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					          Boot Camp

Sea Biscuit
Racing Heart?
        Intelligent Salivary Glands
   The role of salivation on digestion
   Saliva production = automatic, no conscious control or
    –   Unconditioned Reflex
            Consistent within species

   But, learned from experience in lab to expect food following
    –   Conditioned Reflex
            Extremely variable
   How it all began…
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) = FOOD

Unconditioned Response (UCR) = SALIVATION

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) = FOOTSTEPS

Conditioned Response (CR) = SALIVATION
3 Simple Steps

1.       UCS                       UCR
2.       NS + UCS                  UCR
3.       CS                        CR
    Classical Conditioning
   Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    –   Reflex-like, non-learned, automatically causes response
   Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    –   Automatic response
   Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    –   Previously neutral, repeatedly precedes US
   Conditioned Response (CR)
    –   Transferred: now associated with CS
       Pavlov ring a bell?
     Food (UCS)          salivation (UCR)

2.   Metronome (NS) + Food (UCS)           salivation (UCR)

                         REPEAT * 5-20 times

3.   Metronome (CS)                               salivation (UCR)

Vanilla odor + acid           salivation
Rotating Object + food        salivation
Key Points

   Can explain a wide range of behavior
    –   Advertising, food aversion, phobias
   Focuses on reflexive behavior
    –   Not under voluntary control
    –                            (puff to NS
        Any reflex can be conditioned of air into eye)
            Eye blink—door bell                 (romantic caresses)
            Sexual arousal—strawberries
                                                     (sudden noise)
            HR increases– flashing blue light
    Real Life
   Advertising (sexy images, music, celebs)
   Phobias, addiction
   Food Aversions
   Credit cards, Logos & spending             Reflexes
   Ranchers                                      &
    –   Coyotes & wolves killing sheep         emotions
    –   UCS = lithium chloride; UCR = nausea

   Health & well being?
        Ader & Cohen (1985)
   Drug (cyclophosphamide) – Weakened
                       immune system
   Saccharine H2O + Drug --- W.I.S
    –   Repeated…
   Saccharine H2O --- W.I.S

   Chemotherapy (environmental cues– W.I.S)
   What about enhancing?
    –   Smell of camphor, sherbet & adrenaline…
But usually we buy, study, work…
    We ―OPERATE‖ on the environment to produce an effect

    Voluntary, complex, goal-directed behaviors

    Any behavior that leads to a ―satisfying state of affairs‖ is
     more likely to occur again; those that lead to an ―annoying
     state of affairs‖ are less likely
             – Law   of Effect
    Animal problem solving
   Thorndike‘s Puzzle Box
   Hungry Cats in cage
   Trap door operated by lever
   Raw fish outside cage
   Sniff, scratch, push, dig… bang on lever
   Repeat… efficiency
Thorndike (1911)

   Just like socialization

   Through rewards and punishment, parents
    train kids

   Learning how to produce desirable outcomes
    = adaptive
    Operant Conditioning
   Skinner Box
   Stimulus light
   Response bar/ pecking key
    –   Dry food pellets, water
   Metal grid for electric shocks
   Recording instrument

   Reinforcement (instead of reward/ satisfaction)
    –   Any stimulus that increases likelihood of response
   Punishment
    –   Any stimulus that decreases likelihood
   Behaviors considered uniquely human can
    be learned by lowly creatures like rats and

   Not superstition!
    –   Thinking, knowing, reasoning, belief
    Good luck charms?
   People presume connexn between behavior &
    reinforcing consequence

   Behavior must have been accidentally reinforced
    –   Rolling dice certain way – good roll…
   40% college athletes!

   Pigeons
   Non-contingent rewards
   Several days
   Highly motivated pigeons
   Do what pigeons do
   For a few minutes… every 15 seconds =
They became “superstitious”

―One bird conditioned to turn counter
  clockwise, making 2-3 turns between
―Another thrust its head into corner of cage‖
―One developed a tossing response as if
  placing its head beneath an invisible bar and
  lifting it repeatedly‖
   ―Human bowler who has released a ball, but
    continues to behave as if he was controlling it by
    twisting and turning his arm…‖
    –   Rationally – no effect, food comes every 15 seconds

   ―The bowler‘s effect has no behavior on the ball,
    but the behavior of the ball has an effect on the
Problem- must wait for behavior to reward…

      E.g. training dog to roll-over

      Shaping
       –   Reinforcing behaviors increasingly similar to
           desired behavior
       –   E.g. making me lecture from corner
      Extinction
       –   Without reinforcement, behavior fades
       –   (in C.C. repeat CS w/out US)
More problems- not enough pellets!

