Fifth Grade Main Idea Worksheets by dyv66640

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									   Teacher

      By

Mary Ann Larsen
  EDUC 5130

  Spring 2005
Mary Ann Larsen
   EDUC 5130
  Spring 2005
              Table of Contents

1.    Outline of Conceptual Organizer
2.    Overview
3.    Unit 1 Vocabulary
4.    Unit 2 Story Characters
5.    Unit 3 Exploring the Setting
6.    Unit 4 Identifying the Main Idea
7.    Unit 5 Theme Analysis
8.    Unit 6 Compare and Contrast Characters
10.   Unit 7 Generalizations & Conclusions
11.   Design Description
12.   Time Log
13.   Submission Form
14.   References
15.   Appendix
            The Adventures of Tom Sawyer for the Teacher
                               Outline

   Unit 1 – 4th grade
           Vocabulary
                    Definitions and Making sentences with context clues
                    Connecting concepts with writing exercise

   Unit 2 – 4th grade
           Story Characters
                    Introduce and describe Characters
                    Give examples from the text
                    Web sites to explore characters

   Unit 3 – 4th grade
           Describe the setting
                    Explore maps
                    Visit web sites with history of area
                    Illustrate setting with art activity

   Unit 4 – 4th grade
           Main Idea identified
                   Supporting details
           Theme analysis
                   Examples from the book to support theme

   Unit 5 – 4th grade
           Compare and Contrast characters
                    Activity with Venn diagram
                    Draw conclusions

   Unit 6 – 4th grade
           Problem and resolution
                    Identify story conflicts in groups
                    Identify how conflicts were resolved
                    Identify lessons learned

   Unit 7 – 4th grade
           Extensions
                    Calculate distance with maps to enrich math experience
                    Web quests to enrich technology in literature experience
                    Writing activity to better understand characters’
                    personalities
                    Art depiction of story characters
              THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                        FOR THE TEACHER

                               Overview

              The goal of my Instructional Unit was to understand and

improve the way fifth grade reading students received and teachers

delivered lessons corresponding to Mark Twain’s famous novel, The

Adventures of Tom Sawyer. I wanted to align units of instruction with

grade level requirements and provide more detail explaining why the

lesson was important to cognitive development. By using the Instructional

Unit with the novel, research will demonstrate significantly improved

student scores in reading. Prior to delivering the lesson, I provided

background information for the teacher in an attempt to point out

developmental principles and processing theories connected with each

unit. The development of the Instructional Unit was a fascinating and

effective approach for improving both teaching and understanding while

learning about a famous piece of American Literature.
                   ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                        INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                       Fifth G rad e
                         FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 1
                                                                VO CA BUL AR Y
                         BY Mary Ann Larsen




    Teacher Background Information

         Children need background knowledge of the concepts, basic
    vocabulary and ―modified‖ vocabulary (jargon) of the subject matter to
    sufficiently understand the material they are being asked to read. Without
    grasping the concept, students have trouble understanding the main idea
    of the text.       The vocabulary base comes from exposure to a word’s
    meaning and grows out of repeated exposure to that word in a variety of
    contexts, both heard and read. In this unit, fifth grade students will play
    ―Dictionary Race‖ and make sentences with ―Context Clues.‖

Materials

●   240 ruled 3 x 5 index cards
●   Class set of dictionaries
●   Paper and pencils
●   Enough copies of “Context Clues” for each student in class

Activity

         Write new words on word cards into appropriately sized cards.
    Give each student a dictionary. Hold up one word at a time for
    students and let them race to find it in the dictionary. The first
    student to find the word needs to correctly state the page number on
    which he or she found it in order to earn a point. Then give every
    student time to find the correct page and to copy the definitions onto
    index cards or writing paper. Mark sure everyone is finished before
    you continue on to the next word. The student with the most points
    at the end of the game wins.
             ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                    INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                Fifth G rad e
                     FOR THE TEACHER                 Re ad ing Un it 1
                                                     VO CA BUL AR Y
                    By Mary Ann Larsen
                        Continued

