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									        CRC NEWS
        Newsletter of the Community Restorative Centre

                                                          Head office 174 Broadway BROADWAY NSW 2007
              July 2007                                   (cnr Shepherd Street)
                                                          Phone: (02) 9288 8700 Fax: (02) 9211 6518

            REINTEGRATION                                                        UK HEADED
                                                                                 FOR PRISON
                PUZZLE                                                           MELTDOWN
             CONFERENCE                                                    The former head of the UK pris-
                                                                           on service has warned that up to
                                                                           100,000 people could be in jail by
                                                                           the end of the decade unless drastic
                                                                           and immediate action is taken by
                                                                           the government.
                                                                             The prediction from Martin Narey
                                                                           came as the prison population in
                                                                           England and Wales reached an
                                                                           all-time high of more than 80,300,
                                                                           with only four spare places left in
                                                                           emergency police cells anywhere
                                                                           in the country. The crisis meant
                                                                           prison service officials were, for
                                                                           the first time, forced to turn to cells
                                                                           in magistrates courts with hard
                                                                           benches, no beds and no toilets.

                Plan B Theatre opened the conference                       The move had near disastrous con-
           he third annual Reintegration Puzzle Conference – Fitting the   sequences. Securicor officers were
           Pieces Together – was held in Sydney in May. The confer-        asked to volunteer to look after
           ence, hosted by Deakin University, brought together people      four prisoners held overnight at a
           working in the reintegration area to share ideas and build      magistrates court in north London.
networks. CRC was one of the sponsors of the conference.                   One of the prisoners made a sui-
   “The Conference provided opportunities for those working in the         cide attempt which was only pre-
justice area an opportunity to share policies, practices and research in   vented at the last minute. Speaking
the rehabilitation of people moving into and from the justice system,”     to the Guardian, Mr Narey warned
Professor Joe Graffam, the conference organiser, said.                     that Britain is heading towards US
  “The current discussion about how someone with a criminal record         levels of imprisonment.
should become part of society shows what an important issue this is to        “I wouldn’t be surprised at all if
our community.”                                                            by 2010 there were 100,000 peo-
   “Ex-offenders need the right support and the right opportunities to     ple in prison. I think there is every
get their lives back on track – the Reintegration Puzzle Conference        chance that, at the end of the dec-
helped us to find out what can work and how we can make sure they          ade, we will look back nostalgi-
succeed.”                                                                  cally at a figure of 80,000. The US
                   More on the conference pages 10 & 11
                                                                                           Continued Page 2
PRISON MELTDOWN CONTINUED                                                          WOMEN
 ‘there is a contradiction here; you keep say-                                       IN
 ing you want more community sentences and                                         PRISON
 less short prison sentences but then in the next
 breath you’re talking about tough sentences and
 life meaning life.’                                                     As at 30 June 2005 there were 1,734
                                                                         women incarcerated in Australian
experience shows there is no end to this.”                               prisons, in comparison to 23,619
   He added that about 6,000 people were locked up at any one time       men. Over one quarter (28%) of
who are “profoundly mentally ill”.                                       female prisoners were Indigenous
   The former director of the prison service was speaking as part of     women.
a Guardian investigation into the huge rise in the prison population        Between 1995 and 2005, the im-
over the last decade.                                                    prisonment rate has increased at a
   David Blunkett also admitted his regrets that, as home secretary,     faster rate for women (82.5%) than
he was unable to convince judges of the importance of non-custo-         for men (25%)
dial sentences for minor offences.                                          As well as increasing in number,
   “If I have a big regret about the three and half years as home sec-   the composition of women in
retary, it is that I never quite got that message across. Judges used    prison since 1996 has changed.
to say to me that ‘there is a contradiction here; you keep saying you    Women imprisoned for the more
want more community sentences and less short prison sentences            serious violent offences, such as
but then in the next breath you’re talking about tough sentences and     homicide, acts intended to cause
life meaning life.’ They are entirely compatible as far as I’m con-      injury and sexual assault, as well
cerned... I never wanted them to go soft but to be consistent.”          as theft, made up a larger propor-
   A former prison governor, Stephen Rimmer, now director of             tion of female prisoners in 2005
strategy at the Metropolitan police, suggested that only another         than in 1996.
Strangeways riot might gain the public’s attention on the issue of          The female prisoner population
overcrowding.                                                            tends to be relatively young. In
   This year the jail population in England and Wales reached an all-    2005, 57.6% of women in prison
time high of 80,316, including 397 locked overnight in police cells      were aged 34 years or younger and
under Operation Safeguard.                                               85% were aged between 18 and 44
   But, with impending local elections, the home secretary John          years Indigenous female prisoners
Reid is firmly against any new early release programme.                  were much younger than non-In-
   Ministers are in the process of building 10,000 extra prison          digenous female prisoners.
places with “temporary custodial modules” being rushed into exist-
ing prison perimeters to create 700 more places this year. The bulk      Women in Australia 2007
of the extra places, however, are several years behind Mr Narey’s        Office for Women
   Lord Falconer, who will take over responsibility for prisons in
May when they pass into the control of the newly created justice                    CONTENTS
ministry, said yesterday the role and limits of incarceration needed
to be clarified and acknowledged the need to manage the “burgeon-
ing prison population” better. He refused to rule out a new early        CRIME TRENDS NSW                3
release programme and said he would consider legislation requiring       ABORIGINAL CIRCLE               4
judges to consider prison overcrowding when sentencing.                  DRIVING OFFENCES                5
   The last three years has seen a 26% increase in the number of         FROM BROADWAY                  7
children and young people criminalised and seven times as much           ICE: COOL DRUG?                 8
is spent on youth custody as on prevention schemes. We lock up 23        THROUGHCARE                    11
children per 100,000 population, compared with six in France, two        DCS BUDGET                     13
in Spain and 0.2 in Finland.                                             MENTAL HEALTH & CJS            15

