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Introduction to Patrolling

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					       Patrolling

An introduction to Patrolling
                 References
• FM 7-8
  – The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad
• FM 3-21.8
  – The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad
• SH 21-76
  – The Ranger Handbook
                   A Patrol
• A patrol is NOT a specific mission.
• A patrol is a organization put together for a
  specific mission
• Commanders send out patrols to conduct
  specific tactical tasks with an associated
  purpose
                 Types of Patrols
Combat                           Reconnaissance
• Patrols that depart the main   • Patrols that depart the main
  body with the clear intent       body with the intention of
  to make direct contact with      avoiding direct combat with
  the enemy                        the enemy while seeking
                                   out information or
                                   confirming the accuracy of
                                   previously gathered
                                   information.
Organization and Tasks

PATROLLING
          Organization of Patrols
Common to all Patrols   Additional Elements
• Headquarters              Reconnaissance Patrol
                        •   Reconnaissance Team
• Aid and Litter Team   •   Reconnaissance and Security
• Enemy Prisoner Team       Team
• Surveillance Team         Combat Patrol
                        •   Search Team
• En Route Recorder     •   Demolition Team
• Compass Man           •   Clearing/Breach Team
• Pace Man              •   Assault Element
                        •   Support Element
                        •   Security Element
      Organization of Patrols cont.
• Headquarters                     • En Route Recorder
  –   PL                              – Records all information
  –   RTO                               gathered during the
  –   APL/PSG                           ENTIRE mission
  –   FO                           • Compass Man
  –   FO RTO                       • Pace Man
• Aid and Litter Team
• Enemy Prisoner Team
• Surveillance Team
  – Keeps watch on the
    objective from the leaders
    recon until the unit deploys
    for actions on objective
      Organization of Patrols cont.
• Assault Element
   – Seizes and secures the
     objective
• Support Element
   – Provides direct fire support
     for the platoon/patrol
• Security Element
   – Provides security at danger
     areas, secures the ORP,
     isolates the OBJ, and
     supports the withdrawal of
     the platoon/patrol
       Responsibilities By Position
Patrol Leader
• Planning                   • Leaders Recon
• Final Inspections          • Determine % Security
• Develop Timeline
• Lead the Assault Element
• Moves after 1st Squad
• OPORD Paragraph 2 & 3
• Mission Accomplishment
• SALUTE reports
• Actions on OBJ
         Responsibilities By Position
Assistant Patrol Leader
•   Execution                          •   Maintenance Plan
•   Special Team Rehearsals
•   Initial Inspections                •   Patrol Base Activities
•   Enforcing                          •   Stand to
•   Support Element
•   OPORD Paragraph 4                  •   Soldier Care Issues
•   ACE Reports                        •   Packing List
•   9Line Report
•   Consolidation and Reorganization
                                       •   Correcting Breaks in Contact
•   ORP Activities                     •   Noise and Light Discipline
•   Develop Security Roster            •   Coordinating for Movement
•   Accountability
            Planning Considerations
Planning from Patrol to Higher         Planning for Patrol
•   Enemy Situation                    • Assign tasks
•   Terrain
•   Light and Weather                  • Obtain travel and execution
•   Friendly Situation                    times
•   Attachments (Interpreter, Guide)   • Determine primary and
•   Landing Zone or Pickup Zone
•   Departure and Re-entry of             alternate routes
    friendly lines                     • Signal, CP, RP, # combo
•   Fire Support
•   Rehearsal times and locations      • Location of leaders during
•   Transportation Plans                  Patrol
•   Signal Plans                       • Actions on COntact
Movement and Planning

PATROLLING
                Planning by Phases
               FLOT         PHASE LINE    PHASE LINE

SA     AA




                                         AO

• Occupy the AA
  – Patrol moves behind Line of Troops (FLOT) To occupy AA for final
    prep
                     Planning by Phases
                   FLOT            PHASE LINE       PHASE LINE

 SA      AA
                      SLH




                                                  AO

• Crosses FLOT
   – Patrol will cross FLOT by coordinating with a guide. APL will move to front and
     count all patrol members out. Following crossing, APL will move back to the
     rear. Outside small arms range of FLOT, patrol will conduct a SLH
                   Planning by Phases
                 FLOT            PHASE LINE      PHASE LINE

