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Formula SAE A Newsletter (PDF)

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									                  Formula SAE-A Newsletter
    Volume 4, Issue 1                                                                            March 2005

                                                         SAE-A Admin Update
                                                         Welcome to the 2005 Formula SAE-A competition year. It
                                                         is only March and already I am hearing of completed
                                                         designs, I guess as the saying goes the early bird catches
                                                         the worm! Here behind the admin desk we too are forging
                                                         ahead with plans to improve upon the competition with
                                                         the consortium committee working hard on fine tuning the
                                                         structure and schedules to iron out the kinks of 2004 and
                                                         more importantly plans are being drawn up to invest in
                                                         some capital improvements to the site to enhance the
                                                         event both for spectators and the running of the
                                                         competition, particularly the dynamic events.

                                                         Feedback from teams is obviously an integral part of this
March 2005 Contents:                                     process and as such we will be scheduling a site visit and
                                                         de-brief of the 2004 competition at Werribee on a
1    Admin Update                                        Saturday in April. Individual team leaders and faculty
                                                         advisors will be contacted regarding dates and formulation
2    Pat’s Introduction
                                                         of agenda items.
3    Pat’s Technical Introduction for New Teams
                                                         Competition Dates
4    Ford Graduate Recruitment
                                                         After review and consultation the dates for the 2005
5    SAE-A Student Membership Application                competition have been set as Thursday 1st – Sunday
                                                         4th December 2004 at Victoria University, Hoppers Lane
6    2004 Competition Pics
                                                         Werribee. Key submission dates can be found at the end
                                                         of this newsletter. Registrations will close on 1st August
E-mail addresses                                         2005, no registrations will be accepted after this date.
Make sure you have contacted SAE-A to register
                                                         Formula SAE Rules
your email address! This newsletter will only be
                                                         The 2005 Rules and Australasian Addendum have now
distributed electronically and is the best way to keep
                                                         been posted onto the SAE-A website and can be found on
up-to-date with Formula SAE-A.
                                                         the following link http://www.sae-a.com.au/fsae/rules.htm
                                                         If you have any queries regarding the rules please
                                                         forward them to formulasae@sae-a.com.au. In addition to
Technical Advisor                                        these rules you will also find additional information
Pat Clarke                                               regarding Design, Technical Inspection and the Cost
Contact: fsaetech@ozemail.com.au or                      Report.
Mobile: 0414 984 695.
                                                         SAE-A Student Membership Changes
                                                         Students are reminded that to participate in Formula SAE-
                                                         A you need to be a financial member of SAE-A. Any new
                                                         membership applications received after the close of
                                                         registration date, 1 August 2005, will incur a late fee of
                                                         $11. Membership of the Society is valid for a calendar
                                                         year regardless of when you join and as such we would
                                                         like to encourage all students to sign up earlier rather
                                                         than later.

                                                         This year we are anticipating having 22 Australian entries
                                                         including first time entrants Victoria University of
                                                         Technology and the welcoming back of Curtin University
FSAE Competition Dates                                   of Technology and the University of South Australia.
US: 18 – 22 May 2005
UK: 7 – 10 July 2005                                     Erin Heasman ☺
Aus: 1 – 4 December 2005                                 Events Manager
                                                         E-mail: formulasae@sae-a.com.au
Pat Clarke – FSAE-A Technical Advisor

Thirty days hath September, April, May and November……and so goeth the old mnemonic poem! I looked at my
watch and February 28 stared right back at me! FSAE certainly consumes all the spare time in one’s life.

Well, here we go again! Another year, another new crop of teams and cars, and even some new competition with
unofficial events being held in Japan and Brazil in 2005.

Looking back over last year, there are many highlights, all of which show we are all still going forward.

      •   A permanent home for our competition at the Victoria University venue in Werribee.
      •   A fabulously tight finish between the top three local teams at Werribee.
      •   RMIT blowing them all away at Formula Student in the heart of Motorsport, with honourable mentions to
          UQ and Monash, the three Aussie teams earning great respect in the UK.
      •   UWA winning design in the US, second year in a row for Aussie teams, with an honourable mention for the
          then defending champions UOW.

In four short years, the Australian Universities have established themselves among the very best FSAE teams in the
world, and have gained massive respect. Congratulations to all concerned.

