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REASONS, DEVELOPMENT AND LEGITIMACY OF BORROWINGS IN POLISH by iwonalang1

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Any natural language includes both native words and a certain amount of foreign or non-native words or expressions entering the national lexis. It may be contributed to the fact that not a single nation develops in isolation. Each country having its own national language and national identity still has to maintain certain political, cultural, commercial or scientific contacts with other countries, which causes that different linguistic forms are continuously penetrating from one language into another. As a result, there is not a single language with completely ‘pure’ vocabulary. Each language shares certain amount of its vocabulary to the international contacts and none of them is free from foreign influences within the scope of vocabulary i.e. borrowings. As regards language users, they tend to perceive the surrounding reality from the angle of their own language. Thus, each national language is deeply rooted in different culture of its users. It means that each national language has a profound influence both on linguistic and cultural society of its users. Because of the above, it is logically justified that the culture of the language users is also reflected in semantic developments of words functioning in their native language. Apart from vocabulary, grammar is also an important factor affecting and determining linguistic perception of the surrounding reality. All in all, linguistic perception differs between different language users. However, as all nations are more or less forced to co-exist, these differences become more apparent and affect certain areas of international contacts. Such state of affairs leads us to the problem of borrowings. This paper is an attempt to systematize a large amount of information on borrowings (loanwords) in different languages. Special emphasis will be put to English borrowings functioning in Polish and their continuous expansion. In the beginning, this thesis is to explain the most important definitions of borrowings present

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									      UNIVERSITY OF SILESIA

 INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE




                 Iwona Lang

                   195302



                 MA Thesis




REASONS, DEVELOPMENT AND LEGITIMACY OF
         BORROWINGS IN POLISH




        Supervisor: dr Ewa Jakubowska




               Sosnowiec 2009
           UNIWERSYTET ŚLĄSKI

   INSTYTUT JĘZYKA NAGIELSKIEGO




                      Iwona Lang

                        195302



                   Praca magisterska




PRZYCZYNY, ROZWÓJ I ZASADNOŚĆ ZAPOŻYCZEŃ
               W JĘZYKU POLSKIM




   Praca napisana pod kierunkiem dr Ewy Jakubowskiej




                    Sosnowiec 2009


                                                       2
        Składam serdecznie podziękowania


                Pani dr Ewie Jakubowskiej


za okazaną życzliwość, zrozumienie, pomoc


           oraz cenne uwagi przekazywane


w trakcie przygotowywania niniejszej pracy.


   Pragnę podziękować również wszystkim,


               którzy okazali mi życzliwość


            przyczyniając się do powstania

                           niniejszej pracy.




                                         3
Wyrażam zgodę na udostępnienie mojej pracy magisterskiej dla celów naukowo-badawczych.




                                                      DATA ……………………….




                                           PODPIS AUTORA ……………………….




Słowa klucze: zapożyczenia, kontakt językowy, bilingwilizm, anglicyzmy, zapożyczenia
angielskie w polskim języku komputerowym




Key words: borrowings, language contact, bilingualism, anglicisms, English borrowings in
Polish computer language




Oświadczenie autora pracy

       Świadomy odpowiedzialności prawnej oświadczam, że niniejsza praca magisterska
została napisana przeze mnie samodzielnie i nie zawiera treści uzyskanych w sposób
niezgodny z obowiązującymi przepisami.

       Oświadczam również, że przedstawiona praca nie była wcześniej przedmiotem
procedur związanych z uzyskaniem tytułu zawodowego w wyższej uczelni.

       Oświadczam ponadto, że niniejsza wersja pracy jest identyczna z załączoną wersją
elektroniczną.




…………………………………..                                 ………………………………………..

