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					                                                                                                             SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS




Picking the best
    truck options

The mechanical versus
electric drive debate
has taken an interesting
turn with the latest
Caterpillar findings.
John Chadwick
looks at this and
the latest in accessories




V
        ladimir Pokras, Analysis and Simulation        The T 282 B is Liebherr Mining’s flagship         to design its trucks. In particular, engineers
        Manager, Liebherr Mining Equipment          truck, which he says is “the proven largest          create virtual vehicle models to predict truck
        explains that Liebherr engineers rely on    diesel electric mining truck currently in            behaviour for a variety of load situations,
ANSYS structural simulation technology to           production. With a load capacity of 363 t, the       including turning, hitting deep holes and
develop large electric drive trucks for the harsh   7.8-m-high behemoth is 15.3 m long, runs on          bumps, and backing into barriers. Should
operating conditions of mining while providing      a set of six 4-m tyres, and is powered by a          simulation indicate a potential trouble spot, it is
maximum load capacity. “Ultra-class mining          gigantic 3,650-hp (2,721 kW) diesel engine.          then simple to modify the virtual model to
trucks are designed to transport heavy loads        The payload to empty vehicle weight ratio is a       explore alternatives and what-if scenarios that
over spiralling roads,” he notes. “With fuel        very important characteristic for the giant          would be entirely impractical to study with
efficiency, hauling productivity and operating      trucks. The T 282 B, rated at 1.6, offers the        physical mockups.
costs high on their list of priorities, mine        best ratio in its size class.”                          These engineers work to resolve problems
operators are particularly drawn to trucks with        The engineering challenge is designing            and refine designs earlier in development and
electrically driven wheels powered by diesel        lightweight trucks strong enough for mining.         reduce the number of vehicle prototype test
generators, instead of mechanical powertrains       “This is no easy feat,” Pokras says, “mining         cycles. Currently, two or three physical
with gearboxes and driveshafts. Diesel electric     trucks are some of the most abused vehicles in       mockups are needed for a typical new truck
trucks typically are easier to operate, cost less   the world. Often, operators drive as fast as         design — half the number built and tested 10
to purchase and generally outperform                they can to haul as many loads as possible over      years ago. The aim is to perform simulations so
mechanical trucks, especially on steep grades.      huge boulders, deep craters, hip-deep mud and        accurately and in such great detail that only a
They’re also easier to repair and maintain,         waterlogged muck. Trucks are put to the test         single physical prototype would be needed to
which is a real plus in remote mining locations     every hour of every day in conditions like this      validate the mechanical and electrical design of
where uptime is critical and work must be done      around the world.”                                   the vehicle before production begins.
on site.”                                              Liebherr relies heavily on engineering analysis      The key to this simulation-based design
                                                                                                     SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

approach is the advanced analysis performed
with ANSYS Mechanical software in calculating
the stress, stiffness, deformation and natural
frequencies of critical vehicle components and
subsystems — especially in cases in which their
range of\flexibility and nonlinear behaviour
must be accurately characterised.
   The Craig–Bampton method of representing
flexible bodies in ANSYS Mechanical software
works effectively for Liebherr engineers. In this
technique, the mass and stiffness of parts are
represented with generalised co-ordinates or
mode shapes. This reduces the number of
degrees of freedom in the analysis while
providing accurate static and dynamic                product and a change in name from T 282 B            With an empty vehicle weight (EVW) of 237 t, the
characteristics of the bodies. Representing          to T 282 C. With a new cast frame, axle box          Liebherr T 282 C can carry a payload of up to 363 t.
components as flexible bodies is especially          and cab, and a drive system that was designed        Available engine options for the T 282 C include the
important for parts that must be analysed            and built by Liebherr, the T 282 C now has a         MTU DD 20V4000 (20-cylinder/2,800 kW) or the
undergoing relatively large deformations.            designed reliability with a focus on Liebherr        Cummins QSK 78 (18-cylinder /2,610 kW). Its top
Examples include the truck frame and                 Vertical Integration.” At Bauma, the new             speed is 64 km/h
superstructure as they deflect under forces          T 282 C was shown for the first time.
experienced as the vehicle traverses rough              “With the first pre-series units already in       strategic areas to minimise the empty vehicle
terrain with heavy loads.                            testing and the official product release             weight (EVW) of the truck and subsequently
   The surface-to-surface contact element            scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2010, the        maximise its payload and production potential.
capability that automatically detects contact        T 282 C builds upon the performance of its           This design follows Liebherr's Load
points between touching parts allows for             predecessor and provides improvements that           Management Design Philosophy of maintaining
different material behaviour. Using contact          minimise downtime and maximise production.           the lowest possible EVW to optimise payload
elements with friction enables Liebherr              The new frame, axle box, cabin, IGBT AC drive        and minimise cost per tonne. With an elimination
engineers to calculate forces, for example, on       system, Liebherr Vertical Integration and Load       of all stress concentrations, a reduced chassis
the dump body from the interaction between           Management Design Philosophy will increase           weight from the previous generation frame
the dump body and various payloads such as           performance and provide a designed reliability       and no compromise in durability, the T 282 C
dirt, rocks or iron ore. Contact element and         in the T 282 C. This culminates in a truck with      frame is designed for reliability.”
friction features are also central to the analysis   superior performance and reliability, ultimately        In addition to the new frame, there is a
of bolted joints. These capabilities provide a       providing the end-user with the lowest               completely redesigned axle box. It now has
detailed understanding of the behaviour of           possible cost per tonne.”                            two service doors, improved cable routing,
vehicle parts and assemblies throughout the                                                               vertical linkage and greater air flow across the
development cycle, before any hardware is            Liebherr Vertical Integration                        electric drive motors and service brakes. With
built.                                               The Liebherr Vertical Integration philosophy         both increased service accessibility and better
   Pokras says the “role of simulation at            incorporates proprietary truck components,           airflow, especially in high altitudes and
Liebherr has shifted from that of a verification     specifically developed to serve the needs of the     ambient temperatures, the T 282 C’s axle box
tool at the end of design to an up-front             mining industry. By being in control of all          has been re-designed for reduced downtime
development tool totally integrated into             components of the drive system, innovative           and increased reliability.
product development processes. Certainly,            design solutions can be developed within the            In an ultra class mining truck, the operator
mining trucks can be developed without using         Liebherr group to accommodate operations             environment is a major area of concern. The
simulation. But the only way to design               with high altitudes, high ambient temperatures       cab is the operator's office for up to 12 hours
optimally strong and weight-efficient trucks is      and other unique mining applications. Along          a day. Refined ergonomics and a stable
with advanced simulation tools like ANSYS            with the proven background of the T 282 B,           environment for the operator reduce stress and
Mechanical.”                                         these new features should result in greater          facilitate better concentration, improving safety
   For the last seven years, Liebherr has been       uptime for one of the fastest and highest            and performance. With that in mind,
manufacturing what it says is “the world’s           producing trucks on the market.                      significant design focus has been dedicated to
largest and most efficient mining truck - the           The frame is the largest and one of the most      making the cab of the T 282 C more operator-
T 282 B. This 363 t payload truck has set            important structures on any mining truck.            friendly while simultaneously increasing the
benchmarks worldwide for high production             Upon this the truck’s dump body,                     reliability of the truck and its components.
and low fuel consumption resulting in                superstructure and power module rest. The            Some of the cab’s major upgrades include new
increased orders. Over that time, there have         new T 282 C frame is unique. It uses                 dash display gauges and a 12" integrated
been numerous design improvements to                 strategically located castings only in high stress   color touch screen for all operator alerts,
increase the efficiency and reliability of the       areas. Liebherr says that "unlike its competitors    faults, warnings, cameras and other control
truck. However, recent improvements have             whose frames are predominantly cast material,        functions. In addition, the cab now features
resulted in a substantial evolution of the           the T 282 C frame has castings only in               more amenities including an increased number



