CAE TEST ONE PAPER 1 READING 1 hour 15 minutes Part 1 You are going to read three extracts which are all concerned in some way with communication. For questions 1–6, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. THE SUNDAY STAR YOUNG WRITERS COMPETITION T his year sees the 7th anniversary of the Young Writers Competition. The general theme for this event is ‘ISSUES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY’, authoritative Internet sites. We require an academic style, with an objective approach to the topic. This is a nationwide competition but to be eligible which allows entrants to choose from a broad for entry, writers must either be permanent range of contemporary subjects; anything from residents of New Zealand or international students global warming to globalization. Whatever topic enrolled here on a course of minimum 12 months’ is selected, however, it must relate specifically duration. There is an entry fee of $5 for each to the impact it has on the young generation, article submitted and writers may submit multiple and while we do not expect our writers to have entries. The deadline for submission is July 15th, first-hand knowledge of the issues they select, and articles must be between 3000 and 5000 words we would expect them to demonstrate sound in length. Please include a stamped addressed research skills by accessing and acknowledging envelope for notification of results. Please note a variety of sources for their information. These that no entries will be returned. The winners are could include interviews that were conducted by expected to attend the official awards ceremony at the writer, reputable journals and magazines, and the end of August. 1 The articles which are submitted must A be based on the writer’s own personal experience. B be presented in a factual rather than opinionated way. C have an emphasis on either a business or environmental theme. D focus on issues that only concern young people. 2 What are we told about the conditions of competition entry? A It is a requirement that winners accept prizes in person. B There is a restriction on the number of articles participants can send in. C Only the winners should expect to be informed of the results. D It is necessary for participants to be taking a programme of study. Extract from a newspaper Language isn’t just meaning. Conversely, not all non-verbal communications are bodily; some come from the mouth, too. An interesting piece of academic research from Scotland has focused on those much- despised elements of speech, ‘ums’ and ‘ers’. Technically known as ‘fillers’, they are strongly criticized by all teachers of public discourse as promoting an image of uncertainty and vagueness. The research, however, suggests that these fillers might serve a purpose, as sirens on the ambulances of significance. 8 Paper 1 Part 1 CAE TEST 1 The researchers invited volunteers to listen to a series of spoken sentences. Some sentences were interrupted by non-verbal fillers such as ‘er’ and ‘um’; others were spoken without hesitation. The results were interesting. The inarticulate speaker registered much more powerfully in the minds of the listeners. An hour after listening, the volunteers got 62 per cent of the words correct in the stumbled-over sentence, compared to 55 per cent of those in the strictly enunciated and articulate performance. It seems as if the listener, therefore, alerted by stumbling to a speaker’s struggling with a difficult concept, automatically pays more attention. They might want to help out; they might simply be alerted to complexities. Either way, it does seem as if the connection, between inarticulacy and profundity, is to some degree hardwired in our brains. 3 The writer compares fillers to ‘sirens’ in order to A suggest that they can interfere with clear communication. B show how they alert people to important information. C compare them to an irritating background noise. D emphasize the sense of urgency they convey. 4 What is the writer’s main point in the second paragraph? A Most people have a tendency to use fillers in speech. B Frequent pauses in speech make it difficult for listeners to recall ideas. C It is impossible to express complex ideas without some rephrasing. D People instinctively listen more carefully when others hesitate. THE LANGUAGES OF EXTINCTION For the Nivkh people of eastern Siberia, counting is book When Languages Die. ‘And it’s happening faster not a simple matter of ‘one, two, three’. Depending on than the extinction of flora and fauna.’ However, when whether they are talking about skis, boats or batches dolphin or eagle species become extinct, it’s an event of dried fish, there are different ways of counting. that the public are made well aware of, and which Twenty-six different ways in fact. Small wonder, tends to evoke sentimentality and mourning. then, that 90 per cent of Nivkhs prefer the option of Globalization and migration are the main culprits. communicating in Russian. While this no doubt makes Economic pressures lead to the disappearance of rural interaction simpler, what it doesn’t do is to save Nivkh communities as people move to the cities, where first line 9 from the list of endangered languages. And it is not and local languages are coming under threat from alone. Linguists believe half the languages in the world the lingua franca of the workplace. Today’s children will be extinct by the end of the century. The 80 major are also unwittingly affecting the potential survival languages are spoken by about 80 per cent