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					  SECOND EDITION




  Astronomy
  A Physical Perspective
                                 Inspection copies
                                     available
  Marc L. Kutner




www.cambridge.org/astronomy/physicalperspective
Astronomy
A Physical Perspective
                         Marc L. Kutner, University of Texas, Austin

                                          This fully revised and updated text is a
                         SECOND EDITION
                                          comprehensive introduction to
                                          astronomical objects and phenomena.          40




                                          By applying some basic physical principles
  Astronomy                               to a variety of situations, students will
                                          learn how to relate everyday physics to
  A Physical Perspective                  the astronomical world. Starting with the
                                          simplest objects, the text contains
                                          explanations of how and why
                                          astronomical phenomena occur, and how
                                          astronomers collect and interpret
                                          information about stars, galaxies and the
                                          solar system. The text looks at the
                                          properties of stars, star formation and
                                          evolution; neutron stars and black holes;
  Marc L. Kutner
                                          the nature of galaxies; and the structure
                                          of the universe. It examines the past,
2003                                      present and future states of the universe;
248 x 189 mm 600pp 136 line diagrams      and final chapters use the concepts that
155 half-tones 406 colour plates          have been developed to study the solar
13 tables 937 exercises                   system, its formation; the possibility of
0 521 52927 1      Paperback     £34.95   finding other planetary systems; and the
                                          search for extraterrestrial life. This
                                          comprehensive text contains useful
                                          equations, chapter summaries, worked
                                          examples and end-of-chapter problem sets.




www.cambridge.org/astronomy/physicalperspec
                Key Features                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Contents
                ●       Fully revised and updated second edition of                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Introduction;
                        this comprehensive textbook                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Part I. Properties of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ordinary Stars
                ●       Covers the major forefront areas of astronomy,                                                                                                                                                                                                 2. Continuous radiation
                        complete with numerous full colour illustrations                                                                                                                                                                                               from stars; 3. Spectral Lines
                        throughout                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     in stars; 4. Telescopes;
                ●       Solutions manual available for instructors                                                                                                                                                                                                     5. Binary stars and stellar
                        from solutions@cambridge.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                   masses; 6. The Sun: a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       typical star
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Part II. Relativity: 7. Special
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       relativity; 8. General
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       relativity
                            LARGE
                UNIVERSE AT
00   PART V THE
                                                                                                                           Low Temp
                                                                                                                                                    High Temp                                                                                                          Part III. Stellar Evolution:
                                                                                                       Rotational
                                                                                                          Split
                                                                                                       (Exaggerated
                                                                                                                      )                                                                                                                                                9. The main sequence;
                                                                                                        Electronic
                                                                              Energy




                                                                                                                                                                2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10. Stellar old age; 11. The
                                                                                                        Transitions                         2        1
                                                                ng
                                                Starlight Passi                                        2
                                                                                                                            1
                                                                                       1
                                                Through Cloud
                                                                                                         Rotational
                                                                                                            Split
                                                                                                        (Exagg   erated)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       death of high mass stars;
                                                                                                                                Intensity




                                                      Background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       12. Evolution in close
                                                                                           Intensity




                                                         Star                                                                                            2
                                                                                                          1         2                           1


                                                Interstellar Cloud
                                                    CN Molecules
                                                                   with
                                                                                                        Wavelength
                                                                                                                                            Wavelength
                                                                                                                                                High Temp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       binaries; 13. Clusters of
                                                                                                       Low Temp                                                     (b)
                                                                           (a)

                                                                                                                           vations are done.
                                                                                                                                                The cloud
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       stars
                                                                                                          see what obser                              CN.
                                                                                       radiation. (a) We                            lines from the
                                                                        c background                         and see absorption             radiation. In the
                                                 to study the cosmi                         um of the star
         Fig 21.6. Using
         with the CN is
                               interstellar CN
                            in betwe
                              the
                                       en the Earth and
                                   strength of the
                                                            a bright star.W
                                                     absorption lines
                                                                            e take a spectr
                                                                         changes as we increase the
                                                                                one level to anoth
                                                                                                       temperature of
                                                                                                     er give us the
                                                                                                                         the background
                                                                                                                    big chang  e in energy. Much
                                                                                                                           are exaggerated
                                                                                                                                                     smaller
                                                                                                                                              in the dia-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Part IV. The Milky Way:
         (b) We see how                                           jumping from                          nal energy shifts                ule in slightly dif-
                                             levels. Electrons                      es. (These rotatio
                          see the energy                                                                               with the molec
          upper left we
          changes occur
          gram.) Transitions
                            when the rate
                                              of rotation of
                                 1 and 2 both corres
                                                                the molecule chang
                                                         pond to the same
                                                                             jump by the electr
                                                                           populations of
                                                                                                  on, but they occur
                                                                                           the levels at low
                                                                                                              and high tempe
                                                                                                                                ratures.The thicke
                                                                                                                     is.The thicker
                                                                                                                                                      r the
                                                                                                                                       the line, the strong
                                                                                                                                                              er                                                                                                       14. Contents of the
                                                        right, we see the                            the absorption
                                states. In the upper                          indicate how strong                       .
           ferent rotational                                  he red arrows                         spectra are shown
            black line, the
            the absorption.
                             more populated
                                                the level.T
                               In the lower panels
                                                     , the resulting
                                                                      low and high tempe
                                                                                           rature