00 International Mining JUNE 2010
                                                                                                   SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

of vents for air circulation, increased width for
greater interior space, three point seat belts
and larger dual cup holder for operator
comfort and convenience.
   Another technical step forward is the new
Liebherr drive system with IGBT frequency
inverters. Together with the Liebherr regulating
system, the liquid-cooled IGBT power modules
optimise control of the traction motors. The
frequency inverters for auxiliary equipment are
supplied with electrical energy regenerated, if
circumstances permit, when the vehicle is
braked. The new system includes wheel motors
and planetary gear sets developed by Liebherr.
It guarantees that the diesel engine runs
independently of travel speed and its fuel
consumption can therefore be optimised. The
only deciding factor is the performance called
for in any particular application.
   In March Komatsu America commemorated
the production of the 930th unit of its Ultra
Class 930E Electric Drive Truck. The celebration    it has dispelled some of the competitive            Cat 795F AC operating at US copper mine
took place at its Peoria Manufacturing              theories about mechanical versus electric drive
Operation. Komatsu says that “introduced in         trucks. Uphill loaded at a 12% effective grade,     developing an electric drive unit. This new
1996, the 930E is the best selling ultra class      the textbook theory is that a mechanical drive      truck program represents the company’s
mining truck in the world. Currently, there are     truck in second gear has faster speed on grade      largest investment ever in new mining
fleets of 930s located in North America, South      with better powertrain efficiency. Cat has          technology. The Cat® 793F and 797F
America, Africa, Asia and Australia.”               found, however, that customers have                 mechanical drive trucks and the 795F AC
   “The 930E represents Komatsu’s genuine           significant grade variation, payload distribution   electric drive truck are all achieving milestones.
passion to see our customers succeed,” said         and operating practices. Indeed in some cases       However, further development of the 793F AC
Don Lindell, Product Manager for Mining             mechanical drive trucks can be changing             electric drive truck was suspended in the
Trucks. “We continue refining the features of       between first and second gears quite a lot. The     second half of last year because it has no real
the truck to lower operating cost per tonne         results with the Cat F series of trucks is that     advantage over the 793F with mechanical
based on data from real world performance.”         with increased power and superior powertrain        drive. Cat believes its testing has proven its
   Collahuasi, a 14-year customer of Komatsu        efficiency, Cat mechanical drive trucks operate     long-held mechanical drive position.
with over 40 trucks at one site, will be            in second gear, with the potential for third           Having been the lone exponent of
receiving unit number 930 when it is shipped        gear in some applications.                          mechanical drive trucks ever since it went into
from Peoria. Located in the Andes Mountains            On the flat, the electric drive AC unit has a    the manufacture of large mining trucks in
of northern Chile, Collahuasi is one of the         higher published top speed. Practice has            1984, Caterpillar has now developed two
largest copper resources in the world. With         shown there is no difference because mines          electric drive trucks. However, it now sees no
30% of all units produced, Chile has the            impose speed limits for reasons of safety and       advantage in continuing with the 793 F AC
largest concentration of Komatsu 930Es on the       tyre wear. With the F series, the mechanical        drive development. This electric drive unit is
planet.                                             drive trucks have similar published top speeds      heavier than its 793F mechanical drive
   The 930E is used as a part of Komatsu’s          to the electric drives. However mine speed          counterpart, meaning it moves less material
Autonomous Haulage System that allows the           limits still apply.                                 and therefore has a higher cost per tonne.
trucks to operate without drivers (IM, January         Theory has also always said electric drives      While it is true that on the flat, the AC drive
2010, p46). Because of its technology and           have higher published retarding speeds.             unit’s top speed is faster by maybe 5 km/h,
reliability, the 930E is often used for remote      However, competitive AC units require chains        that in itself does not really compensate for
and difficult applications, Komatsu says. It has    in snow and loose traction in the wet from rain     the extra weight, and can anyway result in
a payload capacity of 290 t. Depending on the       or water trucks. Many accidents have been           safety and tyre wear problems.
model; it is available with 2,015 or 2,610 kW       reported, according to Cat. The mechanical             Caterpillar is still firmly of the opinion that
diesel engine connected to an AC electric drive     drive unit has superior traction control. The Cat   mechanical drive trucks are the best solution.
system. The total weight carried by the six 3.66    F series units confirm this. They all have          Mechanical drive still offers the best
m high tyres is 501,977 kg.                         blended retarding delivering superior downhill      powertrain efficiency. Less power is required to
                                                    performance and giving the operator much            travel at the same speed. Thus fuel
Mechanical v electric                               greater confidence.                                 consumption is lower and mechanical drive
Having developed its own electric drive trucks,        At MINExpo in 2008 the mining world first        offers a better emissions footprint.
Caterpillar would disagree with some                learned that Caterpillar was moving rapidly         Nevertheless, development of the 795F
comments made by Liebherr’s Pokras. Cat says        forward with new large mining trucks and was        continues, because there is significant interest



00 International Mining JUNE 2010
                                                                                                     SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

                                                                Caterpillar is still firmly of the       majority of mining operations. But as the only
                                                                opinion that mechanical drive            manufacturer of 181-t and larger mining
                                                                  trucks are the best solution           trucks with both mechanical drive and electric
                                                                                                         drive systems, [it] will soon be able to offer
                                                                                                         trucks that address all mining company
                                                                                                         preferences.”


                                                                                                         Power packs
                                                                                                         Cummins presented the new QSX11.9 and
                                                                                                         QSX15 Heavy-Duty engine duo to the off-
                                                                                                         highway industry at Bauma. Featuring the
                                                                                                         performance-enhancing technology of
                                                                                                         Cummins Xtra-High Pressure Injection (XPI) fuel
                                                                                                         system and a variable geometry turbocharger,
                                                                                                         the QSX engines represent a major leap
                                                                                                         forward across the 224-447 kW range.
                                                                                                            The 11.9-litre and 15-litre QSX are supplied
                                                                                                         as fully integrated air-intake-to-exhaust after
                                                                                                         treatment systems to meet 2011 EPA Tier 4
                                                                                                         Interim and EU Stage IIIB regulations. The
                                                                                                         engines use a Cummins Particulate Filter to
in this machine, to give those that want            explained Ed McCord, Mining Truck Product            reduce Particulate Matter (PM) emissions by
electric drive the option and because it neatly     Manager. “With the latest technology in AC           over 90% and incorporate a proven cooled
fills a capacity gap in the Cat product line.       electric drives now available, Caterpillar is able   Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system to
    At the time this news was given out in late     to offer both types of drive to the mining           reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions by
September 2009, the first 795F AC drive was         industry. We see the addition of electric mining     45%.
on trial in a copper operation and more field       trucks as a complement to our mechanical                While achieving low emissions, the QSX
follow units were to go out onto mines soon         drive trucks.”                                       engines will lower operating costs with up to
after. Along with the expansion of field               The most evident new component is the Cat         5% improved fuel efficiency compared with
validation, Caterpillar will prepare this model     C175 diesel engine, which is the power plant         Tier 3, Cummins says, depending on duty
for production. Caterpillar engineers have been     for each of the new trucks. The C175 meets           cycle. Machine productivity is boosted beyond
testing two 795F AC prototypes, including the       US EPA Tier 2 emissions standards, yet it            that of Tier 3 applications, with faster engine
truck shown at MINExpo, at the Tucson               delivers 2,983 kW in the 20-cylinder version         response and significantly higher torque rise.
Proving Grounds. The development program            that powers the 363-t capacity 797F. The 16-         Cleaner and quieter operation is a further
has provided input for the construction of the      cylinder C175 powers the 795F AC with 2,535          noticeable benefit.
new 795F AC in Decatur, Illinois that shipped       kW, and it powers the 793F, which has a 227-t           Hugh Foden, Executive Director, Cummins
to a copper mine in North America where it          capacity, with 1,976 kW. The C175 promises           Off-Highway Business: “The QSX engines are
became the first field-follow 795F AC as it         longer life between rebuilds, lower sound            the culmination of a heavy-duty engine
works at the mine. The 313-t-capacity 795F          levels, improved altitude capability and             development program with an investment by
AC is a new size class for Caterpillar, and, as a   improved fuel consumption compared to the            Cummins of almost $100 million. With the on-
result, the primary focus of the Caterpillar AC     3500 Series engines it replaces. However, for        highway ISX version of the engine already on
electric program has been on the 795F AC.           those using that engine in older trucks,             the road in North America, this means that the
The commercial launch date will be defined as       development continues.                               QSX engines will enter the off-highway market
the field-follow program progresses.                   As a brand new platform, the 795F AC              with proven performance. Equipped with next-
    In mechanical drive, the 793F and the 797F      incorporates new technologies throughout. For        generation systems such as XPI fuel injection
have accumulated more than 75,000 hours of          example, four-corner blended braking and             and VGT Turbochargers, the QSX engines are
field testing and have proven their                 retarding – using Cat oil immersed and cooled        ready to move forward to meet Tier 4 Final
performance capabilities and their durability.      disc brakes as well as electrical retarding –        near-zero emissions in 2014 with minimal
The new Cat C175 engine that powers them            enhances safety and operator confidence. The         change.”
has racked up 130,000 hours of field testing in     remote-mounted generator enables servicing              The Tier 4 QSX15 takes the strength of the
mining trucks and more than 120,000 hours in        without removing other major components,             Tier 3 base engine and evolves to meet Tier 4
power systems. Because of the success of            and the wheel motors mounted inside the axle         with substantially upgraded combustion, air-
these field-follow programs, the 793F is            enable easy and separate servicing of the final      handling and fuel injection capability. Power
targeted to go into full production within a        drives. The retarding grids are radial, which        output of the 15-litre engine extends from 298
few months and the 797F late this year.             promotes more uniform air flow for better            to 447 kW with a huge peak torque of 2,779
    The new Cat trucks offer innovative designs     reliability. And the Cat proprietary drive system    N-m.
for improved safety and performance. “All of        is fully integrated and fully supported by              Equally significant is the high peak torque,
the F-Series mining trucks incorporate              Caterpillar.                                         which has a remarkable rise of up to 50%,
innovative design and engineering that enables         Caterpillar believes that “mechanical drive       available from both QSX11.9 and QSX15
them to deliver lowest cost per tonne,”             mining trucks will satisfy the needs of the vast     engine ratings. This enables the engine to


