Courier Summer2008 by ashrafp


									                          ARIZONA MILITARY MUSEUM
                     Published by the Arizona National Guard Historical Society, Inc.             Fall 2008 Issue 34

               M I L I TA RY M U S E U M H I S T O RY
     The Arizona National Guard Historical Society is a           persons, and other historical information relating …the
private non-profit corporation established under the laws of      military service of Arizonans in wars and other military
Arizona and consistent with the Internal Revenue Code. It         actions in Arizona and around the world.”
is the sponsor of the Arizona Military Museum. The His-                On July 14, 1978 the Arizona National Guard General
torical Society’s purposes are: “To enhance the apprecia-         Staff dedicated a portion of the old arsenal building for a
tion of the military history of Arizona and the contributions     museum for the Historical Society.
of the Militia of Arizona and the Arizona National Guard to            In January 1980 the director and officers were elected
the State of Arizona and to the Nation…” (Bylaws, Article         who were committed to creating the museum. They did
I, Section 1). To accomplish its purposes, the Historical         most of the demolition and construction to establish the
Society shall strive: “…to discover and memorialize the           museum.
history of the Military of Arizona, the Arizona National               In December 1980 the Adjutant General designated the
Guard, and the general military history of Arizona, and to        museum an official permanent historical activity of the Ari-
establish and maintain a museum on land leased, owned, or         zona National Guard.
otherwise controlled by the Society.” (Id.). The policy                In April 1981 the General Staff dedicated the space for
statement states that the Historical Society is “…to portray      the East Room of the museum.
events, persons, and other historical information relating             On September 12, 1981 the Arizona Military Museum
to…the military service of Arizonans in wars and other            had is Grand Opening.
military actions in Arizona and around the world.”                     On July 13, 1999, the Arizona National Guard Histori-
     The Articles of Incorporation for the Arizona National       cal Society and the Arizona National Guard executed a
Guard Historical Society were executed on March 28,               Memorandum of Understanding reaffirming their historical
1975.                                                             relationship and mutual support.
     The Historical Society was incorporated on April 25,              On September 30, 2006, the Arizona Military Museum
1975 with the aforementioned purposes and the added pur-          celebrated the 25th anniversary of its opening.
pose as stated in its policy statement: “…to portray events,
Courier page 2
Published by the Arizona
National Guard Histori-                                             Arizona National Guard
cal Society, 5636 E
McDowell Rd, Bldg
                                                                       Historical Society
M5320, Phoenix, AZ
                                                                          “Lest We Forget”
 Joseph Abodeely
                                                                   REPORT TO THE MEMBERSHIP
Vice President:
 Thomas Quarelli
                                                           I have good news and bad news. The bad news is that
Secretary:                                              the museum is still closed to the public. The Facilities
 Carolyn Feller
                           Management Office (FMO) determined that the museum should be closed right after he
Treasurer:                 saw the two cracked trusses in November 2007, and the engineers hired by the FMO
 Klaus Foerst              said to close the museum. Risk management has concurred based on the information
Board of Director          presented by their report. I complained to no avail about only the museum being sin-
Members:                   gled out to be closed down while the RTI classrooms (immediately to the west) and the
                           dining facility (immediately to the right) remained open because all three areas are un-
 Jean McColgin
 Anna Kroger               der the same roof in the north building of the RTI. The FMO engineers and an inde-
 Dan Mardian               pendent engineer we hired said the shoring up of the trusses was sufficient to hold them
 Harry/Mary Hensell        in place; but the engineers have taken the position to keep the museum closed suppos-
 Rick White
 Eugene Cox                edly for safety reasons. The RTI classroom area, on the west side of the museum, is
 George Notarpole          still open to the public. And, the supposedly emergency situation is still not resolved.
 Jon Falk                  The engineers report to the FMO took about six months to recommend repairing the
 Robert Lutes
 Trudie Cooke              entire roof of the north building for a cost of $1.9 million. The Guard applied for
                           funds from National Guard Bureau to fix the building. We made the recommendation
Ex-Officio Board Mem-      that it take a more conservative approach and make only necessary repairs. On Sep-
 MG David Rataczak         tember 3, the Guard informed the Board that there was no money allocated for the re-
                           pairs at this time, and the Guard would not allow the museum to reopen to the pub-
Museum Hours:              lic relying on the engineers’ recommendation to Risk Management.
The Arizona Military             On September 10, I was given 45 minutes notice to attend a meeting with the engi-
Museum is temporarily
closed pending roof
                           neers, the FMO, the Chief of Staff, and the Army Assistant AG. Dan Mardian and I
repairs.                   were informed that the Guard just got money from NGB to do the major project—the
                           $1,900,000. The discussion dealt with whether it was a viable option to repair only the
How to Contact Us:
                           broken trusses in the museum and the dining facility or fix all the trusses and the roof.
                           It appears the Guard will do all the repairs now to avoid potential problems in the fu-
Write or call              ture. The museum may have to remove all of its artifacts during the construction. In
Phone: 602.267.2676
Or: 602-253-2378           other words dismantle the museum. The FMO and the Chief of Staff assured me they
Fax: 602.267.2632          will work closely with us during construction and the likely removal of museum items.
DSN: 853-2676              Dan Mardian expressed our belief that the trusses were cracked due to A/C units on the
                           roof, but the engineers were adamant that the other trusses were at risk due to wear.
Editors: Joseph            The engineers favored the total-repair option. We have been closed to the public for
Abodeely and Trudie        the past ten months, and nobody on the Board believes an emergency exists only in
                           the museum to require its closure. But that is a moot point now. I asked the FMO
Submit address             about the time frame, and he said that demolition would commence soon and that the
changes and articles to    museum should be completed by around May 2009. I am taking the position of let’s
the Arizona Military
Museum, 5636 E             take lemons and make lemonade. We will have a new building for the museum when
McDowell Rd, Phoenix,      all is done. But we’ve got to open soon. A museum not open to the public is merely
AZ 85008-3495.
                           a collection.
                                 The good news is that we are still working to keep one of the finest military muse-
                           ums in the country alive. On February 14, 2008 (Valentine’s Day and Arizona State-
                           hood Day), the Arizona Military Museum participated in the annual Museums on the
                                                                                                     Courier page 3
Letter to Membership continued.

