covera Strange Lands Global Gary Fontaine, Ph.D., Principal Consultant Assignment Specialists 47-403B Ahuimanu Road, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 Email firstname.lastname@example.org Web //ourworld.cs.com/gmfontaine/gfstrangelands.htm Successfully Meeting the 3 Challenges of Global Assignments "Everyplace is a Strange Land to someone" Training for success in new, diverse and changing ecologies coverb Strange Lands Global Gary Fontaine, Ph.D., Principal Consultant Assignment Specialists 47-403B Ahuimanu Road, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 Email email@example.com Web //ourworld.cs.com/gmfontaine/gfstrangelands.htm Dealing Effectively with the Challenges of new People, Places, Cultures & Technologies "Everyplace is a Strange Land to someone" Training for success in new, diverse and changing ecologies The Central Theme a Success on a global assignment requires dealing effectively with the 3 key challenges faced on all assignments To the degree to which these challenges are dealt with well, assignees will be adjusted, effective & satisfied. To the degree to which they are dealt with poorly ... The Central Theme b Success with new people, cultures, places or technologies requires dealing effectively with the 3 key challenges faced in all new ecologies To the degree to which these challenges are dealt with well, personnel will be adjusted, effective & satisfied. To the degree to which they are dealt with poorly ... The Ecology of Global Assignments A different Short vrs long term Historical Complex Place assignment Political & MacroEconomic Travel Background F2f vrs gdts New Peopl e Similarities Difference Cosmopolitan Harder to s vrs provincial Task Communicate destination specifics Takes more Giving vrs Time exchanging vrs getting role Less Structure Available Less technologies Higher Support “Sense of Presence” The Ecology of Organizational Diversity & Change Mergers, New Acquisitions & People & Internationalization Joint Ventures Cultures New Organization New Products Structures & & Services Management Styles Organizational & Micro New Cultures New Markets, Communicatio Partners, Clients n & Competitors Media New Changed Social Resources & Increase & technologies d Organizational Mobility support The Ecology of Our Assignment Short vrs Place long term Travel ? ? assignment F2f vrs gdts ? ? Time ? ? Similarities Difference Cosmopolita People s n vrs Task ? specifics provincial ? destination Structure Giving vrs ? exchanging ? vrs getting Communication role ? Available Support technologie ? ?s The Ecology of Your Organization Size Owners & Internationalization management style Products & Services Structure & differentiatio n Your Markets, Culture partners, Communication clients networks & competitors Mobility Resources & technologies People Social & organization al support Some Common & Important Cultural Differences a The individual & self vrs the collective as the primary unit of value. Emphasis on honesty & directness vrs harmony, indirectness & face. Value on doing vrs being or belonging--implications for equality, status & age. Emphasis on the quality of the deal vrs the quality of the relationship in making decisions to do business--implications for ritual & the bargaining process. Preference for high power distance in which bosses make all the decisions vrs low power distance in which subordinates expect to participate. Belief in control vrs fatalism--implications for uncertainty avoidance, planning, decision making & training. Belief in high vrs low work centrality. Preference for monochronic vrs polychronic structuring of activities in time. Some Common & Important Cultural Differences b A past vrs present vrs future orientation--implications for valuing progress, change, tradition & continuity. Perception of people & nature as independent & competitive vrs interdependent and in balance--implications for valuing technology. Belief in universalism vrs particularism or rules vrs relationships. Emphasis on analytic vrs holistic, relational or intuitive understanding-- implications for research, education & training. Different strategies for forming, maintaining & dissolving relationships-- including the value on individual attitudes vrs role performance. Differences in verbal & nonverbal communication symbols. Preference for high vrs low context communication. Different conflict resolution strategies!!! Some Key Filipino/American Cultural Differences Emphasis on the individual or self (American) vs. the relationship or collective (Filipino) --implications for the value of individual freedom, independence, self-reliance, collectivism, relationship building (pakikisama) & authority. Compartmentalization, openness & mutual independence in relationships (American) vs. breadth, formality & mutual dependence (Filipino)--implications for trust, role relevance & obligations. Value on honesty (American) vs. harmony (Filipino) in relationships--implications for communication directness & indirectness (not to wound amor-proprio or self-esteem). High power distance between bosses and workers (Filipino) vs. low power distance (American)--implications for expected/desired participation in decision making. Preference for monochronic (doing things sequentially--American) vs. polychronic (doing things in an interwoven manner--Filipino) structuring of activities over time. A belief in the ability to control one’s life (American) vs. a more fatalistic (bahala na) orientation (Filipino)--implications for planning, decision making & problem solving. The place, timing & size of personal payments--”tips” & “bribes” (lagay). Direct verbal expression of conflict by complainant (American) vs. indirect expression (tampo) and interpretation by target (Filipino). Some Key Japanese/American Cultural Differences Emphasis on the individual or self (American) vs. the relationship or collective (Japanese)-- implications for the value of individual freedom, independence, self-reliance, in-group vs. out- group competition, collectivism & authority. Value on honesty (American) vs. harmony (Japanese) in relationships--implications for communication directness, indirectness & face (kao). Emphasis on the quality of the immediate “deal” (American) vs. the longer-term relationship (Japanese)--implications for the objectives of business meetings (e.g., decision making or relationship testing). High (Japanese) vs. medium (American) work centeredness--implications for the role of the company vs the family or community in worker’s lives. High (Japanese) vs. low (American) uncertainty avoidance--implications for planning, job descriptions & job security. High (Japanese) vs. lower (American) reliance on “context” in communication--implications for the meaning of words (yes), gestures & silences. Direct verbal expression of conflict by complainant (American) vs. indirect expression and interpretation by target (Japanese). Key Areas of Cultural Difference in International Business • Communication • Appearance • Eating Habits • Time • Rewards • Relationships • Values • Management Process Adapted from Harris & Moran Means on Work-related Perceptions Power Uncertainty Distance Avoidance Individualism “Masculinity” Philippines 94 Greece 112 USA 91 Japan 95 Mexico 81 Portugal 104 Australia 90 Austria 79 Venezuela 73 Belgium 94 GB 89 Venezuela 73 India 77 Japan 92 Canada 80 Italy 70 Singapore 74 Peru 87 Netherlds 80 Switzerld 70 Brazil 69 France 86 New Zeald 79 Mexico 69 Hong Kong 68 Chile 86 Italy 76 Ireland 68 France 68 Spain 86 Belgium 75 GB 66 Colombia 67 Argentina 86 Denmark 74 Germany 66 Turkey 66 Turkey 85 Sweden 71 Philippines 64 USA 40 USA 46 USA 62 Ireland 28 Ireland 35 Taiwan 17 Finland 26 New Zeald 22 HK 29 Peru 16 Denmark 16 Denmark 18 Sweden 29 Pakistan 14 Netherlds 14 Israel 13 Denmark 23 Colombia 13 Norway 8 Austria 11 Singapore 8 Venezuela 12 Sweden 6 Adapted from Hofstede Values Exercise Imagine that your cruise ship has just sunk in the open ocean. Your group is safe on a raft with a good chance to survive. There is still room for three more people. (1) As a group make a choice from the list below of the three persons you would take on board. A ten-year-old child An injured woman A thirty-year-old man A married couple in their seventies A medical doctor A religious leader A ship's officer A newly wed couple (2) List the perceptual dimensions you used in differentiating among the persons to make your selection: For example, "survivability," "ability to provide assistance," or "most likely to benefit from a longer life." Identify the categories within each dimension (values) which led each person to be selected or excluded. For example within the dimension of survivability, you might identify “ woman” because they typically survive such experiences longer. A Sense of Presence Including necessary, possible & desirable actions The Three Challenges Coping with “ecoshock” Getting the job done by dealing effectively with diversity & change Maintaining motivation Symptoms of Ecoshock Short-term illness and clumsiness from the breakdown of the immune system and imbalanced physiological reactions. Long-term illness from the wearing effects of prolonged high stress . Nervousness or unfocused anxiety. Depression manifested in boredom, fatigue, withdrawal from others, sleeping all the time, inability to get interested in anything, and--in serious cases--substance abuse & suicide. Irritability and other rapid, unpredictable mood changes, often over matters that otherwise might appear minor. Fears of being taken advantage of, cheated, discriminated against, talked about. Feelings of vulnerability to disease, crime, failure, and other bad things. Narrowed, rigid and habitual thought processes. Breakdown in ongoing relationships and difficulty in establishing and maintaining new ones. Ecoshock Change in physiological state Performance from normal (Challenge 2) Change in stress level from optimal Change in attentional focus Motivation away from specially favored (Challenge 3) activities & experiences Increased unpredictability Separation from familiar arrays Phases of Ecoshock Contact Disintegration Reintegration Culture fatigue Autonomy Re-entry What I Like to do Supported List below activities you most before? now? enjoy ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - ____________________________________ + - + - Net Score Commonly Described Strategies for Dealing with Diversity Our way Our way Their way Compromise Their way Relative Power People everywhere are People elsewhere are the same, so try to do different, so try to do it ... it ... People elsewhere are People everywhere are different, so try to ... different but our way is best, so try to do it ... The Optimal Strategy for Dealing with Diversity Our way Our way Their way Compromise Their way Accommodation to the ecology by developing new “Third Cultures” or Intercultural/International Microcultures Other (IMCs) ways or organizational cultures Worksheets for Building IMCs Step 1 Tasks essential to assignment completion A._______________________________________________________ _ B._______________________________________________________ _ Step 4 N._______________________________________________________ _ Step 2 Strategy-Ecology Links Ecological characteristics (+ 0 -) of task __ a b n 1.__________________________________ [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 2.__________________________________ [ ] [ ] [ ] n.__________________________________ Net = Step 3 Alternative strategies for completing task __ a.________________________________________________________ b.________________________________________________________ n.________________________________________________________ The Quality of an MC The comprehensiveness in including at least the minimum range of perceptions necessary to complete the task. The balance in terms of addressing fairly the constraints and objectives of all participants. The flexibility in terms of its responsivity to changes in ecology that occur during the task. The stability in the sense that, while being flexible, it must still maintain an integrity so that participants are not left swimming in ambiguity during transitions or find it replaced all together. The efficiency in terms of the speed with which the task can be completed successfully. Skills for Developing MicroCultures Use of a sense of Social skills presence to identify the necessary, possible & desirable MC Communication Stress-management skills skills Social Skills for Developing MicroCultures Building relationships necessary for getting the job done Since there are often fewer institutionalized channels for establishing relationships, doing so requires self- confidence, creativity, timing, and persistence. Maintaining relationships while doing the job Since conflict is almost inevitable, skills in conflict resolution are critical; since conflict resolution strategies are so diverse, we need mutual trust and giving the benefit of the doubt. Dissolving relationships when the job is completed Since expectations for relationships are so diverse, we must recognize that “dissolving” them may alter but not eliminate, future obligations; and we must “leave the door open” for ourselves and those following us. Communication Skills in New, Diverse or Changing Ecologies Language Matching Perspective Ritual Sharing Matching Social Effective Information Influence Communication Exchange Context Agenda Matching Matching Stress-management Skills in New, Diverse or Changing Ecologies Expanded “tool kit” Stress-management for new ecologies “tool kit” for home Therapy Self-pity Share it Analyze it Drink Hobbies Sex Sex Pray Eat Sight see Suicide Shop Blame Acceptance Fight others Gain Hike perspective Relaxation Seek Cry solitud Sleep e Escape Walk Exercise Meditate Get Drugs help Massage Anger Smoke Competitive Work Read sports My Stress-management "Tool Kit" Current stress-management tools Effectiveness Net score [ ] Some new ones to try & develop Motives to Go, Stay and Return Again Job-motivated traveler Rest & recreation seeker $, promotion, training, contacts Entertainment, sports, hobbies Required by employer Relaxation & emotional release Teach or help others Likes planes, hotels, restaurants Family traveler Accompanying family Collector rather than being left at Concentrates on collecting home things to bring home & Motivation friends, romance & sex profile Presence seeker Immediacy Explorer Explorer Vividness People & places People & places Challenge The world & the self The world & the self Others The special treatment & status To be with friends To get away from home Motives to Go, Stay and Return Again Job/career traveler Recreation seeker $, promotion, training, contacts Entertainment, sports, hobbies Opportunities to use Relaxation & emotional release knowledge/skills Likes planes, hotels, restaurants Teach or help others Family traveler Collector/consumer Keeping family together Concentrates on collecting things to bring home & Motivation friends, romance & sex relationships profile Presence seeker Immediacy Explorer Explorer Vividness People & places People & places Challenge The world & the self The world & the self Others The special treatment & status To be with friends To get away from home Motivational Profile of International Travelers Motivational Profile of International Travelers 2.6 2.4 2.2 Mean Motive