicals such as swimming
     to use a soap or mild detergent (such as           Food or burnt food stains – Use a mild house-       pool acid (hydrochloric), battery acid (sul-
     Sunlight Liquid®) in warm water, applied with      hold cleaner. If heavily stained, pre-soak in hot   phuric), tile cleaners (hydrochloric acid) and
     a soft cloth or synthetic sponge. Rinse with hot   soapy water. Use a synthetic scourer with fine      undiluted bleach rinse immediately with large
     water and dry with a soft cloth or allow to drip   abrasive cleaners (such as Vim®). Repeat if         volumes of water. If damage has occurred
     dry. Occasionally, the use of a mild household     necessary. Follow with routine cleaning.            contact Sassda.
Sassda brochure.qxp    2009/08/21   02:16 PM    Page 7


     Stainless Steel finishes provide a beautiful look and feel as well as increased longevity

                                                                                          There are many finishing techniques that can
                                                                                          be applied to stainless steel – mill, brushed,
                                                                                          patterned, bead blasted, electropolished,
                                                                                          coloured and decorative.
                                                                                                 Surface finish is an important factor and
                                                                                          for those applications where appearance is
                                                                                          important, finish is a design element and must
                                                                                          be specified.
                                                                                                 Finishes are applied for aesthetic and
                                                                                          functional reasons like wear and tear.
                                                                                          However, the scratch resistance, appearance,
                                                                                          and colour stability of these processes varies
                                                                                          considerably and should be taken into consid-
                                                                                          eration during selection. Some of these
                                                                                          processes improve corrosion resistance, but
                                                                                          this should not be considered a substitute for
                                                                                          selecting an appropriate grade of stainless steel
                                                                                          for the environment.
                                                                                                 Standard finishes are produced on an
                                                                                          on-going basis. They are generally available
                                                                                          off the shelf or can be obtained with a short
                                                                                          lead-time. They are the finishes that are used
                                                                                          for most stainless steel applications.
                                                                                                 Standard finishes are categorised as
                                                                                          either “Mill” or “Polished”.
                                                                                                 Mill finishes are the least expensive fin-
                                                                                          ish option. There are both hot- and cold-rolled
                                                                                          mill finishes, and, as this description implies,
                                                                                          their appearance is produced at least in part by
                                                                                          passing the stainless steel through special rolls
                                                                                          or dies. The reflectivity of these finishes varies
                                                                                          from dull to mirror-like.
                                                                                                 Polished finishes are produced by
                                                                                          mechanically abrading the surface with a
                                                                                          series of gradually finer abrasives or a spe-
                                                                                          cial rolling procedure that simulates the
                                                                                          appearance of mechanical abrasion. The
                                                                                          smoothest polished finishes are buffed after
                                                                                          mechanical polishing to produce a mirror-
                                                                                          like appearance.
                                                                                                 Special finishes include finishes that are
                                                                                          generally used when aesthetic appearance is
                                                                                          important. This category includes non-direc-
                                                                                          tional scratch patterns, swirls, ground circles,
                                                                                          embossed and coined textures, and various
                                                                                          colouring and coating methods.
                                                                                                 Contact a finishes specialist for your
                                                                                          particular requirements.
Sassda brochure.qxp       2009/08/21       02:18 PM      Page 8


     stainless steel advice
                                                          & technical support


     The Southern African Stainless Steel                results used to determine the content of techni-
     Development Association (Sassda) is an              cal seminars. These seminars cover different
     industry organisation that provides a platform      aspects of stainless steel fabrication, conversion
     for the members of Sassda to collectively           and use and frequently incorporate papers by
     promote growth and development of Stainless         local and internationally acknowledged experts.
     Steel converted in South Africa.                           Sassda provides monthly basic and
            The association offers a comprehensive       advanced stainless steel courses for any                   STAINLESS STEEL
     advice service that covers all aspects of the       interested parties.
     stainless steel industry including fabrication,            For more information please contact
     material selection, material and product            us at 0861 SASSDA (727732) or visit                  The Cross and Balls is the stainless steel
     sourcing, properties, corrosion resistance,         www.sassda.co.za.                                    trademark and a symbol of quality. You
     design advice, material identification and                                                               can be assured that any product bearing
     failure analysis.                                                                                        the mark may be held to the highest
            This is supported by a technical
     reference library containing reports and articles
     on corrosion resisting alloys. All technical
                                                               southern africa stainless steel
                                                                                                              international product standards.

     enquiries are logged and analysed and the                   development association

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