Filipino Scientists and Their Contribution to Science and Technology Promoting gender equality and empowering women in agriculture

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Filipino Scientists and Their Contribution to Science and Technology Promoting gender equality and empowering women in agriculture Powered By Docstoc
					Promoting gender equality and
   empowering women in
         agriculture

                   Thelma R. Paris
 Senior Scientist, Socio-economist, and Gender Specialist
  Presented at the Gamma Sigma Delta 50th Celebration, SEARCA
                   Auditorium, March 6, 2007




                                                                    7
                                                                T.Paris ‘07
Gender equality and women empowerment
   Equal participation of women and men in the development of
   their societies and the equal access to the benefits of
   development and equal partners in national building
   Power – root of empowerment; ability to make choices
   Major factors of empowerment – women’s participation, their
   decision-making capacity, control over resources and their own
   welfare practices
   Women empowerment is to exercise their choices with full
   capability in order to contribute social and economic growth for
   their welfare
   Gender equality and empowerment- is still out of reach for most
   women worldwide



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Gender equality         (cont…)


   Women have fewer rights, lower education and health status,
   less income, and less access to resources and decision-making
   than men

   Women’s critical roles in food production, income generation,
   cost savings, management of natural resources, community
   organization and domestic responsibilities are essential for
   sustainable development.

    Women’s critical roles as professionals (scientists, extension
   workers, development workers, etc) are crucial in bringing
   science and technologies to prospective users

   Many of these women juggle their time between demanding
   careers, providing income to the family, and taking care of
   responsibilities as wives, mothers, care takers of elderly

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    Perceptions on gender equality
          in the Philippines
•        are no gender issues here in the Philippines. We put our
    “There
    women on a pedestal. They are in an advantaged position
    compared with the other women in other countries in Asia”

    In fact we (husbands) are “under the saya” (hen-pecked) and our
    wives are the Commanders in Chief or Chiefs of Stop (stop
    drinking, stop smoking, stop womanizing”

•   These are the remarks I used to get from men who would like to
    paint a rosy picture of the high status of the women in the
    Philippines.

• The Filipino woman – was taught that her principal consideration
  was the head of her household in public
    Held in the highest esteem by her husband – never treated like a
    slave, nor insulted with the presence of a concubine in her house”


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                         Different views
•   That women in the Philippines rule their households and their
    husbands is the myth of Filipino matriarchy.

•   Filipino women do enjoy more decision making powers within their
    home than their sisters in more clearly patriarchal societies, such as
    those of South Asia and the Middle east, but their control is by no
    means substantial

•   Decision making in the community and the larger society is dominated
    by men, because it is they who are involved in the economic activities
    that society values.

•   The women from Metro Manila do not represent the Filipino woman

•   Women in the rural areas do 40-60% of all farm activities, and form the
    bulk of the unpaid labor force

•   Due to poverty, rural women are increasingly burdened by the task of
    having to make both ends meet.

•   Despite their active roles in farming they are perceived as
    “housewives” and not as farmers, consequently lesser access to
    technologies, formal credit, raining and extension programs, as men
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Commitments of international communities to
women’s rights and gender equality

     International Communities’ Commitments to
     Women’s Rights and Gender Equality
     Convention on the Elimination on all forms of
     Discrimination Against women (CEDAW)
     All rights (social, economic, political, civil, family)
     Beijing Platform of Action
     United Nations Security Council Resolution 1326 on
     Women, Peace and Security and the
     UN Millennium Development Goals

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UN Millennium Development
Goals
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Promote gender equality and empower
   women
3. Reduce child mortality
4. Improve maternal health
5. Achieve universal primary education
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
   diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for
   development
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UN Millennium Goal 2
  The UN Millennium Declaration resolves "to
  promote gender equality and the empowerment
  of women as effective ways to combat poverty,
  hunger and disease and to stimulate development
  that is truly sustainable" (United Nations, 2000)
  The policy and institutional environment should
  be supportive of women in order to recognize the
  significance of their contribution and the ability
  to realize empowerment through their own skills
  and capacity.


