fatigue

Document Sample
fatigue Powered By Docstoc
					(insert clients name
        here)
Fatigue and Drowsy
       Driving
                Questions
 What are the effects of lack of sleep?
   On driving?
   On other functioning?
 What should be done?




                                           2
    Progressive effects of reduced
                sleep
 Changes in brain activity
 Poorer cognitive functioning
     Reaction time
     Concentration
     Memory
     Learning

 Peripheral vision reduction
 Endocrine and immune system effects
                                        3
             Effects on mood
 Correlation between amount of sleep
  and mood / attitude
 Acute effects in laboratory tests
 Chronic effects :
     More  sleep on weekdays correlates with
      better mood /attitude
     Less sleep on weekdays correlates with
      being tired, sad, stressed and/or angry

                                                4
Mood/Sleep Driving
   Prevention
     Aggressive Driving

“Driving   behavior that endangers
or is likely to endanger people or
              property”




                                     6
          Aggressive Driving

          Aggressive drivers are more likely to:
• Speed, tailgate, fail to yield, weave, pass on right,
make improper lane changes, run stop signs and red
lights, make hand and facial gestures, scream, honk,
and flash their lights.
• Allow high frustration levels to diminish concern
for fellow drivers
• Drive impaired, drive unbelted or take other unsafe
actions
                                                          7
What Causes Aggressive
      Driving?

 Lack of responsible driving behavior
 Reduced level of traffic enforcement
 Increased congestion and travel




                                         8
   Countermeasures

 Education
 Enforcement
 Engineering and Operations




                               9
Aggressive Driving and Mental Health

      Aggressive driving is driving under the
         influence of impaired emotions

         Categories of Impaired Emotions

          1. Impatience and Inattentiveness
          2. Power Struggle
          3. Recklessness and Road Rage


                                                10
Impatience and Inattentiveness

                           Category 1

  Driving through red lights        Not yielding
  Speeding up to yellow lights      Improper lane change
  Rolling stops                     Driving 5 to 15 mph above limit
  Cutting corners                   Following too close
  Blocking intersection             Not signaling
                                     Taking too long



                                                                   11
      Power Struggle

             Category 2

 Blocking passing lane, refusing to move over
 Threatening or insulting
 Tailgating to punish or coerce
 Cutting off in a duel
 Braking suddenly to retaliate



                                                 12
Recklessness and Road Rage

                    Category 3

   Driving drunk
   Assaulting with the car or battering object
   Driving at very high speeds




                                                  13
   A-B-C Theory of Emotional Arousal



A
Event
                       B
                       Beliefs
                                               C
                                     Emotions/Behaviors
Somebody cuts
you off in traffic   Inconsiderate      Annoyance
                       He‟s a jerk        Angry, Rage
                        He should be       Vengeful Acts
                        taught a lesson


                                                           14
Keys to Controlling Your Emotions
 Recognize that your thoughts control your
  emotion
 Accepting that you have a choice
 Controlling your emotion by controlling
  your thinking.




                                          15
                  Hot Thoughts
   Labeling
     “That jerk”
     “That Idiot”

   Mind-reading
     “She did it on purpose”
     “He‟s trying to give me a hard time”

   Fortune Telling
     “She   will never change”
                                             16
                   Hot Thoughts
   Labeling

   Mind-reading

   Fortune Telling




                                  17
              Hot Thoughts

   Awfulizing
     “It‟s driving me crazy”
     “I can‟t stand it”
   Should Statements
     “He shouldn‟t act like that”
     “She can‟t get away with that”
   Vengeance
     “I‟d like to wring   her neck
     “I‟ll show him”


                                       18
                Hot Thoughts
   Catastrophizing

   Should Statements

   Vengeance




                               19
A-B-C Theory of Emotional Arousal



A            B
 Event
              Pause



                                    C
              Choose

              Control Thinking
                                 Emotion
                                 And Behavior


                                            20
       Control your anger by
      controlling your thinking
 Listen to your Self-Talk;
 Identify the hot, self angering thoughts;
  and
 substitute cooler, more rational self
  statements.