       Partial Reinforcement
    –     Not EVERY response must be reinforced

       Coke Machine vs. Slot Machine
    –     If don‘t get rewarded… walk away?
    –     Strengthens later resistance to extinction

       4 different schedules
Vary time of interval

1.       Fixed-Interval Schedule
     –     Studying starts slow, increases @ midterms,
           trails off after, picks up @ finals

2.       Variable Interval Schedule
     –     Pop quizzes
     Vary # responses required
1.       Fixed-Ratio
     –     Administer reinforcement after a fixed number of
             Frequent flyer programs, payment based on fixed # products,
              CD clubs…

2.       Variable Ratio
     –     Reinforced after average # of responses
             Lotteries, radio call-ins, slot machines
        Strong, immediate, consistent & inescapable
     –     Suppresses unwanted behaviors
        BUT
1.       Temporary inhibition (smoking)
2.       Replacement behavior (jail)
3.       ―aversive‖ stimuli = rewarding?
4.       Negative emotions lead to retaliation
Learning by Doing AND by SEEING

      Don‘t we sometimes learn without direct

      Think about 1st time danced, drove a car,
       programmed a VCR
       –   Learn by watching and imitating others

       –   Observational Learning
Bandura’s (1960) Bobo Doll Study

   Expose children to adult models that are
    aggressive vs. nonaggressive
    –   Will they imitate the aggressive behavior?
   36 boys & 36 girls 3-6 yrs old
   3 groups
    –   Control, aggressive, non-aggressive
   All in playroom, adult joins game, highly
    interesting activities
Tinker Toys, Mallet & Bobo Doll

   Aggressive condition
    –   Laid bobo on side
    –   Sat on it, punched it, struck it w/ mallet, kicked it about room
    –   ―sock him in the nose; hit him down, throw him in the air;
        kick him; Pow!‖

   After 10 minutes…
   Frustrated children
   New play room with
    –   Tea set, crayons, farm animals, dolls
    –   Dart guns, mallet, Bobo Doll

    –   Physical aggression
    –   Verbal aggression
    –   Non-Imitative aggression

   Instances of imitative physical aggression
    –   38.2- male
    –   12.7 females
   Verbal aggression
    –   Boys -17 times
    –   Girls- 15.7 times
   Never with nonaggressive models or control
Observational Learning is not simple

      Attention
       –   To behavior and consequences
      Retention
       –   Memorable, rehearsed
      Reproduction
       –   Motor ability
      Motivation
       –   Expectations for reinforcement
Good Models

   Attractive
   High Status
   Similar to selves
        LEARNED behavior
   Expectations about alcohol as ―magic elixir‖
    –   Increase social skills
    –   Sexual pleasure
    –   Confidence
    –   Power
    –   Aggression
            LEARNED early in life: drinking is fun

   Can we separate the learned beliefs from
    pharmacological effects?
Pretending to be drunk
              TONIC           ALCOHOL

               CONTROL      EXPECTANCY
    TONIC                     EFFECTS

                  TONIC               ALCOHOL

                                  Disinhibition of social
   TONIC                          (aggression, sexual

GIVEN         Impairs motor &       EXPECTANCY +
                information            PHYSIO
            processes, improves
Persisted Learning: Memory

            Lecture 9
   Inspired by the condition of anterograde
    amnesia that he learned about in a
    Georgetown psychology class, Nolan wrote a
    short story entitled ―Memento Mori‖ about a
    man with this illness trying to deal with a
    traumatic event in his past.
H.M., 8/23/53
     Epileptic Seizures
     Bilateral medial temporal lobe removal
      –   Including hippocampus
     IQ, personality, perceptual abilities
     Memory prior to surgery = ok **
     Severe ANTEROGRADE amnesia
      –   Every new moment = new & fresh
      –   Any delay between presentation & recall =
H.M. continued