 Duncan Campbell and Alan Travis
 The Guardian March 31, 2007

               CRIME TRENDS IN NSW

              NSW has a higher rate of imprisonment than
              the Australian average and appears particularly
              punitive when compared internationally

                ccusations     that   of natural life elevates this state      imprisonment, less than in Eng-
                judges in NSW         above the highest penalties in all       land (95%).
                are out of touch      other jurisdictions. NSW also had            These findings suggest that the
                with reality and      the second highest maximum pen-          calls for tougher sentences are be-
                sentences are far     alty for robbery (25 years) and          ing made against what are already
too inadequate for the crimes be-     break and enter/ burglary offences       comparatively high levels of sever-
ing committed are commonplace.        (25 years).                              ity. Cases given high media pro-
However, the release of a report by        Amongst all Australian juris-       file and give rise to complaints of
the Judicial Commission of NSW        dictions, NSW had the highest            undue leniency are the exception,
in February this year challenges      proportion of sexual assault of-         rather than the norm.
the notion that comparative to        fenders sentenced to full-time                Regardless of whether or not
other Australian states, or equiva-   imprisonment among all Austral-          NSW has comparatively harsh sen-
lent overseas jurisdictions, NSW is   ian jurisdictions. The combined          tences, it is necessary to remember
‘soft’ on crime.                      imprisonment rate for all sexual         that discretionary sentencing is a
     Using publicly available sen-    assault offenders in NSW under           key to a system of criminal justice
tencing data from seven other ju-     these sections was 96%. While this       – punishment should suit not only
risdictions, and the NSW Judicial     does not seem surprising given the       the offence but also the offender.
Commission’s Judicial Informa-        seriousness of the crime, compari-       Although it is often easier to iden-
tion Research System, the study       son with other jurisdictions is stark    tify with the victims rather than the
compared the use of full-time im-     – in other Australian states, the rate   perpetrators of crimes, commu-
prisonment by judges in NSW na-       of imprisonment ranges only from         nities should not forget the wide
tionally and internationally. The     79% to 89%.                              array of factors in the offender’s
study found that NSW also had a           In NSW, the proportion of of-        circumstances which need to be
higher rate of imprisonment rate      fenders sentenced to full-time           taken into account in the sentenc-
at 170 per 100,000 capita, than the   imprisonment is also higher than         ing process.
Australian average (156), and four    other Australian jurisdictions for             The report Full-time Impris-
Australian states and territories.    robbery and higher than both Aus-        onment in New South Wales and
NSW appears particularly punitive     tralian and international jurisdic-      other Jurisdictions: A National and
when compared internationally,        tions for break and enter/burglary       International Comparison can be
having had a higher imprisonment      offences (78%).                          accessed at:
rate (170) per 100,000 than New         Only for dangerous driving caus-
Zealand (168), Canada (129) and       ing death, was the figure lower in
England (137).                        NSW than elsewhere - 88% of of-          Alice Lam
   With the introduction of the ag-   fenders who committed the offence
gravated sexual assault offence       under the influence of intoxicating
in 2001, the statutory maximum        liquor or drugs received full-time

            ABORIGINAL ‘CIRCLE’                                                             OF
             IS SHAPING UP OK                                                              CRIME

                                                                                Every year the Report on gov-

                                                                                ernment services (SCPGS) pro-
         BORIGINAL “circle sen-         magistrate, police prosecutor and       vides data on perceptions of crime
         tencing” has begun in          lawyers are also present, as well as    within the community. People are
         Sydney, with the NSW           the offender, who can bring along a     asked one question about which
Government confident the “sham-         support person. Victims are invited     crimes they believe to be a prob-
ing” approach in the legal process      to attend to talk about the impact      lem or somewhat of a problem in
reduces recidivism.                     of the crime.                           their state or territory, and a second
     Northern Territory prosecutor           The circle is convened away        question about perceived crime
Nanette Rogers said last year she       from the courts - often in a com-       levels in their local neighbour-
was “fed-up” with the emphasis on       munity hall - and the magistrate        hood.
customary law, claiming Aborigi-        starts by outlining the various sen-        The results show the percentage
nes were being given lighter sen-       tencing options. The sentence im-       who identified illicit drugs, prop-
tences.                                 posed must be within the limits set     erty crimes and violent crimes as
   An elder and chair of the Mount      out by the magistrate.                  a problem over the past five years.
Druitt Justice Group, Ray Leslie            Mt Druitt project co-ordinator      Property crimes consist of house-
said customary law, which was not       Jasmine Franklin said circle sen-       breaking and motor vehicle theft,
recognised in NSW, was actually         tencing worked because of its cul-      while violent crimes include fam-
tougher than going through a court      tural approach.                         ily violence and physical assault.
sentencing.                                “When Aboriginal people go to          There are two interesting findings
     “These people would have to        court, other people do the talking      in the results. First, the perception
have more courage in facing the         for them. But here you have to talk     of all three categories as a problem
Aboriginal legal community, their       for yourself, you have to answer to     at state level is consistently much
own community, and they don’t           the elders. That can be very power-     greater than at neighbourhood lev-
get off any lighter - it is just done   ful because of the shame factor.        el. Second, while perceptions of
in a culturally acceptable way.”           “Your elders are still going to be   all three crime categories at a state
   Circle sentencing began in 2002      there in the community, you can’t       level have remained stable, percep-
in Nowra, on NSW’s south coast.         get away from it. It is a shame on      tion of them as a problem at the lo-
Eight regional towns now have           your family as well as you.”            cal level has decreased since 2005.
circles but Mt Druitt is the first in     Offenders often receive a tougher     This is consistent with decreases
Sydney. Mr Leslie hopes circles         sentence than they may otherwise        noted in both crime victimisation
will be available in Redfern and        have received and may also be re-       surveys and in crimes reported to
Campbelltown later this year.           quired to undergo alcohol counsel-      police.
   Armidale, in northern NSW, set       ling, attend a men’s or women’s
up a circle last year, and only one     group - or even a music class.           Australian Institute of Criminology
out of 11 people has re-offended.          Outgoing NSW Attorney-Gener-
   Circle sentencing is only avail-     al Bob Debus said the scheme had
                                                                                         Voulunteers needed
able for those offenders who plead      the potential for hundreds of Abo-
guilty to their crimes - and they       riginal offenders to break free from           CRC can always do with
have to ask to be referred. The of-     the cycle of crime and was helping                some extra hands.
fenders must be of Aboriginal de-       to lower re-offence rates.                  We need people who answer the
                                                                                    phones, help with the newsletter
scent, and elders decide whether
                                                                                      and do general office work.
they think the person will be suita-     By Susannah Moran