                                              21
                    Cool Thoughts
   Labeling
       Not: “That jerk”
       But: “I don‟t like what he just did”
   Mind-reading
       Not: “She did it on purpose”
       But: “I can‟t read her mind, so I don‟t know why she
        did it”
   Fortune Telling
       Not: “She will never change”
       But: “I can work on my part and hope for the best”


                                                               22
                Cool Thoughts
   Labeling

   Mind-reading

   Fortune Telling




                                23
                    Cool Thoughts
   Awfulizing
       Not: “It‟s driving me crazy”
       But: “It‟s inconvenient, but it‟s not the end of the
        world”
   Should Statements
       Not: “He shouldn‟t act like that”
       But: “It would be nice if he didn‟t act like that”
   Vengeance
       Not: “I‟d like to wring her neck
       But: Remember that vengeance usually invites
        retaliation and invites conflict



                                                               24
Drowsy driving
        2007 Canadian Driving
        Survey:
            49% drove drowsy at
             least once in the last
             year

            15% fell asleep at the
             wheel




                                      25
How Big is The Problem
  of Drowsy Driving?


                         26
           Characteristics
     of Drowsy Driving Crashes
   Most happen between midnight – 6:00am & in
    the midafternoon (circadian dip)
   The driver is alone and more likely to be male
   A single vehicle drifts off the road and hits a
    stationary object
   Most are rear-end or head-on collisions
   There is no evidence of braking or evasive
    maneuvers
   Many involve serious injuries and/or fatalities
                                                  27
Are You At Risk?



                   28
         Are You At Risk?

Before you drive, check to see if you are:
 Sleep-deprived or fatigued
 Suffering from insomnia, poor quality sleep, or a
  sleep debt
 Driving long distances without proper rest
  breaks
 Driving through the night, midafternoon or
  when you would normally be asleep
                                 (Knipling, 1994)   29
  Are You At Risk? (cont.)

 Taking  sedating medications
 Working more than 60 hours a week
 Working more than one job and your main
  job involves shift work
 Drinking even small amounts of alcohol
 Driving alone or on a long, rural, dark or
  boring road
                                         30
Special At-Risk Groups Include:

 Young  people
 Shift workers
 Commercial drivers
 People with undiagnosed or untreated
  sleep disorders
 Business travelers


                                         31
The Effects of
Sleepiness and Fatigue


                         32
    Common Sleep Problems

 Chronic or short-term          insomnia   (more
  than 50% of all U.S. adults)
 Snoring (90 million Americans snore, 37
  million habitually)
 Sleep Apnea (12 - 18 million Americans)
 Restless Legs Syndrome (2 - 15%)
 Narcolepsy (1 in every 2,000 Americans)

                                                33
           The Effects of
       Sleepiness and Fatigue
   Impaired reaction time, judgment and vision
   Problems with information processing and
    short-term memory
   Decreased performance, vigilance and
    motivation
   Increased moodiness and aggressive behaviors
   Increased “microsleeps” – brief (2/3 seconds)
    sleep episodes
                                               34
               Fatigue vs. Alcohol

 18 hours sustained wakefulness produces
  performance impairment = .05% BAC
 24 hours = .10% BAC (Dawson & Reid, 1997; Williamson &
    Feyer, 2000).
 People with mild to moderate untreated sleep
  apnea performed worse than those with a
  0.06% BAC (Powell, 1999)
 On 4 hours sleep, 1 beer can have the impact
  of a six-pack (Roehrs et al., 1994)

                                                       35
How To Reduce Your Risk



                          36
        Recognize The
    Warning Signs of Fatigue
 Trouble  focusing, keeping your eyes open
  or your head up
 Daydreaming; wandering/disconnected
  thoughts
 Yawning or rubbing your eyes repeatedly
 Drifting from your lane, tailgating, &
  missing signs or exits
 Feeling restless & irritable
                                         37
            Before A Trip


 Get a good night‟s sleep, preferably 8 hrs
 Schedule breaks every 100 miles or 2
  hours during long trips
 Travel with a companion to help watch for
  the signs of fatigue
 Avoid alcohol and sedating medications


                                          38
            Before A Trip


 Take   a nap or drink caffeine before
  leaving work if tired
 Consult your physician or local sleep
  disorders center if you are experiencing
  frequent daytime sleepiness or having
  difficulty sleeping at night


                                             39
Countermeasures While Driving

 Stop  driving
 Pull off the road at a safe place and take a
  short nap
 Let a passenger take over the driving
 Consume caffeine
 Don‟t rely on “drowsy driving devices”
 Be aware of shoulder rumble strips

                                           40
              Summary

 Drowsy  driving is a major problem
 Fatigue is an impairment like alcohol or
  drugs
 Anyone can be at risk
 There are simple ways to combat drowsy
  driving
 Practice good sleep habits and remember
  to Drive Alert…Arrive Alive
                                        41
 Characteristics of fatigue-related
              crashes
 More often single vehicle, driving off the
  road
 Driver doesn‟t try to avoid crash
 Often on highway, high speed
 Serious and often fatal
 Circadian effects – accidents peak 4-6
  a.m. and 2 p.m.

