Cooking methods by luckykey


									FOOD   N° 2   6 / 06


       COOKiNG         • Moist-heat cooking
                         – Boiling

                         – Poaching
                         – steaming
                         – stewing/Braising
                         – Pressure cooking
                         – Microwave cooking
                       • dry-heat cooking
                         – Roasting
                         – sautéing
                         – grilling
                         – Baking
                       • Fry-cooking methods
                         – deep-frying
                         – Pan-frying
                         – stir-frying/Wok
    Cooking Methods

    Moist-heat                                 •	When practical, save the cooking
                                                  liquid for use in stocks, sauces and
                                                                                                   Cooking at a temperature of about
    cooking                                       casseroles.
                                               •	 To add vitamins, sprinkle some
                                                                                                   100°C (212° F) in steam, with the food
                                                                                                   and cooking liquid completely sepa-
    methods                                       fresh herbs onto the cooked food.                rated. You can use a commercial
                                                                                                   steamer or a pot with a rack that
                                                                                                   suspends the food above a small
    generally, moist-heat cooking meth-                                                            amount of simmering liquid.
    ods use a liquid for cooking – usually                                                         Tips:
    water, stock or steam. the advan-                                                              •	 Use a flavoured liquid like stock,
    tage of steam is that it transfers more                                                           wine, water infused with herbs,
    heat at the same temperature. As a                                                                lemon, etc.
    result, the food cooks faster and
    fewer nutrients are lost. the cooking
    temperature may vary from 70° – 120°
    C (158° – 212° F). these methods           Poaching:
    are particularly suitable for prepar-      Cooking in liquid at a temperature
    ing pasta, rice, pulses and vegeta-        under the boiling point (75°– 95° C /
    bles. the methods referenced below,        167°– 203° F).
    though not exhaustive, are the more        Tips:
    common techniques.                         •	 Not ideal for nutrient retention in
                                                  vegetables and potatoes, because a               Stewing / Braising:
                                                  long cooking time results in addi-               Meat is often browned before liquid
    Boiling:                                      tional nutrient loss through osmosis             is added. Meats and vegetables can
    Cooking in a lot of liquid at a tem-          (nutrients boiled out into the liquid).          be cooked or steamed in their own
    perature of about 100° C (212° F).         •	 Use a pot with a large diameter.                 juice. A particular way of stewing
    Tips:                                      •	 If possible, add herbs or spices to              is to glaze: vegetables (carrots, small
    •	 Generally use as little water as           the poaching liquid rather than salt             onions) become covered with the
       possible to minimize the loss of           or sugar.                                        stew stock, which is reduced and
      vitamins and minerals.                                                                       enriched with a little sugar.

         G O O D TO K N OW
     •	 Deactivation of enzymes

     •	 Preservation   of the colour
              of microorganisms that may
     •	 Killing
       be present
     Note: loss of about 20 – 30% of vitamin
                                                                           GOOD TO REMEMBER
     C, but vitamin retention improves           Moist-heat cooking methods
     during subsequent storage (chill-
     freeze process).
                                                                       Food                        +           Nutrition          –
     Tips:                                       Boiling     •	 food(e.g. vegeta-      •	 no   fat / oil is needed          loss of nutrients
                                                                                                                     •	 great

     •	 Drain and refresh in cold or iced                     bles) for soups;                                        (osmosis) e.g. water-
        water immediately to prevent fur-                     hot pots                                                soluble vitamins
        ther vitamin loss through cooking.                   •	 starchessuch as                                       (folate, vitamin B1, C)

     •	 Do not leave the food in the water                    rice, potatoes and
       as this will cause further loss of                     pasta
       nutrients through osmosis and will        Poaching          with little
                                                             •	 meat                   •	 no   fat / oil is needed   •	 great   loss of nutrients
       soften the texture of the food.                        connective tissue
     Note: Osmosis: Nutrients in food leak                   •	 eggs, fish, poultry,
     or diffuse to liquid with lower con-                     small sausages
     centration. Therefore, it is important      Steaming •	 vegetables, fish,         •	 nutrient-friendly
     to use this liquid for the sauce or as                                                                                       –
                                                             •	 potatoes                method
     stock for soups because it is rich in
                                                                                       •	 minimal    loss of
     vitamins and minerals.