the Mall event held on the grounds of the State Capitol. We had two tables with artifacts on display. Harry
and Mary Hensell and I attended. Rick White and Jon Falk helped transport our artifacts to and from the
event. Numerous other museums also participated, and the event always gives your museum great visibility.
    The museum received a $1700.00 grant from the Arizona Historical Society which we used to purchase a
fireproof lateral file cabinet. We preserve important documents in it such as the original muster rolls of the 1st
Arizona Volunteer Infantry. We really appreciate the continued support from AHS. We did not ask for a grant
this year since the museum was still closed. On March 2 and 3, I attended the Arizona Library, Archives, and
Public Records Convocation in Tucson. It was informative about records collections, preservation, and con-
servation. In April, three Board members (George Notarpole, Trudie Cooke, and me) attended the Museums
Association of Arizona (MAA) annual convention in Wickenburg. I spoke about the creation, maintenance,
and operation of the Arizona Military Museum. The convention was very informative about museum govern-
ance and procedures.
    Also, in April your Board of Directors was selected for the year. The Officers and Board of Directors are
Col. Joseph Abodeely (USA Ret.)-President; BG Thomas Quarelli (ANG Ret.)-Vice President; LTC Carolyn
Feller (USAR Ret.)-Secretary; Klaus Foerst-Treasurer; and the Directors are Jean McColgin, Anna Kroger,
Dan Mardian, CSM Harry Hensell (Ret.), Mary Hensell, Rick White, Eugene Cox, George Notarpole, Jon
Falk, Robert Lutes, and Trudie Cooke.
     MG David Rataczak serves as an ex-officio member of the Board of Directors. He will be retiring this
year, and we wish to thank him for the support he has given us in the past.
    While the museum has been closed, Board members installed slat walls in the display cases to facilitate
hanging artifacts from the walls. We have conducted inventories of USPFO weapons and vehicles, and also of
our own weapons and artifacts. Trudie Cooke and Nancy Goodson have been working on the library; and
George, Nancy, Trudie, and I have been working on specific inventories of the items displayed in each display
    I attended a MAA workshop on August 18 in Tucson at AHS about the changing population growth in Ari-
zona and how it will affect museums. Arizona will double its population by 2030 with many more retirees and
Hispanics. There will be a rise of the “creative class” which will be 30% of the population with 50% of the
population’s income.
    On Saturday, November 8, we will celebrate Veterans’ Day. We will have artifacts from the museum on
display in the quadrangle and military motor vehicles, provided by the two military motor vehicle clubs in the
Valley. We will also have a book sale. Come and visit with us. We need the morale booster. Of course, ad-
mission is free.
    We are looking forward to the Arizona’s centennial celebration in 2012, and we are hoping to be a focal
point of interest because of our portrayal of Arizona’s military history. We are applying for the Arizona Cen-
tennial Commission’s Legacy Project certification. We are pleased and proud to honor Arizona’s veterans,
militia and National Guard members who have served in the past and present. We are extremely pleased to
have guest articles in this Courier from Marshall Trimble, the Official State Historian, Jim Turner, the Histo-
rian from the Arizona Historical Society, and John Langellier, Director, Sharlot Hall Museum.
    The Officers and Directors of the Historical Society have kept the museum going, and we would like to
continue to do so. We do it voluntarily to provide the Arizona National Guard and the public one of the best
military museums in the United States. We could not do what we do without your support and the support of
MG Rataczak and his staff. As the state’s centennial is approaching, the museum is gearing up to be the show-
case for the Arizona National Guard. We hope you’ll help.

                                                                     Joseph E. Abodeely
                                                                     Colonel (USA Ret)
                                                                     President, AZNG Historical Society
Courier page 4

Geronimo’s Last Campaign
By Marshall Trimble, Official Arizona State Historian

         There were stretches of country picturesque
         to look upon and capable of cultivation, espe-
         cially with irrigation; and other expanses not
         a bit more fertile than so manmade brick-
         yards, where all was desolation, the home of
         the cactus and the coyote. Arizona was in
         those days separated from “God’s country”
         by a space of more than fifteen hundred
         miles, without a railroad, and the officer or
         soldier who once got out there rarely returned
         for years. (p. 3)
         ….During this campaign we were often
         obliged to leave the warm valleys in the
         morning and climb to the higher altitudes and
         go into bivouac upon summits where the
                                                                                    Geronimo, circa 1886.
         snow was hip deep, as on the Matitzal (sic.),
         the Mogollon plateau, and the Sierra Ancha.                 the small Spartan army made up largely of Irish and German
         To add to the discomfort, the pine was so                   immigrants became veteran, reliable and even efficient. It was
         thoroughly soaked through with snow and                     admired and understood by foreign military observers who ven-
         rain it would not burn, and unless cedar could              tured west to observe them.
         be found, the command was in bad luck. (p.                      Following General George Crook’s successful 1872-1873
         185)                                                        campaign against the Apache in the rugged mountains of cen-
           Captain John G. Bourke, On the Border                     tral Arizona, the tribes were located on reservations after agree-
         with Crook, 1971                                            ing to the federal government’s promise to provide provisions.
                                                                     Trouble began almost immediately after the Chiricahua were
     In the years following the Civil War, the Frontier Army was     relocated to San Carlos in 1876, and thrown in with other
charged with the thankless task of keeping the peace in the          Apache groups who regarded them as enemies. Also, leaders
West. That meant not only protecting the whites from the Indi-       like Juh, Chatto, Chihuahua, and Victorio were unhappy with
ans but protecting the Indians from the Whites. Playing peace-       reservation life and continued bolting the reservation, leading
maker, the Army was caught between a rock and a hard place.          raids in Arizona and Mexico. This initiated the so-called
There were some 2,600 soldiers to police about 200,000 Indi-         “renegade” period in the Apache Wars where soldiers would go
ans. Many times the natives were better armed than the sol-          in pursuit of those who left the reservation.
diers. The Army was also caught in the middle between eastern            Two issues led to the final outbreak. The Apache men had a
politicians and activists who believed the Army was too harsh        custom of biting off the nose of the unfaithful wife, a practice
in its treatment of Indians and the westerners who insisted the      General Crook had strictly forbidden. They insisted he had no
Army mollycoddled the natives.                                       business interfering with their customs. The other was the
     Deaths resulting from such diseases as cholera and yellow       drinking of tiswin, a beer made of fermented corn. Mangus’s
fever killed far more than those resulting from fighting Indians.    wife was a maker of excellent tiswin and she hated Whites. She
Between the years 1860 and 1886, 1,993 soldiers were killed or       goaded her husband, the son of the legendary chief, Mangas
wounded in the Indian Wars. In 1886, 1,217 soldiers died from        Colorados, constantly. Chihuahua was one of her best custom-
cholera alone.                                                       ers. He liked to drink and complain but wasn’t too interested in
     Harsh living conditions, fatigue, poor pay, poor rations, and   bolting the reservation again. The consummate malcontent
little appreciation from his fellow countrymen were the grim         Geronimo took advantage of the situation to stir up trouble.
prospects the soldiers faced. They were often sent into battle           In May, 1885, a group of Apache decided to test the policy
with obsolete weapons and equipment as well as under strength        against tiswin. They got drunk and confronted the officer in
in numbers. Desertion, alcoholism and suicide rates were high        charge, Lieutenant Britton Davis. Davis informed them he was
on the isolated military posts. Loneliness and boredom was the       wiring General Crook for instructions. The wire was sent to a
soldier’s constant companion. Typical meals on the posts con-        Captain Francis Pierce; an officer new to the area failed to
sisted of such culinary delights as beef hash, dry bread, and        grasp the gravity of the situation and determined it wasn’t im-
coffee for breakfast. Evening meals were just simply bread and       portant enough to bother the general. Meanwhile, the Apache
coffee.                                                              grew restless wondering what kind of wrath the general would
     Punishment was harsh especially for acts such as drunken-       bring upon them for their drunken binge and bolted once again
ness and desertion. Yet these men became good soldiers. Un-          for Mexico.
der the professionalism of the corps of officers and non-                Thus began the last campaign to end the Apache Wars. In
commissioned officers, along with the rigid discipline instilled,    January, 1886, Captain Emmett Crawford defeated Geronimo
                                                                                                                       Courier page 5
and band in the Sierra Madre. Two months later the Apache                The campaign was nearly over by the time Miles arrived.
leader met with General Crook at Canon de los Embudos, and          He continued Crook’s policy of using Apache scouts, durable
agreed to surrender. Thus began the last campaign to end the        pack trains and relentless pursuit. The Army also rounded up
Apache Wars. In January, 1886, Captain Emmett Crawford              the Chiricahua on reservations and shipped them to Florida.
defeated Geronimo and band in the Sierra Madre. Two months          That summer five thousand U.S. troops or some 20% of the
later the Apache leader met with General Crook at Canon de los      U.S. Army were chasing less than two dozen warriors. In Au-
Embudos, and agreed to surrender. That night bootleggers            gust Lieutenant Charles Gatewood, an officer known and re-
came into the Apache camp and sold them booze, at the same          spected by Geronimo, Tom Horn, along with two Apache
time telling them the soldiers planned to kill them once they       scouts named Martine and Kayitah undertook a dangerous mis-
were in Arizona.                                                    sion to Geronimo’s camp. They held a parley with Geronimo
    Geronimo and warriors bolted once again causing Crook’s         and his band. After some haggling, Gatewood dealt the warri-
superior in Washington, General Phil Sheridan, also his room-       ors his ace card. Their relatives had been exiled to Florida and
mate at West Point, to suggest he was placing too much trust in     if they wanted to see them again they would have to surrender.
the Apache. Crook asked to be replaced and General Nelson           On September 3, 1886, the wily war chief surrendered and the
Miles was sent to relieve him.                                      Apache Wars were finally over.