                                               42
       Results of drowsy driving
 Data from countries that monitor suggests
  that at least 10-20% of all accidents are
  due to fatigue
 U.S. estimates:
     100,000  accidents due to fatigue each year
     1550 deaths
     71,000 injuries



                                                    43
    Fatigue effects on drivers

 Slowed reaction time
 Poorer judgment
 “Tunnel vision”
 Missing signals
 Inconsistent speed and lane position
 Decreasing ability to identify excessive
  sleepiness

                                             44
     Drowsy driving symptoms
 Not being able to focus
 Continuous yawning
 Difficulty in keeping head up
 Wandering thoughts
 Not remembering driving the last few
  miles
 Drifting in or out of lane

                                         45
 Comparison to impaired driving
 17 – 19 hours awake equivalent to .05
  BAC (Williamson & Feyer 2000)
 Study (Powell 2001) compared 3 groups
    1  night sleep deprivation
     Short 2 hours sleep each night for 1 week
     Alcohol – .089 BAC
     Result – no significant difference in 11
      indices of driving performance

                                                  46
         Fatigue and alcohol
 Combination of alcohol and fatigue is
  particularly dangerous
 When sleep-deprived, one drink will have
  the impact of several




                                             47
               Fatigue
 Destinations generally reached by road,
  often over long distances
 Anecdotal evidence suggests this
  behaviour is sometimes fatal




                                            48
           Issues for safety
 performance on driving tests
 Chronic lack of sleep associated with
    Poor judgement
    Depressed mood
    Stress
    Impulsivity



                                          49
   Effects of fatigue on driving
            behaviour?
 Perseveration
 Dissociation
 Impaired  judgement
 Impulsivity
 Loss of ability to take in and respond
  to new information

                                           50
     Late hours on the road
 Drivers:Mean number of hours on the
  road past usual bedtime / month: 4.95
 Range: 0 – 30 hours




                                          51
             Drowsy driving
   82% of drivers drove drowsy in the past year
    (normative: 51% U.S., 43% Canada)

   26% of drivers dozed off at the wheel after
    gambling (normative: 17% U.S., 7% Canada
    at any time of day)
      Range: 1-30 times in past year
      Awake up to 40 hours


   7% of drivers had an accident after gambling
    (normative: 0.7% U.S. at any time of day)
                                                  52
Emotions on the way home from
             work
frustrated   67%   burned out          32%
depressed    61%   spaced out          32%
angry        55%   irritable           30%
tired        52%   preoccupied         30%
sad          42%   numb                24%
upset        41%   on top of the world 23%
exhausted    39%   enraged             15%
desperate    35%   peaceful            11%
happy        33%   neutral             11%
                   other                3%
                                             53
Awareness of dangers of
    drowsy driving
      Yes    58%
      No     42%




                          54
Reason’s “Swiss-cheese” Model of Human Error




                         Unsafe
                          Acts

      Failed or
   Absent Defenses
Reason’s “Swiss-cheese” Model of Human Error




                     Preconditions
                          for
                      Unsafe Acts

                                     Unsafe
                                      Acts

      Failed or
   Absent Defenses
Reason’s “Swiss-cheese” Model of Human Error



                       Unsafe
                     Supervision


                              Preconditions
                                   for
                               Unsafe Acts

                                              Unsafe
                                               Acts

      Failed or
   Absent Defenses
   Reason’s “Swiss-cheese” Model of Human Error

Inputs      Organizational
               Factors


                             Unsafe
                           Supervision


                                    Preconditions
                                         for
                                     Unsafe Acts

                                                    Unsafe
                                                     Acts

            Failed or
         Absent Defenses
                                                             Accident & Injury
                                      ACTS




                         Errors                        Violations



Judgment and Decision   Skill-Based    Misperception
      Errors              Errors          Errors