    NutriPro Food 6/06
                                                                                                     Cooking Methods

Tips:                                       Tips:
•	Use leftover water for the sauce          •	It is important to keep to the exact         G O O D TO K N OW
  or as stock for soups.                      cooking time, as the food over-
•	Use a pot with a tight-fitting lid          cooks very quickly.
  (as wide and flat as possible).           •	Suitable for producing large batches      The term phytochemicals refers to a
                                                                                        class of substances (at the moment
                                              (portion by portion) of food (vegeta-
                                                                                        60 000 – 100 000 are known), which
Pressure cooking:                             bles, potatoes, fish), or for producing
                                                                                        exist only in plants. They are classi-
Cooking in an airtight pressure               a smaller amount of food (e.g. for
                                                                                        fied into several groups (e.g. carote-
cooker at about 105° – 120° C                 diet recipes).
                                                                                        noids, flavonoids, phytoestrogens,
(221° – 248° F).
                                                                                        glucosinolates) and rated as health-
Note: higher temperature equals
                                                                                        supporting substances. They have,
shorter cooking time. The steamer is
                                                                                        for example, antioxidant, anti-carci-
also suitable for blanching, poaching                                                   nogenic and anti-inflammatory
and reheating.                                                                          effects and may also reduce blood
                                                                                        cholesterol. These effects can only
                                                                                        be verified when the phytochemi-
                                                                                        cals are obtained from whole foods
                                                                                        in fruits and vegetables. Their effect
                                                                                        when taken as supplements cannot
                                                                                        currently be verified. Their loss dur-
                                                                                        ing cooking varies greatly. Some are
                                                                                        soluble and sensitive to heat and
                                                                                        air; others are better obtained from
                                                                                        well-done foods (lycopene in cooked
                                                                                        tomatoes). Tip: The best way to
                                                                                        serve a variety of phytochemicals is
                                                                                        to create a diet that includes every
                                                                                        colour of the rainbow (red, orange,
                                                                                        yellow, green, blue/violet).

NutriPro Food 6/06 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
    Cooking Methods

         G O O D TO K N OW                             Microwave cooking:
                                                       Cooking with electromagnetic waves,
                                                                                                   Dry-heat cook-
     how does a microwave
                                                       either with or without a small amount
                                                       of added liquid. The food can be
                                                                                                   ing methods
     In other cooking methods food                     browned or given a crust only if com-
     warms up from the outside in. But                 bined with a dry-heat method such           heat is transferred through air or fat.
     with the microwave, the heat comes                as grilling. It is ideally suited for       the cooking temperature is between
     from inside the food, from its water              reheating food.                             120° – 150° C (248° – 302°F), and for
     molecules. The electromagnetic                    Tips:                                       short periods up to 300°C (572° F).
     waves of the microwave cause these                •	The food may cook unevenly and            suitable for foods rich in proteins,
     water molecules to vibrate and                      have hot and cold spots.                  like meat, fish and seafood and
     the resulting heat cooks the food.                   Note:                                    where a crust is desired.
     Deciding factors for determining                     – For liquids: stir about halfway
     the required cooking time of certain                   through the cooking time to dis-       Roasting:
     products can be water content,                         tribute heat more evenly.              Cooking with browning on the stove
     molecular density, the starting tem-                 – For solid food: let sit for several    or in the oven with or without
     perature of the food, as well as the                   minutes after cooking or reheat-       adding fat, at a temperature of
     penetration or strength of the rays                    ing, before serving.                   140°– 200°C (284°– 392° F). A special
     (normally 2 – 4 cm). According to                 •	If the thickness of food (e.g. piece of   form of short roasting is sautéing.
     current findings there is no risk of                meat) is more than the penetration        Tips:
     radiation exposure if microwave
                                                         of the microwaves, there is a risk of     •	 Important: roast at intense heat to
     ovens are used properly.
                                                         the core remaining raw. As a result,         seal the juices inside the meat,
                                                         any existing microorganisms (e.g.            then cook at low heat until done.
                                                         salmonellae in poultry) may not be          This reduces the loss of vitamins,
                                                         killed.                                      minerals and moisture.
                                                       •	Frozen products do not conduct            •	 Use vegetable oils that are high in
                                                         heat well, so there is a risk of the         polyunsaturated or monounsaturat-
                                                         outside area overheating while the           ed fats like canola oil and sunflower
                                                         inside remains raw.                          oil. Roast meat in its own juice.
                                                         Note: defrost on low heat and cook        •	 Brush vegetables with a minimum
                                                         immediately.                                 of oil to decrease fat absorption
                                                       •	Suitable dishes: glass, porcelain,           during cooking.
                                                         and microwave-safe plastic dishes.        •	 For a low-fat meal: do not serve or
                                                                                                      eat the crust as it contains the
                                                                                                      roast’s fat.
                                                                                                      Remove the dark brown or black
                                                                                                      crust before eating, as it could con-
                                                                                                      tain carcinogenic (cancer-causing)
                                                                                                   •	A special method: cooking at a low
                            GOOD TO REMEMBER
                                                                                                      temperature – cook the meat at a
      Moist-heat cooking methods                                                                      temperature between 68°– 80° C
                                                       +         nutrition
                                                                                 –                    (154,4°– 176°F) in the oven until
                                                                                                      done (up to 24 hours).
     Stewing/     •	 vegetables (e.g.     •	 vitamin and mineral        •	 additionof some fat     •	 Roasting in the pan or grilling bet-
     Braising       filled vegetables),    retention if cooking          if used for cooking or
                                                                                                      ter preserves the vitamins and
                    fruits                 liquid is kept for fur-       fat released from
                                                                                                      minerals in meats, fish or chicken
                  •	 fish, meats
                              (with        ther use                      meat during cooking
                                                                                                      than roasting in the oven or boiling,
                    more connective       •	 light   cooking method      which is then ab-
                                                                                                      due to heat, cooking time and loss
                    tissue)                                              sorbed by the sauce
                                          •	 nutrient-friendly                                        of nutrients.
                                           method                                       vita-
                                                                        •	 heat-sensitive
                                                                         mins are partially
                                          •	 minimalloss
                                           of vitamins
     Pressure     •	 seeboiling,      •	 comparable with                              –
     cooking        steaming, stewing    steaming and stewing
                  •	 reheating            •	 less   cooking time
     Microwave •	 any kind of food        •	 minimal
                                                   loss of vita-                      –
     cooking      but only in small        mins and minerals
                  quantities              •	 short   cooking time