ble for circle sentencing. Four Ab-      The Australian
                                                                                       Phone Jodie 02-9288 8700
original elders sit in the circle. A
The largest study of fines (as a deterrent) ever conducted in Australia
has shown that higher fines do not reduce the risk of re-offending.
   The study, carried out by the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and
Research, identified 70,000 NSW persons who received a court-im-
                                                                             The Australian Red Cross HOPE
posed fine for a driving offence between 1998 and 2000. Researchers          Program is an interactive training
then followed each offender for a period of five years to see whether        session designed to provide par-
they committed another driving offence.                                      ticipants with the skills, knowledge
   After controlling for a wide range of other factors likely to influence   and confidence to respond to a her-
                                                                             oin or other drug related overdose.
re-offending, the Bureau found no relationship between the magnitude
                                                                             Courses are held throughout NSW
for the fine imposed and the likelihood of a further driving offence.        including delivery to inmates at cor-
   The same negative result was obtained for drink-drive (PCA) of-           rectional facilities around the state.
fences, drive while disqualified offences, exceeding the speed limit and     Recently the HOPE Project team
‘other’ driving offences.                                                    have developed The HOPE Work-
                                                                             book. The Workbook contains all
   For most of these offences the Bureau also found no relationship
                                                                             of the material covered in a face to
between the period of licence disqualification and the risk of a further     face training session, including a
driving offence.                                                             section on first aid responses to an
   The only exception to this generalisation concerned speeding of-          overdose. Sections on factors that
fences. In this instance, longer disqualification periods were associated    will influence the effects of drugs
                                                                             as well as risk factors for overdose
with a higher risk of re-offending.
                                                                             and signs and symptoms of an
   Commenting on the findings, the Director of the Bureau, Dr Don            emergency make this a valuable
Weatherburn, said that they were consistent with a large body of evi-        resource for dealing with an over-
dence indicating that, contrary to popular opinion, tougher penalties do     dose. Each chapter includes an
not reduce the risk of re-offending.                                         activities section that is designed to
                                                                             reinforce the key knowledge areas
  ‘The best way to reduce the risk of recidivism amongst driving of-
                                                                             of the Workbook.
fenders is to increase the perceived likelihood of apprehension,’ he
said.                                                                            Copies of the Workbook
   Dr Weatherburn pointed out, however, that the Bureau study only              are available by contacting
examined the specific deterrent effect of tougher penalties.          
   ‘It is possible that higher fines and longer disqualification periods         or calling (02) 9229 4142
exert a general deterrent effect, that is, they may reduce the number of           HOPE IS funded by the
people willing to offend,’ he said.                                              Centre for Drug and Alcohol,
                                                                                         NSW Health.
   ‘Further research will be required to address this issue.’
For the full report:

                                                                                   CONTRIBUTE TO
                              OUR DEEPEST FEAR                                    CRC NEWSLETTER
 Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is
 that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness,     We welcome contributions to
 that frightens us most.                                                     our newsletter.
 We ask ourselves, ‘Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and                If you have a:
 famous?’ Actually, who are you not to be? You are a child of God.                      News item
 Your playing small does not serve the world.                                          Story to tell
 There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that people won’t feel              Opinion piece
 insecure around you. We were born to make manifest the glory of God                      Poem
 that is within us. It’s not just in some of us; it’s in all of us.                     Drawing
 And when we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other                         Photo
 people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own                       Letter
 fear, our presence automatically liberates others.                                     Send it to:
 Maryanne Williamson                                                                       CRC
 Used by Nelson Mandela in his 1994 inaugural speech                                 174 Broadway
 Sent in by: Mymoena Daniels, Services and Programs Officer
                                                                                BROADWAY NSW 2007
 Dillwynia Correctional Centre

