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Lexis overviews

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					                            Lexis overviews
These overviews indicate the types of lexis work that learners are expected to be
developing at each level. They give examples of productive and receptive
language in relation to ‘achieving the level’ for assessment purposes. The type of
lexis work indicated for a level does not limit what may be learnt or taught at that
level.

The examples used are to illustrate the type of lexis work at each level, but the
actual lexis work developed will be highly dependent on learners’ lives, individual
interests and goals, as well as the focus of any courses they are taking.

The lexis overviews are sub-divided into five categories: Word formation, Range,
Register, Words together and Non-literal use. These overviews can be accessed
by level or by category across levels:


E1               E2               E3               L1                L2


Word             Range             Register        Words             Non-literal use
formation                                          together




                                                                                   1
                            Lexis overviews
Word formation


Entry 1                         Entry 2                   Entry 3
Changing word endings,          Awareness of              Greater awareness of
e.g. making regular and         common prefixes such      range of prefixes and
common irregular words          as un and re, and         suffixes, e.g. disappear
plural e.g. day/days,           suffixes such as er,      (prefix), happiness
woman/women.                    est, ly, e.g. unfit,      (suffix).
                                replay, smaller,
Changing verb endings in        smallest, slowly.         Growing awareness of
regular and common                                        word families, e.g.
irregular present tenses,       Changing verb             politics, politician,
e.g. watch/watching,            endings in regular and    political.
go/goes.                        common irregular
                                simple past, e.g.
                                watch/watched,
                                go/went.




Level 1                                    Level 2

Growing ability to recognise word class    Increased confidence and creativity in
from suffix, such as words ending in       using affixation to predict root, meaning
ness and tion are likely to be nouns,      and use, e.g. identify the root noun in
words ending in tional and ous are         expectation as expect.
likely to be adjectives e.g.
   • kindness, information (nouns)         Recognising and using greater range of
   • emotional, dangerous (adjectives).    word families including irregular groups
                                           such as anger, angered, angrily.
Using understanding of word families to
increase range, e.g. instruct,
instruction, instructional.




                                                                                2
                             Lexis overviews
Range
N.B. The range of lexis that learners understand (receptive) usually exceeds
what they can use (productive).
Entry 1                                  Entry 2                           Entry 3
Lexis linked to learners’ lives,         Increasing range of lexis         Increasing
experience and aspirations, e.g.         in familiar contexts, e.g.        range of lexis
 • common countable and                  • common countable and            for both
   uncountable nouns such as                 uncountable nouns             concrete and
   roads, water, information                 such as qualifications,       abstract
 • lexical sets such as days of the          flour and oil                 concepts, such
   week, colours, common                  • wider range of topics          as adjectives
   adjectives                               such as housing, jobs,         for personal
 • common gradeable antonyms                school curriculum              qualities, e.g.
   such as hot/cold, big/small              subjects                       generous, shy,
 • super-ordinates with appropriate       • regular and common             talkative.
   hyponyms such as                         irregular comparatives
   - parent (super-ordinate)/mother         such as hot/hotter,            Growing
   and father (hyponyms)                    good/better                    confidence in
   - fruit (super-ordinate)/apple and     • possessive pronouns            dealing with
   banana (hyponyms)                        such as mine, yours            unfamiliar
 • common regular and irregular           • adverbs of frequency           contexts, e.g.
   verbs such as take, come, go             such as always,                reading a job
 • simple adverbs of place, manner          sometimes.                     description for a
   and time, e.g. here, slowly, now.                                       new area of
                                                                           work.


Level 1                                  Level 2
Increasing range of lexis and            Growing confidence in dealing with lexis in
contexts, e.g.                           contexts which are less familiar.
 • increasing knowledge of, and
    ability to select between, words     Greater ability to use more specific lexis and
    with apparently similar              technical vocabulary for useful contexts
    meanings such as hit, punch,         e.g. trees - oak, sycamore, ash.
    smack
 • lexis for more specialist topics      Increasing knowledge of, and ability to select
    such as environmental issues,        between, words with apparently similar
    local government                     meanings, including the ability to avoid repetition
 • a range of conjunctions with          by substitution, e.g. lack of/shortage of.
    different functions such as
    whereas, therefore, since,           Increasing ability to recognise and use irony,
    although                             exaggeration and understatement, e.g.
 • a wide range of adverbs,                  • Are you fed up? Just a bit…
    adverbial and prepositional              • She’s not exactly young.
    phrases including intensifiers
    such as extremely, completely.