                                                                                                                      JUINE 2010 International Mining 00
                                                                                                     SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

quickly take full advantage of the available         with conventional cylindrical air cleaners, while   benefits from an integrated system with low
torque just as rpm speed falls due to tougher        achieving equal or better filtration                conversion and operating costs.
working conditions.                                  performance. This is achieved by the innovative        “From 2014/15, for EPA Tier 4 final, the
    Cummins says the XPI is the most capable         ‘V-Block’ rectangular configuration of the          most stringent emissions level so far defined,
common-rail fuel system ever used on a heavy-        Direct Flow, which optimises space normally         MTU thus has engines with the lowest
duty engine. It injects a precise quantity of fuel   wasted in the inner diameter of round air filter    consumption figures across the entire power
at extra-high pressure with multiple injection       elements. The Direct Flow housing features an       range from around 100 kW to 3,000 kW.”
events per cycle. “Even for the most                 integral sensor for monitoring temperature and         At a Patriot Coal surface mine overburden is
demanding equipment duty cycles, the XPI             pressure to ensure that optimum airflow is          hauled by the most powerful trucks in the
system enables faster, smoother power delivery       delivered to the engine during all operating        company’s fleet —diesel-electric Komatsu 730-
with lower fuel consumption. The XPI is              conditions.                                         Es. Many of the coal mines in this part of
complemented by the Cummins VGT                         Tognum subsidiary MTU Friedrichshafen            Appalachia are ‘mountaintop’ mines where the
Turbocharger which is able to continuously           used Bauma, to present for the first time its       top of the mountain is literally removed to
vary airflow boost and manage the EGR.               wide-ranging engine program for all future          expose the seam of coal. To reduce fuel costs
Electric actuation allows infinite adjustment to     emissions levels. This covers drives up to 730      and get longer engine life, Patriot Coal has
provide an exact amount of boost across the          kW for US EPA Tier 4 (from 2014) as well as         been replacing the trucks’ original-equipment
rpm range. The unique sliding-nozzle design          engines below 560 kW for EU Stage III B and         Tier 1 engines with powerful and efficient
has fewer moving parts, providing high               EPA Tier 4 interim (from 2011) and includes         MTU Series 4000 Tier 2 engines.
reliability.”                                        Series 400, Series 500, Series 900, Series 2000        “Patriot Coal already had successful
    Tier 4 engine management is significantly        and Series 4000 engines producing between           experience with MTU Series 4000 Tier 1
upgraded with the latest Cummins CM2250              approximately 100 kW and 3,000 kW. This             engines in 16 of their Komatsu 830 haul
Electronic Control Module (ECM) providing            would include haul trucks, wheel loaders and        trucks,” says Curtis Bartlett of Western Branch
three times faster processing power and              excavators in the world’s biggest mines.            Diesel, the region’s MTU distributor. “So, when
double the memory capability compared with              “We are already in a position to show            it came time to repower one of the 730-E
the Tier 3 module. This advanced capability          customers our solutions for 2014 and those          trucks, the company decided to use the new
also allows a seamless electronic interface to       solutions not only meet the targets, they do it     MTU Series 4000 Tier 2 engine. In addition to
other systems on the equipment.                      on less fuel”, said Rainer Breidenbach, Tognum      having the objectives of lower emissions,
    The Cummins Particulate Filter exhaust after     COO with responsibility for the business unit       longer engine life and better fuel economy,
treatment replaces the exhaust muffler while         Engines. “That is a clear token of our              Patriot wanted to standardise its fleet to
providing equivalent sound reduction and is          commitment and for our customers it confirms        reduce costs associated with parts and
structurally strengthened to withstand severe        our status as a solid and reliable partner over     maintenance.”
off-highway shock loads and vibration.               the long term.”                                        The original engines, from a different
Introduced to meet EPA 2007 on-highway                  10V and 12V 1600 engines for mining              manufacturer, had 16 cylinders and produced
emissions, it is a proven system with over           applications extend the program up to 730           1,491 kW. The MTU Series 4000 engine that
450,000 manufactured by Cummins Emission             kW. These meet EPA Tier 4 requirements using        was installed is capable of producing 1,678
Solutions. Field tests have demonstrated that        exhaust gas recirculation and do not need           kW with only 12 cylinders. MTU’s
Tier 4 equipment powered with a QSX11.9 or           either diesel particulate filters or SCR units.     improvements to the Series 4000 achieved EPA
QSX15 engine will operate at high enough             MTU says that “in order to meet stringent           Tier 2 emissions compliance by cutting
engine load factors for it to clean PM               emissions limits while also keeping complexity      nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions in
emissions by simple passive regeneration             to a minimum for customers and achieving            half, while creating an engine with significantly
almost every time. Active regeneration, which        even lower fuel consumption, [it] has placed        higher power density, according to Bartlett.
is initiated by the injection of a small amount      particular emphasis on optimising the               The higher output is due to a combination of
of fuel, typically occurs less than 1% of the        combustion process. This is the only way of         improvements that include second-generation
equipment operating time. The regeneration           minimising the outlay necessary for exhaust         common-rail fuel injection, advanced electronic
process takes place automatically and does not       gas after-treatment. Overall, the customer          engine controls and more precise fuel metering
impact machine performance or operation.                                                                 for improved combustion compared to Tier 1
    The QSX11.9 and QSX15 engines are                                                                    engines.
integrated with the new Direct Flow air                                                                     In addition to its compact size and higher
cleaner, specifically developed to provide more                                                          power output, the Tier 2 Series 4000 12-
performance in less space for Tier 4                                                                     cylinder engine delivers up to 20% better fuel
applications. Increased dust-holding capacity                                                            economy, according to Bartlett. While the MTU
enables this technology to reduce air cleaner                                                            12-cylinder engine can produce 1,678 kW, the
installation space claim compared                                                                        existing General Electric traction alternator and
                                                                                                         electronics in the haul truck are designed and
                                                                                                         limited to 1,491 kW. With this lower power
                                                                                                         requirement, MTU was able to limit the output
                                                                                                         of the new engine to that by simply installing a
                                                                                                         lower power calibration. This promotes
                                                                                    Volvo A40E           longevity because the engine is operating at
                                                                                                         less than full power. Bartlett estimates the life