                    RESEARCH ON STRONG
 Ruth Lawrence
 Indigenous Justice Clearinghouse

               hose working in regional communities      ‘outer regional’ Australia (Crime Research Centre,
               are often struck by the fact that one     2006). There is a higher than state average percent-
               Indigenous community is successful in     age of Indigenous people in the area with 3.5% of
               keeping crime rates low while another     the region’s population Indigenous. However, for
               is not. This raises the question as to    all crime categories in 2004, there was a lower than
what are the essential differences between these         state average crime rate for Boddington.
communities? What are the defining elements of               In the first part of this research brief various
a strong Indigenous community? Does the size of          definitions of strong Indigenous communities are
the community make a difference, does it matter if       examined. In the second section, we explore what
cultural traditions are observed, is the form of lead-   we know about strong Indigenous communities.
ership a key element, do strong women leaders or         Potentially, knowledge of the dynamics and defining
elders set the ‘tone’ in the community and does the      characteristics of strong communities can be used by
vibrancy of the local economy make a difference?         Indigenous people to understand their community
Knowledge about strong Indigenous communities            strengths. This knowledge could also be used by
could also tell us if the crime rate is linked to the    policy makers to understand how Indigenous com-
strength of bonds between community members.             munities can be strengthened.
   In each state and territory recorded crime rates         Although there is an increasing amount of data
vary markedly across local government areas. In          available on the economic and social conditions of
Dubbo, NSW, for example, the rate of assault in          Indigenous people in Australia, much of this re-
2005 was 1,263 per 100,000 while Shoalhaven was          search has been problem-focused. A narrow em-
695 per 100,000 and Kiama had a rate of 253 per          phasis on the negative aspects of communities has
100,000 (Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research         meant that the positive aspects of communities have
2006).                                                   not been recognised or recorded, and there has been
   There is every indication that Indigenous crime       little study of the inter- relationships between differ-
rates also vary according to geographical location.      ent aspects of communities (see Stout and Kipling
Indigenous population estimates are not, however,        1998). Problem oriented literature has included
available, making it impossible to calculate up-to-      studies on economic and social disadvantage and
date Indigenous crime rates. In Dubbo, for exam-         problem communities, surveys on key indicators of
ple, 423 Indigenous violent offences occurred in         disadvantage, and administrative datasets which are
2005, while 135 occurred in Lake Macquarie (NSW          linked to contact with government services due to
Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 2006).           social problems such as child abuse, overcrowding,
Both areas had over 3,000 Indigenous people in the       unemployment, crime, and mental health problems.
2001 Census. The figures suggest that Dubbo has a        Findings from research projects that have utilised
high rate of Indigenous violent offences but without     existing survey data and administrative data sets re-
knowledge of population mobility and growth in the       veal what we know about communities and what are
area the exact rate cannot be calculated.                the possible directions for further research work.
   Another example is the Shire of Boddington.
Situated in the south west interior of Western Aus-      This is an edited version of the paper available at:
tralia, this very small community is classified as

News from Broadway
     What’s new at the Community Restorative Centre

       PAROLEE SUPPORT                   located and Parramatta Children’s JAILBREAK HEALTH PROJECT
CRC has received funding for a           Court seems to be increasing their Central to this Project is Jailbreak,
new project; the Parolee Support         volume of work.                       a weekly ½ hour radio show for
Program. The program is for of-          Allan Doyle                           prisoners, families and the com-
fenders with intellectual disabili-                                            munity that hopefully many of you
ties or mental illnesses who are                 CONNECT PROJECT               have had the opportunity to listen
exiting gaol. A new office will be       The Connect: Supporting Families to. The show is always striving
established in Fairfield for the staff   of Prisoners project continues to to be responsive to issues facing
and we’ll be advertising the posi-       provide training to workers from prisoners and their families, and
tions in the near future.                government and non-government so in consultation with CRC fam-
                                         agencies to raise awareness about ily workers, Jailbreak recently
         COURT SUPPORT                   the extreme disadvantage families produced a series focusing on the
In the past four months we have          of prisoners face and to link fami- impact gaol has on the families
trained and placed ten new volun-        lies with these services. Training of prisoners. This would not have
teers into various courts, including     is currently offered to workers in been possible without the gener-
Mt. Druitt, Penrith, Sutherland,         Fairfield, Bankstown, Blacktown, osity of families who willingly
Burwood, Bankstown, Gosford              Wyong and Gosford local govern- shared their personal heartache in
and the Family court at Parram-          ment areas.                           the public arena in order that their
atta. Most have settled into the            Since the beginning of the project stories may help another family
positions, and I am receiving com-       around 220 workers have attended going through something similar.
mendations from court officials          the training and received resource       We heard about the impact gaol
and clients.                             packs to assist them in supporting has on indigenous families (Abo-
     We have recently spent some         families with a loved one in cus- riginal people are much more
time in editing, up-dating, printing     tody. This includes workers from likely to be imprisoned than Aus-
and distributing the Court Support       Centrelink, DoCS, Schools, Health tralians from non-indigenous back-
Training Manual. It is amazing           Centres, Department of Hous- grounds) and how it’s even more
how many changes to procedures           ing and Neighbourhood Centres. painful when these families are
and the law can occur in a short         The feedback from participants from the Stolen Generations. We
space of time. We have also pro-         has been overwhelmingly posi-                        continued page 9

duced a new brochure relative to         tive with many reporting a much
the Court Support Scheme. I have         greater understanding of the issues The StAMP Mentoring Program
to thank Jack, our new Resource          that impact on families and how to is a community strengthening
Development worker for his help          better support them.                   programme assisting people
with these two projects.                      Families themselves have been who have been in prison.
    There have been a number of          an integral part of this process and
significant changes around the           have provided input into the train- The programme provides sup-
Local Courts lately including the        ing about what they would like port and guidance to people
re-opening of Bankstown, and             services to know.                      who have spent time in custody
that Court taking on work from               If you would like to be involved and who live in the Redfern,
Fairfield. I believe Fairfield will      or attend the training, please con- Waterloo, Marrickville and City
re-open in the next few months           tact Melanie on 9724 3807              of Sydney Local Government
following renovations. The Court         or email                               Areas.
Support Scheme volunteers at Bi-
dura and Cobham have been re-                                                   Call Claudia Vidal, 9288 8700

            Gordian W O Fulde and Alex Wodak
            Medical Journal of Australia

      ce”, or crystalline metham-     related arrests rose from 18 per       extent of medium- to long-term