Vocabulary List
     Chapters 1-8                Chapters 9-15

     ● perplexed                 ● derision

     ● melancholy                ● regalia

     ● tranquilly                ● alloy

     ● alacrity                  ● impudence

     ● ambuscade                 ● rendezvous

     ● mortified                 ● apprehensively

    Chapters 16-22      Chapters 23-30     Chapter 31-36

     ● mutinous                  ● solitary         ● vagabond

     ● stupendous                ● prosecution      ● lucid

     ● persistently              ● auspices         ● proprietor

     ● eloquent                  ● infested         ● oppressive

     ● vexation                  ● haggard          ● fatigue

     ● lacerate                  ● defense          ● perilous

     ● urchin                    ● delirium         ● apathy

     ● immense                   ● verdict          ● somber

     ● oppressive                ● delirium         ● episode

     ● onslaught                 ● apprehensive     ● posse
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                     Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                      Re ad ing Un it 1
                                                             VO CA BUL AR Y
                       BY Mary Ann Larsen
                           Continued

Data Collection

    Move around the room and observe the students as they write
definitions and words onto index cards. Check each students work.
When all students have completed their task, continue onto the next word
and tally the points on the chalkboard.

Sentences with Context Clues

   Conduct a class discussion giving each student a turn to make a
sentence with a vocabulary word. Students who guess correctly what the
vocabulary word means get a point. Encourage students to use their
context clues. Provide a ―Context Clues‖ handout and read over it before
asking students to use it with vocabulary.

Follow Up Activities
   1. Play ―Charades‖ with the new words. Divide the class into two
      teams. Have students take turns acting out the definitions.
   2. Use index cards to play a matching game. Ask students to put their
      new words on one set of cards and definitions on another set. Ask
      students to spread the cards out facedown-word set on one side,
      definition on the other. Tell students the object of the game is to
      match the words with definitions. Each time students make a
      match, they keep the pair of cards. The students who have the
      most cards at the end of the game win.

Assessment

   Create a one page matching test for each chapter unit. Make enough
copies for each student in your class. Review the words a day before you
administer the test. Conduct an assessment after each unit and a
cumulative assessment at the end of the novel.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                       Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                   STO R Y
                                                               CH AR ACT E R S
                        BY Mary Ann Larsen




  Teacher Background Information

        An obvious cultural difference in Mark Twain’s book is in the language.
  By the third line of the novel, the main character of Mark Twain’s book is
  already in trouble, and that is the way he remains for nearly the entire
  book. Tom Sawyer, an impish but charming boy, enjoys everything about
  growing up on the banks of the Mississippi except going to school and
  sitting still.
        In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain’s characters speak
  Southern dialect. One reason was that Twain was a master of Southern
  dialect and its many variations. When Twain went on speaking tours, he
  often entertained his audiences by reading or speaking in thick Southern
  dialects. Recently-discovered evidence shows that Twain worked and
  reworked the spellings of words in his written work to get the dialect just
  right. Today, however, readers sometimes find the dialects difficult to
  understand.

Materials

● Paper and pencils
● Enough copies of “Southern Dialect” for each student in class
● Computer with Internet access

Activity

        To become acquainted with these speaking patterns before reading
the novel, students will need to find a partner and try to read the
sentences below aloud. Then try to translate the sentences into modern
English.
        Allow students to explore the list of Mark Twain web sites for more
information on the characters in his story. Then, test your ―Southern
Dialect‖ with the attached quiz also found at
http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                      Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                       Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                  STO R Y
                                                              CH AR ACT E R S
                       BY Mary Ann Larsen
                           Continued


Activity continued

       Assess students understanding of the characters with a letter
writing activity. To accommodate visual learners, students make
character webs and display in class.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                        Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                         Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                    STO R Y
                                                                CH AR ACT E R S
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                            Continued

Southern Dialect Sentences


  1. ―Tom, it was a middling warm in school, warn’t it?‖
     ______________________________