SA      AA
                                      ERP           ORP
                    SLH




                                               AO

• Occupy a ORP
  – Patrol will continue marching using appropriate formations. The patrol
    will occupy a ORP. All plans will be finalized at the location. Patrol will
    pick a appropriate location and maintain light and sound discipline.
                 Planning by Phases
               FLOT          PHASE LINE    PHASE LINE

SA      AA
                                  ERP          ORP          OBJ
                  SLH




                                          AO

• ORP
  – At the ORP the leader will make any correction to their original
    plan. A leaders recon may be conducted as well.
               Planning by Phases
              FLOT       PHASE LINE    PHASE LINE

 SA    AA
                              ERP          ORP      OBJ
                 SLH




                                      AO

• Actions on Objective
                   Planning by Phases
                 FLOT           PHASE LINE     PHASE LINE

 SA     AA
                                     ERP          ORP           OBJ
                    SLH




                                             AO

• Reentry of Friendly Lines
   – Following actions on objective. The patrol may return back to the ORP
     then back to the AA crossing the FLOT with a guide. This will be
     conducted as a linkup. The patrol will the reoccupy the AA
DEPARTURE FROM
FRIENDLY LINES
The patrol must coordinate for      During the movement the patrol
departure. Patrol leader will let   must stay in a single file line. The
the forward unit know:              APL will follow directly behind the
                                    guide. He will give the guide the
•Unit Identification                number of persons and how long
•Patrol Size                        to wait. The APL will confirm the
•Departure and Return Times         number combination, the Patrol
                                    ONLY returns to the departure
•Area of Operation                  point if it becomes disorganized.
                                    If the unit makes contact it will
                                    fight through it.
MOVEMENT 2 SQUADS                Platoon Column                   Platoon File
Move according to the terrain.   •Good Control                    •Easy Control
Two types of formations:         •Good Flexibility                •Limited Flexibility
•Platoon Column                  •Limited fire to front or rear   •Maximum fire to Flanks
•Platoon File                    •Medium Movement                 •Fast movement
                                 Platoon Line
                                 •Difficult Control
                                 •Moderate Flexibility
                                 •Maximum fire to front or rear
                                 •Slow Movement
Platoon Column                   Platoon Line                     Platoon File
RALLY POINTS
DURING MOVEMENT
Types of Rally Points:            •Initial Rally Points               •Near and Far Side Rally Points
•Initial Rally Point                Rally point inside of friendly     Made when the patrol
                                    lines where a unit may assemble    encounters a danger area to
•En Route Rally Point               and reorganize if it makes         establish where to go when the
•Near and Far Side Rally Points     contact during departure           unit comes under contact
                                  •En Route Rally Points
                                    Leader designated every 100-
                                    400 meters based on terrain,
                                    vegetation, and visibility.
OBJECTIVE RALLY
POINT
The Objective Rally Point        •Leaders Recon                      •Tasks at ORP (50% Security)
needs top have the following     PL and whoever else is designate      Issue a final FRAGO
characteristics:                 will participate in leaders recon     Disseminate information from
•Obscure                         APL will remain in charge at the      recon
                                 ORP                                   Make final mission preparation
•Outside small arms range of
OBJ                                                                    Accountability
                                                                       Establish future chain of
•Out of natural lines of drift
                                                                       command.
•Larger enough for patrol size                                         Weapons prepped
MOVEMENT
FOLLOWING ACTIONS
ON
Following actions on objective
the patrol will either move to its
next mission or back to the AA
Linkup and Reentry of Friendly lines