“     phetamine, is a relatively
      new drug in Australia. It may
      be injected intravenously or
swallowed, but is increasingly con-
                                      100 000 population in 1995 to 46
                                      per 100 000 population in 2005 (an
                                      increase of 253%).
                                            Why is the consumption of
                                                                             physical and mental health impair-
                                                                             ment from street amphetamine use
                                                                             is still evolving.
                                                                                Although we should be wary of
sumed by smoking. With about 1.8      methamphetamine apparently rela-       predictions that illicit drug prob-
million Australians (9%) reporting    tively stable, while harms seem to     lems are destined to deteriorate
ever using methamphetamine and        be increasing markedly? Possible       inexorably and indefinitely, it is
about half a million Australians      explanations for this anomaly in-      likely that amphetamine-related
aged 14 years and older (3.2%)        clude the problems of conducting       problems will continue to worsen
reporting current use of the drug,    and interpreting surveys of illicit    in Australia for some time. In part,
Australia is among the top dozen      drug consumption, the increasing       the increase in amphetamine pro-
countries in the world in terms of    purity of street methamphetamine,      duction and use may reflect a shift
prevalence of methamphetamine         and the increasing availability and    from plant-based drugs (such as
use. However, its use varies con-     use of more readily absorbed forms     heroin or cocaine) to chemical-
siderably across the country, being   of methamphetamine, including          based drugs, which allow produc-
higher in some states — such as       ice, which have a far greater psy-     ers to evade law enforcement de-
Queensland (especially the Gold       choactive effect on the brain.         tection using aerial and satellite
Coast region), South Australia and        Methamphetamine has diverse        surveillance and to avoid the va-
Western Australia — than others.      health and social impacts. These       garies of the weather. The value of
      Reported methamphetamine        include effects on hospitals, crime,   the global market in all illicit drugs
use increased in surveys of the       personal relationships, employ-        for the year 2003 was estimated at
general population in Australia       ment and private debt. The nature      US$322 billion at the retail level,
in the 1990s, but has since de-       and extent of these adverse ef-        with the lucrative profits of drug
clined slightly. However, in recent   fects have not yet been fully deter-   trafficking estimated to account for
years, indicators of harm (such       mined.                                 26%–58% of turnover.
as psychosis, emergency depart-            Amphetamine-related presen-          Existing alcohol and drug treat-
ment presentations, and metham-       tations are a great burden on the      ment services attract and retain few
phetamine-related crime) have in-     health care system. It can take        methamphetamine users, but serv-
creased considerably. There was a     days before amphetamine-related        ices that specialise in patients with
59% increase in amphetamine-re-       psychosis can be distinguished         stimulant problems seem more
lated psychosis nationally between    from other serious mental health       successful in attracting a higher
1999–00 and 2003–04. In New           conditions, such as schizophrenia.     proportion.
South Wales, methamphetamine-         Knowledge of the full nature and           The processes of amphetamine

    COURT                         We know that a court appearance can be traumatic, and you may have prob-
                                  lems which the court is not geared to handle. Our volunteers are trained to
    SUPPORT                       help you better understand and find your way through the court system. Our
                                  volunteers can assist you by:
                                  Providing information on court procedures and sources of legal assistance
                                  Supporting you while you are in court
                                  Making referrals to community and government agencies
                                  Contacting other services at court
                                  Our service is for: defendants and witnesses in court proceedings, victims
                                  of crime, their friends or relatives and anyone who uses the NSW judicial

                                  Phone Allan 02-9288 8700

withdrawal and detoxification are still poorly understood. Psychosocial                     INDIGENOUS CHILDREN
interventions (such as cognitive behavioural therapy, contingency man-                          IN DETENTION
agement and motivational interviewing) may be sufficient for the many
patients with milder problems. But these interventions are unlikely to                   A report released by the Aus-
be sufficient for those who consume substantial quantities of metham-                    tralian Institute of Health and
phetamine and have severe problems. While many pharmacotherapeutic                       Welfare (AIHW) shows that the
agents have been tried without success, amphetamine substitution treat-                  number of young people under
ment appears to be an effective and safe treatment for carefully selected,               juvenile justice supervision is
treatment-refractory patients with severe problems.                                      declining, but indigenous rates
    Drug law enforcement is often touted as a panacea for the problem of                 are far too high.
illicit drug use, but, as a recent review noted,                                                About one-third of young
    There is strikingly little evidence that tougher law enforcement can                 people under supervision during
materially reduce drug use. By contrast, drug treatment services remain                  2004-05 were of Aboriginal or
in short supply, even though research indicates that treatment expendi-                  Torres Strait Islander origin.
tures easily pay for themselves in terms of reduced crime and improved                         ‘This represents a rate of
productivity.                                                                            around 42 per 1,000 Indige-
    Accordingly, authorities would be wise to invest more in health and                  nous young people (aged 10-17
social interventions.                                                                    years) compared to about three
    New drugs appear frequently in the constantly changing illicit drug                  per 1,000 for non-Indigenous
industry and are often hailed as “the most dangerous drug yet”. In the                   young people,’ said Ms Ingrid
politicised and highly charged environment surrounding illicit drugs, it                 Johnston, one of the authors.
is difficult, but all the more important, to maintain a balanced and evi-
dence-based approach to policy and practice.
    For many decades, tackling the illicit drug problem around the world                health problems) in Chippendale.
has been considered primarily a matter for the criminal justice system.                 The men shared personal stories
Funding has flowed accordingly, with health and social interventions                    and wisdom in a bid to contribute
usually treated as the poor cousins of law enforcement. Yet, in most                    to the health of other people who
countries, illicit drug use and consequent problems have continued to                   are caught up in injecting drug use
increase. The evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health               lifestyles. Harm reduction mes-
interventions for illicit drug use is far more impressive than the evidence             sages recorded covered topics such
for drug law enforcement. It is time that Australia regarded illicit drugs              as preventing overdose and avoid-
in general, and methamphetamine in particular, as primarily a matter for                ing Hep C transmission in the gaol
health and social interventions, although drug law enforcement should                   setting. If you tune in to 2SER
continue to play an important role. p                                                   107.3FM on a Tuesday evening at
                                                                                        6pm you may catch some of those
                                      This is an edited version of the original paper
                                                                                        health tips.
                                                                                           Finally, I would like to mention
                                                                                        that I’ll be taking extended leave
                                                                                        from mid July until mid December.
heard about the parental devasta-      deal for others who may have the                 During my absence Angela Owens
tion of having a son with a mental     misfortune to find themselves in                 will be capably at the helm as the
illness end up in gaol with an in-     similar circumstances. Thank you.                Jailbreak Health Project Coordina-
determinate sentence (having been      Apart from broadcasting the mu-                  tor. Angela is a registered psychol-
found not guilty on the grounds        sic, stories and opinions of people              ogist with a background in youth
of mental illness); and tragically     caught up in the criminal justice                health, the drug and alcohol field,
we also heard what it’s like for a     system, the show also features peer              health promotion and community
family when their loved one dies       led health information recorded                  development. She has also worked
in custody. However, despite the       with prisoners and ex-prisoners.                 in community radio for a number
enormous pressures faced by these      Recently I had the opportunity to                of years and so is the perfect per-
people, the series also inadvert-      run a Health Promotion for Ra-                   son to progress the Project. I look
ently revealed the strength and de-    dio course with ex-prisoners at                  forward to tuning into the radio
termination of these families and      We Help Ourselves (a rehabilita-                 show each week as a listener.
their endeavours to ensure a better    tion program for people with drug Ariane Minc