   Doesn‘t know where he lives, who cares for him,
    what he ate at his last meal, what year it is, who the
    president is, how old he is…
   In 1982, failed to recognize picture of himself on 40th
   BUT, can learn some new things and not know it
    –   Mirror-drawing task
    –   Classical conditioning*
What did we learn…
     Structures that store are separate from
      mechanisms that encode

     Declarative and Procedural memory are
      –   D: conscious knowledge of facts/ events
      –   P: implicit memory for motor skills/behaviors
Memory as information processor

• Encode, store & retrieve
Sensory Memory

   Registers incoming information; leaves trace
    on NS for split second
Short term memory

   We pay attention to and encode important/
    novel stimuli
Long term memory
     If rehearsed (stare) long enough, or deemed
      important, encoded for long-term storage &
      can be retrieved
       The Sensory Register: George
                                  Testing for Iconic Memory

   P‘s recalled more letters
    when signaled to recall
    only one row compared
    to trying to recall all the
 Short-term Memory: Capacity

 Iuj hgy egd bnj kof iut
Short-term Memory: Duration
     Can hold things for ~20 seconds
      –   Rapidly decays UNLESS actively rehearsed
      –   E.g. 1hr per day X 3-4 weeks
              Digit span from 7 to 80
     Interference
      –   Example (consonants & counting)
Short-term Memory: Function
   Working memory
    –   ACTIVE
    –   Access to senses AND LTM
    –   ―inner voice‖

   Serial Position Curve
    –   Primacy
    –   Recency
Long-Term Memory
     Elaborative Rehearsal
      –   Tree
      –   LION
      –   Shoe
      –   APPLE
      –   Turquoise
     Is the word printed in capital letters?
     Does the word rhyme with ____?
     What does the word mean?
More thought = Better memory
Are any of these self-descriptive?

   Number 1-20

   Circle the numbers of self-descriptive
     Self-reference effect
           Retrieval superiority for info related to self-
            –   Deeper processing of self-relevant terms

           Schema = useful framework to help us
            perceive, organize, process and use

LTM: Access
   “Mild torment, something like the brink of a
   Definitions, line drawings, odors, faces
   Occur ~1/wk, increase w/age
   Words related in spelling, then meaning
   First letter guessed 50-71% time
   Number of syllables 80% time
   ~40-666% resolved after 1 minute
Quick note: Storage***
Long Term Memory: access
     Retrieval cues
      –   Encoding specificity
              Any stimulus encoded with experience can later trigger it
  When learn & retrieve in same context…
   Divers
      –   Beach vs 15ft under
     Cafeteria Noise
     Scent of Chocolate
     Russian/ English bilinguals
State-dependent memory
     On alcoholics and their keys…
     Marijuana & Alcohol
      –   Tested sober vs. high
      –   Memory best when tested in same state in which
      –   Worst performance by intoxicated then sober!
     Internal state = retrieval cue
      –   Emotions & moods…
Implicit Memory

   Amnesics may know more than they think…
    –   Memory during amnesia
            ―cancer‖
            ―you will not feel any pain‖
            ―beached whale‖
   In everyday life
     Implicit memory…
   Déjà vu
    –   A sense of familiarity but no real memory
   The false-fame effect
    –   Names presented only once, familiarity but no real
        memory, assume person is famous
   Eyewitness transference
    –   Face is familiar, but situation in which they remembering
        seeing face is incorrect
   Unintentional plagiarism
    –   Take credit for someone else‘s ideas without awareness
         Autobiographical Memory

   Recollections of personal
    experiences and
     –   Most vivid for times of transition

   In college, memories from the
    beginning of the first year and end
    of the last year.
Autobiographical Memory

   Flashbulb Memories
    –   Highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for events
        that are dramatic and emotional
   Childhood Amnesia
    –   The inability of most people to recall events from before
        the age of three or four
   Hindsight Bias
    –   The tendency to think after an event that one knew in
        advance what was going to happen
    How to Improve Memory

   Mnemonics
   Increase Practice Time
   Increase the Depth of Processing
   Hierarchical Organization
   Method of Loci
   Peg-Word Method
   Minimize Interference
   Utilize Context Effects
Imagery & Mnemonics
      One is a bun
      Two is a shoe
      Three is a tree
      Four is a door
      Five is a hive
      Six is sticks
      Seven is heaven
      Eight is a gate
      Nine is a line
      Ten is a hen
Memory II: Not remembering