PATROLLING
                Linkup, 1st Squad
• The first unit to arrive will
  setup a linkup rally point
  (LRP) approx. 300 meter
  from the linkup point (LP).
• A security team goes to
  find the exact location of      LP
  LP
• The security team then
                                       LRP
  marks the site with a
  coordinated signal
• The security team moves
  to a position where they
  can observe the LP
                Linkup, 1st Squad
• The first unit to arrive will
  setup a linkup rally point
  (LRP) approx. 300 meter
  from the linkup point (LP).
• A security team goes to
  find the exact location of      LP
  LP
• The security team then
                                       LRP
  marks the site with a
  coordinated signal
• The security team moves
  to a position where they
  can observe the LP
                Linkup, 1st Squad
• The first unit to arrive will
  setup a linkup rally point
  (LRP) approx. 300 meter
  from the linkup point (LP).
• A security team goes to
  find the exact location of      LP
  LP
• The security team then
                                       LRP
  marks the site with a
  coordinated signal
• The security team moves
  to a position where they
  can observe the LP
                Linkup, 1st Squad
• The first unit to arrive will
  setup a linkup rally point
  (LRP) approx. 300 meter
  from the linkup point (LP).
• A security team goes to
  find the exact location of      LP
  LP
• The security team then
                                       LRP
  marks the site with a
  coordinated signal
• The security team moves
  to a position where they
  can observe the LP
                 Linkup, 2nd Squad
• When the second unit
  arrives, it will setup its own
  LRP
• It will send its own security
  team to the LP
• When the second security
                                          LP
  team arrives at the LP, it will
  send the far recognition
  signal                                       LRP
• The first security team will
  respond with its signal
• The second team then
  approached the first while
                                    LRP
  both exchange near signals
                 Linkup, 2nd Squad
• When the second unit
  arrives, it will setup its own
  LRP
• It will send its own security
  team to the LP
• When the second security
                                          LP
  team arrives at the LP, it will
  send the far recognition
  signal                                       LRP
• The first security team will
  respond with its signal
• The second team then
  approached the first while
                                    LRP
  both exchange near signals
                 Linkup, 2nd Squad
• When the second unit
  arrives, it will setup its own
  LRP
• It will send its own security
  team to the LP
• When the second security
                                          LP
  team arrives at the LP, it will
  send the far recognition
  signal                                       LRP
• The first security team will
  respond with its signal
• The second team then
  approached the first while
                                    LRP
  both exchange near signals
                 Linkup, 2nd Squad
• When the second unit
  arrives, it will setup its own
  LRP
• It will send its own security
  team to the LP
• When the second security
                                          LP
  team arrives at the LP, it will
  send the far recognition
  signal                                       LRP
• The first security team will
  respond with its signal
• The second team then
  approached the first while
                                    LRP
  both exchange near signals
                 Linkup, 2nd Squad
• When the second unit
  arrives, it will setup its own
  LRP
• It will send its own security
  team to the LP
• When the second security
                                          LP
  team arrives at the LP, it will
  send the far recognition
  signal                                       LRP
• The first security team will
  respond with its signal
• The second team then
  approached the first while
                                    LRP
  both exchange near signals
               Linkup, 2nd Squad
• The second security team
  will return to its LRP
• The first security team
  will go to the LP
• The second security team
  will guide its squad to the
  LP                                  LP

• The first security team
  will guide the whole                     LRP
  group to its LRP
• Both teams are integrated
  into the perimeter
• For more units, repeat
  the process                   LRP
               Linkup, 2nd Squad
• The second security team
  will return to its LRP
• The first security team
  will go to the LP
• The second security team
  will guide its squad to the
  LP                                  LP

• The first security team
  will guide the whole                     LRP
  group to its LRP
• Both teams are integrated
  into the perimeter
• For more units, repeat
  the process                   LRP
               Linkup, 2nd Squad
• The second security team
  will return to its LRP
• The first security team
  will go to the LP
• The second security team
  will guide its squad to the
  LP                                  LP

• The first security team
  will guide the whole                     LRP
  group to its LRP
• Both teams are integrated
  into the perimeter
• For more units, repeat
  the process                   LRP
               Linkup, 2nd Squad
• The second security team
  will return to its LRP
• The first security team
  will go to the LP
• The second security team
  will guide its squad to the
  LP                            LP

• The first security team
  will guide the whole               LRP
  group to its LRP
• Both teams are integrated
  into the perimeter
• For more units, repeat
  the process
               Linkup, 2nd Squad
• The second security team
  will return to its LRP
• The first security team
  will go to the LP
• The second security team
  will guide its squad to the
  LP
• The first security team
  will guide the whole             LRP
  group to its LRP
• Both teams are integrated
  into the perimeter
• For more units, repeat
  the process
Patrol Base Operations

PATROLLING
            Patrol Base Operations
Purpose                              Site Selection
• Avoid Detection by eliminating     • Leader selects a tentative site
  movement                             from map recon
• Hide during a long recon           • Plans must include alternate
• Perform maintenance on               patrol base sites
  weapons, equipment, eat and
  rest                               • No closer than 500m to enemy
                                       forces
• Plan and issue orders
• Reorganize after infiltrating an   • Place a major terrain feature
  enemy area                           between you and the enemy
• Establish a base from which to     • All movement will exit/enter
  conduct future missions              from the 6 o’clock position
              Patrol Base Operations