    NutriPro Food 6/06
                                                                                                             Cooking Methods

Sautéing:                                    •	 Place food on a rack so fat can
                                                                                                   G O O D TO K N OW
Dry-heat cooking method in which               drain.When using a grill plate sim-
heat is conducted by a small amount            ply brush the plate with a mini-
                                                                                               Cook & Chill
of fat (the food is kept in motion).           mum of oil (polyunsaturated or mo-
Tips:                                          nounsaturated vegetable oil) before             Cook & chill is a food preparation
•	 Use for tender cuts of meat and             heating. Never grill cured (pickled)            system, not a cooking method.
                                                                                               The principle: the food is cooked to
   vegetables.                                 meat, because cancer-causing
                                                                                               90 – 95% (depending on the system of
•	 If meat is marinated, dry before            substances (nitrosamine) may be
                                                                                               regeneration/reheating), and all of
   cooking to ensure proper browning.          formed.
                                                                                               the cooking methods described here
•	 Cook only single layers, don’t over-      •	Avoid overly moist marinades or
                                                                                               may be used, except grilling.
   crowd the pan.                              fat dripping from the grilled food
                                                                                               This is followed by shock-chilling
                                               onto hot coals or heating elements,
                                                                                               to a temperature of 1° – 3° C
Grilling:                                      as this may cause toxic compounds               (33,8° – 37,4° F), packing the food in
Cooking with radiant heat or contact           to be released into the resulting               single or multiple portion contain-
heat, with or without added fat.               smoke.                                          ers, and storing. The storage time
Grilling techniques:                                                                           depends on the special cook & chill
Over-heat grilling: food is placed on                                                          method and lasts between 3 and 21
a rack or grill over a gas, charcoal or                                                        days. The rapid cooling ensures
barbecue grill.                                                                                minimum vitamin and mineral loss.
Under-heat grilling: food is placed                                                            The loss of vitamins depends on
under a gas or electric salamander                                                             the choice of cooking method and
or heating element.                                                                            on the storage time.
Between-heat grilling: this method                                                             Note: the longer the food is stored,
uses radiant heat, convection heat                                                             the greater the vitamin loss.
or a combination of both.                   Baking:
Tips:                                       Cooking with browning in dry heat
•	 Dry meat browns better than moist        at a temperature of 120°–250°C
   meat. The grill must be hot before       (248°– 482°F).
   the food is added. This way the juic-
   es are quickly sealed into the meat
   and are better retained, as are vita-
   mins and minerals.
•	 Don’t salt the food before grilling.
   Salt draws the juices out of the
   meat, resulting in a loss of vita-
   mins, minerals, and moisture.