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
            SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

of the new MTU Tier 2 engine to be at least           design, manufacturing and material                         ADTs
30,000 hours before an engine overhaul is             upgrades.” For the flywheel, the                                    Bauma gave Volvo the chance to
required, or the truck is rebuilt.                    use of FEA identified an                                                demonstrate a range of
   As part of an ongoing product optimisation         opportunity to                                                            innovations in the articulated
initiative, Allison Transmission has                                                                                              hauler sector. One of them is
introduced a second reverse gear                                                                                                   the Hauler Chassis program,
on all its 4700 and 4800                                                                                                            which provides bodybuilders
models for the 2010 model                                                                                                           with a modular system that
year. This offers a second                                                                                                          forms the basis for several
‘deep reverse’ in addition                                                                                                          other superstructure versions.
to the standard reverse to                                                                                                         This program “gives
provide greater control and                                                                                                         bodybuilders the appropriate
engine braking during                                                                                                                support throughout the
operation on steep grades.                                                                                                           design and build phase,”
2nd Reverse should also                                                                                                             says Nikolay Konovalov,
enable increased                                                                                                                   Volvo’s global product
manoeuvrability when operating                                                                                                    marketing specialist for
in confined spaces, allowing                                                                                                      articulated haulers. “Volvo has
quicker operation cycles and thereby                                                                                            developed a dedicated web-
boosting productivity performance.                                                                                           portal, where drawings, diagrams
   “Customers in mining in particular, will                                                                            and technical instructions to perform
appreciate the provision of a deeper reverse                                                                    suitable work on a hauler chassis can be
gear,” says Larry Love, Allison Executive                                                                       found. There is also clarification about legal
Director of International Marketing. “The                                                                       responsibilities, warranty conditions and the
shorter ratios of 2nd Reverse will make up and        Allison Transmission's new a second reverse gear on       possibility to contact Volvo experts for
downhill reversing much safer and easier in           all its 4700 and 4800 models offers a second `deep        additional help if needed, so that the complete
heavy duty applications, giving drivers               reverse' in addition to the standard reverse to provide   vehicle can perform its task safely, efficiently
additional confidence. This is another reason to      greater control and engine braking during operation       and economically.”
specify an Allison fully automatic transmission,      on steep grades                                              On Volvo’s outdoor area exhibit at Bauma,
complementing features such as our adaptive                                                                     two medium platform haulers, the A25E and
Electronic Control Systems and integral               modify fillet radii and introduce heat treatment          A30E were joined by one large platform
retarder that aim to improve comfort and              and reduce stress. Case hardening and                     machine, the A40E FS, featuring ATC –
productivity for drivers and operators.”              nitriding other interfacing components such as            Automatic Traction Control. The Full
   When a vehicle is in 2nd Reverse, it will have     the turbine shaft and hub, together with                  Suspension (denoted by an ‘FS’ in the machine
a slow creep capability with high engine              increasing the shaft’s diameter, is expected to           designation) provides good off-road
speeds. With a mechanical ratio of 17.12, it          increase their fatigue durability by over six             performance, allowing a fully loaded hauler to
will have an effective torque converter               times. Extensive in-field comparative testing             travel at much higher speeds, appearing to
multiplied ratio up to 32.5:1. The new 2nd            has identified a significantly more durable               float over rough ground without bouncing,
Reverse feature provides overall better               bronze-based material for use in the lock up              significantly increasing operator comfort,
performance and enhanced applicability for a          clutch.                                                   which, in turn, increases overall productivity.
variety of applications.                                 The 6620 will feature a new CEC3 electronic            When travelling empty, return trips are also
   A raft of enhancements has been added to           control system when available that includes an            substantially faster due to the smooth, stable
Allison’s 6000 Series, including the new 6620         extended CAN messaging set (J1939 protocol)               ride even over rough conditions, further
transmission. New hardware and software               and other electrical interface upgrades. This             decreasing the overall working cycle time.
upgrades for the transmission used in rigid           translates into advantages for both OEMs and                 The Volvo FS system features automatic
dump and specialist mining trucks up to 70 t          end-users. Manufacturers will benefit from an             levelling and stability control. The system
are aimed at enhancing durability, lowering           easier and higher level of integration with the           constantly monitors the position of the axles,
operating costs and simplifying maintenance.          vehicle architecture, for example the choice of           with the help of sensors, adapting the
   Available in the second half of 2010 and           a proprietary shift selector as well as the               suspension to suit the changing conditions,
replacing the 6610, this proactive design             Allison derivative will now be possible. The              absorbing rough spots and keeping the
upgrade responds to changes in engine                 opportunity to ‘tune’ the transmission to an              machine level while travelling, loading or
characteristics that are increasingly prevalent in    operator’s specific requirement is now easier,            dumping. Vibration levels are also considerably
the sector. Greater use of digital control for        permitting increased performance or economy               lower than in conventional machines, and by
engines delivers sharper torque ‘response’            depending on the duty-cycle or application.               providing a smoother ride, operators
through the driveline, necessitating upgrades         “Against the backdrop of a challenging                    experience less fatigue.
to protect the drivetrain. “We have made              economy, the operator or OEM can perfect a                   Liebherr became the new entrant in the ADT
detail improvements throughout the product            vehicle to a specific drive cycle,” says Reusser.         market at Bauma. The 30 t capacity TA230
to further extend overhaul intervals and              “Together with the OEM, Allison can optimise              displayed is the first model in a range that will
increase durability,” says Brian Reusser, Allison’s   the vehicle for the best economy-productivity             cover the 30 to 50 t categories. The next
Off-highway Product Manager. “These include           balance.”                                                 release will be a 40 t unit. For the TA230,


                                                                                                                              JUNE 2010 International Mining 00
              SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