                                                                    59
                                         ACTS




                         Errors                                 Violations



Judgment and Decision   Skill-Based        Misperception
      Errors              Errors              Errors




                                  DECISION ERRORS
                          Risk Assessment – During Operation
                          Task Misprioritization
                          Necessary Action – Rushed
                          Necessary Action – Delayed
                          Caution/Warning – Ignored
                          Decision-Making During Operation



                                                                             60
                       SUPERVISION



                 Planned         Failed to
Inadequate                                    Supervisory
              Inappropriate   Correct Known
Supervision                                    Violations
               Operations        Problem




                                                            61
                       ORGANIZATIONAL
                         INFLUENCES


Resource/Acquisition    Organizational   Organizational
   Management              Climate          Process




                                                          62
THE DANGERS OF
DROWSY DRIVING
     Test
                   SFRTA
 Stop Fatigue Related Traffic Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS



         SYMPTOMS OF FATIGUE

INADEQUATE SLEEP, EVEN JUST ONE NIGHT, CAN
    HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON MOOD &
                EMOTIONS,
 MEMORY, ABILITY TO MAKE GOOD DECISIONS,
   CONCENTRATE, AND CAUSES INCREASED
            SENSITIVITY TO PAIN
                                             64
                   SFRTA
   Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
            Accidents
     KNOW THE RISKS       PRACTICE AWARENESS


DRIVING REVEALS YOUR TRUE LEVEL OF
       FATIGUE (SLEEPINESS)

    (After driving for a few minutes, it will show)




                                                      65
                      SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
         KNOW THE RISKS      PRACTICE AWARENESS


            TIPS THAT DON’T WORK

•Rolling down the window
•Listening to the radio- loud music
•Taking off your shoes
•Eating a snack
•Splashing cold water on your face

                                                  66
                   SFRTA
  Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
           Accidents
      KNOW THE RISKS      PRACTICE AWARENESS



MINIMUM REQUIRED SLEEP (FOR MOST
            ADULTS)

Most adults need 8 hours sleep each night for optimum
         daylight alertness and performance



                                                        67
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS


          WHO IS MOST AT RISK?

       YOUNG DRIVER AGE 18 TO 29

• LIFESTYLES ARE PRONE TO GETTING LESS SLEEP
• EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITES ARE PREVALENT
• LATE NIGHT SOCIALIZING
• POOR SLEEP HABITS
                                               68
                             SFRTA
       Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                Accidents
            KNOW THE RISKS           PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

Coffee can help overcome the effects of drowsiness while
driving? (T or F)

Answer: True-caution is advised here. It takes 20 – 30 minutes for
the caffeine to take effect, and although it helps you with alertness it is
by no means a substitute for rest. Also, once you get home it takes a
couple of hours to subside in the system so if you need to go to sleep
immediately when you get home, this may cut down on your rest for the
                                                                              69
next day.
                 SFRTA
   Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
            Accidents
     KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

         SYMTOMS OF FATIGUE

CUMULATIVE SLEEP LOSS OVER (OVER SEVERAL
DAYS) MAY CREATE SHORT TEMPEREDNESS,
DEPRESSION, OR ANXIOUSNESS




                                           70
                           SFRTA
      Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
               Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS          PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

I CAN TELL WHEN I’M GOING TO GO TO SLEEP!
(T OR F)

Answer: False- Sleep is not voluntary. If you‟re drowsy, you can fall
asleep and never even know it. You cannot tell how long you‟ve been
asleep.

                                                                        71
                 SFRTA
  Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
           Accidents
     KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

          DRIVING RISK FACT:

FROM A HUMAN BIOLOGICAL STANDPOINT THERE
IS A STRONG RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIME OF
DAY AND TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS / INCIDENTS




                                           72
                           SFRTA
      Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
               Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS          PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION:

ROLLING DOWN MY WINDOW OR SINGING ALONG
WITH THE RADIO WILL KEEP ME AWAKE? (T OR F)

Answer: False- An open window or the radio has no lasting effect
on a person’s ability to stay awake.


                                                                   73
                           SFRTA
       Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS          PRACTICE AWARENESS

               DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

I „M A SAFE DRIVER SO IT DOESN‟T MATTER IF I‟M
SLEEPLY. (T OR F)

ANSWER: False- The only safe driver is an alert driver. Even the safest
drivers become confused and use poor judgment when they are sleepy or
fatigued.