                                                                                3
                            Lexis overviews
Register

Entry 1             Entry 2                     Entry 3

Recognising         Increasing awareness        Increasing awareness of register, e.g.
difference in       of positive and             formal/informal lexis and ability to
forms of            negative connotation        choose the most appropriate lexis for
greeting, e.g.      in choice of lexis, and     the context, e.g.
Hi, Hello.          an awareness of             That cost five quid?
                    strategies for avoiding     The value of the pound is dropping.
                    negative connotation,
                    e.g. fat/quite large,       Increasing awareness of connotation,
                    boring/not very             e.g. a gang of teenagers / a group of
                    interesting.                teenagers.


Level 1                       Level 2

Growing ability to select     Greater appreciation of difference in meaning,
between apparent              connotation and use of apparent synonyms and
synonyms according to         antonyms, e.g.
context and whether           • careful, thrifty, mean, stingy
spoken or written, e.g.       • interesting, shocking, scandalous.
choosing between work,
job, employment when          Consistency in lexical choices with regard to register
writing a letter.             and ability to switch register as appropriate, such as
                              mixing social and business registers, e.g.
Increasing ability to         Hi Tom! I’d like to introduce you to...
notice biased language,
e.g. he admitted being a      Use of discourse markers, e.g. As I was saying…
communist.




                                                                                 4
                             Lexis overviews
Words together

Entry 1                 Entry 2                          Entry 3
Fixed expressions       Increased range of fixed         Increasing range of fixed
treated as chunks       expressions and                  expressions and collocations
e.g. See you later,     collocations including           including adjective +
Can I have (a)…         phrasal verbs, e.g.              preposition combinations,
                        • see you later, do me a         e.g.
Very common                 favour (fixed                  • round about, I’m afraid…
collocations such           expressions)                     (fixed expressions)
as black coffee,
                        • give advice                      • crime rates, bread and
bed and breakfast.
                            (collocation)                    butter (collocations)
                        • look after, look for             • interested in, pleased
Common phrasal
                            (phrasal verbs).                 with (adjective +
verbs such as get
                                                             preposition).
up, turn off.
                        Adjective word order, e.g. a
                        large black horse, a new         Awareness of fixed and
Common
                        red coat.                        semi-fixed expression used
prepositional
                                                         for giving emphasis, e.g.
phrases of place,
e.g. at home, on
                        Adverbial and prepositional        • What I want to
                        phrases, e.g. after that, at         know/do/say is…
the left.
                        the bus stop, until                • The (main/most
                        tomorrow, at once.                   important) thing is…

Level 1                                         Level 2
Increasing ability to select appropriate        Ability to use a wide range of
adjectives to collocate with nouns, e.g.        collocations, fixed and semi-fixed
heavy rain, strong wind, (i.e. not strong       expressions fluently and flexibly.
rain).
                                                Ability to recognise cliché, e.g.
Using a range of fixed and semi-fixed           At the end of the day…
expressions for giving emphasis, e.g.           The bottom line is…
What I want to know/do/say is…
The (main/most important) thing is…




                                                                                    5
                           Lexis overviews
Non-literal

Entry 1                     Entry 2                      Entry 3
Awareness of a few          Ability to recognise         Growing awareness of
common metaphors,           metaphorical language,       idiomatic language,
e.g. time is money.         e.g. She flew into the       including exaggeration,
                            room.                        e.g. Have a go. This work
                                                         is driving me crazy.
                            Ability to recognise
                            exaggeration, e.g. I stood   Growing ability to
                            at the bus stop for hours.   recognise systematic
                                                         metaphors, e.g. time seen
                                                         as money - spend time,
                                                         invest time, waste time.