Camels in the Southwest Desert?
                                                                            Beale’s Camel expedition nearly a decade later was
                                                                         in the annals of exploration in the American West. The
                                                                         camel’s amazing ability to travel great distances without
                                                                         water, and thriving on natural forage along the trail made
                                                                         them a natural for hauling cargo.
                                                                            Although Beale championed his illustrious camels, refer-
                                                                         ring to them as the “noblest brute alive,” his muleskinners
                                                                         scorned them. They were especially upset when entire
                                                                         herds of mules stampeded at the mere site of the homely
                                                                         creatures. The camels propensity to be extremely stubborn
                                                                         and spit at the muleskinners certainly didn’t endear them to
                                                                         their American handlers. The problem handling the animals
                                                                         was solved when camel drivers were imported from the
                                                                         Middle East. A Syrian named Hadji Ali was the most fa-
                                                                         mous. His name was quickly Americanized to “Hi Jolly.”
Photograph and story by Marshall Trimble, Official Arizona                 The camels passed a supreme test when Beale was chal-
State Historian                                                     lenged to pit them against the packers’ mules on a 60-mile en-
                                                                    durance trek. Using six camels against twelve mules, a 2.5 ton
    Arizona has always been a place where bizarre events were       load was divided among the camels, and a like amount was
accepted as normal. But perhaps the strangest of all occurred in    loaded on two Army wagons, drawn by six mules. The camels
1857 when a caravan of camels looking like something out of         finished the trip in two and a half days while the mules took
the Arabian Nights trekked across northern Arizona.                 four days.
    At the time, the federal government was planning to survey          Beale and his camels managed to successfully open the
a wagon road along the 35th Parallel from New Mexico to Cali-       wagon road along the 35th Parallel. That road later became the
fornia and wanted to test the feasibility of using camels as        storied Route 66 and is today Interstate 40. He persisted in
beasts of burden. The camel experiment was the pet project of       naming the various rivers, passes and mountains after his fellow
Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis, who believed that camels         officers in the U.S. Navy. The names usually didn’t stick and if
were the solution for transporting cargo across the arid lands of   they had, most of the geographical features in western Arizona
the American West.                                                  would today sound like a battleship’s roster.
    The man chosen to lead the experiment was a colorful ad-            Hi Jolly remained in Arizona, got married and became a
venturer named Lieutenant Edward F. “Ned” Beale of the Army         prospector. He is memorialized on a pyramid-shaped monu-
Corps of Topographical Engineers. Beale, a former Navy offi-        ment, topped off with a lone camel, at Quartzsite, Arizona.
cer, had been a hero at the Battle of San Pasquel in California         This brief, but romantic event in Arizona history came to an
during the Mexican war when he and Kit Carson sneaked               end just before the Civil War began and was overshadowed by
through the enemy lines to bring a relief force from San Diego      the great events that took place in the East. As for the camels,
to General Kearny’s Army of the West, under siege by Mexican        they were turned loose to roam the deserts of western Arizona.
forces.                                                             One, “Red Ghost,” became the stuff of legends. When prank-
    Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, Beale    sters tied a dead body on his back the animal went insane and
took a sack full of gold nuggets and traveled across Mexico         attacked a woman, killing her. Over the next few years the
disguised as a Mexican. He eventually reached Washington            camel, with a skeleton tied to its back, was seen at various parts
D.C. and presented the gold to President James Polk, proving        of Arizona, causing havoc when it came around humans and
that rumors of the gold strike in California were indeed true.      became the subject of many a campfire story.
Courier page 6
                                                                        Some excepts from the book are:
                                                                        “War forces its participants to go beyond the paradigms of
                         Down Range: To                             ordinary life, pushing them beyond what one would think are
                         Iraq and Back                              humanly possible. When we assertively take the life of another
                                                                    human being we are catapulted far beyond the range of normal
                         speaks to the hearts                       human behavior. As terrible as killing is, it is still not the worst
                                                                    outcome of war. Cruelty to the souls of the soldiers who fight
                         of our military men                        is war’s greatest casualty….
                         and women                                      At the end of each battle, and when the war is over, the im-
                                                                    ages and sounds of combat are still present in the minds and
                                                                    hearts of those who engaged in it—and these will never go
                                                                    away….Now comes the full realization that you willingly par-
                                                                    ticipated in something so unnatural to the mind and
By Trudie Cooke
                                                                    spirit” (page 24 and 25).
                                                                        “We should never again blame the individual soldiers (like
    Down Range: To Iraq and Back, by Bridget C. Cantrell,
                                                                    so many did during the Vietnam War) for fighting in a war that
Ph.D. and Chuck Dean, Word Smith Publishing, Seattle, WA
                                                                    was decided upon by government leaders” (page 25).
98168, 2005, is a small paperback book that offers help to all
                                                                        This book also provides contact sources for help that in-
the men and women who have served in combat.
                                                                    clude such places as the Veterans Administration, the Vietnam
    This book is a surprise in such a compact form. The mes-
                                                                    Veterans of America, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline,
sage is timely, and to some veterans of past wars, long overdue.
                                                                    the National Veterans Foundation, and many other groups that
Down Range is dedicated to bringing the troops home and ad-
                                                                    specifically handle PTSD.
dresses the challenges of the re-integration process from com-
                                                                        The whole point of this book is to be an educational guide, a
batant to civilian.
                                                                    spiritual guide, a source guide—all rolled into one small paper-
    On the back cover is written, “Bridget Cantrell, Ph.D. and
                                                                    back book. The warrior and his family are not alone. Help is
Vietnam veteran, Chuck Dean have joined forces to present this
                                                                    out there.
vital information and resource manual for both returning troops
                                                                        This book may be obtained from the Arizona National
and their loved ones. Here you will find answers, explanations,
                                                                    Guard Personnel Readiness Center, Frank Sandell, Transition
and insights as to why so many combat veterans suffer from
                                                                    Assistance Advisor, Papago Park Military Reservation, 5636 E
flashbacks, depression, fits of rage, nightmares, anxiety, emo-
                                                                    McDowell Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85008 at 602-629-4421. It is free
tional numbing, and other troubling aspects of Post-Traumatic
                                                                    while supplies last.
Stress Disorder (PTSD).”