                                                                          74
                  SFRTA
   Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
            Accidents
      KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

       DRIVER FATIGUE INFORMATION

THE STRONGEST AND MOST CONSISTENT
BIOLOGICAL FACTOR NEGATIVELY
INFLUENCING DRIVER FATIGUE AND ALERTNESS
IS TIME OF DAY!

         BETWEEN 2400 AND 0600
                                            75
                         SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
          KNOW THE RISKS         PRACTICE AWARENESS

              DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

YOU CAN “STOCKPILE” SLEEP ON THE
WEEKENDS! (T OR F)

ANSWER: FALSE-Sleep is not money. You can’t save it up ahead
of time and you can’t borrow it. But, just as with money, you can go
in debt.


                                                                   76
                  SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
      KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS
       DRIVER FATIGUE INFORMATION

TIME OF DAY IS A MUCH BETTER PREDICTOR OF
DECREASED DRIVING PERFORMANCE THAN
CONTINUAL HOURS OF DRIVING! (I.E. STUDIES
HAVE SHOWN THAT A PERSON IS MORE LIKELY
TO GET INTO A CAR ACCIDENT WHEN IT IS IN
THE TIME PERIOD WHEN THEY ARE NORMALLY
RESTING AS COMPARED TO WORKING LONG
HOURS OR DRIVING LONG HOURS)              77
                         SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
          KNOW THE RISKS         PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

MOST ADULTS NEED AT LEAST SEVEN HOURS OF
SLEEP EACH NIGHT. ( T OR F)

ANSWER: TRUE- The average person needs seven or eight hours of
sleep per night. If you go to bed late and wake up early to an alarm
clock, you probably are building a sleep debt.


                                                                   78
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

FIXES- (ALTERNATIVES NOT AS GOOD AS SLEEP)

VIGOROUS EXERCISE LIKE 2 MINUTE BURSTS OF
RUNNING IN PLACE, JUMPING JACKS, STRAIGHT UP
AND DOWN JUMPS – ARE WAYS TO TEMPORARILY
CHARGE UP THE SYSTEM TO OVERCOME SLEEPINESS



                                             79
                          SFRTA
       Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS        PRACTICE AWARENESS

                DRIVER FATIGUE QUIZ

BEING SLEEPLY MAKES YOU MISPERCEIVE THINGS
(T OR F)

ANSWER: TRUE- One of the warning signs of a drowsy driver is
misjudging surroundings.


                                                               80
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS


       DRIVER FATIGUE INFORMATION

SLEEPLY (FATIGUED) PEOPLE WHO NOD OFF
BEHIND THE WHEEL ARE JUST AS DANGEROUS AS
DRUNK DRIVERS




                                             81
                            SFRTA
      Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
               Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS            PRACTICE AWARENESS

            DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

YOUNG DRIVERS ARE CAPABLE OF GETTING BY
ON LESS SLEEP BECAUSE THEIR STAMINA AND
PHYSICAL CONDITION?

ANSWER: FALSE- Young people need more sleep than adults. Males
under 25 are at the greatest risk of falling asleep. Half of the victims
fatigued-related crashes are under 25.
                                                                           82
                         SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
          KNOW THE RISKS         PRACTICE AWARENESS

       DRIVING FATIGUE INFORMATION

“DRIVING WHEN SLEEP DEPRIVED IS A RECIPE FOR
HAVING A SERIOUS, PERHAPS FATAL VEHICULAR
CRASH!”

(David Willis, American Automobile Association Foundation President)


                                                                       83
                           SFRTA
      Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
               Accidents
           KNOW THE RISKS           PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION:

WANDERING, DISCONNECTED THOUGHTS ARE A
WARNING SIGN OF DRIVER FATIGUE? (T OR F)

ANSWER: True- If you are driving and your thoughts begin to wander, it
is time to pull over and take a break or let someone else in the car take
over the wheel.