                                                                                                           techniques and the welding of titanium
                                                                                                           alloys.”
                                                                                                              DT HI-Load Australia says its “lightweight
                                                                                                           trays increase mine productivity and bottom
                                                                                                           line profitability. The heavy duty design of DT
                                                                                                           HI-Load trays provides outstanding wear
                                                                                                           resistance with the unique panel construction
                                                                                                           greatly reducing down time. Lightweight and
                                                                                                           durable design provides savings through:
                                                                                                           ■ Improved dumping qualities reducing
                                                                                                              delivery time and dozer cleanup
                                                                                                           ■ Outstanding load retention lessening rock
                                                                                                              spillage and grader cleanup
                                                                                                           ■ Savings per tonne on tyres and fuel
                                                                                                           ■ Greatly reduced truck maintenance and
Terex says the TA300 is the only hauler in the 30-t      The larger TA400 articulated truck (which            repair
market that comes with fully independent front        replaces the TA40) boasts a payload capacity of      ■ Unique wear management program
suspension as standard                                38 t and a heaped capacity of 23.3 m3. It has a         maintains tray strength without adding extra
                                                      maximum torque of 1,350 Nm at 2,100 rpm,                weight.”
                                                      and with six forward gears and one reverse in           For 40 years, Philippi-Hagenbuch has
transport width 3 m, Liebherr claims it has the       addition to a two-speed drop box, the TA400          manufactured a variety of products, including
largest dump body in its class at 19.2 m3.            can travel up to 60 km/h.                            Autogate tailgates and HiVol truck bodies. PHIL
   This 6 x 6 truck has three rigid axles, oil-          George McNeil, Product Manager for Terex®         Engineered Bodies, it says, “maximise body
cooled wet brakes, automatic transmission and         articulated trucks said, “The TA300 is a force       size, minimise body weight and increase
a torque converter, with 270 kW of power              to be reckoned with in the 30-t articulated          payload and productivity.” They have been
from the engine. The top forward speed is 57          truck market as it’s the only truck that is fitted   built to haul any material – and for any
km/h, while in reverse an electronic limiter          with independent front suspension as                 make/model of off-highway articulated or rigid
keeps the maximum speed to 16 km/h.                   standard, has great fuel economy and the             frame truck. There are HiVol rear eject bodies,
   The newly launched Terex TA300 and TA400           highest torque and power in its class. In both       specialty bodies and HiVol trailers.
ADTs benefit from design-features that help           the TA300 and the TA400, everything has                 Trinity Specialty produces customised dump
increase productivity and enhance operator            been carefully considered to enhance operator        bodies to OEM specifications. It also
comfort, even in the toughest of working              comfort and help increase owners’ productivity       manufactures and sells an innovative,
conditions. Both have oil-cooled multiple-disc        levels, from the new ergonomic cab to the oil-       lightweight dump body called the T-Max. This
brakes on each axle, which provide extended           cooled disc brakes – it’s all designed with our      is made from abrasive resistant steel and
brake component life, reduce service intervals        customers’ needs in mind.”                           “designed to maximise payloads within
and operating costs, and improve overall                                                                   acceptable standards. Its high strength,
braking performance compared to traditional           Truck bodies                                         lightweight materials minimise wear and
dry-disc brake systems that are standard on           Australia’s Austin Engineering, a company that       impact while maximising mine efficiencies.”
other trucks. Service brake life is further           counts truck bodies (or trays) as one of its            Caterpillar says the body and chassis of
increased by the use of a Jacobs® compression-        specialities, has been growing its global            every one of its mining trucks “are designed to
release engine brake for retardation. A               presence recently. In 2007 it                        work together flawlessly as an integrated unit
hydraulic transmission retarder is available as       purchased Wyoming-based                              to assure low-cost-per-tonne operation with
an option.                                            Western Technology                                       optimal payloads, proper weight
   Terex says the TA300 (which replaces the           Services                                                      distribution, overall durability, safe
TA30 model) is the only hauler in the 30-t            (WesTech),                                                     handling and a smooth ride.” Its range
market that comes with fully independent              which is                                                        of gateless coal bodies significantly
front suspension (IFS) as standard. The IFS           reported to have                                                     enhances truck performance in
system provides a smooth ride when travelling         more than 50% of                                                         coal applications, while
over severe terrain, which makes it easier to         the world non-OEM                                                            eliminating the many
handle and helps increase productivity. In            mine truck                                                                       disadvantages of
addition to achieving quicker haul cycles, shock      body market, and                                                                      bodies that are
loads and vibrations are also lessened –              more recently bought                                                                   field-modified to
increasing component life and enhancing               Conymet in Chile. Austin                                                                 increase
operator comfort to help reduce driver fatigue.       believes it has                                                                            capacity.
   Owners of the TA300 also benefit from the          technology advantages                                       Cat gateless coal                    Multiple
                                                                                                                  body, drawing,
high power and torque (287 kW, 1,775 Nm).             including owning “the rights to                             C310133                            body sizes
This performance, coupled with the 100%               innovative welding processes and has                                                            are
differential locking action, enables the TA300        introduced worldclass robotics” to                                                              available
to tackle the most challenging grades and             streamline, and improve, productivity. Other                                        for each of the 777,
extreme site conditions.                              innovations include narrow-gap welding                                   785, 789 and 793 trucks,


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
            SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

 During April 2010 a novel Duratray Pink Dump Truck
 was launched to support the National Breast Cancer
         Foundation awareness campaign in Western
   Australia. Forming part of BHP Billiton's expansion
  fleet of Caterpillar 785CXQ (extra quiet) haul trucks
    which are being fitted with Duratray's suspended
   dump body system, the pink truck was unveiled at
 the Worsley Alumina bauxite mine near Boddington,
                           120 km southeast of Perth


allowing a productive match with any of the
various coal densities encountered around the
world. These bodies are also available as
replacement upgrades for certain prior series
models. The Gateless Coal Body is a precisely
engineered alternative to the practice of
increasing the capacity of conventional, heavy-
duty bodies by adding side-board extensions
and after-market tailgates.                               suspended dump bodies. During 2009-2010         truck. At this point, if the truck is overloaded,
   These bodies combine a robust                          additional despatches have been made to new     the entire truck load must either be dumped
understructure – modelled after the successful            geographic regions such as PNG, Indonesia,      immediately, or it could run the risk of voiding
design of the Cat MSDII (Mine Specific Design)            New Caledonia, Laos, Norway, Peru and           the manufacturer warranty. If the loads are
body – with a floor that angles upward toward             Suriname. Meanwhile new orders have also        dumped immediately, these rejected loads
the rear for nearly two-thirds of the body                been received from Chile, Canada, South         result in a significant loss of productivity as the
length. The precise geometry of the long,                 Africa, Israel and Mongolia. New designs of     material must be reworked and the truck must
sloped floor positively retains the load and              these bodies have been finalised for evolving   be reloaded. Overloading the truck will also
results in hauling target payloads consistently           models such as Caterpillar's 777F, 785D and     result in excessive wearing of the truck
with minimal spillage. In addition, the relatively        793F trucks, as well as for Haulmax 3900-D      components and a reduced truck tyre life.
low height (compared with many sideboards                 and the Komatsu HD465-7 and HD785-7 Tier           To address this challenge, the LoadMetrics™
on field-modified bodies) greatly increases               3 compliant rigid frame trucks.                 system, from Motion Metrics, provides real-
loading efficiency for faster cycles.                        Late-2009 saw the successful commissioning   time bucket-by-bucket payload monitoring for
   The coal-specific design also provides an              in Laos of two new Duratray suspended dump      hydraulic shovels. With bucket-by-bucket
excellent weight split between the axles,                 bodies for Cat-777D haul trucks at the large    payload monitoring, the payload of every
maintaining the designed-in centre of gravity,            Phu Kham copper/gold mine operated by           shovel bucket is known as it is dug from
which, in turn, preserves engineered handling             PanAust. The objectives were to obtain a        the face. This allows the shovel operator
characteristics, assures optimum tyre life and            higher volumetric capacity at significantly
reduces stress on drive-train components. These           lighter deadweight than existing steel dump     In addition to bucket-by-bucket payload monitoring,
bodies also provide the optimum ratio of                  bodies, and to reduce carryback problems with   the LoadMetrics system is capable of providing real-
structural weight to payload capacity – in                cohesive wet materials in the mine and at the   time shovel arm geometry, cutting force, and swing
contrast to field modified bodies, including those        expanding tailings dam.                         angle monitoring. These features allow nearly every
using aftermarket tailgates, Caterpillar says.                                                            aspect of the shovel digging cycle, from GPS-based
   To verify the payload potential and weight             Load management                                 bucket position to the swing-to-dump angle, to be
balance of the 777F truck fitted with the                 One of the greatest challenges in managing      carefully monitored and analysed in order to
Gateless Coal Body, Caterpillar conducted a               open-pit production is                          achieve absolute peak operational performance
production and load-distribution study with               how to load haul trucks
three 777F trucks: one fitted with a                      to their peak utilisation,
conventional heavy-duty body with sideboard               consistently for
extensions; the second with sideboard                     every truck, and
extensions and an aftermarket tailgate; and               without overloading. To
the third with a Gateless Coal Body.                      tackle this challenge,
   The 777F equipped with the Gateless Coal               many mines employ on-
Body consistently carried 25% more payload than           board truck scales.
the truck with sideboards, and 7% more than               Motion Metrics
the model with sideboards and tailgate. In                International says "the
addition to higher payloads, the Gateless Coal            major drawback with
Body demonstrated ideal weight splits. In                 on-board truck scales is
contrast, the empty and loaded weight splits of           that they can only
the tailgated truck were significantly rearward.          determine the load
   Duratray International has continued to                after the payload has
expand the global reach of its unique                     been dumped onto the


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
              SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