My special award for 2004 goes equally to the University of Adelaide and Deakin University. Both these teams
really upped the quality of their cars and were both prepared to look outside the square. If Deakin can get their car
to Formula Student in July, I promise it will knock their socks off over there!

A special mention for our Kiwi friends from Auckland who built an awesome first year car. I look forward to their
2005 backup effort.

All in all, I think 2005 will be a fabulous year for FSAE-A!

We have decided to rerun ‘Pat’s guide to new FSAE teams’ again, as it seems that some teams need reminding, but
also there is so much new blood there is probably a need to run it.

So, until next issue, good luck to all.


                                                                                              Pat and Deakin
                                                                                              team members

University of Auckland                                         University of Adelaide

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 2                                                                           March 2005
   Pat Clarke’s Technical Introduction to Formula SAE for New Teams


   This document is in no way an instruction sheet on how to design and build a car for Formula SAE. It is intended as
   an advisory document for new teams to allow them to build that all-important first car and avoid some of the more
   common pitfalls. It is very easy for a new team to get carried away trying to build their own complex “Formula One”
   car and lose sight of the objective. To get to the competition with a car that will allow them to complete the event
   and gain the satisfaction of competing in the best engineering competition in the world is what it is all about.

   They will also get to leave the legacy of a complete project for those who come behind them to learn from or to
   evolve to the next level. It is important to realise that it is almost impossible to build a winning car at the first
   attempt, however it is all too easy to have no car for the competition due to being distracted along the way or
   having unattainable aspirations.

   My favourite saying is “The trick is…there is no trick”, and that applies especially to FSAE. The laws of physics are
   immutable, and if something seems to be reacting in a different way to what you expect, that is a message that you
   need to better understand the question before trying to answer it.

   Usually though, you have to try an answer first before finding whether it is correct or not. That is when you run into
   my second favourite saying, “There is always more than one correct answer”! Your task then becomes finding the
   answer that best suits your situation.

   It is important for a team to realise that it does not matter whether the Judges agree with your design decisions or
   not, as long as you can cogently argue in favour of your solution. After all, the final examination occurs on the last
   day of competition on the track, and there your solution will be validated by the stopwatch.

   Design Suggestions

   For a first year car, I recommend that a new team opt for a simple and straightforward steel tube space-frame
   chassis. It should be fitted with a conventional suspension system that is easy to understand and sort. The choice of
   wheel size, either 10” or 13” diameter is the subject of ongoing debate. Both sizes have their advantages, however
   would recommend that a team think about starting with a 13” wheel as this will allow more latitude in the design of
   their suspension package.

   It cannot be over emphasised that the choice of tyres is the most significant decision made in the design process.
   Tyre choice is important because all forces of acceleration, turning and braking are reacted through the tyre contact

   FSAE cars are limited by the formula and course designs, to a top speed of little more than 100kph, so traction is
   generated by well-controlled tyre/track interface with little aero download assistance available. A team should finalise
   its tyre choice very early in the design process.

   Competitive FSAE cars have evolved a kind of sameness as a result of evolution. Teams pick the best features of
   preceding designs, either theirs or from another team. As a result, and applying Darwin’s theory, the good cars are
   starting to feature very similar designs.

   Overall designs may be similar, however, as the old saying goes, the devil is in the detail. Judges will look at the
   overall design, and whether they agree or not with the evolution theory, will then look closely at the details of your
   design and construction. So a new team would be well advised to choose a conservative evolutionary design for their
   first car and then really sweat the details.


   Before anything is bought, before a sketch is made or a tube is cut, a detailed plan must be developed.

   If the tyres are the most important technical component, then planning and project management is the most
   important logistical component.

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 3                                                                             March 2005
 Pat Clarke’s Technical Introduction to Formula SAE for New Teams cont…

 The one thing all winning teams have in common is a good plan and a competent manager. The best piece of advice
 I can give the team manager is that this is not a personality contest. The ability to see through the project and carry
 it out means that there will be differences of opinion between team members. This happens! A good team manager
 will take this in his stride, find a solution and continue to drive the project forward.

