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The Art of Plant Evolution - Plant Evolution

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The Art of Plant Evolution - Plant Evolution Powered By Docstoc
					The     Art
          of
Plant Evolution
W. John Kress and Shirley Sherwood
I. Fungi
Although fungi have traditionally been considered plants and within the field of
botany, scientists now agree that these organisms are not plants at all. Lacking the
ability to photosynthesize and possessing a distinctive type of cell wall, they are
most closely related to animals. Fungi have been put at the base of the Tree of
Plant Evolution as a reminder that fungi are not plants and share more features
with animals than they do with plants. However, fungi in the form of mycorrhizae
have an exceedingly important symbiotic association in mineral nutrition with the
roots of many plant species, especially trees.


I. Fungi – Amanitaceae

1. Amanita muscaria
Alexander Viazmensky, b. Leningrad (St Petersburg), Russia 1946
Watercolour on paper, 380 mm x 280 mm
Signed with hieroglyphic AV in old Russian


Alexander Viazmensky paints both fungi and landscapes. Each summer he ventures
deep into the woods near St. Petersburg for his specimens, visiting secret spots for
his trophies. Since 1997 his lively style has become more detailed and clearly
outlined, although he retains his customary clutter of leaves, pine needles and
strands of grass which discreetly indicate where he found the toadstool.
     Alexander’s work is held at the Royal Horticultural Society’s Lindley Library
and he produces excellent prints of his work which can be seen in the Grand
Hotel Europe, St Petersburg. He taught at the Minnesota School of Botanical Art
Master Classes in 2004 and 2006 and had illustrations in the Red Data Book of
Nature of St Petersburg. He had a solo show in 2007 as part of the XV Congress of
European Mycologists and taught an enthusiastic class at the American Society of
Botanical Art in 2008.
     This previously unpublished portrait of Amanita muscaria was executed in
2003.The classic toadstool or ‘magic mushroom’ has hallucinogenic properties
and is widely pictured in folklore.

  Amanita has over 400 described species worldwide and is one of the largest genera of
  basidiomycetes. The fruiting bodies of the species Amanita muscaria are found in
  summer and autumn in coniferous and deciduous forests from lowland elevations up to
  the subalpine zone in both temperate and subtropical regions. The Latin musca means fly
  and was applied to this species because of the mushroom’s ability to attract and in some
  cases poison these insects. The same compounds that poison flies are also toxic to
  humans and the mushrooms have been used as inebriants and as hallucinogens by
  indigenous peoples in different parts of the world. Based on DNA sequence data
  generated from specimens collected in different regions of the northern hemisphere
  scientists have found distinct geographic races that correspond to Eurasia, to Eurasian
  subalpine zones, and to North America. This type of regional differentiation is not
  unexpected in such a widespread species.




58 Art of Plant Evolution
Art of Plant Evolution 59
                                             V. Gymnosperms
                                             The evolution of seeds (made up of the young embryo, some nutritive tissue, and
                                             an outer protective covering) was an important step in the proliferation of plants
                                             on land. Gymnosperm, like bryophyte, is a term that comprises a number of
                                             different groups of plants that are related by the possession of seeds, but do not
                                             form a monophyletic evolutionarily coherent lineage. In gymnosperms the seeds
                                             are ‘naked’ and not enclosed within a fruit wall.The living gymnospermous
                                             groups include conifers, ginkgos, and cycads, all of which, like the monilophytes,
                                             have a well-developed vascular system. Botanists do not agree on the
                                             evolutionary relationships of the various groups of gymnosperms, or on which
                                             group is most closely related to the flowering plants. Perhaps some missing links
                                             between the gymnosperms and the angiosperms became extinct long ago.


                                                                             ID   S        Dipsacales
                                                                                                                                   Sapindales
                                                                          ER              Honeysuckles
                                                                                                                                   Horse Chestnuts        RO S
                                                                       ST                                                             & Maples                 ID S
                                                                   A                      & Viburnums
                                                                                                                        Malvales (99-101)
                                                                                             (136)
                                                                         Asterales                                   Hibiscus & Kapok             Brassicales
                                                                                                                          (97-98)                                                Fagales
                                                                         Dandelions                                                            Mustard & Gabbage            Oaks & Walnuts
                                                                        & Campanulas                                                                (95-96)                     (92-94)
                                                                          (131-135)                     Apiales
                                                                                                     Carrots & Ivies
                                                                                                       (129-130)                                 Cucurbitales                     Fabales
                                                    Aquifoliales                                                                                Squash & Begonias                Peas (88-89)
                                                      Holly (128)                                                                                    (90-91)

                                                                                                                                                                                             Rosales
                                                                                                                                                                                           Roses & Figs
                                                             Lamiales                                                                                                                        (85-87)
                                                     Mints & African Violets                            Cornales                                                         Oxalidales
                                                           (118-127)                                    Dogwoods                                                         Wood Sorrel
                                                                                                       & Hydrangea                                                        (82-84)
                                                 Solanales                                              (102-103)
                                               Morning Glories
                                                                                                                                                   Myrtales                   Malpighiales
                                                                                                                                                  Pomegranates              Poinsettias & Violets
                                                & Aubergine
                                                                                                                                                    & Fuchsia                     (76-81)
                                                 (114-117)
                                                                                                                                                     (72-75)