                                                                                                       McMoRan Copper & Gold and BHP Billiton in
                                                                                                       2010.
                                                                                                          The DSS is an active system that directly
                                                                                                       monitors the driver of a vehicle for distraction
                                                                                                       and fatigue events and provides a series of
                                                                                                       interventions aimed at managing these events
                                                                                                       and averting potential accidents.
                                                                                                          The DSS Suite integrates three layers of risk
                                                                                                       mitigation:
                                                                                                       1. Instant in-cab feedback to the driver from
                                                                                                          the DSS-IVS (in vehicle system)
                                                                                                       2. Real-time alerts to dispatchers via the DSS-
                                                                                                          Link or DSS-Relay products
                                                                                                       3. Management reporting, driver feedback &
                                                                                                          training, using the DSSi product.
                                                                                                          The DSS-IVS sensors monitor the driver's
                                                                                                       head motion and eye closure. When the
                                                                                                       driver's eyes have not been focussed on the
                                                                                                       roadway ahead for a period, either because
                                                                                                       the driver is looking elsewhere (a distraction
                                                                                                       event), or because they are closed (for example
                                                                                                       during a microsleep event), then the DSS-IVS
                                                                                                       detects this event and generates instant
                                                                                                       alarms, such as audio alerts and seat vibration
Seeing Machines' DSS Suite integrates three layers   excessive wear on truck components and            tactile feedback.
of risk mitigation                                   unnecessary spillage.”                               DSS-Relay allows the DSS-IVS alerts to be
                                                        LoadMan on-board payload monitoring            instantly forwarded to the central control
determine if dumping the current payload to          systems are backed by years of research and       room; allowing dispatchers to make
the haul truck will overload the haul truck          experience gained from thousands of               appropriate interventions based on the Fatigue
before the payload is dumped. The                    installations. It has over 8,000 systems in       Management Plan (FMP) relevant to the specific
LoadMetrics operator-oriented interface              operation worldwide in various applications       mine. Such real-time interventions can include:
displays the accumulated truck load and the          “that have earned a solid reputation for          ■ Contacting/communicating directly with the
current shovel bucket payload side-by-side,          superior performance, unequalled accuracy            driver
allowing the shovel operator to determine            ‘typical ±1% error’ and dependability.”           ■ Rotating or resting drivers
both payloads with a quick glance. In addition,         In April, the company installed a LoadMan      ■ Altering work schedules, etc.
if the current bucket payload will result in         system on a Terex MT4400 218 t payload haul          Coupled with an effective FMP the DSS suite
overloading, the interface will display a visual     truck for Wabush iron ore mine in Labrador,       allows mines to take active steps to manage
warning, notifying the operator before               Canada. This will be the first system for this    driver fatigue and distraction in their
dumping.                                             size of haul truck that will use custom strain    operations, and mitigate risks at all levels in
    In order to use a truck to its peak potential,   gauge load cell technology.                       the process.
it is also equally important to avoid                   Loadman’s Richard Boyovich was involved           Seeing Machines has now been awarded a
underloading the truck. Integrated into the          with the Wabush installation and reports that     second contract with Freeport to supply DSS
LoadMetrics interface is the 'Tonnes to go'          the system is providing less than 2% error. He    driver monitoring equipment to the Safford
calculator, which calculates the payload             goes on to explain that the LoadMan system        mine in Arizona. This second contract for
remaining to load the current haul truck to its      does not use “nitrogen gas pressure, we           Safford is to complete the fit out of the entire
target load. This feature provides the shovel        engineered and manufactured custom load cell      haul truck fleet at the mine and is a result of
operator with the information to know exactly        pin strain gauge technology to achieve this. No   the success of the pilot of DSS equipment
how much payload is required to fill the truck       other system in the world has ever been           conducted at the mine in late 2009.
to its target load, allowing the operator to         capable of providing such accuracy and               Nick Cerneaz, CEO of Seeing Machines
consistently hit the production targets and          provide each individual shovel/bucket load        commented: “Following the original pilot of
reduce haulage costs and fill times.                 within seconds of each dump.”                     DSS equipment conducted at the Safford it is
    LoadMan® says it “understands the                                                                  very pleasing to move on to complete the
problems associated with the loading of              Alert operators                                   rollout of DSS equipment, bringing the total to
mining trucks, both underground haulers and          Seeing Machines is pushing its DSS system into    19 DSS systems, covering full operational
open-pit haulers – the ability to produce            the mining industry by investing in sales and     deployment at the mine. We anticipate further
repeatable and consistent payloads, eliminate        support presence in Australia, Africa and the     DSS progress arising from the other DSS pilots
the problems associated with overloading.            Americas. It has already identified a number of   currently underway across a variety of
Inconsistent payloads cause decreased                new personnel to build on its recent successes    operators and locations throughout the 2010
productivity, premature tyre wear, increased         in the mining sector, where the company has       calendar year, and will announce those to the
failure on wheel group components, overall           contracts to supply the DSS to both Freeport-     market in due course.”


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
            SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

                                                                                                           truck operators faster, at a lower cost, and
   An operator wearing OptAlert
                                                                                                           more effectively than traditional instructor-led
   drowsiness detection glasses
                                                                                                           training, while also improving safety in the
                                                                                                           mine. This new web-based curriculum is the
                                                                                                           first of its kind in the mining industry.”
                                                                                                              TruckLogic combines web-based training,
                                                                                                           simulation and on-the-job tools in a
                                                                                                           comprehensive curriculum that is designed
                                                                                                           with adult learners in mind. Based on a
                                                                                                           blended learning model, it helps operators to
                                                                                                           retain what they've learned better than
                                                                                                           traditional classroom-style training.
                                                                                                              Use of TruckLogic means mines do not have
                                                                                                           to spend as much time retraining people in the
                                                                                                           field which, in turn, helps minimise lost
                                                                                                           production. VISTA says it “helps new operators
                                                                                                           to be on-board faster, operate safely and
                                                                                                           productively while avoiding bad habits that
                                                                                                           tend to cause unplanned maintenance and
                                                                                                           shorten truck life – such as overspeeding,
                                                                                                           improper transmission and brake use. And that
                                                                                                           translates into lower operating costs.”
   OptAlert-MOS is another system that                ■ OptAlert™ measures the driver's
constantly measures operators’ alertness,                physiological state of alertness objectively      Avoiding collisions
warning them of drowsiness, when it first                and continuously from minute to minute. It        GPS based Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS)
begins and before it reaches dangerous                   does not depend on theoretical calculations       are an excellent complement to new training
levels. It works through a pair of innovative            of the driver's state based on the time of        methods, such as TruckLogic, and they
glasses worn by the operator. The glasses                day and their unreliable subjective reports       complement fatigue monitoring systems. Such
constantly measure the operator’s eye and                about previous sleep                              CAS can include specific functions, which
eyelid movement. This information is then             ■ OptAlert warns drivers when the risk of a          allow safety managers and trainers to track
analysed by an in-cab processor to determine             drowsy crash begins to rise, and does not         operators’ speed excesses, harsh braking,
the operator's level of drowsiness in real time.         wait until they are actually driving out of the   ignoring of stop signs, following other vehicles
    A visual and audio warning is triggered              lane, or falling asleep, which can be too late    too close, creating dangerous situations, etc.
when drowsiness reaches an initial risk level.           for preventive action                             along with the information, where and when
The warning is targeted during early stages of        ■ OptAlert is not affected by environmental          this has occurred - so that additional training
drowsiness, before driving errors happen and             conditions. It works equally well in daylight     can be focused on the operator's individual
while an operator is still alert enough to take          and dark, and whether or not drivers use          requirements and behavior.
suitable precautionary measures, return to an            prescription lenses or sunglasses                    As a complement to fatigue monitoring they
alert state of mind and continue to work in a         ■ OptAlert, the company says, "is the only           can increase traffic awareness and alert the
safe condition. This initial warning stimulates          system in the market that has been
and provokes alertness without the need to               scientifically validated. The Monash
stop the haul truck. In the fraction of instances        University Accident Research Centre, Austin
where drowsiness continues to set in, a second           Hospital, Swinburne University of
warning is provided, highlighting the need to            Technology, Professor Charles Czeisler from
implement company specific fatigue policies.             Harvard University Medical School have all
    Operation controllers receive real time systems      independently evaluated the effectiveness of
information via the in-vehicle telematic system,         Optalert in monitoring drowsiness." BHP
enabling them to intervene when necessary.               Billiton's two year study into fatigue            To avoid driver distraction, the SAFEmine CAS
    OptAlert-MOS stores data about the operator's        technologies concluded in 2007 that:              requires no driver interaction, adapts itself, for
fatigue risk levels – up to 720 operational hours.       “OptAlert has been identified as the leading      example, to ambient light conditions, and its display
This information is then compiled into Fatigue           technology solution for BHP Billiton to help      is purposely kept simple
Risk Profiling reports that can be delivered on          detect operator drowsiness/fatigue.”
an hourly/daily/ weekly/monthly basis. These             The OptAlert-SM solution has been                 operator specifically when danger is imminent.
risk profiles (per operator/per shift/per site)       implemented in mines throughout Australia,           Based on the GPS information of other vehicles
allow managers to fully understand the fatigue        the USA, South America and South Africa.             (i.e. position, heading, and speed), a CAS can
patterns within their operation and incorporate          VISTA Training, a leading provider of safety      analyse and select relevant information to be
this information into Fatigue Risk Management         training resources to the industry, recently         provided to the operator well before critical
Systems on an ongoing basis.                          released TruckLogic™, an innovative new haul         situations occur, which avoids 'flooding' the
   The differentiators of this system, the            truck operator training curriculum. VISTA says       operator with unnecessary information and
company says, include:                                it “is designed to help mines to train new haul      alarms. This is an important feature, as many


