Jana M. Thomas Coffman, MS.Ed. Missouri State University Dr. Doug D. Thomas, Ed.D. University of Central Missouri Increasingly global economy Multiculturalism and multilingualism valued by employers European schools hire native English speakers Cultural exchange Conversational skills Native accents and fluency Mutually beneficial relationship Cultural and linguistic exchange for students/teachers Professional development for teachers BENEFITS FOR BENEFITS FOR UNITED EUROPEAN STUDENTS STATES TEACHERS Native speaker support Experience another Authentic lessons culture Cultural awareness Travel opportunities Exposure to native Learn a new language accents High living standards Practice with fluency Social services Improved English Good benefits language skills Lighter workloads SOME EXAMPLES Hungary Federal grant (1 year) Germany Paid flights Private schools in Paid flights and housing Eastern Europe France Open to U.S. citizens and others Spain Open to UK and U.S. citizens Italy Open to UK citizens only Germany Open to UK and Canadian citizens only Austria Open to UK and U.S. citizens Belgium Open to UK citizens only United States United Kingdom Canada Australia Other France Spain Italy UK Monthly €900 €700 €850 €1042 Stipend (in Euros) Monthly $1115 $867 $1053 $1271 Stipend (in dollars) EUROPE UNITED STATES Obtaining visa difficult Financial difficulties for non-EU citizens 69% decline in study abroad programs Many teaching ↑ travel and living costs programs not open to Travel uncommon U.S. citizens 1% study abroad 20% hold a passport Monolingualism 9% enrolled in foreign language 38% ↓ interest in learning Data Collection Interviews Participants Three women Questionnaires ESL college professor Eng/Spn high school teacher French student Findings Three locations France (Savoire), 2006 Strengths of existing France (Angoulême), programs 2008 Weaknesses of Hungary, 1999 existing programs Recommendations Stipends Mentors Always English-speaking included Help getting Some very settled generous Introduction to the school Holidays and Vacations Benefits Generous Medical compared to U.S. standards Insurance Paid holidays Social security Organization Stipends Poor communication Inconsistent No pre-trip information Some high, No housing assistance some very low Expectations Cultural Integration Inconsistent Not provided Not clearly Cause of early communicated repatriation Publicity Funding Little known in U.S. Travel costs Needs more Spousal and familial publicity support Housing assistance Recommendations for European Countries: Provide funding for teacher salaries and benefits, as well as for extended publicity in the United States. Make it easier to obtain visa for non-EU citizens. Attract teachers with benefits, such as included flights, spousal and family support, housing, benefits, insurance, and medical benefits. Create positions that are better organized and have clearer expectations for teachers. Include or increase monthly stipends to equal costs of living in the host country. Provide expatriates with an English-speaking mentor. Provide cultural integration and support before and after teachers arrive. Program application, acceptance, participation, and implementation procedures should be highly organized, communicated well, and effectively implemented. Recommendations for United States: Require study/teach abroad for university students majoring in foreign languages. Provide funding and grants to support aspiring English teachers considering a teaching aboard opportunity in Europe. Encourage cultural awareness, foreign travel, and foreign residency opportunities. Encourage more Americans to hold an active passport. Make language skills a priority in American K-12 schools and universities. Require foreign embassies hiring American teachers abroad to provide cultural integration materials and support. Create foreign language assistantship programs to bring native foreign language speakers into American classrooms. Provide more publicity for opportunities for Americans to travel and live abroad, including posts as English teachers or English language assistants. British Learning Council (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2010, from Google. English Language (2010, July 10). Retrieved July 11, 2010 Garson, B. “Teaching abroad: A cross-cultural journey.” Journal of Education for Business. 80.6 (2005)322-326. Jenne, E. K. “Preparing for a career in Europe: The perspective of a North American.” European Political Science. 8(2009)168-174. Nylander, L. (n.d.). English Language Assistans Abroad. http://www.transitionsabroad.com/listings/work/esl/articles/teaching -english-in-spain-language-assistant.shtml. Retrieved June 8, 2010 Lublin, J. S. Companies use cross-cultural training to help their employees adjust abroad. (1992, August 4). Wall Street Journal, B1-B6. Scweitert, J. “One percent of American students study abroad.” Matador network (2005, May 15). Retrieved June 25, 2010. Study Abroad? College Students Rethink the Idea (2010, November 19). Retrieved June 21, 2010 Uhlfelder, S. Sending students overseas is ticket to better image. Tampa Bay.com (2007, March 31). Retrieved June 25, 2010. Williams, H. More college students study abroad, grow at home. Oregon Live.com (2009, April 2). Retrieved June 25, 2010.