Warm-Ups

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					Warm-Ups

Introduction                             Warming-up

It is important that young people        There are three different types of warm-up activities in this section:
come to understand the importance           Mobility Activities
of warming-up before and cooling
                                            These are activities that mobilise the joints that students are going to
down after activity so that they
                                            use during the lesson in order to avoid injury. Some of them are
maintain good practice throughout
                                            compound activities that mobilise whilst gently raising the heart rate.
their sporting lives.
                                            Pulse-Raisers
In this section you will find a series
                                            These activities are designed to gradually increase the heart rate
of warm-up and cool down activities
                                            of the students and to warm up the large muscle groups.
that have been designed to deliver
to your class prior to and following        Dynamic Stretching Activities
any athletics lesson. In addition           These activities consist of controlled movement of parts of the
there are some specific warm-ups in         body, gradually increasing reach and speed until the limit of the
the introductory sections.                  participant’s range of motion is attained.
All of the warm-up activities are           Dynamic stretches require skill and control and should only be
appropriate for students between            attempted by more able students and under close supervision.
the ages of 11 and 16 and for               A large number of students are unable to perform dynamic
indoor or outdoor settings.                 stretches under control with good technique and through a full
                                            range of movement, therefore static stretches will probably
                                            still be needed to be performed in order to ensure they have
                                            stretched effectively. You should base the decision whether
                                            to stretch dynamically or not on the individual ability of the
                                            students. It is assumed at this level that students know how
                                            to carry out the basic static stretches.
                                         It is recommended both for safety and in order to perform the optimum
                                         warm up, that your students start with a mobility activity, progress
                                         through to a pulse-raising activity and then finish with static and if
                                         they are sufficiently able, dynamic stretches.


                                         Cooling down

                                         It is equally important that students cool down at the end of a session.
                                         It is recommended that students lower their pulse rate gradually to
                                         the pre-activity rate and then stretch. Mobility activities are not necessary.
                                         Walking is the best way of slowing down the pulse rate. You might
                                         like to simply ask the class to form a circle and jog for a minute,
                                         progressively reducing speed and then walking for one minute before
                                         performing some stretches. The Pulse-Raiser activities can also be
                                         used for cooling down but they should be implemented inversely.
                                         For example, with Pulse-Raiser – “Sideways Shift”, ask students
                                         to start with a skip and to gradually slow down to a walking pace.
                                         When cooling down, intersperse static stretches with walking.
                                         You can even stretch the upper body whilst walking. This will ensure
                                         that the participants do not cool down too quickly. A full body stretch
                                         is recommended regardless of the athletic activity that has been
                                         participated in. Dynamic stretches are not appropriate for cooling down.
Warm-Ups
Mobility Activities
It should be made clear to students that these activities should be done in a controlled way with no swift movements.


Mobility Activity 1                   Neck and Shoulders

   Ask students to march on the spot.
   Ask them to tilt their head slightly forward and then move their head slowly from
   side to side in front of the body.
   They should never move their head forwards and backwards.
   Repeat this three times.
   Then ask them to make a small forward circle with both shoulders at the same time.
   Repeat this in a backwards direction.
   Repeat in both directions three times.
   Ensure that movement is carried out in an extremely controlled manner.


Mobility Activity 2                   Head, Arms and Trunk

   Ask students to march on the spot.
   Students should place their hands and arms out to the front so they are
   at shoulder level, palms facing downwards.
   Students should turn their head, arms and shoulders round to the left as far
   as they will go taking the right arm across the chest, then change direction.
   Hips should be kept facing forwards throughout.
   Repeat three times on each side.


Mobility Activity 3                   Ankles

   Ask students to stand on one leg with one hand against a wall or on a partner’s
   shoulder and lift the other leg off the ground with a bent knee.
   They should extend and flex the foot on the raised leg, then turn it from left to right.
   Repeat three times and then swap legs.


Mobility Activity 4                   Knees

   Ask students to bring the heel of one leg up behind them until it is touching
   their bottom.
   Encourage them to support the ankle joint with their free hand if necessary.
   Slowly lower the foot back down to the floor.
   The back should be kept straight throughout.
   Repeat three times then swap legs.


Mobility Activity 5                   Hips

   Ask students to stand with their knees, hips and ankles in alignment and hands
   resting either on a partner’s shoulder or against a wall.
   Students should slowly raise one knee so that the thigh is at a 90º angle to their
   torso, take it out to the side as far as they can and then back down to the floor.
   Repeat three times then swap legs.
Warm-Ups
Pulse-Raisers
Emphasise to students that it is important to start slowly and to gradually increase the pace.


Pulse-Raiser 1              Jogging by Numbers

   Ask students to jog around the activity area.
                                                                 Differentiation
   When you call out a number between one and
   seven, students must form groups of this number as                Wheelchair users can vary their means of travel
   soon as possible.                                                 by weaving or travelling backwards.
   Once groups have been formed, students must start                 Visually impaired students might like to work
   jogging again until another number is called.                     with a sighted partner.
   Ask students to rotate their shoulders forwards and
   backwards during certain periods of jogging.
   Students can be asked to travel in different ways,
   skipping or hopping for example.


Pulse-Raiser 2                On the Spot Jog

   Instruct students to run on the spot on the balls of
                                                                 Differentiation
   their feet as quickly as they can.
   At your instruction they should jog in one of the                 This can be adapted for wheelchair users with
   following ways:                                                   the activity focus remaining on maximising
   - pumping their arms at the same time                             pushing action with their hands.
   - kicking their heels up as close to their bottoms                Students who are unable to pump their arms
     as possible                                                     can alter the manner in which they jog, taking
   - bringing their knees up in front of them as high                their feet further apart and closer together
     as possible                                                     alternately for example.
   - concentrating solely on moving their feet as
     quickly as possible – with minimal arm
     movement and knee lift.