                                                                        84
                  SFRTA
   Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
            Accidents
      KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS


SOME PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS OF FATIGUE

•INVOLUNTARY EYE CLOSING
•YAWNING
•FEELING TIRED
•INABILITY TO STAY IN LINE
•INATTENTION

                                            85
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

MORE PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS OF FATIGUE
            (DRIVING)

• SLOWER THAN NORMAL REACTION TIME
• IMPAIRED JUDGEMENT & VISION
• THE DRIVER PAYS LESS ATTENTION TO
    IMPORTANT ROAD SIGNS
    ROAD CHANGES
    ACTIONS OF OTHER DRIVERS
                                             86
                    SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
        KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

MORE SYMPTONS OF FATIGUE (DRIVING)

• HAS A HARD TIME KEEPING HEAD UP
• DISCONNECTED THOUGHTS / DAYDREAMING
• RESTLESS / IRRITABLE
• CAN‟T REMEMBER LAST SEVERAL MILES DRIVEN
• ENGAGES IN “TAILGATING”

                                              87
                          SFRTA
     Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
              Accidents
         KNOW THE RISKS           PRACTICE AWARENESS

           DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION:
Little green men in the middle of the road may mean the
driver is too tired to drive? (T or F)

ANSWER: True- Seeing things that are not there is a good indication it
is time to stop driving and take a rest.



                                                                         88
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

FIXES – (REASONABLE ALTERNATIVES
    BUT NOT AS GOOD AS SLEEP)

SOME EXPERTS RECOMMEND DRINKING 2 CUPS OF
COFFEE, WAIT 20 MINUTES, AND THEN DRIVE.

DRAWBACK: IT MAY TAKE 2 HOURS OR MORE
BEFORE BEING ABLE TO FALL ASLEEP, THEREFORE
CUTTING TIME OFF THE NEXT DAY‟S REST TIME.
                                              89
                              SFRTA
        Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                 Accidents
             KNOW THE RISKS           PRACTICE AWARENESS

DRIVER FATIGUE RELATED INFORMATION

THERE IS NO QUICK FIX AND NO SINGLE SOLUTION
TO THE FATIGUE PROBLEM WHILE DRIVING.

Sleep is the principle counter measure to fatigue. Drivers who are informed
of the risks, however, can be alert for and react when the symptoms are
Recognized – it‟s called “risk management”


                                                                          90
                           SFRTA
       Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                Accidents
            KNOW THE RISKS        PRACTICE AWARENESS

                DRIVER FATIGUE FIXES

YOU MAY BE FACING A “SUDDEN, UNCONTROLLED
SLEEP ATTACK”

When confronted with this situation, stop driving immediately and
follow some of the measures outlined in previous lessons.



                                                                    91
                            SFRTA
       Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
                Accidents
            KNOW THE RISKS          PRACTICE AWARENESS


            DRIVER FATIGUE QUESTION

A “MICROSLEEP” LASTS FOUR OR FIVE SECONDS?
(T OR F)

ANSWER: TRUE- During a “microsleep” of four or five seconds, a car
can travel 100 yards, plenty of time to cause a serious or possibly fatal
crash.

                                                                       92
                       SFRTA
      Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
               Accidents
          KNOW THE RISKS      PRACTICE AWARENESS


                     AVOID THIS:

If at all possible, avoid driving during your body’s normal
“down time”




                                                              93
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS



    FATIGUE DRIVING INFORMATION

“SLEEPY (FATIGUED) DRIVERS ARE AT PARTICULAR
RISK FOR MOTOR VEHCILE CRASHES BECAUSE
THEY MAY NOT PERCEIVE A POTENTIAL CRASH
THREAT OR REACT QUICKLY ENOUGH TO TAKE
EVASIVE ACTION”.
                                               94
                  SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
      KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

    FATIGUE DRIVING INFORMATION

“SLEEPY (FATIGUED) DRIVERS RISK INJURY AND
DEATH, NOT ONLY FROM FALLING ASLEEP WHILE
DRIVING, BUT ALSO FROM LOSS OF ATTENTION
OR SLOWING OF REACTIONS DURING CRITICAL
DRIVING TASKS OR MANEUVERS”.