 An important aspect of the initial technical planning is ergonomics. The car will not be successful if it is difficult to
 drive. Your prototype is supposed to be for production and should in theory be adjustable so all and sundry can fit in
 and drive it. Realistically, the only people it is required to fit are your team members, so the ergonomics should be
 designed around those drivers. Take look at a production-racing car such as a Formula Ford, and copy the
 ergonomic layout.

 Forget about the rest of that car design as it was built to a totally different set of parameters. Circuit racecars are
 optimised for straight-line performance and relatively open corners. The layout of the typical FSAE course will consist
 of tight corners of various shapes. There will be no real straight, and the top speed will be limited by course design
 to little more than 100kph.

 A successful FSAE car will therefore have exemplary handling characteristics, be predictable to drive and easy on its
 tyres. The constant reversal of forces, cornering, braking and acceleration will exact a toll on the driver and chassis
 as well as the tyres!

 With all this in mind, I will now talk about a set of design parameters suitable for a first time FSAE car.

 Basic Design Parameters

 I will start with a few design requirements. The car must meet all the requirements of the Formula SAE rules! This is
 not Formula One where you are free to interpret the rules as you please as long as you can afford very expensive
 lawyers to argue your case.

 The FSAE rules are simply written as they are, and the officials will not be swayed by your interpretive skills in
 reading these rules. If there are any doubts, refer the question to the FSAE Rules Committee for a ruling before you

 The rules also require some common sense interpretation. If there is anything dangerous about your car in the
 opinion of the judges, you simply will not be permitted to drive it, regardless of how ‘legal’ it may be.

 FSAE encourages the use and development of new technology. Sometimes this will bring forward technology not
 foreseen by the rules committee. An example of this in recent years was ‘fly by wire’ throttle and steering controls.

 An innovation may require a decision from the Rules Committee before the car is allowed to compete, and so any
 team contemplating some ‘avant garde’ design features would be well advised to bring them to the attention of the
 FSAE Rules Committee in plenty of time for a decision to be made, and any required alterations to the car completed
 and tested.

 Be assured the Tech Committee will maintain your confidences and will not leak your design features to another

 Finally, a car that looks good will always get a positive reaction from the judges, so concentrate on the details and
 make sure the car looks right. Judges like elegant engineering solutions, so the old truism that “Something that looks
 right usually is right” has relevance here. Paint is cheap and elbow grease is free, but inspiration is priceless.


 Front of the car
 The dynamic characteristics of the FSAE competition require a car that turns into corners accurately and maintains
 good cornering speed. Camber control when the chassis rolls is critical. Camber gain as the suspension compresses
 is desirable, but the designers should take into account the camber changing effects of Steering Axis Inclination and
 Caster as the car is steered. SAI results in a positive camber change as the wheel is steered. Caster will generate
 some negative camber on the loaded wheel on turn in. It follows that a good FSAE design has plenty of Caster and
 not much SAI.

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 4                                                                              March 2005
 Pat Clarke’s Technical Introduction to Formula SAE for New Teams cont…

 Running a car with lots of Caster will result in significant diagonal weight transfer when turning into a corner or at
 any time steering lock is applied. On turn in, this diagonal weight jacking will unload the inside rear wheel so a team
 running without a locking differential of some sort may suffer traction difficulties.

 On the other hand, this weight transfer may unload the inside rear wheel to such a degree that a differential may be
 dispensed with as in go-kart designs. Steering feel and weight as a result of caster angles can be adjusted by
 altering the ‘trail’. Trail is the position of the axle centerline relative to the steering axis. Altering trail will change the
 transverse weight transfer whilst not affecting the camber angle change.

 A little positive steering offset will give good feedback to the driver, too much will quickly wear him out and may
 even hurt his hands from kickback in the event of contact. Too little offset may make it difficult for the driver to
 place the car due to lack of feel. A balance may need to be struck between wheel offset and SAI to achieve good
 steering ‘feel’.

 ‘Bump Steer’ should be avoided over the range of suspension travel. Any decision affecting rack position, Ackerman
 etc, should immediately be checked for any bump steer side effect.

 Positive Ackerman geometry will result in an increase in toe out when the steering is turned away from straight
 ahead. Negative Ackerman is usually only seen on cars that encounter very high-speed corners and where
 aerodynamic stability in those corners is paramount.