                                             GOOD TO REMEMBER
  dry-heat cooking methods
                               Food                                +               nutrition                   –
  Roasting     •	 meat, fish                     •	 sometimes     no fat added through     •	 heat-sensitive  vitamins are par-
               •	 vegetables, potatoes             cooking                                     tially destroyed

               •	 eggs                                                                     •	 some   loss of water/fat vitamins if
                                                                                               stock is not kept for the sauce
                                                                                           •	 if fat is used, the fat content of the
                                                                                               food becomes higher
                                                                                           •	 formation   of acrylamide
  Grilling              (food with not
               •	 fish, meat                     •	 fat   drains out                       •	 heat-sensitive   vitamins are
                much connective tissue)                                                        partially destroyed
               •	 vegetables, potatoes

               •	 fruit

  Baking       •	 dough   products               •	 noloss of vitamins and minerals        •	 heat-sensitive   vitamins are
               •	 potatoes                         into liquid                                 partially destroyed
                                                       digestible dough and crusts
                                                 •	 hard                                   •	 formation   of acrylamide
                                                   become light and easy to digest

NutriPro Food 6/06 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine
    Cooking Methods

         G O O D TO K N OW                    Fry-cooking                                      Pan-frying:
                                                                                               A special form of deep-frying; brown-
     the forming of acrylamide                methods                                          ing raw or prepared foods in shallow
                                                                                               amounts of fat.
     Acrylamide is formed from proteins
     and sugars in potatoes and cereal                                                         Tips:
     products at temperatures over            Cooking with browning in hot oil                 •	 Cook at proper temperature and
     100° C (212° F). it is only produced     at a temperature of 140° – 190°C                    make sure the food is well-breaded;
     through the dry-heat cooking meth-       (284°– 374°F). the methods are                      this minimizes fat absorption and
     od during the browning stage.            defined according to the amount of                  sogginess in the finished products.
                                              fat used. Correct frying of potatoes
     Note:                                    and vegetables preserves vitamins
     •	 The amino acid asparagine and         and minerals better than boiling or
        sugar (glucose, fructose) are the     steaming, but increases the amount
        main precursors of acrylamide.        of fat and energy.
     •	 Acrylamide  content increases con-
       sistently with higher temperatures     Deep-frying:
       and longer cooking times.              The food is entirely submerged
       Acrylamide may cause cancer.           in hot fat.
       At this time there is no maximum       Tips:                                            Stir-frying / Wok:
       for the reception of acrylamides.      •	 Fry as quickly as possible. Longer            A traditional Chinese method for
                                                 frying time increases fat absorp-             cooking food in a frying pan
     tips for reducing the content of            tion.                                         (e.g. wok) with a small amount of oil.
     acrylamide:                              •	 The smaller the food being fried,             •	 Soak food in a low-fat marinade
     •	 Avoid heavy roasting in favour           the greater the amount of fat                    before cooking. This may be all the
        of light browning.                       absorbed.                                        oil necessary.
     •	 Boil   potatoes before roasting.      •	 The higher the fat content of the             •	 Use spray oil or a pastry brush to
                                                 meat, the less oil is absorbed.                  coat food to avoid higher fat ab-
     •	 Bake  at a maximum temperature
                                              •	 To reduce the formation of acryl-                sorption or coat the pan with a
       of 180° C (356° F) in an oven with
                                                 amide, fry at maximum 170° C                     minimum of oil.
       air circulation, 200° C (392° F)
       in an oven without air circulation.
                                                 (338° F) for a slightly longer time.          •	 Non-leafy vegetables (e.g. broccoli,
                                              •	 Drain the food of oil before serving.            shredded carrots) absorb about as
     •	 Fry at a maximum temperature of
                                              •	Avoid reusing the frying oil.                     much oil as leafy vegetables.
       170° C (347° F) and in small por-
                                              •	When oil smokes, throw it away                 •	 If food sticks to the pan during
       tions. Proportion of frying food to
                                                 immediately. It may become toxic,                cooking, add a little stock or water
       oil should be 100 g to 1 – 1,5 l.
                                                 producing free radicals.                         rather than oil.
     •	 Frenchfries: thick fries are better
       than thin ones due to surface area.