Mr. Short Term Memory

   Think H.M.
    –   Bilateral medial temporal lobe resection

    –   Anterograde amnesia
            New info goes in one ear, out the next

    –   Storing is different from encoding
            Knows name, hometown, but…
Plan: Errors in Memory

   Sins of forgetting, distortion, and
    suggestibility (false memory)

   Ways to improve memory

                 How‘s your memory?
    7 Sins of (normal) Memory
   Absentmindedness
   Transience
   Blocking
   Misattribution        Can occur at any stage
                            – Encoding
   Suggestibility
                            – Storage
   Bias
                            – Retrieval
   Persistence
Which is the real deal?
        Tatiana Cooley
        “I’m incredibly absentminded… I live
        by post-its”
   99 photos w/names
    –   15 minutes
    –   Same photos, different order
    –   85 correct!
   Also: strings of 4,000 numbers, 500 words, lines of
    poetry and deck of cards
   ―Visualization & association‖
The Name Game

   Much of what we sense, we never notice
    –   Change blindness (even while in our presence)

   Encoding failures
    –   Lack of attention OR,
    –   Don‘t process well enough for consolidation

   Ineffective encoding
    –   Imagine reading aloud to yourself while distracted…
     Consolidation
    Changes in strength of neural connxns

   Originally, Lashley & ―Engram‖
    –   Rats in maze, more area removed, worse memory
            No specific location
            Equipotentiality
     Wrong, wrong, wrong

   Specialization: ―Bark‖ sound vs. ―Dog‖ picture

   Structure: Black-capped chickadees with vs. Monkeys

   Neurochem– epinephrine (stress) & glucose
    –   22 seniors: Country Time vs. Crystal Light
    –   36 teenagers: normally -8%, unless glucose
    –   Breakfast before tests…
        Transience: decay over time
   Competing information displaces information
    attempting to retrieve

   Interference
    –   Sleep study, 1924: 1, 2, 4, 8 hours
            Not as much decay as interference, inhibition, obliteration of old by
    –   Proactive- already known intf‘s with new
    –   Retroactive- new material intf‘s with old
            Stanford President: fish & names
        Memory as Reconstructive
   Filling in missing pieces

   Disadvantages of schemas
    –   Office Study
    –   Confidence & accuracy NOT well correlated (sleep list, 2
        voices, remember vs. know)
    –   Memories for early events = reconstructions
    Misinformation Effect
   False/ misleading information given after
    eyewitness event incorporated into account of
   Loftus & Palmer (1974)
    –   How fast was the car going when it…
            Contacted- 31.8
            Smashed- 40.8
    –   Did you see any broken glass…
            Hit- 14%
            Smashed- 32%
        Experiment 1
   Film of 5-car chain-reaction accident
    –   Accident = 4 seconds
   Driver runs stop sign into oncoming traffic
   10 questions
    – How fast was Car A going when it ran the stop sign?
    – How fast was Car A going when it turned right?
    10. Did you see a stop sign for Car A? (53% vs. 35%
Experiment 2

   After short video:
    –   How fast was white car going when it passed the
        barn while traveling along the country road?
    –   How fast was the white car going while traveling
        along the country road?
   1 week later
    –   Did you see a barn?
    –   17% vs. 2% said ―Yes‖
Experiment 3

   Did you see a truck in the beginning of the
                        0%
   At the beginning of the film, was the truck
    parked beside the car?
                       22%
ACCURACY is VERY important

   Tell me about the time you got a hand caught
    in a mousetrap and had to have the trap
    removed at the hospital?