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Issues
  Due to economic necessity women bear the brunt of borrowing money
  and repayments
  A high proportion live in the rural areas who are burdened to make both
  ends meet; Lesser facilities (running water, electricity,fuel, washing
  machines) which can reduce their household work load
  More women (70% of total migrants) than men migrate in other countries
  leaving their families behind
  Men and women have different and complementary roles which need to
  be considered in technology design and dissemination
  Women’s roles are changing in relation to men due to mechanization,
  increasing participation in non-farm employment
  Roles of men and women have to be analyzed according to social and
  economic status, ethnicity, absence of spouse, stage in the life cycle,
  whether urban or rural



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Importance of rice and constraints in production in
                  the Philippines

       The Philippine economy depends mainly on
       agriculture
       Rice is the staple food of millions of urban
       and rural consumers in the Philippines
       Rice constitutes 62% and 78%, respectively
       in terms of area and value
       Rice cultivation is a major employer of male
       and female workers in irrigated and rainfed
       rice environments

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Contributions of rural women
   Female family labor:
   - higher in rainfed than in irrigated rice farming;
   - higher in upland rice farming; and
   - declines as household income increases
   Repositories of indigenous knowledge
   Custodians of household cash – make both ends meeting
   Participate in decision making in farming but play dominate roles on
   household matters
   Provide labor in rice production, post harvest, seed selection and
   storage
   Add value to rice by making rice products
   Purchase farm inputs (fertilizer, pesticides) and market products
   Mainly responsible for food security, child nutrition
   Provide additional income through self-employment activities
   (taking care of small animals, vegetables, etc) and cost saving
   strategies

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Quantifying the relative contribution (%) of male’s and
female’s labor inputs in rainfed rice production (days/ha)


   Country                Villages                        Total     Male     Female

   Indonesia      Jakenan, Central Java                    161       54         46
                  Sumber, Central Java                     178       59         41
   Thailand       Ban Sai Khram, South                     104       45         55
                  Ban Don Paw Daeng                        102       46         54
   Philippine     Carosucan, Sta.Barbara                   133       73         27
                  Tampac, Nueva Ecija                      188       68         32
   Cambodia       Kandal and Takeo                         167       54         46
   Vietnam        He Thu District                          105       45         55
   Laos           Khok Nghai, Xaythani                     110       24         76
                  Ak-sang, Phonethong                      117       38         62
      Female contributions in the Philippines is lower as compared to other countries.

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Labor inputs       (cont…)



Country              Villages                     Total     Male       Female

 India        Chandpur, Faizabad                  187         16        84
              Mungeshpur, Faizabad                132         33        67
              Sariyawan, Faizabad                 211         45        55
              Khanpur, Faizabad district          210         24        76

 Nepal        Naldung, Nagarkot                   269         42        58
              Mohana, Rantnagar                   101         50        50
              Baghmara, Rantnagar                 95          45        55

  Female labor participation is higher in SA than SE Asian countries




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Transplanting                   Fertilizer broadcasting




                                                          Insecticide spraying




Hauling
                         Transporting                                  Drying

          In Vietnam women also perform activities such as
          fertilizer and pesticide application which are not done
          by women in other countries
          Thus, any technology will affect female labor more than
          male labor and also different categories of female labor. ‘07
                                                                T.Paris
       Drivers of change – Labor out-
   migration: What is the impact on
livelihood, productivity and changing
             gender roles?




  In eastern India and Vietnam, women are left behind to manage the
  farms resulting to rise in de facto farm managers and heads of
  households among nuclear households
  In the Philippines, women left behind are becoming farm managers
  rather than unpaid family laborers due to remittances          T.Paris ‘07
How can we ensure food security among poor rice farming households?
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 IRRI’s Mission - 'To reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and
  consumers, and ensure environmental sustainability through collaborative research,
partnerships, and strengthening of national agricultural research and extension systems
                                                                                  T.Paris ‘07
  How is IRRI addressing
gender issues in rice-based
       agriculture?