  ________________________________________________________
  _________________
  2. ―Oh, I dasn’t, mars Tom. Ole missis she’d take an’ tar de head off’n
     me. Deed she would.‖
     ______________________________________________________
     _________


  _________________________________________________________
  ________________
  3. ―Well Sid don’t torment a body the way you do. You’d be always
     into that sugar if I warn’t watching you.‖
     ______________________________________________________
     ____


  _________________________________________________________
  ________________
  4. ―I’m a-laying up sin and suffering for us both, I know. He’s full of the
     Old Scratch, but laws-a-me! He’s my own dead sister’s boy, poor
     thing…‖ ________________________
              ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                    INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                       Fifth G rad e
                     FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                STO R Y
                                                            CH AR ACT E R S
                     By Mary Ann Larsen
                         Continued

Southern Dialect Sentences continued


5. ―Can’t, Mars Tom. Old missis, she tole me I got to go an’ git dis
   water an’ not stop fooling roun’ wid anybody.‖
   ______________________________________________________
   _________________



_________________________________________________________

_________________
                   ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                         INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                        Fifth G rad e
                          FOR THE TEACHER                         Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                      STO R Y
                                                                  CH AR ACT E R S
                          BY Mary Ann Larsen
                              Continued

Data Collection

    Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to
translate the sentences into modern English. Check each students work.
When all students have completed their task, instruct them to complete
the ―Southern Dialect‖ quiz on the computer (0% is pure Yankee and
100% is pure Dixie). The site automatically computes their scores.
Discuss the results.

Southern Dialect Quiz
http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm


Follow Up Activities
1. Many students need to better understand characters' personalities in
literature. Explore web sites with author and character information. Ask
students to briefly describe each of the following characters on a separate
piece of notebook paper. Discuss a character trait common to the group.
Brainstorm and list this character's traits.
        1.    Mark Twain
        2.    Tom Sawyer
        3.    Aunt Polly
        4.    Huck
        5.    Becky Thatcher

http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html
http://www.pbs.org/marktwain/
http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/tomsawyer/

Assessment

         To help students think about how a character feels about life,
students pretend to be one character writing a letter to another character
from the story. Share the letters and discuss
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                        Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                         Re ad ing Un it 2
                                                                    STO R Y
                                                                CH AR ACT E R S
                        BY Mary Ann Larsen
                            Continued

character traits. Make a bulletin board of the letters, leave off the names
and guess who the characters are, correspond with a character (student
write both letters, or use partners),
make a web of a character's traits.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                         Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 3
                                                              E X PLO RI NG TH E
                                                                   S ETT ING
                        BY Mary Ann Larsen




  Teacher Background Information

       A Swiss developmentalist named Jean Piaget believed that children
  are not just passive receivers of environmental stimulation; he believed
  that, instead, they are naturally curious about their world and actively seek
  out information to help them understand and make sense of it. In this
  lesson, the teacher will provide experiences to help students construct an
  increasingly more accurate and complete understanding of the stories
  setting.
       Hannibal, Missouri is the dusty little town on the Mississippi River
  where Mark Twain (born Samuel Langhorne Clemens November 30,
  1835, in Florida, Missouri) spent his boyhood and is the place upon which
  he based the setting of Tom Sawyer. Students will investigate facts about
  Hannibal with a historic map and illustrate places along the Mississippi
  River the boys visited.

Materials

● Enough copies of the “Historic Chamber of Commerce Map” for
each student in class
● United States Map (class poster)
● (12) 12 inch rulers
● Construction paper
● Colored Pencils and eraser

Activity
        Assess students understanding of the historic map as they identify
the following locations. Mark each place with a matching colored pencil.
        1. Mississippi River             6. Site of Huck Finn’s old home
        2. River front/Steamboat landing 7. Site of Joe Harper’s house
        3. Becky Thatcher’s Home         8. Turtle Island
        4. Mark Twain’s Home             9. Jackson Island
        5. Muff Potter’s jail site       10. Mark Twain Cave
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                         Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 3
                                                              E X PLO RI NG TH E
                                                                   S ETT ING
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                            Continued

Chamber of Commerce Historic Map – Hannibal, Missouri
Map attached.
Data Collection

    Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to
locate points of interest. Check each students work.

