Web Technologies

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					    Web Technologies
 XHTML       Active X

 DHTML       ASP

 XML         JSP

 VRML        PHP

 WML         CGI
      Quick Descriptions

• XML (eXtensible ML) allows the designer to
  create their own special tags.
• VRML (virtual reality) is another specialised
  ML that allows the modelling of
  3Dimensional objects.
• WML (wireless ML) another XML language
  for WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
  devices.
       XML: What is it?

• Extensible Markup Language.
• Language for creating other languages.
• Uses user defined tags and attributes to
  format data.
       XML : An Example

<?xml version = "1.0"?>
                                      root element

<student>
   <picture filename="Smith_S.gif" x="100“
   y="100"/></picture>
   <lastname>Duck</lastname>
   <firstname>Donald</firstname>
   <year level="one">
      <module> Internet Technologies </module>
      <progress> Good </progress>
   </year>
</student>              Example: http://www.xml-cml.org/
       XML: Why use it?

• Many uses:
  – Transfer data from server to server, application
    to application.
  – Allows use of vocabulary relevant to the users.
  – Allows experts to have a standard to transmit
    their info e.g. doctor/pharmacy – prescriptions.

  – Example:
    http://xmlmarc.stanford.edu/XML/Utahsamples.
    html
      XML: Why not to use it?
• Very few browsers can directly view XML pages.
• No browser currently supports Xlink and
  Xpointer.
XML: How does it work?


XML
Doc
            XML            XML
 +         Parser       Application
 XML
DTD or
 XSD     e.g MSXML,     e.g. MathML,
         W3 parser in   TimeMaps
         Amaya, diy
             XML: Examples
• MathML
  – Mathematical Markup Language
• SMIL
  – Synchronised Multimedia Integration Language
• SpeechML
  – Speech Markup Language
• XML files have a .xml extension
                XML

http://www.xmlfiles.com/examples/
                    VRML
• VRML stands for Virtual Reality Modelling Language.
• VRML is a specification for displaying 3-dimensional
  objects on the World Wide Web.
• We can think of it as the 3-D equivalent of HTML.
• Files written in VRML have a ".wrl" extension (short for
  world).
• To view these files, one need a VRML browser or a
  VRML plug-in to a Web browser.
http://web.tiscali.it/andrebalza/vrml.html
    http://www.cpcug.org/user/mohnkern/vrml
          VRML: Why use it?
• Used for visualisation e.g. artefacts/buildings.
• 3D interactive environments; simulated
  environments
  VRML: Why not use it?

• VRML files don‟t stream
• File size too large
• Processor intensive
                    WML

• WML (wireless markup language) have a .wml
  extension (only viewed on mobile phones)
• WML is supported by almost every mobile phone
  browser around the world.
• WML is an application of XML, meaning WML
  documents must be both valid and well-formed.
                  References
Mason J (2002). Ask the Expert. Search400.com website. [online]
http://search400.techtarget.com/ateQuestionNResponse/0,289625,sid3
_
cid486345_tax285218,00.html.[accessed] 06-08-02.
McKeown P, Piercy C (2001) Learning to Program with Visual Basic,
2nd Edition, Wiley, London, pg 8.
TechiWarehouse (2002) Active X [online] http://www.techiwarehouse.
com/Active_X/index.html [accessed] 06-08-02.
Lynch P (2000) The FreeBSD Corporate Networker's Guide [online]
http://www.freebsd-corp-net-guide.com/patlynch.html [accessed] 6-6-
02.
Images from: www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/
3934358950/ref=pd_sim_dp/
           Further Information
• Web Design in a Nutshell
  – Chapter 30, pages 492 – 495
     • Up to and including „Well-Formed XML‟
  – Chapter 31, pages 502 – 507 excluding
     • Up to and including „Empty Elements‟
  – Chapter 32, pages 510 - 516
Web Technology Languages

 • Different technologies can be supported
   using different programming languages.
   The languages most commonly used
   today are:
   •Visual Basic
   •Java
   •C or C++
   •Perl
Web Technology Languages

 • Visual Basic is a general purpose
   language that is one of the easiest to
   learn. The latest version is Visual Basic
   .Net.

                • Java is a general purpose
                  programming language with a number
                  of features that make the language
                  well suited for use on the World Wide
                  Web.
Web Technology Languages

 • C or C++ are high-level programming
   languages originally designed as a
   systems language. It is used for a variety
   of applications, from business to
   engineering. Closely associated with
   UNIX.
             • Perl is a programming language especially
               designed for processing text. Because of
               its strong text processing abilities, Perl has
               become one of the most popular
               languages for writing CGI scripts.
Difference between Java and C++
 • Java and C++ have different strengths:
 • Java is more appropriate for applications.
 • C++ is for system interfaces usually.
 • Java is generally cheaper and faster to build and has
   better portability.
    Perl vs Visual Basic
Perl and Visual Basic are considered good
learner languages as Perl has a smaller
instruction set, and Visual Basic (by
Microsoft) has many built in tools that you
can „drag and drop‟.
    Visual Basic vs C++

• The major difference is syntax- the
  instruction language used.
• Most modern games are coded in C++.
• Visual Basic isn't the greatest language for
  games, as it was more intended for use
  within the Windows environment.
Want to learn more programming
          languages?


  http://www.programmingtutorials.com/
                             What is Active X?
Active X is a set of technologies that
   allows the
designer and users more interactivity
   with other
applications:


                                                          Windows Media Player
              Calendar
          Nov 2005           Nov              2005

             Sat   Sun Mon     Tue Wed   Thu        Fri
         29        30   31     1    2    3      4
         5         6    7      8    9    10     11
         12        13   14     15   16   17     18
         19        20   21     22   23   24     25
         26        27   28     29   30   1      2
         3         4    5      6    7    8      9
What does Active X compete
          with?
Active X often competes with Java Applets.
             Active X
Advantages                Disadvantages
• There are a wide     • It is a Windows
  range of controls      specific technology.
  available compared
  with Java applets    • There are security
                         issues - it is not as
  and browser plugins.
                         secure as Java.