 How can IRRI achieve the
UN Millennium Development
 Goals in relation to gender
          concerns?
                               T.Paris ‘07
   A rice
  farming
 family in
    the
 northern
highland of
    Laos



              T.Paris ‘07
IRRI’s Gender Mainstreaming Strategies
   System-wide – Participatory research and gender
   analysis
   Consultative Group of International Agricultural
   Research (CGIAR) – 16 centers which generate
   technologies on crops
   Institute – IRRI
   Program - 5 Goals (Programs)
   Project – Research activities
   Division – Social Sciences Division
   Farm/Household/Men and Women Farmers

                                                      T.Paris ‘07
Policy recommendations to address
gender issues in IARCs
    In many parts of the developing world, women
    play an important role in agricultural
    production, for example as farm owners,
    managers, unpaid family workers and hired
    laborers. Too often, this rice has been
    overlooked resulted in reduced impact or even
    total failure of programs related to agricultural
    research and development.
    Consequently, is it important that the System
    should give explicit attention to the role of
    women whenever it is relevant to its work.


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Policy Recommendation (cont…)
    In particular, centers should review their
    programs particularly those on farming systems,
    to ensure that the role of women is specifically
    considered in the technology generation process
    and that the possibility of differential benefits
    of men and women is analyzed.
    The Technical Advisory Council of the
    Consultative Group of International. Agricultural
    Research Centers (CGIAR) is fully taken into
    account in designing and evaluating programs of
    work
    Source: Report of Review Committee, taken from
    MUCIA, 1983:5)
                                                        T.Paris ‘07
IRRI’s Policy Statements on Gender

      “Improving research relevance and
     accelerating impact require an intimate
        understanding of the environment,
       production systems, and problems of
      prospective users and beneficiaries of
    research results. This points to the need
   for information on the dynamics of rural
      household economy and the farming
       systems, male and female farmers’
     indigenous knowledge and criteria for
          evaluating technologies…..”

                                                T.Paris ‘07
IRRI’s Policy Statements on Gender
      We will strengthen the interdisciplinary
       research involving social and biological
   scientists to help farmers to experiment with
    new relevant management technologies; to
       analyze farmers’ perceptions; to assess
  knowledge gaps; and to identify opportunities
       for change. The results of the farmer
    participatory research will be evaluated to
     adapt technologies to suit farmer needs,
  especially those of poor women. We will seek
        the best ways of disseminating these
      technologies, particularly to low-income
                       farmers.
                                                   T.Paris ‘07
IRRI’s Policy Statements on Gender

   We will also continue to promote tools
    to make farming easier and especially
   to reduce women farmers’ drudgery in
   post-harvest work. However, we need
    more socioeconomic information and
        greater interaction with our
    prospective users and beneficiaries if
    we are to provide them with the best
        help possible (IRRI 1997a:26)


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IRRI’s Policy Statements on Gender

     We will build on our experience in
     understanding women’s role in rice
      farming by initiating research to
     analyze male and female farmers’
   knowledge of the traits of traditional
    cultivars and by developing ways of
   using this knowledge in plant breeding
       and selection of their use (IRRI
                 1997a:28)



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IRRI’s Strategies to Mainstream Gender
Concerns in Staffing and Capacity Building

     Appointment of a Gender Specialist as core
     staff
     Promotion of Gender and Diversity staffing
     at IRRI
     Policy statements/affirmative statements
     on equal opportunities for men and women
     Leadership Course for Training for Asian
     Women in R& D and Extension


                                                  T.Paris ‘07
Strategies to promote gender equality and
empower women through rice research

    Incorporate gender concerns into IRRI’s Strategic
    Plan (2007-2015) and IRRI's Medium Term Plan (2007
    to 2009);
    Mainstream gender concerns into IRRI's research
    program that focus on improving rural livelihood
    systems, technology development and delivery
    activities including farmer participatory varietal
    selection and crop resource management
    Organize strategic research on gender issues in
    collaboration with National Agricultural Research
    and Extension Systems (NARES) and advanced
    universities
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Strategies (cont…)


     Organized forums, training courses
     to sensitize policy makers, research
     administrators, scientists, extension
     agents and development workers
     Stimulated research on gender




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Involve men and women farmers in the
technology development and dissemination
process
     Initial problem diagnosis and environment
     characterization (include gender-differentiated)
     Identify whether there are gender differences in
     constraints in increasing productivity eg. Access to
     resources
     Test potential technologies to overcome constraints
     through participatory approaches (include women as
     farmer cooperators and evaluators)
     Monitor and evaluate (technical performance, economic
     feasibility, social and cultural acceptability)
     Technology dissemination (scaling up) - include women
     as key agents of change

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Post harvest activities are
   are mainly women’s
     responsibilities.