   Commercial…
“My brother Colin was trying to get Blowtorch from
me and I wouldn’t let him take it from me, so he
pushed me into the wood pile where the mouse
trap was. And then my finger got caught in it. And
then we went to the hospital, and my mommy ,
daddy and Colin drove me there, to the hospital in
our can, because it was far away, and the doctor
put a bandage on this finger”
       False Memory Implantation
    Present 4 childhood events
   3 provided by parents as true
    –   1 created by experimenter, verified as false
   Describe all 4 events

   29% adults recall being lost in mall
   20-30% hospitalized with ear infection, spilling punch at
    wedding, evacuating store with activated sprinklers, releasing
    parking brake & rolling into object
Case study* *   164

   Remembered feeling frightened
   Described store was lost in
   Recalled scolding when found
   Remembered looks of man who found him
    (blue flannel, glasses, old, bald)
   Clarity rated at top of scale
   Chose true experience as false

   Eyewitness Testimony (see clip)
How to improve your memory
How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics
    Increase Practice Time
     –   More time spent studying, better
     –   Remember more from 4- 2hrs than 1-8hr

    Increase the Depth of Processing
     –   Think actively and deeply (how is it linked? Ask, think

    Hierarchical Organization
     –   Outline: Broad categories, subcategories
How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics
    Method of Loci
     –   Mentally place in familiar locations. Memorize familiar route, then
         place visual images.
    Peg-Word Method
     –   List of words = ―pegs‖; Hang items on pegs; imagine interaction
    Minimize Interference
     –   Study before sleeping; review all material right before exam
    Utilize Context Effects
     –   Setting, mood, time, smell, etc.
         Mnemonics
Imagery & One is a bun
           Two is a shoe
           Three is a tree
           Four is a door
           Five is a hive
           Six is sticks
           Seven is heaven
           Eight is a gate
           Nine is a line
           Ten is a hen

   Persistence of unwanted memories

   Film clip
Altered Consciousness

          Lecture 11
Are you morning person (lark)
 or an evening person (owl)?
    People perform better during “preferred”

   Larks > owls take morning classes and…
   Memory tests at 9am, 2pm, & 8pm… larks suffered
   Older people tend to be high in ‗morningness‘;
    younger in ‗eveningness‘
   Your internal clock is individually set
    –   Circadian rhythm= cycle occurs every 24hrs
            BP, temp, K+, hormones, pulse, etc.
       Is it endogenous or light dependent?
   Stefania Follini, Italian Interior designer
   Volunteered, 1989 for 4 months
   20 x 12 ft windowless room, cave, NM
   Monitored by hidden cameras & microphones

   Days = 25 to 40hrs; sleep = 14-22hrs

   Stopped menstruating, ate less, lost 17lbs

   131 days = 2 months
        “Free-Running Environments”
   Most people tend toward 25hr cycles

   More common source of disruption…
    –   Preventing jet lag
    –   Shining lights on back of knees, shifts clock to regulate
        sleep-wake cycle

   Interplay between environment & hypothalamus

   Microsleeps
    –   56% long haul truck drivers
    –   ~ 200,000 traffic accidents a year are sleep related

   Simulated car experiment
    –   Drive 1 hour; break 30 mins.

   Brief naps & coffee
How to Stay Awake When Driving
Sleep Sorority: alpha, theta, delta

   Presleep
   Stages 1-4
    –   You‘re getting drowsy…
    –   Hypnagogic state- flashes of color, light, ―fall‖
   Slower HR, Eye movement, muscles, breath…
    –   Tone register– 95% awake, 47% stage 1, 3% stage 2
    –   Stage 3 &4 = ―out like a light‖
            Bed-wetting & sleep walking
   1: 10min; 2: 20min; 3 & 4: 30 mins
        After an hour…
   Rather than maintain your deep sleep, cycle
    back to 3, then 2, then…
   REM
   High frequency beta waves, activity, bloodflow,
    breath, pulse, genital arousal
   Complete paralysis
    –   Internally active, externally immobile
   Dreaming of a ping-pong match?
Sleep and Dreams
         Stages of Sleep
A Typical Night’s Sleep
   When awakened in NREM, dreaming 50% of
    –   REM- 80%
    –   More visual, vivid, detailed, story-like
   Adaptive: 50% newborn; 30% 6mos.; 25% 2yrs
   As night wares, more time spent in REM
    –   Why we feel need to finish dreams when alarm
   Rebound effect when deprived
Need = powerful & irresistible
   DJ Tripp
    –   200 hours on-air fundraising
    –   Day 5: slurred speech, hallucinations, paranoia
    –   13 hours, recovered