                                            95
                   SFRTA
    Stop Fatigue Related Traffic
             Accidents
       KNOW THE RISKS   PRACTICE AWARENESS

   TIPS TO HELP A DRIVER OVERCOME
               FATIGUE

TALK TO HIM / HER WHILE THEY ARE DRIVING TO
HELP THEM KEEP FOCUSSED AND TO ASSESS
THEIR CONDITION


                                             96
Road Safety
    The
  Canadian
 Experience




              97
                    Traffic Mishaps

STAY ALERT ON THE ROAD
Maintain a regular sleep schedule that allows adequate rest.
Learn to recognize the symptoms of fatigue:
  - Eyes closing or going out of focus
  - Persistent yawning
  - Irritability, restlessness, and impatience
  - Wandering or disconnected thoughts
  - Inability to remember driving the last few miles
  - Drifting between lanes or onto shoulder
When the signs of fatigue begin to show, get off the road! Take a short nap in a well-lit
area. Do not simply stop on the side of the road.
When planning long trips:
  - Share driving responsibilities with a companion.
  - Begin the trip early in the day.
  - Stop every 100 miles or 2 hours to get out of the car and walk around; exercise
    helps to combat fatigue.
Avoid driving between 12 a.m. and 6 a.m.
                                                                                            98
 Canada is one of the largest countries in the
  world
 It’s population density is amongst the lowest
 Canadians rely heavily on private motor
  vehicles
 19 million vehicles on Canadian roads
 21 million drivers operating vehicles
 900,000 kilometers of roads

                                                           99
                                Source: Transport Canada
100
      In 2001 in Canada, motor vehicle
 collisions were responsible for 31% of all
       work-related traumatic fatalities
 (approximately 275) and 10,000 lost time
   injuries. These figures do not include
      workers not covered by workers
compensation or those workers hurt while
off the job or on their way to or from work.

                           Canada Safety Council
                                                   101
   “Driving – even under ideal
    conditions – is a complex
cognitive/motor skills task that
 requires operators to exercise
  ability and judgment as they
 navigate at close quarters in a
     dynamic environment.”

                                   102
   Inclement weather
   Hazardous road conditions
   More commuters due to suburban sprawl
   Aggressive drivers/road rage
   Lack of formal training
   Wide use of mobile devices: cell phones,
    wireless computers, pagers, navigational aids
   Psychosocial-stress, personal troubles, work
    disputes, impairment
                                                    103
“The risk of crashing a vehicle is just as
 high or higher today despite the advent
  of safer cars with antilock brakes, all-
wheel drive, improved suspension, better
chassis design, air bags, improved tires
         and safety harnesses.”




                                        104
                     Traffic Mishaps
DRINKING AND
                                                 Fatal Factors
DRIVING
You can avoid becoming a statistic by being able to recognize a hazardous
driver. Being able to spot a drowsy driver may help you avoid an accident. The
following is a list of warning signs to look for while you are driving:




     Drifting or weaving.               Stopping for no apparent cause.

     Speeding or driving too slowly.    Accelerating or slowing down rapidly.

     Giving inconsistent signals.       Driving with their head out of the window or
     Braking erratically.               with the window down in cold weather.



                                                             Drive to Arrive
                                                                                       105
   Develop proactive policies
   Develop and implement safety,
    maintenance and training policies
   Set safety specifications for vehicles
   Monitor and update policies with respect
    to maintenance and driver competence
   Enforce seat belt use
   Implement fitness for duty policy

                                               106
“We must be the change we
  wish to see in the world”




                     Mahatma Gandhi

                                      107
                 The Fatigue Puzzle

                      Workload,
     Disrupted        Stress &
     Work/Rest                     Ergonomic
                      Monotony       Design
       cycles



  Noise, Vibration
                                      Aging,
  & Temperature
                                      Health



Nutrition &          Sleep Loss
                                  Medications, drugs
Conditioning
                                  & Alcohol

                                                       108
         DOT under Pressure to Improve
           Transportation Safety

     Commercial
 NTSB         Management

Public                        Congress

 Labor            Academia
      Administration                     109
Do you really need more proof that lack
   of sleep impairs your judgment?




                                      110
Driving Safety- Why the Urgency?
  Death rates based on mileage were 2.5 times higher at night than during the day

               The drivers at highest risk are:
                        - third-shift workers
                        - people that drive a substantial
               number of miles each day
                        - people with prescribed
               medication with sedatives
  Do You Have the Right Safety
          ATTITUDE?