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    Training women in
 selecting seeds through
       rogueing and
   to discard unhealthy
seeds for planting quality
         rice seeds
    for the next season
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                      Training women how to
                        select unclean and
                           clean seeds in
                      collaboration with NGO




  Training women
     farmers in
Chhattisgarh, India
 on seed selection


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  Reducing women’s drudgery and increasing
labor efficiency by introducing a rice flour mill
   for converting rice into flour instead of a
                 grinding stone
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Forming an association of women to manage a portable rice mill‘04
                                                        TParis
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Providing women farmers with rice flour mill to have
       economic independence in Bangladesh        T.Paris ‘07
Involving women farmers in evaluating
      elite lines with local check




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Involving women farmers in evaluating the
performance of new rice genotypes in India
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ASSESSED THE IMPACT OF ROW SEEDER TECHNOLOGY ON WOMEN LABOR: A CASE STUDY IN THE
                          MEKONG DELTA, SOUTH VIET NAM




      Women from poor farming and landless families lost their jobs.
      Women from better-off households have lesser drudgery and more leisure.
                                                                            T.Paris ‘07
Women Scientists and managers can
also contribute in promoting gender
 equality and empowering women
        engaged in farming

  They can help bring science and
technology to the prospective users
who may not always be the men, but
          women as well

                                  T.Paris ‘07
Women Scientists and Managers in
  Agricultural Research in the
           Philippines


       ISNAR Report No.7
 Brush, Deborah Merrill-Sands,
Dely Gapasin and Virginia Mabesa


                                   T.Paris ‘07
Trends in Supply of Women in
Science in the Philippines
    The global trend of increasing participation of women in
    science is seen dramatically in the Philippines
    The number of female scientists increased tenfold
    between 1975 and 1983
    The proportion of total scientists increased from 21% to
    45%
    Women scientists are concentrated in gov’t agencies and
    academe where they make up 60% of R & D workers.
    Women constitute approximately 50% of the agricultural
    researchers in the public-sector organizations



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   What are the key factors which explain the
   high level of female participation in science
                 in the Philippines

• Long standing educational opportunities for women and
  emphasis on science in the curricula of primary and
  secondary education

• The relative gender neutrality of science as a profession

• Growth in the number of women qualified for careers in
  agricultural research

• The expansion of disciplines considered important for
  agricultural research

• Growth in jobs in ag research in gov’t agencies and
  universities


                                                              T.Paris ‘07
Increased Educational Opportunities
 Public schools were established at the turn of the
 century which permitted social mobility for both boys
 and girls

 Early 80s, women represented 50% of the enrollment in
 elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines –
 higher than the average for SE Asia and much higher
 than the ave of 28% for SA where women’s
 participation in science remains low

 Women now surpass men in enrollment in universities
 in the Philippines, making up 54% of the university
 level students


                                                         T.Paris ‘07
      Expansion of disciplines
The increased emphasis on support disciplines such
as entomology, and plant pathology, and other
agriculture related disciplines, such as food
technology,social sciences, and extension, opened
up new opportunities for women


Women predominate in the support disciplines,
social sciences and extension services




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    Increasing gender neutrality of
       science as an occupation
As agriculture became more science based and research came to
be seen as a key means for fueling agricultural production, the
close association between agriculture and farming, traditionally
as a male activity, broke down

Training in agriculture came to be associated more with science
and technology development than with farming, which made the
field more gender neutral and led to increased opportunities for
women

“Before women did not select agriculture (for training) because
it was associated with farming , which is the domain of men. But
during the 1970s, the UPLB changed its curriculum to focus on
science and research rather than farming. With the change,
women saw more opportunities for themselves in this profession
                                                             T.Paris ‘07
Gender issues in research systems
Women professionals in the Philippine research system
appear to be underrepresented in senior scientific and
management positions

