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Presentation ppt - Slide 1


1. Como sujeito da oração:
  Running is a great sport.

2. Após certos verbos:
  She enjoys meeting people.
  She misses going to parties.
  Would you mind carrying my bags?
3. Após preposições:

 They’re interested in

 Why do you insist on telling the same old

 He left the room without saying a word.

              They are good at
4. Após o verbo go – com atividades

                 Does he always go
               surfing in the summer?

                      They go
                fishing on Sundays.
5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas:

 The test has started. It’s no use
  asking your doubts now.

 There was no point in waiting, so we left.

           Do you think it’s worth
               taking a taxi?
6. Em proibições curtas:

Don’t smoke here. =

No smoking here.

Don’t drink and drive. =

No drinking and driving.
7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo
  possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo

 Kátia insisted on Marcelo’s playing with us.

 Kátia insisted on his playing with us.

 Kátia insisted on him playing with us.
8. Após números ordinais & para indicar

He was the first runner
    to arrive.

I came to school to learn.

She works in order to be able to travel a lot.
9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive
  (infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let,
  make e have.

She is making him
retype the report.

The teacher let me leave earlier.

My mother had me do the dishes.

Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo
  com ou sem o TO.
       Gerund & Infinitives
10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos
 de gerund ou infinitive, sem
 alteração de sentido.

Mother Teresa started to live/living in the
  slums of Calcutta from 1948.
Though she faced many problems, Mother
  Teresa continued to work/working for
  the poor.
11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de
  gerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença
  de sentido.

She stopped smoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)
She stopped to smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer
  algo para fumar.)
He remembered to turn off the TV. = (Ele se
  lembrou de desligar a TV.)
He remembered turning off the TV. =
 (Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)
                       Summary table for
                     to-infinitive and gerund
        To infinitive                                    Gerund (-ing forms)
1. Use as subject                                    1. Use as subject (more common)
Eg: To smoke is bad for you                          Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
2. To say why we do things                           2. After prepositions                  (on, in,
    (purpose)                                           before, for, without, after…etc.)

Eg: I got up early to catch the                      Eg: You can’t live without eating
    7am train.                                       Eg: Thank you for listening.
3. After some verbs                   (eg: expect,   3. After some verbs                 (eg: dislike,
    afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose,        enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider,
    fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc)               discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep,
                                                        can’t help…etc)
Eg: I expect to pass the exams.
                                                     Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.
4. After some adjectives                      4. After phrasal verbs
  and nouns.(adj=easy, happy,                 Eg: I am not good at
  glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult,
  dangerous ...etc; noun = work, money to         dancing.
  spend, something to drink, different ways
  to protect her.…etc)                        Eg: I am not interested in
Eg: She is ready to leave.                        singing.
  (adj)                                       Eg: John will give up
Eg: I am glad to see you.                         smoking.
Eg: I’ve got work to do.

5. Some verbs can be
  followed by either                          5. eg: begin, continue,
  gerund or to-infinitive                        hate, love, start…etc.
Eg: I love going to school/
    I love to go to school
6. Used in general sense            6. Used in particular situations
    (eg: love, like, hate,          Eg: I don’t like swimming on
    prefer..etc)                        cold days.
Eg: I like swimming.

* Some words can use
                                    7. No + gerund
   both to-infinitive and
   gerund with the same             Eg: No money, no talking.
   meaning. (eg: love, like, begin,
    start, intend, continue..etc)
                                    8. Stop + gerund.
* Some words can use both           Eg: Stop talking, stop
    to-infinitive and gerund
                                        writing, stop
    with different meaning.
    (Eg: remember, try..etc)            walking…etc.

1. There's absolutely no point in ________ it now. It's far
  too late. (to do)
2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to
                   TO WEAR
3. Did you remember ___________ all the lights? (to turn
                        TO TURN OFF
4. Do you mind __________ the cat while we're away? (to
  look after)
                LOOKING AFTER
5. She's not used to __________ on Saturdays. (to work)
6. Blast! I forgot _________ the milk. (to buy)
                    TO BUY
7. They offered ___________ me to the airport.(to take)
                   TO TAKE
8. Old cars cost a bomb to maintain. It's worth __________
  a new one.(to buy)
9. We prefer ___________ on Friday nights.(to stay in)
             TO STAY / STAYING IN
10. We used to ________ football every Friday after
  school.(to play)
11. I must avoid ________ there for a while. (to go)
12. She likes _________ to the theatre. (to go)
                GOING/TO GO
13. Before ________ the house, I always double check
  everything. (to leave)
14. After ________ an exam, I normally go a bit crazy.(to
15. I can't stand ________ all week-end. (to stay in)
                 STAYING IN
16. Look! I'm pretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)
                          TO BE
17. Would you like ___________ tonight? (to go out)
                    TO GO OUT
18. Nobody wanted me __________ the guitar. (to play)
                        TO PLAY
19. It started __________ .(to snow)
                TO SNOW/ SNOWING
20. What time have we arranged _________ ? (to meet)
                                  TO MEET

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