                                                 Gentianales                           Ericales                                                                                              Vitaceae
                                               Gentians & Coffee                  Primulas, Heaths                                                                                          Grapes (71)
                                                  (112-113)                       & Tea (104-111)
                                                                                                                                                                                  Geraniales
                                                                                                                                                                                 Geraniums (70)
                                                      COTS
                                                    NO                                Zingiberales
                                                  MO Commelinales                     Bananas & Cannas Poales
                                                                                           (46-50)     Grasses &                                               Saxifragales
                                                          Day Flowers &                                Pineapples                                          Stonecrops & Paeonies
                                                          Kangaroo Paws                                 (38-41)                                                   (66-69)         Caryophyllales
                                                             (43-45)                                                                                                             Pinks & Cacti (60-65)
                                                Arecales




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  S
                                                Palms (42)




                                                                                                                                                                                                             OT
                                                                                                                                                                                 Santalales
                                                                                                                                                                            Mistletoes (58-59)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             IC
                                                                                                                                                                                                      EU D
                                                                          Asparagales                                                     Gunnerales
                                                    Liliales               Iris & Orchids                                                  Gunnera (57)      Proteales                            G
                                                  Lilies (23-27)               (28-37)                                                                    Lous & Banksias
                                                                                                                                                                                       E   RG I N
                                                                                                                                                             (55-56)             DIV
                                                                                                                                                                            LY
                                                 Pandanales
                                                Screw Pines (22)
                                                                                                                                               Ranunculales
                                                                                                                                              Clematis & Poppies
                                                                                                                                                                      EAR
                                                                                                                                                   (51-54)                   Nymphaeaceae
                                                 Dioscoreales                                                                                                                 Water Lilies (13)
                                                    Yams (21)                 Alismatales
                                                                           Pondweeds & Aroids
                                                                                (18-20)                                                                       Ginkgoales
                                                                                                                                                               Ginkgo (8)              Coniferales
                                                               Laurales                                                                                                                    Pines (9-11)
                                                               Laurals (17)                                  Amborellaceae
                                                                                                              Amborella (12)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          R MS




                                                             Magnoliales
                                                        Magnolias & Annonas                Piperales
                                                                                         Black Pepper &
                                                                                                                                                                                                      PE




                                                              (15-16)                                                                                                  Cycadales
                                                 BAS




                                                                                        Aristolochias (14)                                                             Cycads (6-7)                    S
                                                       LA                                                                                                                                         NO
                                                                                                                                                                                           GYM
                                                    A




                                                             N G I O S P E R MS                    Monilophytes                                    Mosses (3)
                                                                                                       Ferns (4-5)
                                                                                                                                                 Algae (2)



                                                                                           Fungi (1)

                                                                                            Animals

Leslie Carol Berge
Cycad (female cones) – Encephalartos ferox                                                                               ALL OTHER LIFE



                                                                                                                                                                      Art of Plant Evolution 69
VI. Angiosperms – Basal Angiosperms – Piperales
This order is made up of five (possibly six) families, including the Dutchman’s
pipes, black peppers, and lizard tails.The various members now grouped in the
Piperales have not always been considered as closely related, but DNA sequence
data provide strong evidence for placing them together as an evolutionary group.
Oil cells and two-ranked leaves are found in most of the species of this group.
Some species have stems swollen at the nodes where the leaves are attached as
well as flowers in whorls of three, which is similar to the monocots.



VI. Angiosperms – Basal Angiosperms – Piperales – Aristolochiaceae

14. Aristolochia gigantea
Rosália Demonte b. Niteroi, Brazil 1932
Gouache on vellum, 550 mm x 410 mm
Signed R Demonte


The Demonte family live in Petrópolis, the high altitude summer refuge in the
mountains behind Rio in the Atlantic Rainforest. Rosália and her sister Yvonne
shared a studio next to their house with Ludmyla, one of Rosália’s daughters.
Rosália’s brother Etienne Demonte lived nearby where he painted alongside his
two sons. None of them has had any extensive formal training and their styles of
painting are sometimes very similar. Rosália tended to concentrate on flowers
and butterflies, while her daughter paints dramatic pictures of the wild cats of
South America.
    The extraordinary vine, Aristolochia gigantea, grows up a steep bank in
Rosalia’s garden.The specimen she painted for this dramatic picture, with its
huge striking maroon speckled flower (depicted life-size in the painting), was
given to her by Roberto Burle Marx, the famous landscape designer who
was such a great friend of Margaret Mee.

  The family Aristolochiaceae contains 7 genera with 460 species, although botanists still
  differ on the taxonomic boundaries within this family. The plants are generally
  temperate herbs and tropical or subtropical lianas and shrubs. The aristolochias make up
  one of the five groups of basal angiosperms in the order Piperales. The flower is
  structured with the petals, sepals, stamens, and carpels in whorls of three, which
  suggests that these plants are relatively primitive angiosperms. This led some botanists
  to formerly believe that they were the closest relatives of the monocots, whose flowers
  are also in whorls of three. The flowers of Aristolochia gigantean are enormous, foul-
  smelling, and characterised by deep maroon markings. These features serve to attract
  carrion-loving flies which are deceived into visiting the flowers as a site to deposit their
  eggs. The pollen-bearing flies become trapped in the inflated portion of the flower and
  transfer pollen to the stigma before they are allowed to exit. The name of the genus is
  derived from the Greek words ‘aristos’ meaning ‘the best or most excellent’ and
  ‘locheia’ meaning ‘childbirth’ in reference to the use of this plant in ancient herbal
  medicine to assist in childbirth and abortion.




88 Art of Plant Evolution
Art of Plant Evolution 89

				
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