There are twice as many men in senior positions as
women, and 10% of the managers are male, compared to
3% female

At the same degree level (MSc), men are promoted faster
than women

While more than three quarters of the women with the
BSc degrees are in junior positions, fewer than 60% of the
men with BSc degrees are in junior positions

                                                          T.Paris ‘07
Gender issues

     Women experience more intense work-family conflicts than
     men, However, these did not seem to affect their research
     output; Work conflicts do, however, constrain the ability of
     women to pursue opportunities for training, and this probably
     has a negative impact on women’s careers

     Staff absences due to family situation is a major issue for
     female managers

     Gender is an important variable affecting vertical reporting
     relationships even in organization with large proportion of
     women




                                                                    T.Paris ‘07
Key policies used successfully in the
Philippines to promote gender equality in
science
   Exempting research institutes from the standard civil-service
   policy regarding ; nepotism in order to permit employment of
   spouses within the same organization
   Using spouse employment packages where institutes,
   particularly those in remote locations recruit both husband
   and wife
   Generous maternity leave (two months paid leave) with an
   option for additional paid leave
   Allowing the use of sick leave to care for ailing family
   members
   Removing restrictions against women with young children
   receiving support for training
   Encouraging the development of day-care facilities
                                                              T.Paris ‘07
Future Scenario and Impacts on Agriculture
     More food particularly rice will be needed to be
     produced by farmers to feed the growing urban and
     rural population
     Globalization will force rural communities to
     diversify their sources of livelihood
     Rice has to be produced on less quality land, less
     labor and less water;
     Labor migration within the country and to other
     countries will continue to increase which may result
     to labor scarcity in the rural areas, increase in wage
     rates, increase in farm mechanization;
     Women’s roles will shift from working as unpaid
     family workers to farm managers and major decision
     makers
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What can we do?
1.   Enhance the technical capabilities of women
     farmers
2.   Explore new approaches for effective
     technology transfer to clients
3.   Improve agricultural statistics on employment
     and income
4.   Conduct macro-level studies on the effects of
     the emerging economic changes on agriculture
     and farming households with emphasis on
     women.
5.   Review and implement gender-sensitive
     policies in agriculture.



                                                     T.Paris ‘07
What can we do?

  Strengthen collaboration among international and national
  agricultural research institutions eg. IRRI –PCARRD, IRRI-
  PhilRice, IRRI-DA; IRRI-SEARCA, IRRI –UPLB Gender Program

  Government organizations implement policy measures to
  improve men and women’s access to resources, technology
  and information eg use of 10% gov’t budget allocation

  Organize alliances or network on Asian Women in
  Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD) and in
  Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural
  Resource Management (WOCAN)

  Increase the awareness and sensitivity among policy makers
  and research administrators on gender issues
                                                            T.Paris ‘07
Challenge
  Rural women will play even greater
  roles in sustaining household food
  and nutrition security. However, the
  greatest challenge lies in
  implementing gender –sensitive
  policies for equitable access to
  resources and opportunities for men
  and women engaged in agriculture.

                                         T.Paris ‘07
   How does IRRI promote gender quality and empower
     women in research, development and extension?


• Conduct leadership course for Asian women in agricultural R &
  D and extension
• Increase the number of female participants (30%) in several
  training courses (particularly from SA)
• Provide “hands on training” for female scientists and assign
  mentors
• Increase the number of female scientists to work in
  interdisciplinary teams on collaborative research with NARES
• Invite competent female scientists engaged in rice science to
  participate in international conferences
• Provide more opportunities for female scientists to pursue
  professional growth at IRRI as Post Docs, Visiting Scientists,




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IRRI organized the




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        The goal of increasing
       agricultural productivity
 and food security will be difficult to
achieve unless we provide women and
men equal access to opportunities and
empower women to maximize their skills,
 talents and inputs for the benefit of
     themselves, their families,
        the Society and the
        future generation.

                                          T.Paris ‘07

				
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