  ORP

• Establish a ORP and recon the Site
   – The Patrol will stop and setup a OPR. The Patrol leader will take:
   – PL, RTO, compass man, 6 man security detail
                                 Patrol Base Operations
            DIRECTION OF ENEMY                                 10
DIRECTION OF TRAVEL




                      LP OP
                                    6




        ORP
                                                                2
• Establish a ORP and recon the Site
                      – The Patrol will stop and setup a OPR. The Patrol leader will take:
                      – PL, RTO, compass man, 2 for LPOP, 6 man security detail
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                        10




                  6




  ORP
                                            2
• Establish a ORP and recon the Site
   – Once the Patrol Leader approves the site he will place the corners
     leaving 2 persons at each location
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                        10




                  6




  ORP
                                            2
• Establish a ORP and recon the Site
   – Once the Patrol Leader approves the site he will place the corners
     leaving 2 persons at each location
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                        10




                  6




  ORP
                                            2
• Establish a ORP and recon the Site
   – Once the Patrol Leader approves the site he will place the corners
     leaving 2 persons at each location
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                      10




                  6




  ORP
                                          2
• Return to the ORP
   – The PL will return with the compass man back to the ORP and get
     the rest of the patrol
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                         10




                  6




  ORP
                                             2
• Complete Patrol Base
   – The PL will return with the entire patrol to the patrol base
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                         10




                  6




                                             2
• Complete Patrol Base
   – The PL will return with the entire patrol to the patrol base
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                         10




                  6




                                             2
• Complete Patrol Base
   – The PL will return with the entire patrol to the patrol base
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                         10




                  6




                                             2
• Complete Patrol Base
   – The PL will return with the entire patrol to the patrol base
               Patrol Base Operations
 DIRECTION OF ENEMY                         10




                  6
                                     HQ




                                             2
• Complete Patrol Base
   – The PL will return with the entire patrol to the patrol base
               Patrol Base Operations
Site Recon
• After completion of Patrol Base,
  the patrol will remain at 100%
  security
• R&S teams from each corner are
  sent out to gather Intel about the
  area.
    –   Enemy
    –   Water
    –   Built up areas or human habitat
    –   Roads and trails
    –   Possible rally points
• Depart from the left flank, turn
  clockwise and return on the right
• Go out 200-400 meter
          Patrol Base Operations
Priorities of Work
• Security
• Alert Plan
• Withdrawal Plan
• Maintenance Plan
• Sanitation Plan
• Mess Plan
• Water Resupply
             Patrol Base Operations
Priorities of Work
• Security
   –   Only one point of entry or exit
   –   Everyone is challenged
   –   Claymores are put out
   –   Squads establish Ops
   –   Dig Hasty positions
   –   Turn in sector sketches
       including range cards
             Patrol Base Operations
Priorities of Work
• Security
   –   Only one point of entry or exit
   –   Everyone is challenged
   –   Claymores are put out
   –   Squads establish Ops
   –   Dig Hasty positions
   –   Turn in sector sketches
       including range cards
Patrol Base Operations
            Patrol Base Operations
Priorities of Work                     Priorities of Work
• Alert Plan                           • Maintenance Plan
   – Alert posture, 33% 50% 100%          – Ensure all equipment is in
   – Stand to time                          working order
   – Ensure that one leader is up at      – Redistribute ammo
     all times                            – Ensure that while weapons
• Withdrawal Plan                           are cleaned there are still
   – Signal to use to signal                some on the line
     withdrawal                        • Sanitation and Personal
   – Order of movement                   Hygiene
   – The rendezvous point                 – APL ensures a slit trench is
   – Maintain 100% security until           dug
     complete
                                          – Ensure no trash is left
            Patrol Base Operations
Priorities of Work                   Priorities of Work
• Mess Plan                          • Maintenance Plan
   – No more than half the              – Ensure all equipment is in
     platoon eats at a time               working order
                                        – Redistribute ammo
• Water Resupply                        – Ensure that while weapons
   – APL organizes a resupply, put        are cleaned there are still
     squads canteens in a empty           some on the line
     rucksack                        • Sanitation and Personal
                                       Hygiene
                                        – APL ensures a slit trench is
                                          dug
                                        – Ensure no trash is left

				
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