                                                                    for a particular use in a specific area is the Bushmaster ’03 ri-
The Springfield 1903 Rifle and                                      fle.” (page 82)
                                                                        “By order of Major General Robert H. Lewis, Commanding
those daring Bushmasters                                            General of the Panama Mobile Force Command in 1942, Model
                                                                    1903 rifles were shortened six inches for use by the Jungle Se-
By Trudie Cooke                                                     curity Platoon [the Bushmasters] while conducting missions in
                                                                    heavy jungle foliage.” (page 83)
     An interesting comment on the famed Bushmaster’s M1903         Alterations were done by the Ordnance Shops in the Canal
rifle used during World War II:                                     Zone once permission was granted by the Army Chief of Ord-
                                                                    nance. The altered M1903 was used by the Bushmasters in the
    Briefly, the 158th Infantry became the 158th Regiment           Canal Zone and also in the Philippines.
Combat Team and separated from the 45th Division of Okla-
homa on Sep 16, 1940. They spent a year in the Panama Canal
Zone where they earned their nickname “Bushmasters.” By Jan
16, 1943, they were at Port Moresby, New Guinea. They re-
mained in the Philippines for the remainder of the war.
    They were equipped with the M1903 Springfield rifle prior
to departure for the Panama Canal Zone. While in the Canal
Zone , they modified their issued M1903 rifle. Lt. Col. William
S. Brophy, USAR, Ret., says in his book The Springfield 1903
Rifles, (1985), “Frequently brave souls in the military perform
unauthorized modifications to standard equipment. However,
the fear of the discipline meted out, and the possible attachment
of pay for the cost of the item, prevented many worthwhile and
inventive ideas from being tried….However, if high authority
blessed the project, it was not uncommon for ideas to be tried
and, in some cases, put to use….A good example of equipment
                                                                    From The Springfield 1903 Rifle, William S. Brophy, 1985,
                                                                    page 82.
                                                                                                   Courier page 7