     Conference Photogallery

         Making the policy a reality

           Associate Professor Eileen Baldry
           University of NSW
           Reintegration Puzzle Conference

                                                                                 Edited version of the paper

          t the end of 2006 there       icy and strategy because the flow       and the effects of remand. These
          were 25,800 persons in        numbers and demographics are            persons serving shorter sentences
          full-time custody and         radically different from the census     or on remand are often those with
51,690 persons in community-            or stock ones. Unfortunately there      mental health/dual or multiple di-
based corrections; 8,935 of these       is no reliable national information     agnoses, borderline cognitive dis-
persons were serving parole orders      on this despite it being raised years   ability and multiple less serious
following a period of imprison-         ago as a significant deficit in in-     offences and they tend to be those
ment.                                   formation on Corrections in Aus-        who cycle in and out – the ‘churn-
    The national average daily In-      tralia . The ABS states that it has a   ers’ as the USA system calls them.
digenous imprisonment rate in the       project supposedly collecting such      Throughcare approaches for this
December quarter 2006 was 2,160         data but it is not available in the     majority are not the same as those
per 100,000 adult Indigenous pop-       public realm and it should be so        for persons having served longer
ulation, an increase of 7% from         that all the services and agencies      sentences. Very importantly, by far
the December quarter 2005 and an        connected with throughcare can          the majority of women prisoners in
increase of 2% from the previous        see the scope of the clientele with     Australia, a highly disproportion-
quarter (ABS 2007:2)                    whom they are working. Guesses          ate number of who are Indigenous
   These figures highlight the reifi-   are that yearly flow numbers may        women, fall into this group.
cation of the penal estate over the     be around 45,000 – 50,000 (in                 So it is essential to base ap-
community estate in the Austral-        2001 FACS estimated the number          proaches to throughcare on real
ian criminal justice system. This is    to be around 44,000: see Baldry et      life, real system information not
an important observation because        al 2003).                               on the data that has traditionally
throughcare requires a strong com-          Why is this so important? Be-       been collected just because it has
munity component to make it vi-         cause the majority of people en-        always been collected that way.
able rather than an increasingly        tering full-time imprisonment are       What is throughcare?
dominant prison component. Of           serving sentences under 12 months       Throughcare has been defined as
course throughcare also requires        or are on remand. From the perspec-     the continuous, co-ordinated and
a strong non-criminal justice com-      tive of persons being released from     integrated management of offend-
munity sector – but that will be ad-    full-time imprisonment the census       ers from the offender’s first point
dressed shortly.                        gives the impression that the major-    of contact with correctional serv-
   What these figures do not tell us    ity of persons in prison are serving    ices to their successful reintegra-
is the flow-through numbers – the       longer sentences than is the case.      tion into the community and com-
numbers of prisoners who flow           The flow through numbers and de-        pletion of their legal order (Clay
through the system over the period      mographics, if they were available      2002, 41).
of a month or 6 months or a year.       would suggest different approach-           Internationally, throughcare has
This information is vital for any       es – approaches that took seriously     existed for many years and is wide-
throughcare and post-release pol-       the effects of short term sentences     ly recognised as a ‘best practice’
                                                                                 continued next page
approach to working with offend-        assessed need, implementation of could be brought to bear in answer-
ers to reduce recidivism and assist     case plans and case reviews’ (South ing this question.
community integration (Borzycki         Australian Department of Justice         But back to throughcare policy
2005).                                  Correctional Services, 2004) and and practice: without successful
      The United Kingdom recog-         it aims to provide uninterrupted implementation, policies are mere-
nised of the concept in relation to     service for offenders leaving the ly statements of intent (Bridgman
working with prisoners in 1986          prison system.                       & Davis 2004; Gerston 2004). In
although the term had been used         l Provision of seamless service to other words, unless the appropri-
in years prior to that in a number      avoid duplication and/or isolated ate government agencies – namely
of reports and discussions (McAl-       work practices                       custodial and community correc-
lister et al 1992). Throughcare is      (Victorian Department of Justice tions - have undertaken the proc-
also not ‘new’ in terms of many of      2000)                                ess of converting throughcare into
the every day work practices car-       l Effective working partnerships     reality, then these policies have
ried out by probation and parole of-    l Provision of consistent interven- neither substance, nor significance
ficers over many decades (Stevens       tions across community and custo- (Gerston 2004, 96). And unless
2002, 2). It must also be noted that    dy which are proven to be effec- there are evaluations of imple-
the concept of continuity of care       tive in reducing recidivism (NSW mentation it is impossible to know
has long been used in the context       Department of Corrective Services whether the policies are working.
of social work and mental health.       2002; Stevens 2002).                 At this point I state my unequivo-
In fact, the terms ‘throughcare’ and         There are some obvious and cal support for the intention of
‘aftercare’ were borrowed from the      immediate problems with some throughcare, the various programs
social welfare sector and the medi-     of these formulations. Whole of and projects working towards
cal model and applied to the proc-      sentence planning is extremely achieving it and the commitment
ess of supporting a prisoner from       difficult for those on remand, ob- of large numbers of community
custody to community (Victorian         viating the need to reduce the use corrections, NGO and other staff
Department of Justice 2000).            of prison for remand to only those with responsibility for trying to
   In the Australian context, howev-    on serious charges, Similarly for make throughcare a reality.
er, throughcare as a formal policy      those on short sentences whole of
in Corrections is a relatively recent   sentence planning is very difficult,
initiative, with South Australia        again obviating the need to use
being the first state to introduce      other sanctions for those whose of-
throughcare legislation in 1998.        fences warrant short sentences. It
It appears to be the state with the     would be of great interest to hear
most active throughcare policy.         how SA’s attempt to implement
Throughcare now exists as formal        throughcare for remand and short
policy in each of the seven Austral-    sentence prisoners, reported at the
ian jurisdictions.                      2006 Reintegration Puzzle confer-
Principles of throughcare can be        ence (Lines 2006) is progressing.
summarised as                           WA has been attempting to reduce
l Assistance and support to offend-     their prison population by elimi-
ers whilst in custody or under su-      nating most short sentences and re-
pervision in the community (NSW         ducing those going into remand in
Department of Corrective Services       prison but the reductions gained in
2002)                                   2003-2005 have begun to reverse.
l Whole of sentence planning            The same appears to be the case
l Integrated Case management.           for Victoria (ABS 2007). If this is
Case management is the proc-            the case why this has happened is
ess through which throughcare is        a key question to be answered be-
achieved, and hence it is a key com-    cause the answer would provide
ponent of any successful through-       important information for through-
care system. It is defined as ‘the      care implementation. In value and
individualised and planned man-         philosophical terms though some
agement of offenders based upon         of the comments later in this paper
       Corrective Services’ Budget