Strength 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 Presence-Seeking Recreation Collector/Consumer Explorer Job/Career Family Stability Motivational Profiles of Selected International Travelers Motivational Profiles of Selected International Travelers Skills for Maintaining Motivation Skill to pick the “right” assignment based on Skill to the match between the adapt an assignee’s assignee’s motivational motivational profile & the profile to the assignment ecology. assignment ecology assignee’s motivation profile Skills of attentional regulation Social skills & attentional flexibility for maintaining existing to assure ample time is spend social relationships & on activities & experiences developing new ones. important to the assignee. A1A2 Exercise Figure Grid Correct Response Grid Your response Score + or - comman Partner’s turn F(1) d [ ] 2 A(5) 4 [ ] B(5) 1 [ ] F(2) 4 [ ] E(2) 5 [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] E(2) 5 [ ] D(1) 2 [ ] E(3) 2 [ ] D(3) 3 [ ] F(1) 2 [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] C(5) 5 [ ] C(1) 1 [ ] F(4) 1 [ ] D(5) 1 [ ] C(5) 5 [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] F(3) 3 [ ] C(3) 3 [ ] B(1) 2 [ ] B(2) 5 [ ] F(3) 3 [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] A(3) 5 [ ] A(4) 2 [ ] C(4) 4 [ ] A(2) 3 [ ] A(3) 5 [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] --------- [ ] Successfully Managing Global Assignments Through Programs of Preparation, Support & Training Screening & Self- Re-entry selection Organizatio Orientation n Support Training Social Support Travel, Accommodatio n Planned, coordinated, The & Moving integrated & 3 Key Challenges implemented in terms on International of Assignments Intercultural Training & Intervention Programs Screening & Teaching & Self-selection Multicultural Education Orientation Training Social Travel, Support The 3 Key Accommodation Challenges & Moving Health Mental Health Community & Counseling & International Organizational Organization Consulting Mediation Design & Support & Coaching Management International Roles International Senior Assignees Executives Global Managers Home Office Staff Host-Country Counterparts International Business Travelers Adapted from Wederspahn 2000 Global Manager's Tasks Global Managers •Readily adjusting to different cultural values & practices •Networking with multicultural colleagues & associates on a worldwide basis •Conducting business diplomacy at the highest corporate & governmental levels •Balancing conflicting interests of stakeholders in different countries •Promoting & supporting multicultural teamwork •Learning from colleagues of all nationalities •Sharing of best practices between country operations •Managing cultural and ethnic diversity within the organization •Being a catalyst to move the company globally •Representing the global perspective in corporate strategy planning •Flexibly & quickly adapting to changes in the global business ecology •Modeling global managerial attitudes & behaviors to peers & subordinates Adapted from Wederspahn, 2000 Global Manager's Skills Global Managers Ways of Thinking • Keeping the global corporate mission in focus amid ambiguous, dynamic & sometimes chaotic international business conditions • Being continually engaged in a global learning process • Being aware of their own "cultural baggage," but transcending it • Discerning individual versus cultural differences • Accurately interpreting cross-cultural signals of warning, threat, approval, acceptance, discomfort, agreement, displeasure, support, disagreement & so forth • Thinking about business matters from different cultural viewpoints Ways of Feeling • Enjoying international travel & the foods, music & so forth in "strange lands" • Liking the challenge of learning about other cultures • Being relatively uninhibited when practicing new behaviors • Accepting uncertainty or ambiguity • Feeling comfortable among people from other cultures • Having confidence, but not over-confidence • Being a "presence seeker" Adapted from Wederspahn, 2000 Sample Items from a Screening Checklist Name: He or she: Works well with new or changed management styles? Y ? N Works well with new clients or customers? Y ? N Adapts well to changes in organizational structure? Y ? N Adapts quickly to and make use of new technologies? Y ? N Is able to provide own structure for tasks? Y ? N Quickly rearranges schedule when useful? Y ? N Is self-motivated? Y ? N Has a variety of friends? Y ? N Manages stress well? Y ? N Is broadly aware of people, resources & problems in a situation? Y ? N Is not bound by the "rules" or standard procedures? Y ? N Y=___ ?