The 1st Arizona Infantry fights Apaches:
     Arizona Indian Wars 1865 to 1866
By Jim Turner, Historian for the Arizona Historical          Goodwin appointed Thomas Ewing, a teamster
Society—Tucson, AZ                                       from the Pima Villages, to recruit Maricopa Indians,
                                                         and former sergeant John D. Walker to recruit the
    (Editor’s note: With the Civil War still going on    Pimas. (This is not the same John Walker who was
and Carleton still fighting the Navajos, the U.S. War    previously Indian Agent.) On October 2, 1865, First
Department authorized Governor John Noble Good-          Lieutenant William Tompkins of the Third Califor-
win of Arizona to raise five companies of Arizona        nia Infantry arrived at Maricopa Wells and commis-
Volunteers in 1864. Recruitment was delayed for a        sioned First Lieutenant Ewing, Second Lieutenant
year, but by the fall of 1865, more than 350 men had     Charles Reidt, who was fluent in the Maricopa lan-
been issued into service under the command of nine       guage, and Captain Juan Chevereah, chief of the
officers. The overwhelming majority was Mexicans,        Maricopas. He also mustered in 94 Maricopa re-
many of them from Sonora, or O'odham and Marico-         cruits, designated as Company B, Arizona Volunteer
pas from the Gila River villages, who had grown up       Infantry. By May 16, 1866 there were 103 men in the
fighting Yavapais and Apaches, as had their fathers      company. John D. Walker was commissioned as first
and grandfathers. Many never received shoes or           lieutenant and William A. Hancock as second lieu-
warm clothing. They lived in hovels and marched for      tenant of Company C, made up of Pima Indians.
days on beef jerky and parched cornmeal. They car-       Their chief, Antonio Azul, was made a sergeant and
ried .54-caliber (14 mm) rifles with plenty of ammu-     89 Pimas were recruited to fill out the company. Five
nition, in addition to bows, arrows, and war clubs.      more Pimas were added later at Sacaton.
For the next year, these frontiersmen guarded wagon          A unique Arizona character, John D. Walker was
trains between Prescott and La Paz and campaigned        part Wyandotte Indian, born in Nauvoo, Illinois
relentlessly across central Arizona. The following       about 1840. He arrived at the Pima villages as a
excerpt and description of the 1st Arizona Volunteer     wagon master in the California Volunteers, and was
Infantry was presented by Jim Turner, Historian for      charged with expediting the distribution of the Pi-
the Arizona Historical Society—Tucson—in an arti-        mas’ surplus wheat and corn to California Volunteer
cle, “Pima Villages”, the Journal of Arizona History     posts as far away as the Rio Grande. When his enlist-
1998. The article was too lengthy to include in the      ment was up, Walker married a Pima woman and
Courier, but we highly recommend that the reader         settled in the Pima village of Sacaton. Quick to learn,
seek out and read the entire article to learn some       he compiled the first written grammar of their lan-
important Arizona history.)                              guage and became a leader in Pima councils. He
                                                         studied medicine and was something of a scientist.
   Governor John N. Goodwin, 1863—1866, re-              Such a background makes the other side of his char-
ceived permission from the United States Provost         acter even more unusual. According to historian
Marshal James B. Fry to “raise within the Territory      James McClintock, "It is said that when they were in
of Arizona one regiment of Volunteer Infantry to         the field you could not tell him from the other Indi-
serve for three years or the duration of the war.” The   ans. He dressed like them, with nothing but a breech-
War Department intended that the recruitment of na-      cloth, and whooped and yelled like his Indian com-
tive Arizonans would supplement the California Vol-      rades."
unteers, who hesitated to go on long scouting mis-           The native Arizonans enlisted just as Apache raid-
sions against the Apaches because their Civil War        ing reached new heights, and their orders — to de-
enlistment would soon be up. The Arizona Volun-          stroy Apache camps, crops and supplies and kill re-
teers served for one year, and gave Mexicans, Pimas      sisters — coincided with their attitudes toward their
and Maricopas an opportunity to avenge the losses        traditional enemies. The Indian soldiers received a
they received at the hands of the Apaches while ac-      blue blouse, trimmed in red for the Maricopas and
quiring much-needed guns from the government.            blue for the Pimas, one pair of blue pants, one pair of
                                                         shoes and one yard of flannel for a headdress. Most
Courier page 8
of them wore “teguas” — shoes of untanned hide           a Company B Maricopa charged an Apache. The
with broad soles turned up at the toes with a hole to    Apache's first arrow went through his horse's ear, the
admit air and remove dirt. Scouts were often carried     second hit the Maricopa's belt plate and the third hit
out on foot with packs containing a canteen, a blan-     him in the forehead and glanced off, causing a flesh
ket, and some dried beef and pinole, a food made of      wound. Cuchavenashak leaped off his horse,
one part sugar to two parts roasted ground corn or       clinched the Apache to him and killed him. This
wheat mixed with water. The Indians were expected        alarmed a ranchería of about 20 families of Apaches
to provide their own horses, but allowances were         nearby. A volley of 100 shots were fired into the
sometimes made for feed. Although these were the         Apaches as they retreated.
intended provisions, circumstances did not always           The Arizona Volunteers were an experiment in
afford them and the Indians often endured the cold       cultural coexistence. For the good of the mission, the
without benefit of warm clothes, bedding or shoes.       Indians were allowed to practice their traditional war
The Pimas and Maricopas were used to hardship,           customs without interference from white soldiers. On
however; they were familiar with the country and         March 6, 1866, Lt. Ewing took a party near the Polos
knew the Apaches.                                        Blancos [sic] Mountains, on Rattlesnake Creek “The
   The two new volunteer companies left Maricopa         night being quite dark, it was decded to await the ris-
Wells with Colonel Clarence E. Bennett’s California      ing of the moon. During the wait, the Indian soldiers
Volunteers on September 4, 1865 to establish a fort      consulted a prophet or tobacco mancer. A circle was
seven miles north of the confluence of the Verde and     formed around the prophet who began to smoke
Salt rivers. Both companies helped construct Camp        "cigarettes." As soon as one was consumed another
McDowell to protect farms along the rivers from          was furnished him by an attendant. After some time,
Apaches. The Tonto and Pinal Apaches inhabited the       he began to tremble and fell "dead" (stupefied). He
Tonto Basin, bordered by the Mazatzal and Sierra         lay there for several minutes, during which time not
Ancha Mountains on the east and west and the             a sound was heard from command. When he arose,
Mogollon Rim to the north. These were some of the        he said that his spirit had followed the trail, that the
last Apache tribes to be subdued, and the Arizona        command was on, towards the "Massasahl" and there
Volunteers became their first considerable foe. The      under the peak it saw two large rancherías with a
Indians at Camp McDowell lived in brush shelters.        great many warriors. His spirit then followed the trail
Military reports said their morale was high and they     north, where it found a ranchería that had been aban-
were allowed to return to their villages almost as of-   doned because of the death of one of the occupants.”
ten as they pleased. Although Hispanic and Anglo         When he finished, the Indians slept. When the moon
volunteers suffered various forms of typhoid from        had risen high in the sky, Walker and Ewing led their
continuous attacks of fever caused by rain and hu-       men up the mountain in search of the ranchería.
midity, not a single individual from Indian compa-
nies B or C was reported sick on post returns.
   The Indian volunteers began their first foray on
September 8, 1865, led by Lieutenant Reidt. They
traveled northeast for several days into the Tonto Ba-
sin. Maricopa guides took them up the east side of
the Mazatzal Mountains up Tonto Creek, 110 miles
up steep banks, across canyons, and through arroyos
thick with underbrush. “It was a trying, sorry march,
and the animals and men suffered from the cactus.”
When one Pima was accidentally shot in the hand, all
but fifteen returned to camp with him. The volun-
teers eventually surprised an Apache ranchería just
east of Payson. One Apache was killed, several were
wounded and their crops and houses were burned.
   The Indian volunteers proved their valor in battle
after battle. On October 15, 1865, Cuchavenashak,
                                                                                                         Courier page 9
Halfway up the mountain they found an abandoned
ranchería and later a large camp of Apaches, just as
the tobacco mancer predicted.
    On March 27, Lieutenant Walker led the largest
expedition of Arizona Volunteers on record; an esti-
mated 260 Papagos and Pimas and 40 Maricopas
from Company B left the Pima villages. Those from
Company B left the Pima villages. Those without
rifles or muskets fashioned war clubs while they es-
tablished a temporary supply depot on Tonto Creek.
In a fight four days later, 25 Apaches were killed and
16 taken prisoner. Three Pimas were wounded, one
of whom eventually died. Because they were in
Apache country, the Pima warrior’s body was burned
along with the mourners’ clothes instead of his own
belongings as was the custom in the villages. Al-
though most warriors left the Pima villages well clad,
many returned naked. This is also probably the expe-       1907 Portrait of Antonio Azul, last hereditary chief of the
dition where the miners were shocked by the smash-         Pima Indians. Died at Sacaton, AZ, October 20, 1910 at
                                                           the age of about 76. He was a 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Ari-
ing of heads. Conner relates that the Pimas would lift     zona Infantry, Company C, National Guard of Arizona
a heavy stone above their heads and drop it on a dead      during the 1866 Indian Wars. Photograph courtesy of the
or wounded Apache, crushing the skull of their en-         Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.
emy. Sometimes they placed the head of the victim
on a flat rock to suitably cave in his face, perhaps so        At Fort McDowell on September 11, 1866, be-
it would not be recognized in the next world. The          cause of the legalities of retaining them, Maricopa
Apaches, possibly learning it from the Pimas, fol-         Company B was discharged from service by First
lowed this custom. Conner said he was more dis-            Lieutenant Ewing and now Captain Juan Chevereah.
gusted that the Whites looked on with approval, mus-       The records indicated that Maricopas McGill, Yose,
ing that “savage civilized men are the most mon-           Goshe Zep, and Duke were killed in battle. The same
strous of all monsters.”                                   day, Pima Company C was mustered out by Captain
    In late Aug, 1866, Colonel Charles S. Lovell be-       John D. Walker. Hownik Mawkum, Juan Lewis and
came commander of District of Arizona. He did not          Au Papat were Pimas listed as killed in battle. All the
appreciate the Pima and Maricopa custom of living          men were allotted $50 pay and allowed to keep their
in their villages when not in the field and not being      firearms and equipment. Many volunteers who be-
subject to the post commanders’ orders. General Ma-        lieved they would get no pay found that all at once
son had promised the Indians that they could do as         they had more money than they had ever had at any
they pleased, and the spirit of cooperation had served     time in their lives. In honor of the Arizona Volun-
all parties admirably. As was often the case with          teers, in the fall of 1866 the Third Arizona Territorial
army/Indian relations, just as the vastly different cul-   Legislature passed a memorial for their outstanding
tures began to understand each other, personnel            service.
changed, previous arrangements were nullified and              The services of Arizona Volunteers were defi-
once again the Indians had to adapt. Official feelings     nitely missed. In November of 1866, General
were not unanimous on the subject of Indian soldiers,      McDowell let it be known that any Indians enlisting
however. In May, while still commander at Fort             as scouts would be treated as when they served in the
McDowell, Colonel Bennett asked the Arizona’s Ad-          Volunteers. They would not be required to drill or
jutant General to extend the volunteer enlistment or       fight with army methods and could stay in their vil-
create a regular native regiment. If these options         lages when not on patrol. Pimas and Maricopas con-
proved unworkable, he proposed that the volunteers         tinued to work with the military, but the practice
be allowed to keep their arms when discharged so           peaked in 1869 as more Apaches became willing to
they could continue fighting Apaches effectively.          serve as scouts.
Courier page 10