 Does it follow that low speed cars on a tight track need positive Ackerman? You bet it does! And it is unlikely the
 amount of Ackerman you think you need will be enough. Increase it by at least 50% and you might be in the
 ballpark! Be aware that the position of the steering rack will alter the Ackerman effect, and some teams actually
 ‘tune’ their toe out on turns with an adjustable rack position.

 Camber on a FSAE car should never go positive on a loaded wheel in cornering. Judges will watch for this, and I
 have actually seen a judge accurately predict the SAI and Caster angles on a car by watching it on the track.

 Rolling a loaded tyre onto its outer edge will not only reduce the grip, but will quickly ruin the tyre. Excess negative
 camber is not so damaging. Generally, radial ply tyres respond to more negative camber than cross ply tyres and are
 more forgiving.

 Designers should be familiar with the effects of Camber Thrust, the tendency of a tyre to run towards the positive
 camber angle. Cars that spend a relatively long time traveling in a straight line may have their toe angles adjusted to
 reduce the scrub losses induced by Camber Thrust, but on a FSAE car this effect can effectively be ignored.

 Stiff suspension rates, aggressive ‘anti dive’ and ‘anti squat’ geometry and ‘third springs’ are usually seen to best
 advantage on cars where control of the aerodynamic platform is paramount. More compliant suspension rates are
 better suited to FSAE cars and will enhance the mechanical grip as long the wheel angles are controlled.

 Excessive dive under brakes can be controlled with a third spring or bump stop, but rearward weight transfer under
 acceleration may well be advantageous. Excessive amounts of ‘Anti-dive’ geometry in the front suspension may
 result in a very ‘wooden’ feedback to the driver, and so should be avoided.

 Compliant suspension may result in changes of roll centres, both vertically and laterally as the suspension works. A
 mobile roll axis will send confusing feedback to the driver, making accurate control difficult. Judges are aware of this
 and will quiz the design team on the dynamic positions of the roll centres and roll axes. Pay attention to the
 migration of the roll centres under all conditions.

 Low roll axes and compliant springing may require the fitting of anti roll bars, and it is important to understand the
 side effects of the transverse weight transfer of these devices. In any effect, ARBs are a good way to fine-tune a car
 for various circuits and conditions. Whether a team decides to fit ARBs to their car or to omit them, they can expect
 to be quizzed on this issue by the Judges.

 A powerful force generated in a FSAE car is front wheel brake torque. Care should be taken to properly react this
 force into the chassis, avoiding steering changes or ‘tramp’.

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 5                                                                                   March 2005
Pat Clarke’s Technical Introduction to Formula SAE for New Teams cont…

Rear of the car
At the rear of the car the forces are different but the basics are the same. Toe control is important so aim to have a
wide toe control base.

Try to avoid bump or roll steer, both of which may make the car undriveable in the heat of competition. Bump steer
toe out will make the car very unstable on turn in.

Drive shafts and CV joints should be aligned in all planes when the car is loaded. Provision should be made to
accommodate drive shaft ‘plunge’ as the suspension works. Tripod joints are probably the best choice.

Thought should be given to the rear brake arrangement relative to the differential type used. A single inboard brake
may be used, but this will not be effective if the differential type does match this type of brake arrangement. Judges
will quiz you on this! If outboard brakes are used, care must be taken to ensure the brake torque is properly reacted
into the frame.

Locked or locking differentials usually contribute to the generation of understeer, the bugbear of FSAE car handling.
This can be relieved to a degree with proper understanding and implementation of the diagonal weight transfer
discussed when talking about the front of the car.


There are stringent safety requirements written into the FSAE rules, and you can rest assured there will be no
relaxation of these standards by scrutineers or officials. You should be aware that these rules do not necessarily
cover every area of every car, and the judges may well disallow a car on safety grounds because of some feature
that is not covered in the rules. This is for your own safety as well as their ‘Duty of Care’ under law.

At all times during the design, build and preparation of the car, ask yourself “Would I like to be driving this if
something goes wrong?”. If something seems like a good idea safety wise, then it probably is. If there is ever any
doubt give the Rules Committee a call and they will help you through the process.

Although ‘Anti-intrusion’ bars are not mandated on suspension A arms, I would recommend them. A relatively minor
bump can push the A arm into the driver space and injure their feet or legs.

Basic Design Checklist

1.    All load-paths should be direct and obvious to the judges. Judges love isosceles triangles and hate voids and
      indirect load-paths.