                                                                                          and 2              g are the stati
                                                                                                                                   stical weights
                                                                                                                          energy dif-
                                                                                                                                                          of the                                                                                                       interstellar medium;
                                                                         l where g1                     and E21 is the
                                                       rent rotationa                     ional levels,                        s. The
          a molecule can
          states. Normally,
                               be in many diffe
                                interstellar mole
                                                        cules are stud
                                            of rotational
                                                              transitions
                                                                          - two rotat
                                                                               ference betw
                                                                                              een the two
                                                                                     gy difference
                                                                                                             rotational level
                                                                                                     between the
                                                                                                                   two levels in
                                                                                                                                   CN
                                                                                                                          2.64 mm. If
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15. Star formation; 16. The
                               rvations                           t of the ener                        wavelength of
          ied by radio obse                    state. The effec                       sponds to the                      there will be
           within the same
           rotational ener
                                electronic
                             gy level    s is to split the
                                                             optical elec-
                                                          . For example,
                                                                                corre
                                                                                the  CN is in a clou
                                                                                                     d of low dens
                                                                                           collisions with
                                                                                                                    ity,
                                                                                                             hydrogen     to get mole-
                                                                                                                             next rota-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Milky Way galaxy
                                  into several lines                  from very few                      nd state to the
           tronic transition                       to a transition                      from the grou                              also
                              corresponding                           ronic cules                                 electrons may
            there are lines
            a given rotat
                            ional state of
                                                the ground elect
                                     rotational state
                                                           in the excited
                                                                                 tional state.
                                                                                 be important.)
                                                                                               (Collisions with
                                                                                                  If there are no
                                                                                                                   collisions, the
                                                                                                                  rotat
                                                                                                                                     CN
                                                                                                                         ional state by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Part V. The Universe at
             state to the same                              of the various                       to the higher
                                . The     wavelengths                             can only get                         is far from any
                                                          In practice, two                          tion. If the CN
             electronic state
              transitions are
                                sligh   tly different.
                                  observed, one
                                                       from the grou
                                                                           nd
                                                                     excited star,
                                                                                  absorbing radia
                                                                                        the only radia
                                                                                                       tion available
                                                                                                                        is from the cos-
                                                                                                                     e circumstances
                                                                                                                                         ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       21 THE BIG BANG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 421   Large: 17. Normal galaxies;
              transitions are                       from the first                                 nd. Under thes          selves so the
                                 and the other                                     mic backgrou             adjust them
               rotational state
               rotational state
                   The relative
                                 .
                                   strength of the
                                                       two optical lines
                                                                             is the popu
                                                                           two
                                                                                             lations will
                                                                                   temperature
                                                                                                  in equation
                                                                                                                (21.6) is the
                                                                                                         ic backgrou
                                                                                                                                tempera-
                                                                                                                       nd radiation
                                                                                                                                        at                                                                                                                             18. Clusters of galaxies;
                                                        lations in the                    of the cosm                             ground
                               ratio of the popu                        state), ture                           the cosmic back
                equal to the                                                                   (Of course, if
                rotational state
                n2/n1. This is
                                    s (in the grou
                               given by the Boltz
                                                      nd electronic
                                                         mann equation
                                                                             as 2.64 mm.
                                                                                    radiation has
                                                                                                    a blackbody
                                                                                                    mm should be
                                                                                                                 spectrum, its
                                                                                                                     the same as
                                                                                                                                  temper-
                                                                                                                                    at any                                                                                                                             19. Active galaxies;
                                                                                    ature at 2.64
                  n2
                  n1
                       g   2