   The NSW 2007/2008 Budget was presented to parliament
   in June. Corrective Services gets a 9% increase, with a total
   budget of $868 million.

In 2007-08, the Department’s total expenses are           The total estimated cost of the project is $8.9 mil-
budgeted to be $868 million, an increase of 8.9 per       lion ($1.5 million in 2007-08), with completion
cent compared to 2006-07. This reflects:                  anticipated in 2009-10.
p $12.8 million for an increase in inmate numbers;        Inmate Escort Vehicles
p $14.7 million for the reform of the management of       The growth in inmate population accentuates
offenders in the community;                               the requirement for the Department to increase
p $1.9 million for the Drug Court programs; and           its inmate transport fleet and to replace vehicles
p $9.7 million for the increased depreciation ex-         and truck bodies as they reach their economical
penses due to revaluation of assets in accordance with    replacement time.
accounting standards.                                        The estimated total cost of the project is $9.2
   The 2007-08 capital program totals $97.1 million       million ($1.5 million in 2007-08), with comple-
for ongoing capital projects. The main projects in the    tion anticipated in 2011-12.
2007-08 capital program are detailed below.               Kariong Juvenile Correctional Centre
    To accommodate the growing inmate population          The Department assumed responsibility for the
across New South Wales, planning and documenta-           operation of Kariong Juvenile Correctional Centre
tion continues for expansion of Cessnock Correction-      in late 2004. Refurbishment work continues to
al Centre (250 beds), Lithgow Correctional Centre         enhance current operations in the management of
(250 beds) and for a new 500 bed facility, modelled       high security juvenile offenders.
on the Kempsey and Wellington Correctional Centres,          The total estimated cost of the project is $5.3
to be located on the South Coast of New South Wales.      million ($1.9 million in 2007-08), with comple-
    The total estimated cost of the project is $296.4     tion expected in 2008-09.
million ($59.3 million in 2007-08) with completion        Long Bay Hospital Redevelopment
expected in 2010-11.                                      This project involves the development of a new
    Community Offender Services (including the Pro-       85 bed prison hospital to provide inpatient health
bation and Parole Service) accommodation is being         care to inmates who require admission to hospital.
progressively upgraded. Funding of $2.5 million has       The new prison hospital will replace the existing
been allocated in 2007-08, part of a $13.1 million for    hospital which has only 54 beds available for the
fit outs and essential fire and safety requirements at    general inmate population. The existing facili-
various Community Offender Service Offices across         ties will be inadequate for projected correctional
New South Wales.                                          system requirements in the future.
    Completion of the upgrade program is anticipated         The project is funded as a Public Private Part-
in 2008-09.                                               nership. Funding of $2.1 million has been pro-
Electronic Case Management                                vided in 2007-08 for the completion of necessary
This project allows for initiatives in case management    enabling works.
and risk assessment and will consolidate an informa-         The estimated total cost of the project is $63.9
tion base in order to deliver quality services to high    million. The project is expected to be completed
risk offenders. The project supports the Corrective       in 2008-09.
Services Throughcare Model which provides a frame-           A parallel development is being undertaken by
work to support the case management of offenders          the Department of Health to establish a 135 bed
before, during and after custody, in both custodial and   forensic hospital on the site of the existing prison
community contexts.                                       hospital at Long Bay.
                                                                     continued next page
Long Bay Staged                           The project will provide accom-      It has been identified as a pivotal
Redevelopment                          modation for 70 offenders and has       facility in the management of fe-
The Long Bay redevelopment             an estimated total cost of $10.8        male inmates in New South Wales.
provides therapeutic special needs     million ($1.6 million in 2007-08).      The maximum-security facility
programs for sex offenders, vio-       The project is expected to be com-      will cater for both the operational
lent offenders, inmates with intel-    pleted in September 2007.               and medical requirements of high
lectual disabilities, those at high    Men’s Transitional Centre               need female inmates.
risk of suicide, medical transients    The transitional centre for men has         The project will be completed
and offenders with major drug          been incorporated into the North        over several stages due to the on-
and/or alcohol problems.               Coast Second Chance project at          going use of the facility during
    The project also includes a new    Tabulam in northern New South           construction. The estimated total
visitor pre-processing and control     Wales. The centre will be a mini-       cost for the project is $52.2 mil-
centre at the Anzac Parade entrance    mum security, community based           lion ($10 million in 2007-08), with
to the complex.                        facility to prepare selected inmates    completion of all stages anticipat-
    The estimated total cost of the    for their post release responsibili-    ed in 2008-09.
project is $46.2 million ($1.6 mil-    ties in a safe, drug and alcohol free   Wellington Correctional Centre
lion in 2007-08) and the redevel-      environment.                            (500 bed)
opment is scheduled for comple-             The centre effectively will be     This project, formerly called the
tion in 2008.                          a pre release half-way house for        Western Region Correctional
North Coast Second Chance              inmates. From this setting, the         Centre, is a 500 bed multi-classi-
Program                                men will go into the community          fication correctional facility. The
Following the success of the Sec-      for counselling, education and em-      project will include components
ond Chance Program for predomi-        ployment.                               for female and remand inmates,
nantly indigenous offenders in            The project will provide 30 beds     similar to the model developed for
western New South Wales, a simi-       at a total cost of $1.7 million ($0.1   the Mid North Coast Correctional
lar program is being developed on      million in 2007-08). It is due to be    Centre at Kempsey.
the North Coast. A property has        completed in September 2007.                The estimated total cost of the
been purchased at Tabulam where        Silverwater Women’s Correc-             project is $125.6 million ($4.1 mil-
accommodation and programs will        tional Centre (formerly Mulawa)         lion in 2007-08) with completion
be provided. Construction of new       Staged Redevelopment – Stage 2          anticipated in 2007-08.
facilities is well underway on the     This project involves the upgrade
site.                                  of site infrastructure to improve
                                                                                     Support the
   The project provides meaningful     the accommodation of female in-
vocational training and re-estab-      mates within the State. The former         CRC by becoming
lishes important cultural links for    Mulawa Correctional Centre was                 a member
indigenous offenders receiving a       renamed Silverwater Women’s                Application form on
first custodial sentence.              Correctional Centre in early 2007.            back page