                 Data                                   Podpis autora pracy




                                                                                     4
- TABLE OF CONTENTS -


INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 9

1.     DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BORROWINGS ...................................... 11

     1.1.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 11

     1.2.     THE NOTION OF BORROWING .......................................................................... 11

     1.3.     LANGUAGE CONTACT AS KEY BORROWING DETERMINANT ................. 13

     1.4.     CLASSIFICATION OF BORROWINGS ................................................................ 14

       1.4.1. BASED ON RELATION BETWEEN FOREIGN AND VERNACULAR
       TERMS .......................................................................................................................... 17

       1.4.2.        ACCORDING TO THE PRESENCE IN MANY LANGUAGES .................. 22

       1.4.3.        ACCORDING TO THE FORM OF THE BORROWED WORD ................... 23

       1.4.4.        ACCORDING TO THE ASSIMILATION DEGREE ..................................... 24

       1.4.5.        ACCORDING TO THE ORIGIN (OR THE DONOR LANGUAGE) ............ 27

       1.4.6.        ACCORDING TO THE FUNCTION OF BORROWINGS ............................ 27

     1.5.     CONCLUDING REMARKS ................................................................................... 28

2.     HISTORY OF BOROWINGS IN POLISH ..................................................................... 29

     2.1.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 29

     2.2.     CREATION OF NEW BORROWINGS .................................................................. 30

     2.3.     CZECH BORROWINGS ......................................................................................... 30

     2.4.     GERMAN BORROWINGS ..................................................................................... 32

     2.5.     ITALIAN INFLUENCES ........................................................................................ 33

     2.6.     LATIN BORROWINGS .......................................................................................... 34

     2.7.     HUNGARIAN BORROWINGS .............................................................................. 35

     2.8.     RUSSIAN BORROWINGS ..................................................................................... 36

     2.9.     EASTERN ORIENTALISMS .................................................................................. 36

     2.10.       FRENCH INFLUENCES ..................................................................................... 37


                                                                                                                                      5
     2.11.       INFLUENCES DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PARTITIONS ...................... 38

     2.12.       EXOTISMS .......................................................................................................... 40

     2.13.       MODERN BORROWINGS – ANGLICISMS .................................................... 40

     2.14.       INTERNATIONALISMS .................................................................................... 43

     2.15.       CONCLUDING REMARKS ............................................................................... 44

3.     ANGLICISMS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON POLISH .............................................. 45

     3.1.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 45

     3.2.     DEFINITION OF ANGLICISM .............................................................................. 46

     3.3.     CLASSIFICATION OF ANGLICISMS .................................................................. 46

     3.4.     LEXICAL ANGLICISMS ........................................................................................ 46

       3.4.1.       LINGUISTIC TRANSFER OF SIMPLE WORDS ......................................... 47

       3.4.2.       LINGUISTIC TRANSFER OF COMPOUND WORDS AND/OR PHRASES ..
                    .......................................................................................................................... 48

       3.4.3.       PSEUDO-ANGLICISMS (FALSE ANGLICISMS OR PSEUDO-LOANS) .. 49

            3.4.3.1.       MORPHOLOGICAL PSEUDO-ANGLICISMS (PSEUDO-LOANS) .. 50

            3.4.3.2.       SEMANTIC PSEUDO-LOANS .............................................................. 50

            3.4.3.3.       LEXICAL PSEUDO-LOANS .................................................................. 51

       3.4.4.       INDIRECT ANGLICISMS .............................................................................. 51

     3.5.     SEMANTIC LOANS (LOAN SHIFTS) .................................................................. 51

       3.5.1.       LOAN MEANING ........................................................................................... 52

       3.5.2.       LOAN FORMATION ...................................................................................... 52

     3.6.     GRAMMATICAL BORROWINGS ........................................................................ 52

     3.7.     LINGUISTIC PHENOMENA IN THE BORROWING PROCESS ........................ 53

     3.8.     ADOPTION (IMPORTATION) VS. ADAPTATION (SUBSTITUTION) ............. 53

     3.9.     MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION (INFLECTION) OF NOUNS ..................... 54

       3.9.1.       NUMBER ......................................................................................................... 54