2.    Never load a threaded rod end in bending. Apart from it being poor design, Judges hate this and hate seeing
      it again and again year after year.

3.    Chassis stiffness should be such that the suspension can effectively work. If the suspension spring rate is such
      that the chassis flex becomes the de facto suspension, all your calculations go out the window, rapidly
      followed by handling and road holding.

4.    Weight is bad! Remember the immortal words of the late Colin Chapman, “Add lightness and simplificate”. (By
      the way, Mr Chapman also said “Any suspension will work if you don’t let it”…..but Judges watch out for that!)

5.    Cars with aggressive caster angles are self-adjusting with regard to corner weights. Therefore it is an absolute
      waste of time attempting to adjust corner weights unless the chassis is square, in proper alignment, on a flat
      and level surface and with tyre diameters equal front and rear.

6.    Push rod or pull rod suspension is a good idea for the following reasons.
      • It is possible to adjust the ride height or chassis attitude without altering spring preload, and vice versa.
      • By using a rod and bellcrank operation of the suspension components, the motion ratio can be increased
         to permit more effective damper travel for minor wheel movements.
      • Unsprung weight may be decreased and the mass of the suspension components can be located to lower
         the CG.

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 6                                                                           March 2005
Pat Clarke’s Technical Introduction to Formula SAE for New Teams cont…

7.    Never forget it is ‘Wheel rate’ that is important, not ‘Spring rate’. Work out a simple mathematical equation for
      the wheel/spring travel ratio to allow easy calculation of the effects of spring or bellcrank ratio changes.
      Beware of bellcranks with aggressive multiplication ratios as these make the car very sensitive to minor

8.    Roll control devices (ARBs) are a good idea. If not needed they can always be disconnected, however, such
      devices are invaluable for fine-tuning the handling to suit track or weather conditions.

9.    Ensure there is an adequate toe control base at the rear of the car, and that the components are stiff enough
      to prevent unwanted dynamic toe change. The judges will check for this using the old-fashioned ‘Manual
      Labour’ method.

10.   Things will flex under load, therefore it is a good idea to use spherical bearings at both ends of all suspension

11.   You will not be permitted to compete with a noisy muffler. Noise can be a difficult thing to measure, so a good
      safety margin is recommended. The muffler is not a good place to save weight!

12.   Under stress it is incredible how much pressure a frightened driver can apply to the brake pedal. Judges will
      look for flexing in the pedal mountings. The brake pedal should not go ‘overcentre’ when the brakes are
      applied. Ideally, at full application the pedal should be just before a perpendicular load is applied to the push

      Judges will also look for proper operation of the brake balance bar or for one master cylinder bottoming out
      and the full effort then being transferred to the other.

13.   Test, test and test some more. Plan to have your car built in plenty of time to allow testing. Things will break,
      and the competition is not the place for that to happen. This is part of the management plan we spoke about
      earlier. It is a critical element for successful teams.

In the mean time, all potential drivers should get as much seat time in go karts as is practicable. Not only will this
give the drivers experience; it will permit the team manager to choose the best potential drivers. It also is a good
team building exercise, and can even be used as a fund raising exercise.


Remember this is a learning experience, not a motor racing event. Sure, we all look forward to driving and the final
competition, but the real winners are the competitors who learn something. Time and time you will hear bystanders,
judges etc remark, “I wish there had been something like this when I was at Uni”. They all see the benefits as well
as the enjoyment. It rounds out your education, whether it is in engineering, electronics, management, marketing or
any of the other disciplines pertinent to the competition. It is a killer achievement to put in your CV, and will greatly
enhance your employment opportunities.

Don’t lose sight of the big picture and the opportunities the SAE and its sponsors have given you.

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 7                                                                              March 2005
Where will You find Your Passion?
Ford Australia - 2006 Graduate Intake
Applications Close - April 8, 2005.

Ford Motor Company has been making cars in Australia since the start of the 20th century.
Today, we're the longest established and one of the largest car manufacturers in the country,
and one of the few to design, develop and build a range of vehicles. We're entering an exciting
period with the successful launch of our Award Winning Territory, BA Falcon and other amazing
new products that will redefine the automotive landscape.