                                                                                    111
     The Golden Rule for Driving
              Safety
                                              All categories of vehicle, including self-
                                          propelled mobile plant, must not be operated
                                                                                 unless:

   vehicle is fit for purpose, inspected and confirmed to be in safe working order
   passenger number does not exceed manufacturer’s design specification for the vehicle
   loads are secure and do not exceed manufacturer’s design specifications or legal limits for the
    vehicle
   seat belts are installed and worn by all occupants
   safety helmets are worn by riders and passengers of motorcycles, bicycles, quads, snow-mobiles
    and similar types of vehicle

Drivers must not be authorised to operate the vehicle unless:
 they are trained, certified and medically fit to operate the class of vehicle
 they are not under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and are not suffering from fatigue
 they do not use hand-held cell phones and radios while driving (best practice is to switch off all
    phones and two-way radios when driving)

                                                                                                       112
Fatigue Training for Drivers
  Fatigue is the body‟s response to continued
    Physical or Mental Activity or Sleep Loss
    Fatigue results from:
  • Working for extended periods of time
  • Not getting enough sleep
  • Prolonged physical activity
  • Irregular work schedules
  • Poor physical and environmental
    conditions
feeling tired?
The Sleep Quiz
 I‟m safe at work so it doesn‟t
     matter if I‟m sleepy?
False…being sleepy can cause:
 slower reaction time
 impaired judgements and decision making
 decline in attention
 decreased alertness
 increased moodiness and aggressive
  behaviour
 difficulty in remembering things


                                            116
 I can tell when I‟m going to fall
              asleep
False….
 People do not know how sleepy they are
 The more tired you become, the less able
  you are to make a good judgement about
  your ability to remain awake
 Being awake for 18 hours is as great a risk
  as driving drunk


                                            117
           Signs of tiredness

The signs include:
 not feeling refreshed after sleep
 difficulty keeping your eyes open and
  focussed
 greater tendency to fall asleep while at work
 more frequent naps during leisure hours
 lots of yawning
 extended sleep during days off
 increased errors and loss of concentration at
  work
 feeling irritable, restless and impatient       118
Lack of sleep is the only cause of
            fatigue...

False… but it is the only cure
Causes of fatigue include:
 Workload
 Social factors
 Individual factors – e.g., age, diet,
    fitness etc
   Shift work
                                          119
   The older you get, the fewer
     hours of sleep you need
False
 Sleep needs remain unchanged
  throughout adulthood
 Older people wake more frequently
  through the night
 Shift work becomes harder with age (40–
  50 yrs)
 Ability to cope with „early starts‟ may
  improve
                                            120
    Most people need 8 hours of
    sleep to function at their best
True
 7 – 8 hours is recognised as an average and normal
  need
 Less than this and you build up a sleep debt
 Sleep comprises several stages which must follow a
  certain pattern if you are to feel fully rested and alert
      Stage 1 and 2: transitional phase between waking and sleeping
      Stage 3 and 4: deep sleep
      Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep




                                                                   121
If I sleep a lot now, I won‟t need
        to sleep much later
False
 Sleep is not like money – you can‟t save it
  up and you can‟t borrow it
 While napping is an effective means of
  managing alertness it is not a substitute
  for regular sleep



                                            122
 Everyone has a “biological clock”
True
 We have evolved own internal body clock /
  circadian rhythm
 It controls a number of internal rhythms, eg,
  sleep/wake cycle, body temperature
 It is this body clock that makes us feel sleepier
  and less alert when we try and work at times
  normally reserved for sleep


                                                      123
    The human body can adjust to
          nightshift work
False
 Our body clock programmes us to feel most
  sleepy when it is dark
 Eating meals at times normally reserved for
  sleep means they are less well digested
 On night shifts you tend to get less sleep
  and it is of a poorer quality (e.g., after one
    week of night shifts, workers had lost the
    equivalent of one night‟s sleep)
   Successive night shifts, eg, 4, result in an
    increase in accident risk                      124
       Features of shiftwork
        that lead to fatigue
 Timing of shifts (earlies, lates and
  nights)
 Duration of shifts
 Rotation of shifts
 Rest and recovery periods



                                         125
Snoring is not harmful as long as
    it does not disturb sleep
False
 Chronic snoring may indicate sleep
  apnoea, a sleep disorder
 Other common sleep disorders are:
   Insomnia
   Restless   leg syndrome



                                       126
Drinking coffee cures drowsiness
False…
 Caffeine has a short term effect
 Caffeine should be used carefully as it will
  disrupt sleep
 Other measures such as opening windows
  and putting on the radio are not effective
 The only cure for drowsiness is to get
  some sleep
                                             127
Thank you for
being a safe driver




                      128

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:34
posted:2/6/2011
language:English
pages:128
Description: safety