Buffalo Soldiers served in Arizona during the Indian Wars of 1888
By John Langellier, Director, Shalot Hall Museum, Pres-             it still in Treasury Department sacks. An escort wagon
cott, AZ                                                            followed the ambulance.
                                                                        They were forced to stop at Cedar Springs because a
    Last February at the Muse-                                                                  large boulder blocked the road-
ums on the Mall event, I was                                                                    way where it passed through a
talking to John Langellier,                                                                     narrow defile. Men in the es-
Director, Sharlot Hall Mu-                                                                      cort set about moving the ob-
seum, about the actions of the                                                                  stacle, but were immediately
Buffalo Soldiers in Arizona. I                                                                  fired upon from both sides of
told him that some people told                                                                  the road. Eight were wounded
me that they never were in                                                                      in the melee.
Arizona during the Indian                                                                          Their attackers numbered -
Wars era. John, who is an                                                                       depending on whose account is
expert military historian, said                                                                 to be believed - from eight to
he would send me some infor-                                                                    20.
mation. Here is what he sent:                                                                      Wham, in reporting the inci-
                                                                                                dent to the Secretary of War,
    The 10th U.S. Cavalry                                                                       wrote that the "party was am-
                                 “Proud to Serve,” oil painting by Don Stivers, Waterford, VA,
regiment transferred from the                                                                  bushed and fired into by a num-
Department of Texas to the                                                                     ber of armed brigands, since
Department of Arizona in 1886 with the regimental head-             estimated by U.S. Marshal (W.K.) Meade at from twelve
quarters at Ft. Whipple under Colonel Benjamin Grierson             to fifteen, but to myself and entire escort, two non-
and the various companies assigned to forts all over the            commissioned officers and nine privates, at fifteen to
territory including Forts Apache and Grant. The 10th par-           twenty."
ticipated in the final Apache campaigns, and the name                   He indicated a signal shot was followed by a barrage
“Buffalo Soldiers” first appeared in print for a widespread         of gunfire, and a battle lasting more than 30 minutes en-
audience when Fredrick Remington wrote and illustrated              sued. Two soldiers involved, one shot in the abdomen but
an article in Arizona in 1888 titled “Scout with the Buf-           continuing to fire until shot again through both arms, and
falo Soldiers.” The 24th Infantry also reported to Arizona          another who, though wounded, walked and crawled
soon aft the arrival of the 10th, and two of their men re-          nearly two miles to Cottonwood Ranch to give the alert,
ceived the Medal of Honor for the incident cited below.             later were awarded the Medal of Honor.
Thus, black troops have been stationed continuously in                  The rancher who brought some of his cowboys to the
Arizona since 1886 and continue to play a role in the               scene of the battle arrived after the attackers had fled with
armed forces here to this day.                                      the loot. They sent a courier to Fort Thomas to alert the
    He also sent a story written by Paul L. Allen published         commander, and a surgeon and hospital ambulance were
in the Arizona Republic on July 29, 2006:”Lookin' Back:             dispatched to tend the wounded.
Safford-area Treasury Ambush Stuff of Legends”:                         Lt. Powhattan H. Clarke and detachments from Troop
    When you mix an audacious crime with goodly a                   K, 10th Cavalry, and Company I, 24th Infantry, went in
amount of loot and a sizable dollop of whodunit, you've             pursuit of the attackers.* Eventually eight suspects
got a ready-made Old West legend.                                   (another account indicates nine) were identified and ar-
    Such is the Wham payroll robbery of May 11, 1889,               rested--all Mormon ranchers and farmers from the Saf-
which bears the added distinction of being likely the most          ford area. The missing money was not found.
frequently mispronounced incident name in the South-                    At the trial convened Nov. 11, 1889, in Tucson, they
west. It is pronounced Wham (like "bomb") and not                   were defended by attorney Marcus Aurelius Smith, a col-
Wham (like "Bam!").                                                 orful attorney and perennial congressional delegate Ben
    Here's what happened:                                           Goodrich, and Frank Hereford. Prosecution attorneys in-
Army Maj. Joseph W. Wham and an escort of 11 Buffalo                cluded U.S. Attorneys Harry Jeffords, William Herring,
Soldiers from the 24th Infantry and 10th Cavalry were en            Herring's Tucson-based son-in-law Selim M. Franklin.
route from Fort Grant to Fort Thomas, but northwest of              (Both Hereford and Franklin were members of Tucson's
present-day Safford on the Gila River.                              bachelor enclave known as "the Owls.")
    Wham rode in an ambulance that also carried a strong-               The defense attorneys worked to attribute blame to a
box containing $28,345 in gold and silver coins, much of            dozen unidentified drifters alleged to have been in the
                                                                    area at the time of the robbery. It is likely, the jury was
                                                                                                                Courier page 11
told, that they escaped into Mexico with the purloined
payroll.                                                                             Survival
    Because of the confusion during the battle, neither
Wham nor any of his escort troops were able to identify
any of the defendants in court, and after a marathon 33-      By Anonymous (worldwide web)
day parade of courtroom histrionics, the defendants were
                                                              Some Thoughts about Survival, Firearms, and Protect-
acquitted.                                                    ing Yourself
    Hearsay of the time indicated all those charged were
on good terms with the acting territorial governor, and       This is the law:
that he exerted political pressure to have them acquitted.
    The Wham payroll robbery has become an enduring           The purpose of fighting is to win.
legend in the Safford area and beyond, with some insist-      There is no possible victory in defense.
ing the accused were, indeed, innocent, and others noting     The sword is more important than the shield;
that times were hard in the area in 1889, and that govern-    skill is more important than either.
ment money would have provided welcome relief.                The final weapon is the brain.
                                                              All else is supplemental.
    Wham died Dec. 21, 1908, in Washington, D.C., and
is buried at Wham Hill Cemetery, Marion County, Ill.          These are the rules:
    *This is the same Second Lieutenant Powhattan H.
Clarke, Company K and who received the Medal of               1. Don't pick a fight with an old man. If he is too old to
Honor for rescuing Corporal Scott while under heavy fire      fight, he will just kill you.
from Apaches at Pinito Mountains, Sonora, Mex., 3 May
1886. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Alexan-       2. If you find yourself in a fair fight, your tactics suck.
dria, La. Date of issue: 12 March 1891. Citation: Rushed
forward to the rescue of a soldier who was severely           3. I carry a gun 'cause a cop is too heavy.
wounded and lay, disabled, exposed to the enemy's fire,
                                                              4. America is not at war. The U.S. Military is at war.
and carried him to a place of safety.                         America is at the Mall.
    According to the June 15, 2007 “An Arizona Buffalo
Soldier,” Arizona Capitol Times article, Lt. Powhatan H.      5. When seconds count, the cops are just minutes away.
Clarke referred to the soldiers of the black 10th Cavalry     (Yep, shoot first, then call 911)
Regiment under his command by racially derogatory
names. However, at the same time he wrote, “No men            6. A reporter did a human interest piece on the Texas
could have been more determined and cooler.” A com-           Rangers. The reporter recognized the Colt Model 1911 the
mander in the Civil War, he met his end in the most fa-       Ranger was carrying and asked him "Why do you carry
                                                              a .45?" The Ranger responded with, “Because they don't
mous Indian battle in American history. His death at the
                                                              make a 46."
Little Bighorn might have prevented him from becoming
the only goat to be elected president of the United Stares.   7. The old sheriff was attending an awards dinner when a
Pickett, of course, has his name attached to one of the       lady commented on his wearing his sidearm. "Sheriff, I
world's most famous charges.                                  see you have your pistol. Are you expecting trouble?"
    Much thanks to John for this colorful information         "No Ma'am", answered the Sheriff. "If I were expecting
which helps put history in perspective and helps me win       trouble, I would have brought my rifle." (Winchester
arguments with people who think they know Arizona’s           Model 94, 30-30 Cal. and loaded with Winchester Silver
military history when they don’t. The Director                Tips, no doubt.)