   Randy Gardner
    –   264 hours (11 days)
    –   Thinking fragmented, speech slurred, concentration &
        memory lapses, hallucinations
        “Mind over matter”
   Restoration Theory
    –   Recharging Battery for cognitive, physical, emotional
    –   Rats after 2-3 weeks
            Metabolism, temp, food intake, weight loss, immune system…
   Evolutionary
    –   Conserve energy, minimize exposure to predators
            We couldn‘t search for food well at night or protect ourselves
             form nocturnal predators
Evolutionary Theory
Cross-species Comparisons of Daily Hours of Sleep
        Dreams are adaptive
   Everyone dreams, WITHOUT exception, several
    times a night
    –   Electrochemical events (Brainstem & Cortex)

   Longer REM, more words used to describe
    dream & more elaborate story

   What do we dream about?
      Dream Content
2.   Being chased or attacked
3.   Repeatedly trying, but failing to do something

Also: flying, unprepared or late for big event, rejected, and…
    being naked in public

64% sadness, anger, fear
18% happy or exciting
29% in color
Other fun facts…

         68% report having a recurring dream
             28% report dying in a dream
               45% dream of celebrities

   Westerners assume, when analyzed, tell us
    something about past, present, future…
        Dreams reflect cultural Beliefs
   Messages sent from evil spirits

   Messages sent by the Gods

   One‘s soul leaves body, enters another world

   Kurds & Zulus: dreaming of adulterous affair is an
    –   If gift received, must compensate when awake
          What are the influences
1.       Everyday concerns
     •     Finances, new relationships, exam anxiety, etc.
2.       External stimuli
     •     Ever incorporated alarm in your dream?
     •     Slumber parties- ―pinky trick‖
              Dement, 1992: 42% waterfalls, rain, leaking roofs, swimming, etc.
3.       Yourself (Lucid Dreaming)
     •     ‗Half in, half out‘, aware while dreaming
        What do they tell us?
   Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900
    –   Unconsciously motivated to satisfy sexual and
        aggressive urges
    –   Too threatening to express or recognize
    –   Psychological defense mechanism
            BUT, during sleep, defense is down!
   Would be shattering to come face-to-face w/
    deepest, darkest urges…
   We construct dreams that express fulfillment in
    ways too confusing to recognize
        Activation-Synthesis Theory
   Random neural signals firing in brainstem spread to
    –   Drawing on past experiences, brain creates images and
        stories to make sense of randomness

    –   Sensory neurons = color, clarity, brightness, etc.
    –   Motor neurons = flying, climbing, falling, etc

    –   Why they make no sense: Limbic, not frontal!
    Sleep disturbances
   30% population complains of insomnia

   People can‘t pinpoint the ―moment of sleep‖

   Try this tonight:
    –   Spoon in hand over plate
Tips to Avoid Insomnia

   Do not nap during the day.
   Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and cigarettes within
    five hours of bedtime.
   Avoid exercise within two hours of bedtime.
   Keep a rigid schedule.
   If awake and anxious, leave bed and return
    when sleepy.

   5% complain of sleeping too much
   E.g. Narcolepsy
    –   Sudden, irresistible attack of drowsiness, w/out
            playing b-ball, eating, conversing, having sex
            Lasts 5-30 mins
            Right to REM
   Sleep apnea affects 4% of Americans
    –   Fall asleep normally…
    –   Can occur up to 400 times per night

   Nightmares
    –   Only dangerous for RBD!
    –   Skeletal muscles aren‘t paralyzed
    –   Have mobility to act on nightmares
            75% have injured selves; 44% partners
Clearly brain is active during sleep

   Night Terrors
    –   B/C NREM, don‘t know source of bloodcurling

   Sleepwalking
    –   Not acting out dreams, occurs during deep, slow-
        wave sleep; seldom recall travels
            Sometimes… ―sleepsex‖
        Can we control what’s in spotlight of
   Lucid dreamers can sometimes control dreams…
   Meditators thought could discipline the mind…
   But, mind often wanders, we daydream, distracted when
    trying to concentrate
    –   Sometimes the harder you try to control your own thoughts…

   Disregard inadmissible testimony, chocolate cake in fridge,
    trying not to laugh, noticing how long it takes to fall asleep…
For the next 2 minutes…
Try not to think of a white bear
Consciousness and Control

