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					Jana M. Thomas Coffman, MS.Ed.
       Missouri State University
  Dr. Doug D. Thomas, Ed.D.
     University of Central Missouri
   Increasingly global economy
   Multiculturalism and multilingualism valued
    by employers
   European schools hire native English speakers
     Cultural exchange
     Conversational skills
     Native accents and fluency
   Mutually beneficial relationship
       Cultural and linguistic exchange for
        students/teachers
       Professional development for teachers
BENEFITS FOR                 BENEFITS FOR UNITED
EUROPEAN STUDENTS            STATES TEACHERS
   Native speaker support      Experience another
   Authentic lessons            culture
   Cultural awareness          Travel opportunities
   Exposure to native          Learn a new language
    accents                     High living standards
   Practice with fluency       Social services
   Improved English            Good benefits
    language skills             Lighter workloads
SOME EXAMPLES

   Hungary                 Federal grant (1 year)
   Germany                 Paid flights
   Private schools in      Paid flights and housing
    Eastern Europe
   France       Open to U.S. citizens and others
   Spain        Open to UK and U.S. citizens
   Italy        Open to UK citizens only
   Germany      Open to UK and Canadian citizens only
   Austria      Open to UK and U.S. citizens
   Belgium      Open to UK citizens only
United States
United Kingdom
Canada
Australia
Other
               France   Spain   Italy   UK
Monthly        €900     €700    €850    €1042
Stipend
(in Euros)
Monthly        $1115    $867    $1053   $1271
Stipend
(in dollars)
EUROPE                         UNITED STATES

   Obtaining visa difficult      Financial difficulties
    for non-EU citizens             69% decline in study
                                     abroad programs
   Many teaching                   ↑ travel and living costs
    programs not open to          Travel uncommon
    U.S. citizens                   1% study abroad
                                    20% hold a passport
                                  Monolingualism
                                    9% enrolled in foreign
                                     language
                                    38% ↓ interest in learning
    Data Collection
     Interviews            Participants
                             Three women
     Questionnaires
                                ESL college professor
                                Eng/Spn high school
                                   teacher
                                French student

Findings                     Three locations
                                France (Savoire), 2006
   Strengths of existing
                                France (Angoulême),
    programs                       2008
   Weaknesses of                 Hungary, 1999
    existing programs
   Recommendations
                                             Stipends
       Mentors                                   Always
            English-speaking
                                                   included
            Help getting                         Some very
             settled                               generous
            Introduction to
             the school


                                   Holidays and
                                    Vacations
   Benefits                               Generous
       Medical                             compared to U.S.
                                            standards
       Insurance
                                           Paid holidays
       Social security
   Organization                          Stipends
       Poor communication                     Inconsistent
       No pre-trip information                Some high,
       No housing assistance                   some very low


   Expectations                         Cultural Integration
       Inconsistent                         Not provided
       Not clearly                          Cause of early
        communicated                          repatriation



   Publicity                            Funding
        Little known in U.S.                Travel costs
        Needs more                          Spousal and familial
         publicity                            support
                                             Housing assistance
Recommendations for European Countries:
  Provide funding for teacher salaries and benefits, as well as for
   extended publicity in the United States.
  Make it easier to obtain visa for non-EU citizens.
  Attract teachers with benefits, such as included flights, spousal
   and family support, housing, benefits, insurance, and medical
   benefits.
  Create positions that are better organized and have clearer
   expectations for teachers.
  Include or increase monthly stipends to equal costs of living in the
   host country.
  Provide expatriates with an English-speaking mentor.
  Provide cultural integration and support before and after teachers
   arrive.
  Program application, acceptance, participation, and
   implementation procedures should be highly organized,
   communicated well, and effectively implemented.
Recommendations for United States:

   Require study/teach abroad for university students
    majoring in foreign languages.
   Provide funding and grants to support aspiring English
    teachers considering a teaching aboard opportunity in
    Europe.
   Encourage cultural awareness, foreign travel, and foreign
    residency opportunities.
   Encourage more Americans to hold an active passport.
    Make language skills a priority in American K-12 schools
    and universities.
   Require foreign embassies hiring American teachers abroad
    to provide cultural integration materials and support.
   Create foreign language assistantship programs to bring
    native foreign language speakers into American classrooms.
   Provide more publicity for opportunities for Americans to
    travel and live abroad, including posts as English teachers
    or English language assistants.
   British Learning Council (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2010, from Google.
   English Language (2010, July 10). Retrieved July 11, 2010
   Garson, B. “Teaching abroad: A cross-cultural journey.” Journal of
    Education for Business. 80.6 (2005)322-326.
   Jenne, E. K. “Preparing for a career in Europe: The perspective of a North
    American.” European Political Science. 8(2009)168-174. Nylander, L. (n.d.).
    English Language Assistans Abroad.
    http://www.transitionsabroad.com/listings/work/esl/articles/teaching
    -english-in-spain-language-assistant.shtml. Retrieved June 8, 2010
   Lublin, J. S. Companies use cross-cultural training to help their employees adjust
    abroad. (1992, August 4). Wall Street Journal, B1-B6.
   Scweitert, J. “One percent of American students study abroad.” Matador
    network (2005, May 15). Retrieved June 25, 2010.
   Study Abroad? College Students Rethink the Idea (2010, November 19).
    Retrieved June 21, 2010
   Uhlfelder, S. Sending students overseas is ticket to better image. Tampa
    Bay.com (2007, March 31). Retrieved June 25, 2010.
   Williams, H. More college students study abroad, grow at home. Oregon
    Live.com (2009, April 2). Retrieved June 25, 2010.

				
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