1. Como sujeito da oração:
Running is a great sport.
2. Após certos verbos:
She enjoys meeting people.
She misses going to parties.
Would you mind carrying my bags?
3. Após preposições:
They’re interested in
Why do you insist on telling the same old
He left the room without saying a word.
They are good at
4. Após o verbo go – com atividades
Does he always go
surfing in the summer?
fishing on Sundays.
5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas:
The test has started. It’s no use
asking your doubts now.
There was no point in waiting, so we left.
Do you think it’s worth
taking a taxi?
6. Em proibições curtas:
Don’t smoke here. =
No smoking here.
Don’t drink and drive. =
No drinking and driving.
7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo
possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo
Kátia insisted on Marcelo’s playing with us.
Kátia insisted on his playing with us.
Kátia insisted on him playing with us.
8. Após números ordinais & para indicar
He was the first runner
I came to school to learn.
She works in order to be able to travel a lot.
9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive
(infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let,
make e have.
She is making him
retype the report.
The teacher let me leave earlier.
My mother had me do the dishes.
Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo
com ou sem o TO.
Gerund & Infinitives
10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos
de gerund ou infinitive, sem
alteração de sentido.
Mother Teresa started to live/living in the
slums of Calcutta from 1948.
Though she faced many problems, Mother
Teresa continued to work/working for
11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de
gerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença
She stopped smoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)
She stopped to smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer
algo para fumar.)
He remembered to turn off the TV. = (Ele se
lembrou de desligar a TV.)
He remembered turning off the TV. =
(Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)
Summary table for
to-infinitive and gerund
To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms)
1. Use as subject 1. Use as subject (more common)
Eg: To smoke is bad for you Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
2. To say why we do things 2. After prepositions (on, in,
(purpose) before, for, without, after…etc.)
Eg: I got up early to catch the Eg: You can’t live without eating
7am train. Eg: Thank you for listening.
3. After some verbs (eg: expect, 3. After some verbs (eg: dislike,
afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider,
fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep,
Eg: I expect to pass the exams.
Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.
4. After some adjectives 4. After phrasal verbs
and nouns.(adj=easy, happy, Eg: I am not good at
glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult,
dangerous ...etc; noun = work, money to dancing.
spend, something to drink, different ways
to protect her.…etc) Eg: I am not interested in
Eg: She is ready to leave. singing.
(adj) Eg: John will give up
Eg: I am glad to see you. smoking.
Eg: I’ve got work to do.
5. Some verbs can be
followed by either 5. eg: begin, continue,
gerund or to-infinitive hate, love, start…etc.
Eg: I love going to school/
I love to go to school
6. Used in general sense 6. Used in particular situations
(eg: love, like, hate, Eg: I don’t like swimming on
prefer..etc) cold days.
Eg: I like swimming.
* Some words can use
7. No + gerund
both to-infinitive and
gerund with the same Eg: No money, no talking.
meaning. (eg: love, like, begin,
start, intend, continue..etc)
8. Stop + gerund.
* Some words can use both Eg: Stop talking, stop
to-infinitive and gerund
with different meaning.
(Eg: remember, try..etc) walking…etc.
1. There's absolutely no point in ________ it now. It's far
too late. (to do)
2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to
3. Did you remember ___________ all the lights? (to turn
TO TURN OFF
4. Do you mind __________ the cat while we're away? (to
5. She's not used to __________ on Saturdays. (to work)
6. Blast! I forgot _________ the milk. (to buy)
7. They offered ___________ me to the airport.(to take)
8. Old cars cost a bomb to maintain. It's worth __________
a new one.(to buy)
9. We prefer ___________ on Friday nights.(to stay in)
TO STAY / STAYING IN
10. We used to ________ football every Friday after
11. I must avoid ________ there for a while. (to go)
12. She likes _________ to the theatre. (to go)
13. Before ________ the house, I always double check
everything. (to leave)
14. After ________ an exam, I normally go a bit crazy.(to
15. I can't stand ________ all week-end. (to stay in)
16. Look! I'm pretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)
17. Would you like ___________ tonight? (to go out)
TO GO OUT
18. Nobody wanted me __________ the guitar. (to play)
19. It started __________ .(to snow)
TO SNOW/ SNOWING
20. What time have we arranged _________ ? (to meet)