   Ironic Processes
    –   The harder ones tries to control a thought or
        behavior, the less likely one is to succeed,
        especially if distracted, tired, or under stress.
For the next 2 minutes…
Go ahead and think of a white bear
  Rebound Effect
GROUP                  PHASE 2                   PHASE 3
                        Rings                     Rings
Experimental                6                        16
Control                     ---                      11

                 Phase 1: 5min Verbalization.
     Phase 2: Don’t think of White Bear (experimental only)
               Phase 3: Think about White Bear
Trying to control our minds
   Don‘t think of a white
   Don‘t swing the pendulum
    on the forbidden axis
   Don‘t eat chocolate

    "They mentioned a white bear about once a minute,"
―Then, if I asked them to think about anything at all, they would
mention white bears more often than if I had initially asked
them to think about white bears on purpose.―

Irony: Easy to change our mind, get new ideas, see new
perspective, but when we try NOT to think about something…

 What directs and energizes your

       Lecture 12
The Pyramid of Human Motivation
           Self Actualization

Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential
Happy, absorbed, capable of greatness

   ―Think about the most wonderful experiences
    of your life; happiest moments, ecstatic
    moments, moments of rapture, perhaps from
    being in love, or from listening to music, or
    suddenly being hit by a book or a painting or
    some great creative moment.‖
                  Peak Experiences
   Open to new experiences, spontaneous, playful,
    loving, creative, self-accepting, energetic…
        An activity totally absorbs one‘s focus
        Forget normal worries & self-consciousness
        Lose track of time
        Feel confident & clear-headed
        Emerge with sense of satisfaction & growth
    Esteem Needs = Power & Achievement

–   accomplish difficult tasks, outperform others, and excel

–   acquire prestige and influence over other people
Motive Arousal: Typical Stories Written
Establish, maintain, further relationships
        Energy, attention, stimulation,
        information & emotional support
   When?
    –   Stress, fear, embarrassment???

   HIGH: ―These shocks will hurt…In research of this
    sort, if we‘re to learn anything at all that will really
    help humanity, it‘s necessary that our shocks be

   LOW: ―I assure you that what you will feel will not in
    any way be painful. It will resemble a tickle or a tingle
    more than anything unpleasant‖
                    ―10 minute delay‖
   Do you want to wait: alone, w/ others, no preference?
Do we always want to be with others?
   Not just anyone will do
    –   P‘s preferred to be alone than w/ students not in study

Stress doesn‘t always motivate affiliation…
 Embarrassment: Sucking on large nipples and
    –   P‘s preferred to be alone than with others

   Naturalistic study: waiting for open heart surgery
    –   Prefer post-operative than pre-operative room-mate
            “We won! They lost!”

   Students wear more university-affiliated
    apparel after varsity football wins
   Conducting a survey of student knowledge of
    campus issues…
    –   Can you tell me the outcome of that game?
    –   Win: 32%
    –   Loss: 18%
One step further…

  Human sexual feelings and behaviors are
        powerful motivational forces
  Evolutionary Psychology:
  an explanation

Gender differences in mate preference are a
 product of natural selection

  –   Favored mating behaviors that promote the
      conception, birth and survival of offspring

          Men & women attracted to different characteristics and
           have different strategies
     Ensuring reproductive success

              Men                             Women

   Possibility to father           Careful selection of mate
    unlimited # of children          with resources for well-

   Rely on external cues like      Value commitment, health,
    attractiveness to serve as       ambition, financial security
    guide for youth, & good
The dating marketplace: in 37 countries
                     (N = 10,047)

        Men‘s values               Women‘s values
    Physical                    Socioeconomic status
     attractiveness              ―good financial
    ―good looks‖                 prospects‖
    Being older than            ―ambition and
     spouse                       industriousness‖
    Low hip to waist ratio      Being younger than
   Dev Singh Video
Big Misconception

   Only thing that defines body = weight
    –   SHAPE is not captured
   Mind is designed to look for health based on
    LOCATION of fat, not just Fat vs. Skinny
   1991 Singh developed series of figures from
    .7 to 1.0
    Ideal Body Image

   Which image is ideal for your sex?
   Which comes closest to your own body?
Sex differences in perceptions of
desirable body shape
Another problem with dieting: The “what the
hell effect”