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
            SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

operators complain about the number of false           A number of open pit mines have installed              machines approaching. Brigade's unique white
or unnecessary alarms from many devices             SAFEmine CAS and see tangible benefits, not               sound reversing alarms (bbs-tek) emit a broad
installed in their cabin.                           only in operators' improved traffic safety                spectrum of sound frequencies which will
   SAFEmine, a Switzerland based company,           related behaviour, but also, for example, by              more effectively penetrate ear defenders.
supplies traffic awareness and collision            using the logfiles - which can be generated by            However, they only work in the danger area so
avoidance technology that is operating in more      the CAS - for analysis and subsequent                     do not cause a noise nuisance. The gentler ‘ssh
than 14,000 units in general aviation and in        improvements of specific sections of their                ssh’ sound is less irritating than the shrill beep
more than 3,000 units in mining vehicles on         roads, where critical situations occur                    of tonal reversing alarms and less likely to be
four continents: “We believe that GPS will          frequently.                                               ignored by site workers used to hearing alarms
increase vehicle safety in open-pit mines              According to Caterpillar, 70% of haul truck            outside the danger area or tuning out the
significantly in the next 10 years. More and        accidents at mines occur during initial machine           pervasive sound due to habituation. The sound
more, advanced Collision Avoidance Systems          start-up and low speed movement, because of               source is instantly locatable, which means
will integrate GPS information to provide           poor visibility. Brigade Electronics has a range          those on site can pin point exactly which
accurate and relevant alarms. A rapidly             of solutions to eliminate fatalities caused by            vehicle is moving and in which direction.
increasing number of open pit mines has             limited vision, including camera-monitor                  Brigade reports “not only are they the safest
realised this and has decided to roll-out the       systems designed to SAE J1455 specification               reversing alarms on the market, they also
SAFEmine technology today” says Cyrille             and certified to ISO 13766:2006 standard for              come with a lifetime warranty.
Sauvain, Sales Director at SAFEmine.                earthmoving equipment. Brigade's cameras are                 Brigade strongly believes that best practice
   One of these benefits is for the operators’                                                                for maximum safety is to fit a combination of
traffic awareness, enabling them to ‘see’ rather    Brigade’s wide range of monitors include single, split,   devices that provide both a visual image and
distant vehicles while being warned if              triple, quad and picture-in-picture screen options and    an audible warning.
dangerous traffic situations occur in close         shutter camera options to prevent the lens from
proximity, when the collision avoidance alarm       becoming dirty                                            Tyre management
function is triggered. As not only distance                                                                          The industry has long sought a closed
between vehicles is taken into account                                                                                   loop between the detection of a
but also their speed and heading as well                                                                                 rough road segment and the ability to
as the reaction time of the driver, crossing                                                                             respond quickly to repair that
trajectories of vehicles can be detected                                                                                 segment. Solving this problem can
and alerts can be issued in time to avoid                                                                                 significantly improve travel times
a collision with some safety margin. For                                                                                  without capital-intensive projects. The
example, in a mine in Canada                                                                                              current economy demands that mines
outstanding performance of the SAFEmine                                                                                  enhance production with equipment
CAS was displayed on very narrow roads,                                                                                 they already have, and improving
where alarms can be set off easily when                                                                                 response time to rough roads could
vehicles pass.                                                                                                         give a production boost during a time
   Further key benefits of the SAFEmine                                                                                when it is really needed.
CAS include                                                                                                               “Some may say that the problem of
■ 360° protection at any speed and any                                                                             detecting road conditions has long been
   visibility (no blind spots)                                                                                solved by payload sensors. However, onboard
■ Typical 500 m range (no line of sight                                                                       payload measuring systems are not available
   between vehicles required)                                                                                 on all equipment and few mines have all of
■ Compact size and simple installation              water resistant up to IP69K and monitors up to            their trucks equipped with these systems,”
■ Highly selective 3D motion prediction             IP67, making them ideal for heavy duty                    according to Modular Mining Systems. “Though
   (minimising nuisance warnings)                   applications, rugged terrain or where the cab             open pits have technology they can use, there
■ No radio or IT infrastructure required            is exposed to the elements.                               are still issues with detection systems. More
■ Configurable to mine vehicle size, type, and         Recently displayed at Bauma, Brigade's                 importantly, few tools exist to adequately
   characteristics                                  Xtreme Backsense is a pulsed radar detection              respond to detected events.”
■ Cost effective.                                   system with some unique features. Xtreme is                  To respond properly to rough roads,
   Moreover, the SAFEmine CAS features many         designed to detect people or objects in the               awareness is essential. Operators recognise bad
options, such as obstacle maps, harsh driving       blind spots, providing the driver with a                  road segments, and they can use an option to
detection, black box recording, powerline           graduated in-cab audible and visual warning. It           indicate such locations via manual input - but
alarms, voice alerts, roll-over alarm, IVMS, etc.   is also effective through non metallic objects            manual input has safety concerns for operators
   Special set-ups for rotating vehicles like       and can be programmed to ignore fixed                     and reliability issues for management. Modular
excavators, shovels, draglines, chain dozers,       objects, bodywork and attachments. The                    has responded to this dilemma with the Road
etc. yield additional safety, as the orientation    innovative technology works effectively in                Roughness module, which consists of a rugged
of the respective vehicle is taken into account.    harsh environments and in poor visibility                 accelerometer that can be installed on any
For visitors' vehicles, special Quick Mount Units   (darkness, smoke, fog).                                   haul truck to solve the detection problem. The
are available to mount on a vehicle temporarily        The risk of collisions with site workers is            accelerometer is an effective, low-maintenance
entering the mine, and then removed again,          further increased by those who may be                     and purpose-built device that reliably detects
both in a matter of seconds.                        wearing ear defenders and unable to hear                  road conditions without the need for operator


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
             SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