Level 1                                              Level 2

Increasing ability to recognise exaggeration and     Increasing ability to use
understatement, e.g. I’ve got millions of emails     metaphorical language,
to answer.                                           especially systematic
                                                     metaphors, e.g.
Increasing ability to recognise metaphorical             • Anger as heat - she was
language, especially systematic metaphors, e.g.            boiling with rage, she
  • Up meaning good, healthy or happy - She’s              exploded
    at the top of her game. I’m on top of the            • Life as a journey - he
    world.                                                 took a wrong turn, he lost
  • Down meaning bad, unhealthy or depressed               his way.
    - He hit rock bottom. She’s come down with
    flu. He’s a bit low at the moment.




                                                                               6
                          Lexis overviews
Entry 1

Word                    Range                                         Register
formation
                        Lexis linked to learners’ lives, experience   Recognising
Changing word           and aspirations, e.g.                         difference in
endings, e.g. making     • common countable and uncountable           forms of
regular and common         nouns such as roads, water,                greeting, e.g.
irregular words            information                                Hi, Hello.
plural e.g. day/days,    • lexical sets such as days of the week,
woman/women.               colours, common adjectives
                         • common gradeable antonyms such as
Changing verb              hot/cold, big/small
endings in regular       • super-ordinates with appropriate
and common                 hyponyms such as
irregular present          - parent (super-ordinate)/mother and
tenses, e.g.               father (hyponyms)
watch/watching,            - fruit (super-ordinate)/apple and
go/goes.                   banana (hyponyms)
                         • common regular verbs such as take,
                           come, go
                         • simple adverbs of place, manner and
                           time e.g. here, slowly, now.




Words together                                       Non-literal use
Fixed expressions treated as chunks e.g. See         Awareness of a few common
you later, Can I have (a)…                           metaphors, e.g. time is money.

Very common collocations such as black coffee,
bed and breakfast.

Common phrasal verbs such as get up, turn off.

Common prepositional phrases of place, e.g. at
home, on the left.




                                                                               7
                            Lexis overviews
Entry 2



Word                       Range                                       Register
formation
                           Increasing range of lexis in familiar       Increasing
Awareness of               contexts, e.g.                              awareness of
common prefixes                • common countable and                  positive and
such as un and re,               uncountable nouns such as             negative
and suffixes such as             qualifications, flour and oil         connotation in
er, est, ly, e.g. unfit,       • wider range of topics such as         choice of lexis,
replay, smaller,                 housing and accommodation,            and an
smallest, slowly.                school curriculum subjects            awareness of
                               • regular and common irregular          strategies for
Changing verb                    comparatives such as hot/hotter,      avoiding
endings in regular               good/better                           negative
and common                     • simple adverbs of place, manner       connotation,
irregular simple past,           and time e.g. here, slowly, now       e.g. fat/quite
e.g. watch/watched,            • possessive pronouns such as           large,
go/went.                         mine, yours                           boring/not very
                               • adverbs of frequency such as          interesting.
                                 always, sometimes.



Words together                                             Non-literal use
Adjective word order, e.g. a large black horse, a new      Ability to recognise
red coat.                                                  metaphorical language, e.g.
                                                           She flew into the room.
Adverbial and prepositional phrases, e.g. after that, at
the bus stop, until tomorrow, at once.                     Ability to recognise
                                                           exaggeration, e.g. I stood
Increased range of fixed expressions and collocations      at the bus stop for hours.
including phrasal verbs, e.g.
    • see you later, do me a favour (fixed
       expressions)
    • give advice (collocation)
    • look after, look for (phrasal verbs).




                                                                                8
                           Lexis overviews
Entry 3

Word formation              Range                         Register
Greater awareness of        Increasing range of lexis     Increasing awareness of
range of prefixes and       for both concrete and         register, e.g.
suffixes, e.g. disappear    abstract concepts, e.g.       formal/informal lexis and
(prefix), happiness         adjectives for personal       ability to choose the most
(suffix).                   qualities generous, shy,      appropriate lexis for the
                            talkative.                    context, e.g.
Growing awareness of                                      That cost five quid?
word families, e.g.         Growing confidence in         The value of the pound is
politics, politician,       dealing with unfamiliar       dropping.
political.                  contexts, e.g. reading a
                            job description for a new     Increasing awareness of
                            area of work.                 connotation, e.g. a gang of
                                                          teenagers / a group of
                                                          teenagers.