=___ N=___ Sample Items from an Orientation Checklist General information about the host culture Geography and climate Y N Current events and economic and social conditions Y N Important people Y N Specific information about living & working in the host culture Survival tips on laws, disease, crime, and security risks Y N Typical business practices such as hours and rates-of-pay Y N Housing, health facilities, and schools Y N Information about preparing for the assignment Passports, visas, work permits; health, tax clearances Y N Tax information Y N Moving household goods Y N Specific information about the particular assignment Organizational cultures Y N Clients, contractors, and key personnel Y N Host attitudes toward the assignment Y N Orientation Resources • Reference books, novels & films • Newspapers & Periodicals--with country or international focus • Government agencies--own & foreign; at home & abroad • Travel agents, travel consultants, airlines, global moving companies & credit or charge card companies • Returning compatriots • Visitors from the host culture • Site visits • The Internet and the World Wide Web Training for Global Assignments Technical, Professional or Management training Stress-management training Language training Working with interpreters Working with 2nd language speakers Culture training Culture-Specific Culture-General Cross-cultural training Intercultural training Training for Intercultural Effectiveness Technical, Professional or Management training Stress-management training Language training Working with interpreters Working with 2nd language speakers Culture training Culture-Specific Culture-General Cross-cultural training Intercultural training Key Training Concerns • Who should receive training? • When should training be provided? • How long should the training be? • Where should training take place? • Who should provide training? Social Support Needs Resources Information & guidance A different perspective A similar perspective Comparison for adjustment, performance & satisfaction Sharing responsibility & effort Familiarity Home- Companionship Sources culture Intimacy groups Home- Assignee country Support groups Needs Host- culture groups Organizational Support for International Assignments • Programs of preparation, support & training • Clear assignment objectives & appropriate status • Appropriate recognition, career relevance, salary & other benefits • Staff support & other necessary task resources • Performance appraisal with an understanding of international assignment problems • Access to good communication technologies • Health, passport, visa, banking, & tax arrangements • Housing, transportation & security • Vacations, R & R, & home leaves • Help for nonworking spouse & children • Health, mental health, and counseling assistance • Assistance in re-entry to home office & community or to the next assignment Skills in Developing & Maintaining Social Support Identifying the social support provided at home Who & what? A focused or diffused pattern? Identifying social support needs on the assignment Who is left behind & how much support will they continue to provide? Identifying social support available on the assignment Exploring & scouting Matching unfilled needs with available support Matching resource requirements of needs with resources provided by available support groups Maintaining existing relationships Home-country & home-culture groups Dealing with work-group & family conflict Developing, maintaining & dissolving new relationships Home-culture & host-culture groups Quick personalization & being in the right time and place Dealing with conflict Saying “good-bye” Social Support Exercise My support needs Who fills them Filled Who is available at home? at home? abroad? abroad? _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ _______________ ___________ Y N _______________ Workplace Conflict Attribution Conflict Symptoms: Confrontations, discussions, arguments & fights Direct & indirect hostility Solutions: Changes in organizational, relationship or microculture Ignorance of Attribution Conflict Symptoms: Lack of synchrony, responsiveness & enthusiasm Solutions: Increased sense of presence & improved perspective sharing Attributional Ambiguity Symptoms: Problem solving difficulties Threats to relationship stability Solutions: Maintaining motivation Tolerance & trust in affect or intentions Stress management Workplace Conflict Exercise 2 3 1 Your Your Your rank of partner’s partner rank 3-1 rank 3-2 A good boss should be-- strong, decisive, and firm but fair. He/she should be protective, generous, and indulgent to loyal subordinates. impersonal and correct, avoiding the exercise of authority for his/her own advantage. He/she should demand from subordinates only that which is required by the formal system. egalitarian and influenceable in matters concerning the task. responsive to the personal needs and values of others. He/she should provide satisfying work opportunities for subordinates. Skills for Success Abroad Skills for Attentional Skills for coping with regulation maintainin ecoshock Attentional flexibility g motivation Identifying motivation Patience profile-destination Broadening stress- ecology match coping tool kit Identifying the social Training for support provided at home Use of a sense successful Identifying social of presence to build IMCs international support needs abroad assignments Identifying social support Communication opportunities abroad skills in ritual exchange, perspective sharing, & Matching unfilled needs language, context & with available