       3.9.2.       GENDER .......................................................................................................... 55

                                                                                                                                            6
       3.9.3.        CASE ................................................................................................................ 56

       3.9.4.        MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION: VERBS .............................................. 57

       3.9.5.        MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION: ADJECTIVES ................................... 57

       3.9.6.        MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION: ADVERBS AND EXCLAMATIONS ..
                     .......................................................................................................................... 58

       3.9.7.        MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION (DERIVATIONAL) ........................... 58

   3.10.         SEMANTIC ADAPTATION ............................................................................... 59

       3.10.1.       SEMANTIC LOANS: RESTRICTION, EXTENSHION AND SHIFT .......... 59

          3.10.1.1.         SEMANTIC SHIFT IN MEANING (IMPORTATION) ......................... 60

          3.10.1.2.         EXTENSION (BROADENING) OF MEANING .................................... 60

          3.10.1.3.         NARROWING (RESTRICTION) OF MEANING .................................. 61

   3.11.         MORPHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE .................................................................... 61

   3.12.         DERIVATION ..................................................................................................... 61

       3.12.1.       INFLECTION ................................................................................................... 62

   3.13.         SYNTACTIC INFLUENCE ................................................................................ 62

   3.14.         INFLUENCE OF ENGLISH ON POLISH DISCOURSE ................................... 63

   3.15.         SEMANTIC FIELDS FULL OF ANGLICISMS ................................................. 64

   3.16.         REASONS FOR BORROWINGS ....................................................................... 65

   3.17.         FUNCTIONS OF BORROWINGS ...................................................................... 65

   3.18.         ATTITUDES TOWARDS BORROWINGS ....................................................... 66

       3.18.1.       LINGUISTIC LIBERALISM ........................................................................... 66

       3.18.2.       LINGUISTIC PURISM .................................................................................... 66

   3.19.         CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF BORROWINGS ...................................... 67

   3.20.         CONCLUDING REMARKS ............................................................................... 68

4. ENGLISH BORROWINGS USED IN POLISH LANGUAGE OF INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... 69

   4.1.       INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 69


                                                                                                                                             7
     4.2. REASONS FOR EXTENSIVE SCOPE OF ANGLICISMS APPEARING IN
     POLISH LANGUAGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ......................................... 70

     4.3.     ROLE AND DEFINITION OF LINGUISTIC CORPUS ........................................ 71

     4.4.     LINGUISTIC CORPUS GATHERED FOR THIS ANALYSIS ............................. 72

     4.5.     CRITERIA FOR PROPER CHOICE OF COMPUTER TERMS ............................ 73

     4.6.     GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF LINGUISTIC DATA .............................. 75

     4.7.     LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED THROUGHOUT THIS SECTION ............ 118

     4.8.     ANALYSIS OF GATHERED LINGUISTIC MATERIAL ................................... 119

        4.8.1.       DEGREE OF ADAPTATION ....................................................................... 119

        4.8.2.       GRAMMATICAL CASE AND GENDER .................................................... 120

        4.8.3.       MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION ........................................................... 120

            4.8.3.1.         INFLECTION ......................................................................................... 121

            4.8.3.2.         DERIVATION ....................................................................................... 121

        4.8.4.       NON-LEXICAL CHANGES ......................................................................... 122

     4.9.     PARTS OF SPEECH AND FREQUENCY LISTS ............................................... 122

     4.10.        SEMANTIC CHANGES .................................................................................... 123

     4.11. MAIN CATEGORIES OF BORROWINGS IN POLISH LANGUAGE OF
     INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY .................................................................................... 123

     4.12.        CONCLUDING REMARKS ............................................................................. 124

5.      FINAL CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................... 125

6.      LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 125

7.      LIST OF SOURCES ....................................................................................................... 131

APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 134




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INTRODUCTION




   
								
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