                                                                               these factors, and the       natural choice for Eurotire's EuroTrak
                                                                               ability to address them in   requirements. As an emerging leader in the
                                                                               real time.                   global OTR tyre industry it is extremely
                                                                                  Closing the loop in       important that we not only collect tyre and
                                                                               rough road detection         wheel data, but collect data and apply the
                                                                               using automated              findings in a way that allows us to create value
                                                                               technology, without          for our customers.” In addition Dubinsky
                                                                               increasing manpower          noted, “Eurotire doesn't simply sell a product;
                                                                               requirements, requires a     we design, manufacture, and sell a high
                                                                               substantial IT               quality, reliable OTR tyre product that we then
                                                                               infrastructure: sensors on   support through our global tyre service programs.
                                                                               haul trucks, fleet           Eurotire is differentiated by the service and
                                                                               management hardware on       support that we provide to our customers and
                                                                               auxiliary units, wireless    the EuroTrak system will allow us to take our
                                                                               communication networks,      service and support to the next level.”
                                                                               and experienced control          Eurotire has also created a new customer
                                                                               room staff. Most             support program, EuroCare. The company says
                                                                               importantly, all software    this “is a service product and much more; it is
                                                                               and hardware systems         a way of doing business. In today’s OTR tyre
Sizes offered in the second generation Titan Tire 007   must be architected to work together. This list     world some manufacturers only want to sell
MFT mining tyres include 59/80R63, 53/80R63,            of requirements may seem high, but by               tyres and will leave the maintenance, service
40.00R57 and 27.00R49                                   leveraging the investment already made in a         and support to others. In many cases the care
                                                        fleet management system, such as Modular's          of the tyres will be left to the customer who
input. But, as with any on-board sensor, a fleet        Dispatch system, real productivity gains can be     may have little or no training or knowledge to
and/or maintenance management system is                 realised with relatively small additional           enable them to effectively maintain the life of
also required to transform sensor readings into         investment. Integrated solutions can address        their OTR tyres. Huge OTR tyres do require
meaningful events and to assign resources that          complex problems like haul road maintenance,        special attention and specific knowledge is
can address the problem.                                smoothing the way to increased production.          required to operate them efficiently and handle
   Following detection of a rough road, a fleet            An emerging leader in the design and             them safely. Tyres are critical to our customer’s
management system should also dispatch                  manufacture of off-the-road (OTR) tyres and         productivity and they should be cared for
auxiliary equipment for repair/cleanup. The             provider of tyre support services for the global    accordingly; that is why Eurotire has created
Dispatch system's Auxiliary Task module, for            mining industry, Eurotire, has released             EuroCare.”
example, provides a production cycle for                EuroTrak, its tyre management system. Tyre              It is a life cycle support process as well as a
auxiliary equipment that differentiates the time        and wheel performance data will be collected        valuable consultative product for customers. It
to ‘travel to a workplace’ from the time spent          from around the world using EuroTrak,               provides a complete service and support
‘performing work’. A Road Work task type can            centralised and analysed at Eurotire's offices,     program for Eurotire tyre products. The process
be assigned to graders and/or other road                and fed back to Eurotire's manufacturing            can begin before a tyre order is placed with a
dressing equipment, which appears in a                  plants to provide continuous product                Eurotire engineer acting as a consultant to the
schedule with the equipment's other                     improvement feedback.                               customer, helping to ensure that the best
tasks. Dispatchers, shift supervisors, and upper           Eurotire chose Vehicle Management Corp           product is chosen for a specific application.
level management can allocate tasks based on            (VMC) and its enTIRE Tire and Rim                   After the sale Eurotire is there to ensure that
priority, considering the travel distance of each       Management Software (a Windows based                the tyres are mounted properly and safely,
grader before assigning the work.                       computer program that will track the                supporting the customer’s tyre program, and
   Providing auxiliary operators with on-board          performance and stock levels of a fleet of tyres    providing training so the customer can maintain
software tools is critical to improving response        and wheels) to create this customised tyre data     the long-term productivity of the tyres.
time. Work performed by auxiliary equipment             collection system. Eurotire management                  Titan Tire has introduced its second
is different in nature from haulage. Auxiliary          confirmed, “The enTire platform is the best         generation 007 MFT mining tyre product line,
work should be managed holistically - there             solution for a global data collection program.      which it says offers “enhanced durability, a
are many factors to consider before a grader            VMC is not only an industry expert they are         more aggressive tread pattern, improved heat
operator is assigned to fix a detected rough            also an independent company ensuring that           dissipation and the ability to carry a larger
road section. Technical details, such as the size       the information collection process and the data     payload.”
of the job, location, travel time, and estimated        collected is totally unbiased.”                         “We spent considerable time in the field
repair time need to be evaluated. Higher level             According to VMC, “This is the largest           listening to mine operators about their tyre needs
perspectives of all the work required by that           implementation of a centralised tyre                and used that input to help design the second
machine should be considered, such as the               management system in the world, with the            generation 007 MFT product line,” said Dan
possibility that an operator might need to              database and web interface supporting               Steltmann, VP of research and development. “The
operate another piece of equipment in that              hundreds of online users. More importantly,         biggest issue facing mine operations was overall
same shift. The right dispatching technology            the data is owned and located with Eurotire.”       tyre durability related to minimising internal heat
should provide equipment operators and other               Meir Dubinsky, COO of Eurotire, said, “VMC       generation, as well as enhanced sidewall and
personnel with the means to account for all of          enTIRE, with its proven software system, is the     belt durability. We incorporated those features


00 International Mining JUNE 2010
           SURFACE HAUL TRUCKS

into the redesigned 007 MFT product line.”         around the world.”
   These tyres feature a new belt package that        Len Hensel, GKN Wheels’ North American
provides a more durable design. Overall            Technical Director for Off-highway Wheels,
durability was also improved with changes to       said: “We have employed the very latest
the compounds in the tread and base, which         engineering technologies and computer-
help reduce overall heat generation and            simulated modelling techniques to develop our
improve the cut, chip and wear characteristics     new range of mining wheels. The largest
of the tyre. Titan also removed the steel from     mining trucks carry loads of up to 400 t and
the sidewalls of the tyre, providing for a more    the wheels for this machinery must fulfil the
durable carcass, while the lower sidewall          toughest performance criteria, demonstrating
flange features a new compound and profile         both strength and reliability. GKN’s mining
for added durability. The tyre’s new narrow        wheels have been operating in various mine
profile eliminates potential interference issues   sites since early 2009 and are exceeding our
with haul trucks.                                  performance expectations.”
   A non-solid centre tread design helps reduce       GKN Wheels designed the large mining
internal heat generation and allows the heat to    wheels at its state-of-the-art North American
more easily dissipate, reducing tyre running       Technical Centre. The wheels are being
temperatures by some 1.6 to 4.4°C. This            manufactured at the company’s plant in
reduction in running temperature allows the        Liuzhou, China, before being supplied directly
end user to run haul trucks longer distances       into the aftermarket. Hensel added: “The
and at a higher speed, while still maintaining     mining wheels marketplace has remained
an operating temperature that is within the        largely unchanged for many years and GKN’s
tyre’s capabilities.                               entry is exciting. At the same time as
   Titan also incorporated sipes into the tyre     introducing more choice and helping to drive
lugs, which provide additional traction and        competition, we are giving manufacturers of
significantly improve heat dissipation, or         mining machinery the chance to improve the
cooling. The lighter construction of the second    reliability of their mining trucks and pass on
generation 007 MFT helps reduce overall heat       efficiency benefits to the mine operator.” IM
generation and allows for a larger payload.
   A tyre pressure monitoring system is also
available from Titan. This monitors the internal
temperature and pressure of each tyre, and
using Bluetooth technology the system shares
the information with the driver and the mine
management system. Operation personnel can
monitor tyre performance and make route
changes as needed to maintain efficient mine
operation and help balance haul truck work
loads.
   “The second generation 007 MFT tyres have
been designed to end-users’ needs and the
modifications have been verified through finite
element analysis,” said Steltmann. “We also
validated the tyre’s performance using our
industry-exclusive radial fatigue testing
machine. We put these tyres to the test to help
ensure their performance in the field.”
   GKN Wheels now manufactures large
wheels for the mining sector, bringing greater
choice to the marketplace. The company
began manufacturing large mining wheels last
year, initially for the mining machinery
aftermarket and the intention is to increase
output over the next few years. The wheels are
available in diameters ranging from 45-63”. It
says its “track record in manufacturing high
quality wheels for the global off-highway
industry, combined with successful field trials,
are already attracting the interest of mining
machinery manufacturers in the US and


00 International Mining JUNE 2010

				
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