support agenda matching Skills for Social skills-- Skills for particularly in developing & dealing with conflict resolution diversity maintaining social support Management Planning in Strange Lands New, Diverse or Changing Ecologies Remind ourselves of the organization’s mission. Revise if necessary & possible. Assess the support by Identify strategies for fulfilling the mission and specific objectives organizational ecology in within each. terms of people (e.g., cultures, skills, motivations, social climate), facilities, resources, products or services, markets or clients, competition, time, place, larger organizational context, Develop an action plan for each and community and changes objective by identifying required tasks, in that ecology. optimal process in terms of the organizational ecology, time-line, resources, and personnel responsible. Theories of learning, attitude change and motivation Common problems of training and intervention programs are that –It teaches people things they already know –The trainees don’t know any more at the end of a program than they did before An effective program of intervention must be based on a sound understanding of people--how they learn, how their attitudes develop and change, and what motivates them Theories of learning –Behavioral (e.g., Pavlov, Skinner). Stimulus and response are the best ways to explain behavior and thus if you want to change it you must work with those –Cognitive (e.g., Tolman, Lewin, Bandura). Cognitions (perceptions) play a major along with both stimulus and response Theories of attitude change –Reinforcement theories –Consistency theories such as dissonance theory (Festinger) –Changing the ecology Theories of motivation –Drive theories (e.g. Freud) –Motivational hierarchies (e.g., Maslow) –Achievement theories (e.g., McClelland & Atkinson, Weiner) –Optimal state/intrinsic motivation theories (e.g., Rotter, Deci, Csikszentmihalyi) Modeling Some Key Ethical Challenges in Dealing with Cultural Diversity The themeTo be successful in culturally diverse areas in the Pacific Rim requires not only dealing with cultural complexity about what ways to do business are seen as effective or not, but ethical complexity, as well. That iswhat ways are right or wrong in terms of broader moral, philosophical or religious beliefs. Whereas people often are willing to adjust their ways of business, they are typically much less likely to sacrifice their ethics! In Hawaii this complexity reflects our mix of cultures, our small island ecology and the relatively low mobility of our people. The distribution of rewards Equity Equality Need Status The timing of rewards Bribes Tips & bonuses Gifts Communication of information & influence Honest & direct Harmony & indirect ConclusionWhile ethical issues may be subtler and less frequently addressed than effectiveness and performance ones, they can influence business success as well. Especially in a small island ecology in which Everyone knows everything and they remember! High Impact Consulting & Intervention Flaws of conventional consulting –Project defined in terms of consultant’s expertise or products (not in terms of client results to be achieved) –Project scope based solely on problem to be solved (ignoring clients readiness for change) –One big solution (rather than incremental successes) –Sharp division of responsibility between client and consultant (not partnership) –Labor-intensive use of consultants (instead of leveraged use) Requirements of high impact consulting –Define goals in terms of client results instead of consultant products –Match project scope to what the client is ready to do –Aim for rapid-cycle successes to generate momentum (create smaller rapid-cycle projects from large-scale goals) –Build a partnership to achieve and learn (Abandon the traditional view that a project is a task carried out by a consultant for a client. The project has to be seen as a joint undertaking to produce a joint product. Both players have to accept that much of the work can and should be done by client personnel--they often will not only produce better results for less expense, they will also benefit from the learning that results from the experience.) –Create a contract for collaboration instead of a proposal for a job –Build communication bridges (perspective sharing, agenda matching, information exchange, social influence) and provide interpretation based on broader consultant experience. [Adapted from Schaffer, R. H. (1997). High impact consulting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.] Multiple Presence Face-to-face to Geographically Dispersed Teams Intimate 0-18" Different cities Different floors Social Public 4-12' 50' 'Rule' for Collaboration Different Tom Allen buildings MIT 1977 Different countries Personal 18-48" All in North American culture Adapted from Lipnack & Stamps 2000 Communication Technology & Time & Place Same time Different time Same Different place place Voice Fax/mail Overheads Email Video Voice Mail Different time Net Forum Same place Workstations Bulletin boards Same time Different place Phone, Video conference Chat rooms Individuals, Groups & Teams Individuals Group Task Team Cultural Process Teams Management Teams Cultural Process Teams Formal Interventions Multicultural Operational Interventions Ecology Mediational Interventions Global Teams Team Development Stages Storming Intragroup Norming Developing differences & task/role team culture, disagreements confronted cohesiveness & rules Performing Team achieves productivity & creates solutions Forming Purpose, Adjourning parameters & Dissolution/Renewal membership defined Teams A small group--"Individuals interacting interdependently" A team--"Teams exist for some task-oriented purpose“ Purpose • vision or mission or goals or objectives or tasks • In virtual teams continued clarification of each of these may be more difficult in part because it can be harder to monitor if people continue to share the components and their relationship (the "big picture") or not. Plan • Identification of the process for reaching the objective in terms of tasks, people & resources, and time. • In virtual teams monitoring the status of the implementation of the plan and determining the need for modification can be difficult because of information sharing difficulties. Teams b While task distinguished teams from small groups, boundary-crossing differentiates traditional teams from virtual ones. •A colocated, cross-organizational team is likely to experience difficulty establishing a common purpose and making decisions. •A virtual team distributed in space and time, but from the same organization, is likely to find that communications and participation issues dominate. •Virtual teams that are both distributed and cross- organizational will experience both stretched communications and stressful purpose setting. Building Geographically Dispersed Teams Teams are alive--they grow. Virtual teams may take longer to grow, yet have even less time since saving time may be part of their reason for being. Phases in launching GDTs teams– • Create identity--shared perceptions (culture), name, symbols, web-pages. • Draft mission--make it explicit! • Set goals--objectives and necessary tasks to fulfill mission. • Identify members--who? when? what roles & responsibilities? • Establish relationships--goals need to intersect with members in a matrix • Assess resource needs and acquisition plan • Determine milestones--schedules or time-lines and management plan. • Choose media--fit the team's mission, tasks and ecology • Get on-line as soon as possible--encourage change and experimentation early and discourage it later. Keys to Effective Culturally Diverse GDTs • Getting to know each other in terms of personal "ecology" and personal & cultural values & expectations • Clarifying the team purpose or mission and identifying objectives and tasks • Identifying strengths & weaknesses & opportunities & barriers in terms of the mission • Negotiating ethics and rules • Building team identity, caring and trust • Developing microcultures Leadership in Teams Leaders may be appointed by the organization or elected by participants There may be a single leader or different leaders for different tasks Need to differentiate between a leader and leadership roles--many team members may assume some of the latter Particularly in virtual teams selection of leaders may be based more on capabilities than position There are common difficulties in supervision in virtual teams and thus difficulties of rewards & discipline (and again the importance of trust in shared purpose) In today's world, things are continuously changing, so the leader with the answers has no answers. A leader must hold the questions, not the answers! (Lipnack & Stamps, 2000, p. 33) Intercultural Teams Keys to multicultural team building • Recognizing the impact of cultural values, perceptions, beliefs, & assumptions on teamwork • Learning how to identify and constructively deal with cultural differences among team members • Appreciating the richness of member's diverse backgrounds & respecting their cultural values • Discovering practical ways to transform differences into assets rather than liabilities • Developing and practicing the skills required to be an effective multicultural team member. Adapted from Wederspahn, 2000 Some Key Cultural Differences Affecting Teams •Doing vrs being (focus on task outcome vrs task process & relationships) •Directness vrs indirectness & face-saving in communication •Monochronic vrs polychronic •Individualism vrs collectivism •High vrs low power distance •High vrs low uncertainty avoidance •Conflict resolution The challenges presented by these differences are manifested most significantly in terms of skill differences. Importance of global leadership to global business success Competent Global Leaders 6.1 Adequate Financial Resources 5.9 Improved Communication Technology 5.1 Higher Quality Local National Workforce 5.0 Political Stability in Developing Countries 4.7 National Government Support of Trade 4.5 Lower Tariff/Trade Restrictions 4.4 Adapted from Gregersen, Morrison & Black (1998) study of U.S. Fortune 500 firms in 1997. 