                                                              8. Beware the man who only has one gun.... HE PROBA-
                8 November 2008                               BLY KNOWS HOW TO USE IT!!!
                   9am to 4pm
      Come visit us at the Arizona Military                   Some thoughts about being armed:
                     Museum                                   I was once asked by a lady visiting if I had a gun in the
   Displays of military vehicles, artifacts from              house. I said "I did." She said, "Well I certainly hope it
         the museum, and books for sale.                      isn't loaded!" To which I said, "Of course it is loaded."
  Bring your children and grand-children to see               She then asked, "Are you that afraid of someone evil com-
                                                              ing into your house?" My reply was, "No, not at all. I am
          the old vehicles and weapons.
                                                              not afraid of the house catching fire either, but I have fire
                                                              extinguishers around, and THEY ARE ALL LOADED,
         Enjoy Veterans Day With Us!                          TOO."
 Courier page 12

        America’s Global War on Terrorism:
                               Success or Failure
By Joseph Abodeely, Director                                   indicates that most groups have ended because (1) they
    For several years, America has been engaged in what        joined the political process (43 percent) or (2) local police
has been called the “Global War On Terrorism” (GWOT).          and intelligence agencies arrested or killed key members
The cost in lives and treasure has been tremendous, and        (40 percent). Military force has rarely been the pri-
other tangential costs to America in loss of international     mary reason for the end of terrorist groups, and few
prestige, the devaluation of the dollar, the decline of the    groups within this time frame have achieved victory.
economy, the diversion of attention to preserving the U.S.     This has significant implications for dealing with al
infrastructure, and the over taxing of American armed          Qa'ida and suggests fundamentally rethinking post-9/11
forces and related resources—all have a negative impact        U.S. counterterrorism strategy: Policymakers need to un-
on U.S. national security. Since September 11, 2001,           derstand where to prioritize their efforts with limited re-
more than 4,600 Arizona National Guard soldiers and            sources and attention.
airmen have been ordered to federal active duty in support         The authors report that religious terrorist groups take
of Operation Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi          longer to eliminate than other groups and rarely achieve
Freedom. It is essential that the American public and          their objectives. The largest groups achieve their goals
those whose duty it is to combat “terrorism” truly under-      more often and last longer than the smallest ones do. Fi-
stand what it is.                                              nally, groups from upper-income countries are more
    The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit research organi-       likely to be left-wing or nationalist and less likely to have
zation providing objective analysis and effective solutions    religion as their motivation. The authors conclude that
that address the challenges facing the public and private      policing and intelligence, rather than military force,
sectors around the world. RAND's publications do not           should form the backbone of U.S. efforts against al
necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and   Qa'ida. And U.S. policymakers should end the use of
sponsors. Recently, the RAND Corporation presented a           the phrase “war on terrorism” since there is no battle-
monograph relating to a study of how terrorist organiza-       field solution to defeating al Qa'ida.
tions reached their demise. This research in the public            America needs to set its priorities and use its military
interest was supported by RAND, using discretionary            and law enforcement resources wisely or it will be inef-
funds made possible by the generosity of RAND's donors,        fective in dealing with either international terrorism or
the fees earned on client-funded research, and independ-       domestic terrorism. "Terrorism" is defined as "The cal-
ent research and development (IR&D) funds provided by          culated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate
the Department of Defense. All RAND monographs un-             fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or
dergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for        societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally politi-
research quality and objectivity.                              cal, religious, or ideological.” The actions of al Qa'ida
    For those who believed that the so-called GWOT was         have fit into that definition, but the Islamic world would
ill-conceived and ill-implemented—not because of paci-         argue that the actions of the U.S. in invading and occupy-
fistic tendencies or political motives—but from a clearer      ing Iraq would also meet that definition. The point is that
understanding of the nature of the threat of “terrorism”       the U.S. policy makers have not displayed a keen under-
than the political slogans which persuaded the majority of     standing of “terrorism.” Similarly, “domestic terrorism”
the American public to believe, the RAND monograph             must be recognized in order to effectively deal with it.
entitled, How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Coun-          "Domestic Terrorism" is defined as "Terrorism perpe-
tering al Qa'ida, by Seth G. Jones and Martin C. Libicki,      trated by the citizens of one country against fellow coun-
is vindication. The full monograph can be obtained             trymen. That includes acts against citizens of a second
online by Googling RAND Corporation, but the salient           country when they are in the host country and not the
points in summary about the monograph follow.                  principal or intended target.”
    The research showed that all terrorist groups eventu-          The Pentagon in 1992 considered this problem as evi-
ally end. But how do they end? The evidence since 1968         dence by a memorandum circulated by the legal officer
                                                               for the U.S. Army Military Police Operations Agency.
                                                                                                            Courier page 13

    Since 9/11, U.S. policy on national security has
changed drastically in many ways. America invaded Iraq,
and is still an occupation force. Counterinsurgency or
antiterrorism military operations are being conducted in
Afghanistan. The Homeland Security agency has been
created to provide domestic security in the continental
U.S. Local federal and state law enforcement agencies
have the primary responsibility to deal with local criminal
acts which can include acts of terrorism in the U.S., but
after 9/11 combating terrorism has become a national pri-
ority. Military units, including activated National Guard
units or personnel could be tasked to deal with terrorism
in the U.S. if the President so orders. As the RAND re-
search shows, policing and intelligence, rather than
military force, should form the backbone of U.S. ef-
forts against terrorism.
    If National Guard personnel were to act in a quasi law
enforcement role to deal with terrorist acts or a broader
terrorist threat in the U.S., hopefully they would be suffi-
ciently trained to perform their duties consistent with
Constitutional protections afforded the American popu-
lace. Many “professional” police are caught on tape com-
mitting assaults.
    The military needs to be used judiciously and only
when necessary to combat “terrorism” or it will become
over-extended as it is now at a time when Russia is invad-
ing former members of the old USSR. Local police and
intelligence agencies should be relied on to arrest or kill
key members of terrorist groups. Lastly, U.S. policymak-
ers should end the use of the phrase “war on terrorism”
since there is no battlefield solution to defeating al

                                                                     The above photographs are from the worldwide
                                                                     web. The upper two photograph show the Los
                                                                     Angeles riot and a California National Guards-
                                                                     man on patrol duty during the Los Angeles, Cali-
                                                                     fornia Riots. The photograph immediately above
                                                                     shows the Murrah Building in Okalahoma City,
                                                                     Okalahoma, after the bombing. All dramatically
                                                                     illustrate domestic terrorism in the United States.

