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					 Gerunds
    and
Infinitives
            Gerunds
1. Como sujeito da oração:
  Running is a great sport.

2. Após certos verbos:
  She enjoys meeting people.
  She misses going to parties.
  Would you mind carrying my bags?
3. Após preposições:

 They’re interested in
    dancing.

 Why do you insist on telling the same old
 story?

 He left the room without saying a word.

              They are good at
                  fighting.
4. Após o verbo go – com atividades
                     recreativas:

                 Does he always go
               surfing in the summer?




                      They go
                fishing on Sundays.
5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas:

 The test has started. It’s no use
  asking your doubts now.


 There was no point in waiting, so we left.




           Do you think it’s worth
               taking a taxi?
6. Em proibições curtas:


Don’t smoke here. =

No smoking here.


Don’t drink and drive. =

No drinking and driving.
7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo
  possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo
  (informal)

 Kátia insisted on Marcelo’s playing with us.

 Kátia insisted on his playing with us.

 Kátia insisted on him playing with us.
                 Infinitives
8. Após números ordinais & para indicar
  finalidade:

He was the first runner
    to arrive.

I came to school to learn.

She works in order to be able to travel a lot.
9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive
  (infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let,
  make e have.

She is making him
retype the report.

The teacher let me leave earlier.

My mother had me do the dishes.

Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo
  com ou sem o TO.
       Gerund & Infinitives
10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos
 de gerund ou infinitive, sem
 alteração de sentido.

Mother Teresa started to live/living in the
  slums of Calcutta from 1948.
Though she faced many problems, Mother
  Teresa continued to work/working for
  the poor.
11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de
  gerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença
  de sentido.

She stopped smoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)
She stopped to smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer
  algo para fumar.)
He remembered to turn off the TV. = (Ele se
  lembrou de desligar a TV.)
He remembered turning off the TV. =
 (Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)
                       Summary table for
                     to-infinitive and gerund
        To infinitive                                    Gerund (-ing forms)
1. Use as subject                                    1. Use as subject (more common)
Eg: To smoke is bad for you                          Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
2. To say why we do things                           2. After prepositions                  (on, in,
    (purpose)                                           before, for, without, after…etc.)

Eg: I got up early to catch the                      Eg: You can’t live without eating
    7am train.                                       Eg: Thank you for listening.
3. After some verbs                   (eg: expect,   3. After some verbs                 (eg: dislike,
    afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose,        enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider,
    fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc)               discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep,
                                                        can’t help…etc)
Eg: I expect to pass the exams.
                                                     Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.
4. After some adjectives                      4. After phrasal verbs
  and nouns.(adj=easy, happy,                 Eg: I am not good at
  glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult,
  dangerous ...etc; noun = work, money to         dancing.
  spend, something to drink, different ways
  to protect her.…etc)                        Eg: I am not interested in
Eg: She is ready to leave.                        singing.
  (adj)                                       Eg: John will give up
Eg: I am glad to see you.                         smoking.
  (adj)
Eg: I’ve got work to do.
  (n)

5. Some verbs can be
  followed by either                          5. eg: begin, continue,
  gerund or to-infinitive                        hate, love, start…etc.
Eg: I love going to school/
    I love to go to school
6. Used in general sense            6. Used in particular situations
    (eg: love, like, hate,          Eg: I don’t like swimming on
    prefer..etc)                        cold days.
Eg: I like swimming.

* Some words can use
                                    7. No + gerund
   both to-infinitive and
   gerund with the same             Eg: No money, no talking.
   meaning. (eg: love, like, begin,
    start, intend, continue..etc)
                                    8. Stop + gerund.
* Some words can use both           Eg: Stop talking, stop
    to-infinitive and gerund
                                        writing, stop
    with different meaning.
    (Eg: remember, try..etc)            walking…etc.
                         Exercises
              http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.infing.i.htm

1. There's absolutely no point in ________ it now. It's far
  too late. (to do)
                                   DOING
2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to
  wear)
                   TO WEAR
3. Did you remember ___________ all the lights? (to turn
  off)
                        TO TURN OFF
4. Do you mind __________ the cat while we're away? (to
  look after)
                LOOKING AFTER
5. She's not used to __________ on Saturdays. (to work)
                         WORKING
6. Blast! I forgot _________ the milk. (to buy)
                    TO BUY
7. They offered ___________ me to the airport.(to take)
                   TO TAKE
8. Old cars cost a bomb to maintain. It's worth __________
  a new one.(to buy)
                                                 BUYING
9. We prefer ___________ on Friday nights.(to stay in)
             TO STAY / STAYING IN
10. We used to ________ football every Friday after
  school.(to play)
                 PLAY
11. I must avoid ________ there for a while. (to go)
                    GOING
12. She likes _________ to the theatre. (to go)
                GOING/TO GO
13. Before ________ the house, I always double check
  everything. (to leave)
            LEAVING
14. After ________ an exam, I normally go a bit crazy.(to
  take)
           TAKING
15. I can't stand ________ all week-end. (to stay in)
                 STAYING IN
16. Look! I'm pretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)
                          TO BE
17. Would you like ___________ tonight? (to go out)
                    TO GO OUT
18. Nobody wanted me __________ the guitar. (to play)
                        TO PLAY
19. It started __________ .(to snow)
                TO SNOW/ SNOWING
20. What time have we arranged _________ ? (to meet)
                                  TO MEET
CONGRATULATIONS!!!