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 MENTAL DISORDERS IN THE                                                                tematic assessment leading to appro-
                                                                                        priate treatment in the criminal justice
 CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM                                                                system. The justice system also pro-
                                                                                        vides an opportunity to identify and
                                                                                        deliver treatment to people who are
 James RP Ogloff, Michael R Davis, George Rivers                                        otherwise likely to remain outside the
 and Stuart Ross                                                                        reach of services. In particular, the jus-
                                                                                        tice system is a key avenue for deliv-

                                                                                        ering the specialised assessment and
        revalence rates of a wide variety of mental disorders are disproportion-        treatment services required by those
        ately high in the offender population within the criminal justice sys-          with concurrent mental disorders and
        tem. If the justice system provides an opportunity to identify individuals      substance abuse (Ogloff, Lemphers &
with serious mental illnesses, they may then be dealt with appropriately, either        Dwyer 2004).
through the provision of effective treatment to them while in the justice system            Unfortunately, research shows that
or by diverting them to the mental health system. Unfortunately, screening and          a relatively poor job is done of ade-
assessment for mental illness in justice agencies across Australia is inconsist-        quately identifying the needs of men-
ent. This report presents the findings from research, based on interviews and           tally disordered offenders prior to the
the examination of collateral documentation covering criminal justice agencies          time they enter the criminal justice
in each of the states and territories.                                                  system.
    Rates of the major mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and depression,
                                                                                         Full paper from :
are between three and five times higher in offender populations than those ex-           cations/tandi2/tandi334.html
pected in the general community. Mullen, Holmquist and Ogloff (2003) con-
ducted an extensive review of existing Australian epidemiological data, col-
lating datasets to arrive at composite prevalence data. They reported that 13.5
percent of male prisoners, and 20 percent of female prisoners, had reported                        TRAINING
having prior psychiatric admission(s). The same study found that ‘up to 8% of
male and 14% of females in… (Australian) prisons have a major mental disor-                       PROVIDED
der with psychotic features’ (Mullen, Holmquist & Ogloff 2003). In regard to
schizophrenia itself, they estimated that the prevalence was between two and                          BY CRC
five percent for prisoners, and was likely to be similar for those on community
orders. The Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program regularly finds high               “Prisoners and their problems do not
self-reported rates of mental health problems among police detainees (Mouzos,           fall from the sky. They come from
Smith & Hind 2006).                                                                     families, they live in neighbourhoods
  These results reinforce earlier studies of Australian custodial populations (Her-     and they belong to communities.”
rman et al. 1991) and studies in other countries such as New Zealand (Brinded           Tony Vinson
et al. 2001), Canada (Ogloff 1996), Ireland (Duffy, Linehan & Kennedy 2006)
and the United Kingdom (Howard & Christophersen 2003). The prevalence of                CRC provides specialised training
mental illness is even higher in offenders remanded prior to trial.                     to organisations and community
                                                                                        workers engaged in supporting or
These findings are astounding when compared with the general population,                working with post-release prisoners
where less than one percent of adults are admitted to a hospital for mental             and families of prisoners.
health problems in any year (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998), and lifetime        The individual training workshops are
prevalence rates for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are 0.3 percent to           tailored to the needs of workers and
one percent.                                                                            organisations and provide practical
                                                                                        information about the NSW prison
    A number of contributing factors have been identified to help explain the           system and how imprisonment affects
high numbers of people with mental illnesses in the criminal justice system,            the families and impacts on the post-
including the deinstitutionalisation of mentally ill people, an increase in the use     release needs of prisoners.
of drugs and alcohol by people with mental illnesses, and the limited capacity
of community-based mental health services to address the needs of mentally ill          For further information about
offenders.                                                                              these training opportunities,
   Of the roughly 15,000 people with major mental illnesses in Australian insti-        contact CRC on (02) 9288 8700
tutions during 2001, around one-third were in prisons (Figure 1). Thus, if there
is to be an effective system of mental health care, it is critical that there is sys-

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