                                                       Proper training of National Guard members will prevent
                                                       acts of uncontrolled violence. This Los Angeles Times pho-
                                                       tograph to the left depicts officers arresting an individual
                                                       during the riots.
Courier page 14

Documents Supporting the Editorial:

                                                    “Lest We Forget”
                                         In honor of September 11, 2001, we remember
                                      those who lost their lives that day that changed for-
                                      ever the way Americans look at themselves and the
                                         We also take this time to honor the military men
                                      and women who have lost their lives in the service of
                                      their country since that day, and for all the other wars
                                      and military actions before 9/11.
                                         We take this time to thank all military men and
                                      women who have served in the past, who serve now
                                      and who will serve in the future to keep our great
                                      country free.

                                                  Freedom is not free.
                                                                                                                       Courier page 15

From the Report of the Adjutant General of Arizona 1891,
Edwin S. Gill, The Adjutant General
Dated January 1, 1892                                              organization, it is but just
                                                                   to the guard to say that the
To Hon. John N. Irwin,                                             zeal of those in the organi-
Governor and Commander-in-Chief:                                   zation has more to do with
                                                                   keeping it alive than aid
 Sir:                                                              derived from the Territory.
     I have the honor to submit the annual report of the Adju-     Excepting the small sum of
tant General for the year ending December 31, 1891, as fol-        $30 per month allowed
lows: (This report contained 26 pages.)                            each company, not one
    The National Guard of Arizona now consists of one regi-        penny is appropriated for
ment of Infantry, composed of nine companies, organized            military expenses.         No
into three battalions. The annual returns for the year show a      provisions whatever are
                                                                                                   Edwin S. Gill, The Adjutant General
present force of 288 officers and enlisted men. This report        made for the pay or trans- of Arizona, 1892.
embraces only seven companies and the regimental and two           portation of troops if called
battalion organizations. Companies A and C having failed to        out, for encampments or inspections, for court-martials, for
comply with orders issued, Colonel Brodie directed them to         headquarters, regimental or battalion office expenses, nor for
turn in their arms and equipment. Efforts are now making to        necessary official transportation, nor in short for anything.
re-organize both companies upon a firm basis, and I hope to        The utter inconsistency of the law is especially shown in the
be able to report success in a short time. The remaining com-      Article governing the Adjutant General’s office. It provides
panies are now recruiting and expect to soon have an enroll-       that “The Adjutant General shall also be ex-officio Quarter-
ment of from 45 to 55 men each..                                   master and Commissary General and Chief of Ordnance; that
    Previous to March 19, 1891, Arizona had no Military            he shall furnish commissions, without charge, to all officers,
Code, hence the present organization really dates subsequent       issue and transmit all order, furnish blanks, muster rolls, cer-
to that time. Seven independent companies were organized           tificates of election, oaths of office, returns and copies of the
during the summer and fall of 1890, but the lack of State aid      military code, and such other supplies as may be authorized
caused the members to lose interest, and from December,            by law.” And yet no money is appropriated for this work and
1890, until April, 1891, hardly a drill was had. Another com-      expense.
pany known as “H” had been organized at Yuma, in January,               The lack of funds has greatly hampered the organization
1891, but pending the action of the Legislature nothing was        in its very department. Some blanks have been furnished
done towards equipping it.                                         from this office, but not what there should have been, as the
    The Code as adopted provides that “The organized militia       Adjutant General is not a Croesus.
shall consist of ten companies, *** of which the companies              [Further on in the report--]
now formed shall form a part. *** Infantry companies may be             There is now considerable call upon the time of the Adju-
organized into battalions of not less than two nor more than       tant general, by veterans of the Civil and Mexican wars, who
six companies, and such battalions into regiments of not less      ask for the assistance of this office in securing copies of lost
than two nor more than three battalions. To each regiment          discharges, etc., in seeking admission to Soldiers’ Homes and
there shall be one Colonel, one Lieutenant-Colonel, three          in other work. While it is not incumbent upon the Adjutant
Majors, *** who shall be commissioned by the Commander-            General to do this work, it would certainly not be humane to
In-Chief. *** Each company duly organized under the provi-         refuse any possible assistance to these aged veterans.
sions of this Code shall receive $30 per month to defray the            In short the office has now become one of importance, and
expenses of maintaining each company, said amount payable          should be recognized accordingly. There is no other State in
monthly out of any funds in the Territorial Treasury not oth-      the Union which pays this officer less than $1,000 per annum,
erwise appropriated. The said monthly installment to be paid       from that to $10,000, besides providing an office, pay for
upon the requisition of the commanding officer of such com-        clerks, etc. An examination of the work of the office will
pany, the same being accompanied by vouchers approved by           show that it is greater than that devolving upon any other Ter-
the Adjutant General.”                                             ritorial official excepting the Governor and Secretary.
    General Orders, No. 1, the first ever issued to the National         [The remainder of the report contains reasons why Ari-
Guard of Arizona, were promulgated from this office, April         zona needed the National Guard and why the Territorial legis-
23, directing the then existing companies to be mustered in        lature needed to fund the troops. This is an interesting docu-
under the new Code.           This resulted in a virtual re-       ment to read and compare to today’s National Guard needs.
organization, the different companies completing their muster      The National Guard of Arizona today faces many of the same
by May 30.                                                         problems with the state legislature that were experienced in
    [Further on in the report--]                                   1892; i.e. lack of building funds to repair existing armories.
    While the Code adopted was a start towards a military          This document may be found the Arizona Military Museum
                         ARIZONA MILITARY MUSEUM COURIER
                                (Published by the Arizona National Guard Historical Society, Inc.)

                                            MUSEUM LOCATION AND HOURS

     The Arizona Military Museum is located on the northeast corner of 52nd Street and McDowell Road. Enter at the main entrance
at 5600 East McDowell. The admission is FREE. The museum is open on Saturdays and on Sundays from 1:00 pm to 4:00 pm.
Since our officers and directors are volunteers, the museum hours are related to their (volunteers’) availability. Please call the mu-
seum to schedule tours beforehand to insure we’re not closed for holidays or the summer or for some other reason. The Ari-
zona Military Museum number is 602-267-2676 or you may call (602) 253-2378.

                                            A FEW GOOD MEN AND WOMEN

     You can help the Arizona National Guard Historical Society by becoming a member, by making a tax-deductible do-
nation, soliciting funds, by making the Historical Society a beneficiary in your will, or by donating historical artifacts. We
invite you to serve on the Board if you are interested in Arizona military history and if you are willing to give of your time
and effort to prioritize the museum activities in your already busy schedule. Call us if you are interested in becoming a
board member at (602) 267-2676.

Arizona National Guard Historical Society
Arizona Military Museum
5636 East McDowell Road
Phoenix, Arizona 85008-3495

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