                          g1
                               e   E21 kT
                                                                           (21.6) other wavelength.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       20. Cosmology; 21. The Big
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Part VI. The Solar System:
                                                                                                                                                                                (a)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig 21.28. Simulat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ion of large-scale structu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (c)         22. Overview of the solar
                                                                                                                                                                                        and evolution in a                                    re formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                             cold dark matter univers
                                                                                                                                                                                        parameter
                                                                                                                                                                                                     MAT
                                                                                                                                                                                       Hubble constant H
                                                                                                                                                                                       in size.The calculat
                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.3, cosmological constan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 65 km/s/Mpc, inside
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e with density
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            t       0.7, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a box of 154 Mpc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       system; 23. The Earth and
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ions were perform
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ed on a Cray SV1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Moon; 24. The inner
                                                                                                                                                                                      supercomputer, with
                                                                                                                                                                                                               2.7 million particle
                                                                                                                                                                                      z 2; (c) z 0. [This                           s. (a) z 5; (b)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 simulation was produc
                                                                                                                                                                                      Advanced Compu                                       ed at the Texas
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ting Center by the
                                                                                                                                                                                      Galaxy Formation                          University of Texas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       planets; 25. The outer
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Group (Paul R. Shapiro
                                                                                                                                                                                      Marcelo Alvarez)]                              , Hugo Martel and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       planets; 26. Minor bodies
                                                                                                                                                         chapter that the
                                                                                                                                                                              effect of the cosmo
                                                                                                                                                         stant is
                                                                                                                                                        of matter. While
                                                                                                                                                                         /8 G, so it acts in
                                                                                                                                                                          (b)
                                                                                                                                                                              matter wants to
                                                                                                                                                                                                     logical con-
                                                                                                                                                                                             the opposite sense
                                                                                                                                                                                                 bring galaxies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       in the solar system;
                                                                                                                                                        together, the cosmo
                                                                                                                                                                                logical constant
                                                                                               curvature in space
                                                                                               would cause a distor
                                                                                              fluctuations. The
                                                                                                                     -time (positive
                                                                                                                       tion of how we
                                                                                                                                                        want to fly apart
                                                                                                                                         or negative) using
                                                                                                                                          view those param
                                                                                                                                                                            . Observations (still
                                                                                                                                                                supernovae to measu
                                                                                                                                                                                                   makes them
                                                                                                                                                                                                   preliminary)
                                                                                                                                                                                          re the deceleration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       27. The origin of life;
                                                                                                                  fluctuations in                              eter suggest that
                                                                                              those that would                         Fig. 21.12 are                                 the expansion
                                                                                                                                                       slowing down very                                 is not
                                                                                              so they point to
                                                                                                                 be expected with
                                                                                                               a flat universe.
                                                                                                 If the universe is
                                                                                                                                       no distortion,

                                                                                                                       flat, this tells us
                                                                                                                                                       ing, consistent with
                                                                                                                                                       constant.
                                                                                                                                                                               quickly, and may
                                                                                                                                                                                                    be increas-
                                                                                                                                                                                 a signif icant cosmo
                                                                                                                                                                                                        logical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendices.
                                                                                             total density param                            that the       If M is approximat
                                                                                                                   eter (defined in                                                ely 0.3, this is the
                                                                                                      1. This doesn’t                   Chapter 20), bined
                                                                                               TOT
                                                                                                                          necessarily mean                    effects of light and                        com-
                                                                                            there is enough                                     that sis of the result              dark matter. From
                                                                                                               matter for this.                                         s of big-bang nucle              analy-
                                                                                            about the combined                        TOT only tells  onic matter, neutr                     osynthesis, bary-
                                                                                                                   effects of matter                                        ons and protons,
                                                                                           a cosmological const                          ( MAT) and the                                        is about 5% of
                                                                                                                    ant ( ). So we                         closure density. Only
                                                                                                                                         know that (or                             one-fifth of the baryo
                                                                                              M          1. A number of                                   1% of the closur                                  ns
                                                                                           that M is appro                    other data sugge                                e density) is in
                                                                                                              ximately 0.3 and                    st stars, galaxies,                            the form of
                                                                                                                                        is approxi- rest               etc. It has been sugge
                                                                                           mately 0.7. Reme                                               is in the form of                     sted that the
                                                                                                               mber, we saw in

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Order your inspection
                                                                                                                                     the previous still                        intergalactic ionize
                                                                                                                                                           don’t know the                            d H. We
                                                                                                                                                                               nature of the dark



ctive
                                                                                                                                                                                                      matter




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Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge   August 2003

				
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