Pulse-Raiser 3                Elbow to Knee

   Ask students to find their own space and to stand
                                                                 Differentiation
   with their hands on their heads.
   Instruct them to bring their right elbow and their                Wheelchair users can bend their trunk forward
   left knee together, keeping their hands on their                  so that their elbow is brought to their knee.
   heads at all times.
                                                                     Students can perform this activity seated if they
   They should raise their leg slightly but also bend                have difficulty in maintaining balance.
   their trunk forward so that the two meet at about
   hip-height.
   They should then change legs.
   Instruct the student to repeat this several times
   increasing speed steadily.
Warm-Ups
Pulse-Raisers
Emphasise to students that it is important to start slowly and to gradually increase the pace.


Pulse-Raiser 4                Twisting Bounce

   Ask students to stand in a space with their feet together.      As they jack their knees should be in line with their
   At your instruction they should begin to bounce low             toes, their toes should be turned out.
   on the spot.                                                    Knees should bend on landing and land placing the
   Bounce on the spot twenty times.                                whole foot on the floor.

   At your instruction they should bounce their legs to
   the right and their arms to the left across their body.       Differentiation
   The next bounce should take their arms and legs in                Wheelchair users should complete the twist with
   the opposite direction to where they were the bounce              their upper bodies.
   before.
                                                                     Students who have coordination problems should
   After this motion has been repeated several times,                be allowed to perform the activity at a lower
   instruct students to add in a jumping jack after every            rate of intensity.
   two bounces.


Pulse-Raiser 5                Line Dancing

   Ask students to stand side by side in lines.                    March on the spot for a count of five.
   At your instruction take them through the                       Two turns to the left followed by two turns to
   following routine. They should try to execute it in             the right.
   unison. Try to keep the transition between each
   movement fluid so that a routine is formed.                   Differentiation
   Two steps forwards followed by two steps back.
   Repeat five times.                                                Wheelchair users can move themselves forwards
                                                                     and backwards and weave instead of side-shifting.
   Side shift left two steps, side shift back two steps.
   Repeat five times.                                                You may need to practice each component in
                                                                     isolation prior to completing the routine.
   Side shift right two steps, side shift back two steps.
   Repeat five times.                                                Ask students to establish their own routine.
   Hop on the right leg for a count of five, hop on the
   left leg for a count of five.


Pulse-Raiser 6                Circle Run

   Split the class into three or four groups.                      Whichever one does not arrive first to fill the gap
   Each group should stand in a circle facing inwards              is the next runner.
   except for a nominated runner.
                                                                 Differentiation
   All group members should march on the spot.
   The runner should walk round the outside of the                   Alternate the movement style used.
   circle, and at any time he or she can touch another
                                                                     Visually impaired students may need to run with
   student on the back. When this happens, he or she and
                                                                     the person standing to the right of them in the
   the student touched, run round the circle in opposite
                                                                     circle.
   directions to try and reach the gap in the circle first.
Warm-Ups
Dynamic Stretching Activities
Dynamic stretches over-ride the stretch reflex within the muscle. The stretch reflex is the body’s self defence
mechanism to ensure that muscles are not pulled or wrenched. If carried out correctly, dynamic stretches are
safe and will result in a greater range of motion.


Dynamic Stretch 1                  Arm Swing

Muscle groups: pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi

   Students should stand with knees slightly bent and
   back straight.
   Ask them to swing both arms up above the head
   and back down behind the body. Repeat five times.
   Students should then swing both arms out to the
   sides and then swing them back in, crossing them
   in front of the chest. Repeat five times.




Dynamic Stretch 2                  Squats

Muscle groups: gluteals, hip flexors, calves

   Students should stand with their hands out in front for
   balance, looking straight ahead.
   They should bend at the knees until thighs are parallel with
   the floor (90º angle).
   Once students reach the 90º position they should fully
   straighten legs in a slow controlled motion
   to return to starting position.
   The back should be kept straight.
   They should breathe in as they descend, and out as they rise.


Dynamic Stretch 3                  Lunges

Muscle groups: abdominals, hip flexors, gluteals, calves

   Students stand with both feet together and their
   back straight.
   Ask them to lunge forward with the right leg.
   Their right thigh should be parallel to the ground,
   (90º angle of the knee) and the right lower
   leg vertical.
   Students should spring back to the starting
   position then repeat with the left leg.
   Repeat ten times on each leg.
Warm-Ups
Dynamic Stretching Activities
Dynamic Stretch 4                 Clawbacks

Muscle groups: gluteals, hip flexors, quadriceps, hamstrings

  Students should stand with both feet together and
  their back straight.
  Ask them to kick their right leg forward high and
  then extend the lower limb.
  Bring the leg back down, as though clawing against
  the floor.
  Swap legs.
  Repeat ten times on each leg.




Dynamic Stretch 5                 Upper Body

Muscle groups: hip flexors, hamstrings, obliques

  Ask students to find a partner.
  Ask them to start back to back, standing with
  their back relaxed.
  Students should stand tall with their hands above
  their head and touching their partner’s hands.
  Then ask them to bend at the hips taking their trunk
  and both arms down and touch their partner’s hands
  between the legs.
  Pairs should straighten up back to the starting
  position.
  Repeat five times then change sides.

				
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