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MANGO ORCHARD MANAGEMENT IN AUSTRALIA

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MANGO ORCHARD MANAGEMENT IN AUSTRALIA Powered By Docstoc
					          MANGO ORCHARD
      MANAGEMENT IN AUSTRALIA




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Production Regions




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Production Issues
                                            Burdekin   Mareeba   Northern Territory
                                    20000


 •   Biennial fluctuations in       16000
     production
                                    12000


 •   Low yielding cultivars 5 to     8000

     100 Kg per tree
                                     4000



 •   Sacrificing yield for fruit        0

     quality
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Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Orchard Management
•   Generally highly mechanised
•   Timing of practices based on tree phenology
•   Irrigated
•   Use growth regulator Paclobutrazol
•   Inorganic fertilisers
•   Pruned annually
•   Sprayed regularly to control pests and diseases




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Orchard Management
Tree management is dependant on varieties and their responses to the
   differing agroclimatic growing regions



    Kensington Pride in Burdekin            Keitt Orchard Mareeba
                district                             district




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Varieties




   Kensington Pride

Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Varieties




           R2E2                     Keitt




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Varieties


                                    Calypso




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Phenological cycle
• The cycle of annual growth phases of the tree


                                                                  Fruit development


                                          Bud sw ell         Flowering                H    •   Vegetative flush
                                                                                      a
                                                                                      r    •   Dormancy
                                    Dormancy
                                                                                      v
                                                                                      e
                                                                                           •   Flowering
          Vegetative growth
                                                                                      s    •   Fruit development
                                                                                      t
                                                                                           •   Harvest
                                                   Root growth
                                                                                           •   Root growth

  Dec   Jan   Feb   Mar       Apr   May     Jun        Jul     Aug       Sep   Oct   Nov




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Irrigation
                                                              Fruit development        •   Varied throughout the year
                                                                                           according to tree demand
                                      Bud sw ell         Flowering                 H
                                                                                   a

                                Dormancy
                                                                                   r   •   Under tree sprinklers and
                                                                                   v
                                                                                   e
                                                                                           some drippers
         Vegetative growth
                                                                                   s
                                                                                   t
                                                                                       •   Water supply – rivers,
                                               Root growth
                                                                                           bores, irrigation schemes
             Irrigation                                       Irrigation                   and farm storage
 Dec   Jan   Feb    Mar   Apr   May     Jun        Jul     Aug       Sep   Oct   Nov

                                                                                       •   Scheduling – tensiometers,
                                                                                           evaporation, water
                                                                                           budgeting, capacitance
                                                                                           probes, or neutron probe,




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Nutrition
 •   N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Fe, Cu are applied most years
 •   Nutritional status and application rated determined with annual leaf
     and soil analysis, and the size of previous crop.
                                                              200 Kg fruit =
                                                              196 g N
                                                              36 g P
                                                              257 g K
                                                              230 g Ca
                                                              48 g Mg
                                                              0.4 g B
                                                              0.4 g Zn
                                                              1.2 g Fe



Horticulture and Forestry Science
    Nutrition                               Bud s w e ll
                                                                      Fruit de v e lopme nt


                                                                                              H
                                                                 Flowe ring
                                                                                              a
                                                                                              r
                                      Dormancy
                                                                                              v
                                                                                              e
             Ve ge tativ e growth
                                                                                              s
                                                                                              t
                                                      Root growth

                 Irrigation                                           Irrigation

   Dec    Jan    Feb    Mar     Apr   May     Jun          Jul      Aug       Sep   Oct   Nov




  N - 60-70%                        N - 30-40%             K - 40%                  K - 20%
  P - 100%                          K - 20%
  K - 20%                           Ca - 40-60%
  Ca - 40-60%                       B
  B
Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Canopy Development and
 Pruning
 Young trees are pruned several times a year
 • to develop a strong frame
 • to Increase branching complexity
 • to maximise future fruiting terminals




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Pruning Mature Trees
 •   to maintain strong frame
 •   to encourage new fruiting terminals
 •   to open canopies for light and air circulation
 •   to synchronise vegetative flushing
 •   outside mechanically pruned, inside thinned by hand
 •   ease of disease and insect management




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Pruning Mature Trees
        P
                                                               Fruit development
        a
        c
        l                                  Bud sw ell     Flowering                H
   P    o                                    P                                     a
   r    b                                    r                                     r
                                     Dormancy
   u    u                                    u                                     v
   n    t                                    n                                     e
   e    r     Vegetative growth              e                                     s
        a                                                                          t
        z                                           Root growth
        o
        l         Irrigation                                   Irrigation

  Dec       Jan   Feb    Mar   Apr   May     Jun        Jul   Aug     Sep   Oct   Nov


 • Trees pruned once or twice each year
 • Main prune after harvest reduce tree height, width and
   remove low branches
 • Second prune in winter months to remove internal
   growth

Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Growth Regulators
       P
       a
                                                              Fruit development
                                                                                       • Paclobutrazol used in
       c
       l                                  Bud sw ell     Flowering                H      all districts
 P     o                                   P                                      a
 r     b                                    r                                     r
 u     u
                                    Dormancy
                                           u                                      v    • To improve flowering
 n     t                                   n                                      e
 e     r     Vegetative growth              e                                     s    • Manage vigour
       a                                                                          t
       z
       o
                                                   Root growth
                                                                                       • Increase yields
       l         Irrigation                                   Irrigation

 Dec       Jan   Feb    Mar   Apr   May     Jun        Jul   Aug     Sep   Oct   Nov   • Even out biennial
                                                                                         cropping
                                                                                       • Applied as a trunk
                                                                                         drench



Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Flower Management
                Floral induction
                     – Induced dormancy through deficit irrigation in
                       warmer districts
                     – In cooler districts temperature induced induction is
                       sufficient
                Floral bud burst
                     – Recommence irrigation
                     – Foliar potassium nitrate sprays
                     – Removal of early flowers in cooler districts




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Harvesting

                    Maturity indicators
                    • 14 % dry matter
                    • Yellow flesh colour
                    • Beak and shoulders filled out




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Harvesting

 Sap burn and skin browning




Horticulture and Forestry Science
 Harvest
 • Two methods of harvesting
 • With stems attached and without stems attached




Horticulture and Forestry Science
                              The end



Horticulture and Forestry Science

				
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