1 = not important 7 = extremely important. Strategies for Developing Global Leaders Travel Immerse global leaders in the country and its culture, “uninsulated by the common corporate cocoon with luxury hotel, car and driver, dutiful staffers, and choreographed itinerary.” Encourage detours and opportunities for chance encounters! Teams Establish teams in which participants with diverse backgrounds and perspectives must work together closely to solve problems and make decisions Training Train leaders in intercultural communication, conflict resolution, and multicultural team dynamics within a structured learning environment. Transfers Provide varied overseas assignments that present opportunities to learn strategies of accommodation, build IMCs and exchange knowledge. Adapted in part from Gregersen, Morrison & Black (1998) study of U.S. 130 executives in fifty firms across Europe (15), NA (25) and Asia (10). Keys to an optimal sense of presence in synchronous versus asynchronous communication ecologies Synchronous ecologies A ratio of high realness and intensity of audio, video and other display characteristics to distractions associated with the media/computer technology used to produce the displays A ratio of high interactivity between participants in different sites to those same distractions Asynchronous ecologies High psychological texture for people, settings, worktables, and assignments High interactivity among an optimal combination of number of participants and tasks and the responsivity of those participants High meaningfulness and an optimal mixture of predictability, surprise and drama of team content and activities that foster a merging of proximal and distal settings into "one place" The “Knowledge Paradox” in Global Management: Local versus Global Assignment Strategies Here is the paradox. While short-term increments in performance may be partially attributable to this change in expatriation strategy, there is the danger of some longer-term decrements. Although multinationals have recognized the problems the expats have working and living abroad and the impact of those problems on performance, they appear not to have been as attuned to the knowledge building within the organization produced by the shuffling around from subsidiary to subsidiary to headquarters to subsidiary, and so forth, of all those expats. That is, these--frequently culture shocked--expats were nevertheless often learning a vastly expanded range of tools for dealing with global organizational challenges. They were involved with both the creation and exchange of knowledge associated with these tools. And they were learning to identify the organizational ecologies within which those tools worked best. That expanded knowledge and associated skills are, of course, critical to prosperity, if not survival, in our rapidly evolving global world. Reasons for the Change in Expatriation Strategy The challenges for International Assignees in coping with ecoshock, dealing effectively with diversity & maintaining motivation The perception that Local Managers are more familiar with the local staff, clients, markets, and cultures, were less expensive to support, and doing so assuaged a variety of political, image and even ethical concerns. Additionally many now perceive that (a) there are more trained, experienced and competent local personnel available and/or (b) local knowledge and skills are now more recognized and valued. The increased use of Geographically Dispersed Teams communicating significantly online. Knowledge Building & Exchange in MNEs Global Subsidiaries Headquarters • Explicit & Tacit knowledge (e.g., Nonaka, 1991) • Declarative (“knowing what”), procedural (“knowing how”), conditional (“knowing when”), & axiomatic knowledge (“knowing why”) (Bertoin Antal, 2000). • International & Intercultural Microcultures or IMCs (Fontaine, 1989 & 2000) • The effective use of the Sense of Presence (Fontaine, 1989 & 2000) • Difficulties of short-term assignments & gdts in terms of knowledge building Strategies for Dealing with the Knowledge Paradox Diminishing the extended f2f interactions between expats & locals impacts knowledge building within MNEs in terms of – • Opportunities • Development of skills • Motivation to build knowledge Any expatriation strategy that addresses these impacts must include – (1) Building a model of expatriation in meeting the mission of "our" MNE. (2) Designing and supporting high impact international assignments. (3) Creating and managing culturally diverse project teams. (4) Providing programs to assist expats and the colleagues with whom they work in developing the skills necessary to optimize knowledge building. (5) Providing organizational mechanisms for periodically making tacit knowledge explicit. (6) Providing the impetus for periodically "refreshing the screen." The Theme The theme underlying these strategies for dealing with the knowledge paradox is that when we fly around the world on assignment to assignment we carry a lot more with us than our luggage and our business cards. We carry the seeds of knowledge about how to survive and succeed in strange lands. These seeds must be nurtured by ourselves and our organizations.