In Australia, the Ford team is well over 6,000. Our global workforce is over 350,000 and
growing. Ford Motor Company has manufacturing, product development and support operations
in MELBOURNE and is looking at taking on 70 Graduates for its 2006 intake. It will be recruiting
from all Finance, Business, Marketing, HR. IT, Purchasing and Engineering fields.

We look forward as always to receiving applications from SAE participants which can be made
at www.careers.ford.com.au by the 8th of April.

We're fortunate to be in a global industry that moves fast and evokes powerful emotions. Our
industry is particularly stimulating for graduates and offers immense challenge and satisfaction
to talented people. When you consider our sheer size, it's easy to see why our graduates
experience amazing careers.

We need graduates in all areas of our organisation. Because they're our future, we choose very
carefully and look at much more than just degrees. Good academic results show application and
intelligence. In addition, we seek articulate, well-balanced individuals with personality, tenacity,
leadership potential and teamwork skills. You must also want to partner in your own success
and be able to spot and seize career opportunities as they emerge. While we'll help you reach
your goals, you must drive your progress.

You've got some big decisions to make and it's critical you make the most of your hard work
and give yourself the best chance to excel. Ford is one of the few companies around today that
will not only invest time and resources in you, but also give you the scope and diversity you
need to shine.

                                 Applications Close April 8th.

PHOTO GALLERY – 2004 Competition Pics

 Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 9      March 2005
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Are you involved in Formula SAE-A in 2005?                       Yes          No      Anticipated year of course completion: ____________

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                  Standards / Qualifications                                     Year                                      University

                       Society / Institute                                       Year                                         Grade

    From          To                                Employer (Name & Address)                                                      Position

PAYMENT                              Please find enclosed cheque / money order payable to SAE-A
                                     Please charge the total amount above to the following credit card:
                                     Bankcard             Mastercard             Visa           AMEX             Diners

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I affirm that the information given herein is true and apply for membership of the Society of Automotive Engineers – Australasia in the grade of Student.

I have / have not been a member of the Society previously.

 Declaration:                                                               Date:

* The $45.00 (including GST) membership fee should accompany this form. SAE-A is waiving the standard
  application processing fee ($25) for 2005 Formula SAE-A students. An $11 late fee applies to Formula SAE-A
  Student applications received after 1 August 2005.

                                                     Please return this form to:
                              Suite 3, 21 Vale Street, North Melbourne Vic 3051 or Fax: 03 9326 7244
  Key Dates
  Registration                                     1 August 2005
  Safety Structure Equivalency Form                1 September 2005
  Design Report & Spec Sheet                       3 October 2005
  Cost Report                                      2 November 2005
  Competition Dates                                1-4 December 2005

  Participating Australian Universities 2005

  University of South Australia                               University of Southern Queensland
  University of Wollongong                                    University of Technology, Sydney
  University of Western Australia                             The University of Melbourne
  Monash University                                           University of Adelaide
  University of New South Wales                               Swinburne University of Technology
  Australian National University                              Deakin University
  Queensland University of Technology                         University of Newcastle
  University of Queensland                                    Curtin University of Technology
  RMIT University                                             University of Sydney
  University of Ballarat                                      Victoria University of Technology
  University of New South Wales at ADFA                       University of Auckland (NZ)

  2004 Formula SAE-A Sponsors

  SAE-A sincerely thanks the following sponsors for their support of this project
                                                                                                   Proudly supported
  Consortium sponsors:                                                                                    by:

    Gold sponsors:                                            Other sponsors:
    • RACV                                                    • AAAA
    • BlueScope Steel                                         • Aurora Bearing Company
    • PBR International                                       • BlueScope Steel
                                                              • Bosch Australia
    Silver sponsors:                                          • Denso International Australia
    • Denso International Australia                           • Diver Consolidated Industries
    • National Instruments                                    • Klippan Safety Products
    • Siemens VDO Automotive                                  • Kluber Lubrication Australia
                                                              • MoTeC
    Bronze sponsors:                                          • MSC Software
    • 3M                                                      • OneSteel
    • FISITA                                                  • Suspension Components Australia
    • Ceanet                                                  • Textron Fastening Systems
                                                              • Unbrako
                                                              • Unidrive

Formula SAE-A Newsletter – Page 11                                                                      March 2005

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