Words together                                          Non-literal use
Increasing range of fixed expressions and               Growing awareness of
collocations including adjective + preposition          idiomatic language, including
combinations, e.g.                                      exaggeration, e.g. Have a go.
    • round about, I’m afraid… (fixed                   This work is driving me crazy.
       expressions)
    • crime rates, bread and butter (collocations)      Growing ability to recognise
    • interested in, pleased with (adjective +          systematic metaphors, e.g.
       preposition).                                    time seen as money - spend
                                                        time, invest time, waste time.
Awareness of fixed and semi-fixed expression
used for giving emphasis, e.g.
What I want to know/do/say is…
The (main/most important) thing is…




                                                                                 9
                              Lexis overviews
Level 1

Word formation                 Range                               Register
Growing ability to             Increasing range of lexis and       Growing ability to
recognise word class           contexts, e.g.                      select between
from suffix, such as            • increasing knowledge of,         apparent synonyms
words ending in ness and           and ability to select           according to
tion are likely to be              between, words with             context and
nouns, words ending in             apparently similar meanings     whether spoken or
tional and ous are likely          such as hit, punch, smack       written, e.g.
to be adjectives e.g.           • lexis for more specialist        choosing between
  • kindness, information          topics such as                  work, job,
    (nouns)                        environmental issues, local     employment when
  • emotional, dangerous           government                      writing a letter.
    (adjectives).               • a range of conjunctions with
                                   different functions such as     Increasing ability to
Using understanding of             whereas, therefore, since,      notice biased
word families to increase          although                        language, e.g. he
range, e.g. instruct,           • a wide range of adverbials       admitted being a
instruction, instructional.        such as possibly, definitely.   communist.




Words together                         Non-literal use
Increasing ability to select           Increasing ability to recognise exaggeration and
appropriate adjectives to collocate    understatement, e.g. I’ve got millions of emails
with nouns, e.g.                       to answer.
heavy rain, strong wind, (i.e. not
strong rain).                          Increasing ability to recognise metaphorical
                                       language, especially systematic metaphors, e.g.
Using a range of fixed and semi-           • Up meaning good, healthy or happy -
fixed expressions for giving                 She’s at the top of her game. He’s in very
emphasis, e.g.                               high spirits.
 What I want to know/do/say is…            • Down meaning bad, unhealthy or sad -
The (main/most important) thing              He hit rock bottom. She’s come down
is…                                          with flu. He’s a bit low at the moment.




                                                                               10
                               Lexis overviews
Level 2

Word                  Range                                    Register
formation
                      Growing confidence in dealing with       Greater appreciation of
Increased             lexis in contexts which are less         difference in meaning,
confidence and        familiar.                                connotation and use of
creativity in using                                            apparent synonyms
affixation to         Greater ability to use more specific     and antonyms, e.g.
predict root,         lexis and technical vocabulary for       • careful, thrifty,
meaning and           useful contexts e.g. trees - oak,            mean, stingy
use, e.g. identify    sycamore, ash.                           • interesting,
the root noun in                                                   shocking,
expectation as        Increasing knowledge of, and ability         scandalous.
expect.               to select between, words with
                      apparently similar meanings,             Consistency in lexical
Recognising and       including the ability to avoid           choices with regard to
using greater         repetition by substitution, e.g. lack    register and ability to
range of word         of/shortage of.                          switch register as
families including                                             appropriate, such as
irregular groups      Increasing ability to recognise, and     mixing social and
such as anger,        use irony, exaggeration and              business registers, e.g.
angered, angrily.     understatement, e.g.                     Hi Tom! I’d like to
                          • Are you fed up? Just a bit…        introduce you to...
                          • She’s not exactly young.
                                                               Use of discourse
                      Range of lexis that learners             markers, e.g. As I was
                      understand (receptive) usually           saying…
                      exceeds what they can use
                      (productive).


Words together                   Non-literal use
Ability to use a wide range      Increasing ability to use metaphorical language,
of collocations, fixed and       especially systematic metaphors, e.g.
semi-fixed expressions               • Anger as heat - she was boiling with rage, she
fluently and flexibly.                 exploded
                                     • Life as a journey- he took a wrong turn, he lost
Ability to recognise cliché,           his way.
e.g. At the end of the day…
The bottom line is…




                                                                                11

				
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