empiricism by Wittgenstein

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									            How the Realists Came to Be


Two Important Cultural Developments

   Empiricism   “scientific positivism”
  -- The idea emerged in the late 1800s that science was best
  understood as an empirical rather than logical pursuit
      (you will remember that people had been trying to call
      moral reasoning and law a “science”)
  -- Basic idea: things that are true by the 5 senses are sort of
  more important than things contemplative or reflective (for
  example)
  (science is more important for knowledge than philosophy)
            How the Realists Came to Be
 Basic ideas from this influence:
Two Important Cultural Developments
 1. The Scientific Method (verification of hypotheses)
 2.Empiricism “scientific positivism” informed; mathematics
    Logic is not helpful unless it is
  -- helpful emerged in the late 1800s that science was best
 notThe ideaunless it is put to use
  understood as an empirical rather than logical pursuit
     • Theory of evolution (because there are bones in
       (you will remember that people had been trying to call
     the ground)
      moral reasoning and law a “science”)
     • derive conclusions from evidence, not a priori.
  -- Basic idea: things that are true by the 5 senses are sort of
  more important than is sort of the King or reflective (for
 4. Empirical science things contemplative -- the best kind
  example)
 of knowledge you can have is from empiricism.
  (science is more 1900s, for can understand human
 5. Later on in theimportantyou knowledge than philosophy)
 behavior by watching it, studying it (behaviorism).
             How the Realists Came to Be


Two Important Cultural Developments

   Empiricism     “scientific positivism”
   Universities
   -- Education begins to change in the late 1800s. Before
   around 1860, there were no such things a laboratories in
   college
   -- laboratories first emerged in educational institutions in
   Germany
   -- This will begin to be exported to America roughly
   speaking after the Civil War
   (Johns Hopkins is the first research-oriented college?)
                              Time
(1881 -1935)


  Holmes

               (1900 -1935)


               The Realists

								
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