Based on Based on
In the In a variety
classroom of venues
For For novice
professor to expert in
and peers your field
• What is the assignment?
• What is my unique contribution?
• What do they already know?
• What do they expect from me?
• Where will I be giving the presentation?
• What technology (etc.) will be available to me?
• When will I be giving this presentation?
• How much time do I have?
Written • Complex sentences
• Low frequency words
arguments • Extensive citation
• Simple sentences
Definition of key terms
arguments • Short key passages (incorporated into
Today President Obama
In order to encourage
announced a new program
Americans to buy more cars
called “Cash for Clunkers.” He
and therefore stimulate the
hopes the program will
automobile industry, a new
encourage Americans to buy
program called “Cash for
more cars and therefore
Clunkers” was announced today
stimulate the automobile
by President Obama.
Having prepared herself by
memorizing long lists of vocabulary
words and making stacks of
flashcards, Heather knew she was as
prepared as she could be to take the
GRE exam, which she needed to get
a good score on in order to get into
Heather had prepared herself to
take the GRE exam by memorizing
long lists of vocabulary words and
making stacks of flashcards. She
knew she was as prepared as she
could be. She needed to get a good
grade on the exam in order to get
into graduate school.
Honda sold 1.1 million By increasing their
cars last year by advertising targeted to
increasing their women, 1.1 million cars
advertising targeted to were sold by Honda
single female drivers. last year.
Surgeons performed more open-heart surgeries in 2010 than in the previous
three years combined.
More open-heart surgeries were performed in 2010 than in the previous
three years combined
Cigarette advertisements are designed to appeal to pre-teen and teenage
Tobacco companies design advertisements to appeal to pre-teen and
A new program called “Cash for Clunkers” was announced today by
Today President Obama announced a new program called “Cash for
20cc acid was
poured into the
20cc acid into
• State topic clearly: what is the problem you are addressing and how have you solved it?
• Outline your points
• Define any difficult terms or concepts
• Contextualize your topic
• Give background motivation: why does your audience care?
• Enumerate each point individually
• Refer to your thesis throughout
• Give examples/evidence/methods/results
• Restate your thesis
• Summarize your points
• Give suggestions for further research
• Explanation of the
• Summing up
that guide your
• I'd like to start by...
Introducing • Let's begin by...
• First of all, I'll...
the subject • Starting with...
• I'll begin by...
Finishing • Well, I've told you about...
one • That's all I have to say about...
• We've looked at...
...and • Now we'll move on to...
• Let me turn now to...
starting • Next...
• Turning to...
• I'd like now to discuss...
• Let's look now at...
• Where does that lead us?
• Let's consider this in more detail...
Analyzing a point
• What does this mean for ABC?
• Translated into terms of...
• I therefore suggest/propose/recommend
the following strategy:
• For example,...
• A good example of this is...
Giving an • As an illustration,...
example • To give you an example,...
• To illustrate this point...
• In conclusion,...
Let's sum up, shall we?
I'd like now to recap...
and • Let's summarize briefly what we've looked at...
• Finally, let me remind you of some of the
concluding issues we've covered...
• If I can just sum up the main points...
Ordering • First of all...then...next...after that...finally...
• To start with...later...to finish up...
Use aids to
Refer to them
Have a back-
• Be confident
• Gesture for emphasis
• Use conversational delivery
• Avoid monotone
• Speak deliberately
• Speak louder to emphasize
• Stop before (and after) for emphasis
You will be familiar
with the material.
You can identify and
You can practice
You can time the
length and incorporate
Anticipate and Breathe. Thank the
prepare. Compose your questioner.
Ask for Be honest if you Stand up for
clarification. have no answer. your position.