• They can be used in    • To get the full Active X
  applications as well     experience you need
  as the browser.          to use Internet
                           Explorer.
         Using Active X
To learn more:

            http://www.active-x.com/
           ASP and JSP

What is ASP
Active Server Pages or ASP, as it is more
commonly known, is a technology that enables you
to make dynamic and interactive web pages.

What is JSP
Java Server Pages (JSP) is a technology that
enables you to make dynamic and interactive web
pages.
         ASP (Active Server Pages)

• Built into Windows 2000 and later versions
• ASP allows dynamic generation of HTML that the
  browser sees. Using server-side VBScript (Microsoft’s
  scripting language) can be written that can display
  information from a database.
• Maintenance of an ASP site is much simpler.
• Servers must have the ASP engine installed to ‘serve’
  ASP pages.


http://coveryourasp.com/date.asp
http://www.w3schools.com/asp/showasp.asp?filename=demo_radiob
http://www.piscatawaysoccerclub.com/
       ASP: Applications

• Dynamically change, add web page
  content.
• Process data and queries from HTML
  forms.
• Access databases via web pages
• Security: ASP scripts are not visible in
  browsers.
        ASP: Example

    <% @ language = VBScript %>
  <html>
  <body>
      <% For i = 3 To 7 %>
          <font size= <% = i %>>
          Hello World!<br>
          </font>
      <% Next %>
  </body>
  </html>
Note: ASP files have a .asp extension
ASP: How does it work?

           4
                    Server
 Browser       (e.g. with IIS)

           1

                2            3


               ASP software
                (e.g. ASP.dll)
      Want to learn more?

ASP
http://www.learnasp.com/learnasp/
(good book discussion)


http://www.w3schools.com/asp/default.asp
(and a good example of .asp, too)
            JSP (Java Server Pages)

• JSP embeds fragments of Java code into special
  HTML tags.
• The JSP engine executes the Java code and returns
  HTML to the browser.
• JSP files have a .jsp extension
  http://wap.culture.gouv.fr/examples/jsp/num/numguess.jsp
  http://www.basebeans.com/standard-examples/elsupport
  /index.html
  http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/software
  /websphere/wsappserver/docs/as400v35/docs/jsp91smp.html
      Want to learn more?

JSP
http://www.javaskyline.com/learnjsp.html
(outlines what you need)


http://www.jspin.com/home/books/jsp
(and a good example of .jsp, too)
What‟s the difference between
       ASP and JSP?
 • ASP is a technology from Microsoft and therefore needs
   to be run on a Microsoft Server.
 • JSP is a technology from Sun Microsystems and is
   written in Java.
 • JSP is portable to other operating systems and non-
   Microsoft Web servers.
 • JSP like ASP can be embedded into web pages using
   server side tags. In ASP.Net (the new version of ASP),
   however, language code can also exist separately from
   html code.
                    PHP
P: PHP
H: Hypertext
P: Prepreocessor                 (Lynch, 2000)


• PHP is one of the “hot” languages on the web
  today.
• PHP is a scripting language embedded into
  HTML tags and used to create dynamic web
  pages.
      Advantages of PHP

• PHP code can be hidden.
• PHP can perform any task a CGI program
  can do, but its strength lies in its compatibility
  with many types of databases.
• PHP can talk across networks using IMAP,
  SNMP, NNTP, POP3, or HTTP.
                       PHP

http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~bill/php_examples.php

http://www.developer.com/java/other/article.php


http://www.zend.com/links/links.php


http://php.weblogs.com/php_asp_7_reasons
     CGI (Common Gateway Interface)

•   Set of protocols that allow user interaction
    with the web server.
•   CGI programs/scripts can be written in Perl,
    C++, AppleBasic, Java.
       Running a CGI Script
1. User clicks submit
button on a web page.




      Submit


2. Connection opens                 5. Cgi output is
between user‟s                      reformatted and sent to
computer (client) and               user‟s browser.
server (using HTTP).

                                       4. Cgi script generates
3. Server runs its cgi                 new html document with
script stored in a cgi-     CGI        output.
bin.                      Program
     Applications of CGI

• HTML form processing e.g. orders, requests
  for information
• Image maps
• E-Commerce
• Databases e.g. search engines
                  References

Mason J (2002). Ask the Expert. Search400.com website. [online]
http://search400.techtarget.com/ateQuestionNResponse/0,289625,sid3_
cid486345_tax285218,00.html.[accessed] 06-08-02.
McKeown P, Piercy C (2001) Learning to Program with Visual Basic, 2nd
Edition, Wiley, London, pg 8.
TechiWarehouse (2002) Active X [online] http://www.techiwarehouse.
com/Active_X/index.html [accessed] 06-08-02.
Lynch P (2000) The FreeBSD Corporate Networker's Guide [online]
http://www.freebsd-corp-net-guide.com/patlynch.html [accessed] 6-6-02.
Images from: www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/
3934358950/ref=pd_sim_dp/
          Further Information
• Web Design in a Nutshell
  – Pages 50, 51 and 52 and 275 - 279

				
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Description: HTML and its basic applications
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