                                                                        GOOD TO REMEMBER
                                                Fry-cooking methods
                                                                  Food                     +           Nutrition         –
                                                Frying     •	 meat, fish,        •	 noloss of water-           deep-frying:
                                                            shellfish              soluble vitamins            •	 highabsorption of
                                                           •	 vegetables,        •	 onlya small amount          fat (energy rich)
                                                            potatoes,              of heat-sensitive vi-       •	 formation   of acryl-
                                                           •	 poultry              tamins are destroyed         amide
                                                                                 •	 possibleincrease of
                                                                                   vitamin E based on
                                                                                   oil used for cooking

    NutriPro Food 6/06
                                                                                                        Cooking Methods

Vitamin loss                                 – Canned vegetables:
                                              • Never boil canned vegetables.
                                                                                      good to ReMeMBeR
Tips to prevent                               • The best way to heat them is the      stability of vitamins
vitamin loss:                                   microwave       warm up               Vitamin Acid Alkali heat Light o2
•	Whenever possible, wash vegeta-               the liquid first, then add the                    low pH high pH >70°C
  bles whole and before peeling                 vegetables.                            C
  under running water.                        • Avoid excessive stirring while         B6
•	Peel thinly or cook with skin on.             warming.                               A
•	Cut into large pieces.                      • Use the juice to cook the vegeta-
•	Raw vegetables and fruit salads:              bles in, or add to soups or stocks.
  add a little lemon juice or vinegar
  to slow down vitamin C loss.               – Frozen vegetables:                           no effect    sensitive       very sensitive
•	Use the smallest amount of water            • Don’t thaw them before cooking.            water-soluble vitamins (C, B vitamins)
  necessary.                                  • Heat the water first, then add the         fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
•	Cook with the lid on.                         vegetables.
•	Cook until just tender, not mushy.          • If you use them for cold food
                                                                                             G O O D TO K N OW
•	Serve immediately keeping food                items, cook them thoroughly
  warm causes a vitamin C loss of               beforehand.                            Vitamin loss by different
  4 – 17% in one hour and                     • The best way to heat them is in        cooking methods
  7 – 34% in two hours.                         the microwave (less vitamin loss).
                                                                                       Cooking                Vitamin loss
                                                                                       methods                in % (C, B1, B2, B6)
                                                                                       Boiling                 35 – 60
                                                                                       Poaching                Less than boiling
                                                                                       steaming                10 – 25
                                                                                       Pressure cooking         5 – 10
                                                                                       Microwave cooking        5 – 25
                                                                                       Roasting                10 – 47
                                                                                       stewing/Braising        10 – 12
                                                                                       grilling                10 – 12
                                                                                       Baking                  10 – 12
                                                                                       Frying                   7 – 10

 1. Which of the following cooking          4. For which cooking method can you       7. What is important to remember,
    methods is a moist-heat cooking            use a steamer?                            if you use frozen vegetables?
    method?                                     i Boiling                                N Don’t thaw them before cooking
    A Grilling                                 T Roasting                                 i Add lemon juice to cooking
    S Poaching                                 A Stewing                                     liquid to slow down vitamin C
    C Baking                                                                                 loss
                                            5. With reference to fat intake, which       R Use a lot of fat
 2. Which of the following cooking             cooking method is better?
    methods is a dry-heat cooking              M Deep-frying                          8. Which cooking method causes the
    method?                                    A Stir-frying                             greatest vitamin loss?
    u Steaming                                 T Pan-frying                              R Microwave cooking
    L Pressure cooking                                                                   P Baking
    T Roasting                              6. How are vitamins classified?              G Boiling
                                               i Water-soluble and
 3. What is the reason for blanching             fat-soluble substances
    vegetable?                                 A Major and trace substances
    O To increase vitamin loss
    R To soften the texture of
       the food
    E To minimize vitamin loss during                                                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
       storage                                                                        Answer: STEAMING

NutriPro Food 6/06 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine

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