of the global of a language, such as a child growing up speaking population, while the 3500 least spoken languages Mayan and Spanish soon figuring out that Spanish is have just 0.2 per cent of the world keeping them better because it’s spoken in school and on television, alive. ‘The pace of language extinction we’re seeing is unprecedented,’ said Dr David Harrison, author of the meaning that the Mayan language is likely to die out. 5 What does the word ‘it’ in line 9 refer to? 6 The writer refers to dolphins and eagles to make the point that A the multiple ways of counting A the death of a language tends to go B a direct manner of communication unnoticed. C the decision to talk in Russian B there is little time left to save certain D the possibility that the Nivkh language languages. will disappear C some global issues deserve more attention than others. D it is impossible to avoid extinction in some cases. Before you check your answers, go to page 9. FURTHER PRACTICE AND GUIDANCE Paper 1 Part 1 9 WHAT’S TESTED The Reading Paper has four parts. The texts come from a variety of sources, for example, newspapers, magazines, brochures, journals and novels, and may deal with a range of general interest topics. You will need a high level of vocabulary to understand the texts so it is important that you read English language newspapers and magazines as often as possible. A range of reading skills are tested: in Parts 1 and 3, your ability to understand detail, opinion, tone, purpose, main idea, implication, attitude, and to recognize how certain text features show exemplification, comparison and reference. Part 2 tests your ability to deal with text structure, cohesion and coherence; in other words, you need to be able to recognize how a text fits together. In Part 4, you must be able to locate specific information, detail, opinion or attitude. Part 1 and Part 3 Multiple choice In Part 1, there are three short texts on a similar theme from a variety of sources. Each text has two four-option multiple choice questions. In Part 3, there is a single long text and there are seven four- option questions. The order of the questions follows the same order as the corresponding information in the text. In Part 3, the final question may test your overall understanding of the text, for example, you may need to interpret the writer’s purpose for writing the text, or their attitude or opinion towards the subject matter. TIPS • Read the text first to get a general understanding of the main points. (If you look at the questions first, you might choose an answer because you think it ‘looks right’ or is ‘the most likely answer’. This doesn’t always work!) • After reading the text, highlight the key words in the questions and the four options. Carefully read the part of the text where you think the relevant information is contained. Make sure the option you choose paraphrases the information in the text exactly. A DETAILED STUDY The exercise below will help you to make sure you have chosen the correct options for the questions in Part 1. Extract One • Match options A–D with parts 1–4 of the text that they probably correspond to. • Write a synonym or short explanation under each word in bold. • Look back at the article ‘Sunday Star Young Writers Competition’ and underline parts 1–4 of the text and the surrounding language. Then decide which option matches which part of the text exactly. First paragraph A be based on the writer’s own personal experience. 1 a broad range of contemporary topics B be presented in a factual rather than opinionated way. 2 an objective approach C have an emphasis on either a business or environmental theme. 3 the impact it has on the young generation D focus on issues that only concern young people. 4 first-hand knowledge of the issues 10 Paper 1 Part 1 FURTHER PRACTICE AND GUIDANCE Second paragraph A It is a requirement that winners accept prizes in person. 1 include a stamped addressed envelope for notification in person of results. B There is a restriction on the number of articles participants 2 international students can send in. enrolled here on a course. C Only the winners should expect to be informed of the results. 3 Writers may submit multiple entries. D It is necessary for participants to be taking a programme of 4 The winners are expected to official study. attend the awards ceremony. Extract Two First paragraph Sirens can be used as a means of communication (option A), as a way of alerting (B) people and can also be irritating (C) and sound urgent (D). But which option A–D reflects the idea of significance? (sirens on the ambulances of significance). Second paragraph Match the explanations below to words in the text. 1 line 2 hesitation 2 line 3 inarticulate 3 line 5 articulate 4 line 6 stumbling 5 line 6 concept 7 line 8 profundity a making mistakes in speaking b clearly expressed c wisdom/seriousness/importance d stopping/pausing in speech e not able to express clearly what you want to say f idea Extract Three First paragraph ‘It’ refers back to ‘this’ in the same sentence. What part of the text in the first paragraph does ‘this’ correspond to? Second paragraph In the final sentence, what do ‘to be made aware of’ and ‘sentimentality and mourning’ mean? What do the phrases above tell you about the public reaction to the extinction of dolphin and eagle species? In general, what is the function of the conjunction ‘However’? Now return to page 7 and use these exercises to help you answer the questions. Now check your answers to Part 1 of the test.