Follow Up Activities
    When all students have completed their data collection task, instruct
them to find Missouri on the United States Map posted in the classroom.
Locate the Mississippi River and Hannibal. Use the U. S. maps scale and
a ruler to measure the distance from Hannibal, Missouri to where our
school is located. Calculate the mileage between these two points.

Assessment
       Students apply their new knowledge of Mark Twin’s Boyhood
Home, Hannibal, Missouri, and the Mississippi River with an art activity.
Instruct students to choose a chapter from the novel and illustrate the
setting. The setting must be neat, colorful, and include at least three
labeled historic places previously located on the Chamber of Commerce
Historic Map.
                ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                      INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                        Fifth G rad e
                       FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 4
                                                            ID EN TIF Y IN G T H E
                                                                MA I N I D EA
                       BY Mary Ann Larsen




  Teacher Background Information

      In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer chapters 16 – 22, Tom, Huck, and
  Joe set off to Jackson Island, across the river from home to live out their
  Pirate adventure. As students look back at this period of time they without
  a doubt will benefit more from acquiring facts, concepts, and ideas in an
  integrated, interrelated, and meaningful fashion as the teacher
  emphasizes conceptual understanding. Students will be asked to teach
  what they have learned to others—a task that encourages them to focus
  on main ideas, pulling them together in a way that makes sense.

Materials

● Internet search engine to find Web sites about pirates
● White construction paper, crayons, used damp tea bag large

Activity

       Students in groups of three investigate pirates from ancient
  times. One member is the research gatherer, one is the writer, and
  one is the illustrator. Together they answer questions: What type of
  coins or other loot might pirates have found aboard ships in the
  1800’s? What type of equipment did pirates use to hunt for
  treasures? What types of ships did pirates use? Each group writes
  an illustrated one page report and shares their findings with the
  class.
  http://www.piratesinfo.com/
  http://www.vleonica.com/lafitte1.htm
  http://www.vleonica.com/pirates.htm
  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/pirates/maina.html
  http://www.mariner.org//educationalad/ageofex/drake.php
  http://historicbeaufort.com/blackbeard1.htm
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                         Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                         Re ad ing Un it 4
                                                              ID EN TIF Y IN G T H E
                                                                  MA I N I D EA
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                            Continued

  http://208.234.21.196/captain.htm
  http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/kidd.html
  http://pirateannie.fateback.com/

Data Collection

    Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to
locate information on pirates. Check each students work and how
students work together in a group. Instruct students to share
responsibilities for gathering and producing information.

Follow Up Activities
   When all students have completed their data collection task, instruct
them to present their groups’ illustrated report to the whole class.

Assessment

      Make A Treasure Map




Have the children draw an island on their construction paper. Write the
name of the water that surrounds their island (ocean, bay, cove, lake) on
the map. Draw a compass rose in the lower right hand corner of the
treasure map.

Things to include on the island: symbols for hills, mountains, pond, lakes,
forest, and trees, big X to mark where the treasure is.

When the treasure maps are finished age the maps by pressing a damp
tea bag all over it. Tear the jagged edges all round the treasure map to
make it look rough.
                ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                      INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                       Fifth G rad e
                       FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 5

                                                            TH E ME A NA L YS I S
                       By Mary Ann Larsen




  Teacher Background Information

        One of the reasons Mark Twain’s writing has become a classic piece
  of literature is because it affects the reader’s senses. The sensory
  register is the component of memory that holds information that you
  receive through your senses; hearing, seeing, tasting, and feeling. In this
  lesson, students read to make connections with examples from small town
  life in Missouri that support themes and sensory impressions. In doing so,
  they move information from the sensory register into working memory and
  eventually long-term memory for processing and retrieval.

       Working memory, also known as short-term memory, is processed
  further because of its short duration, five to twenty seconds. The teacher
  uses scaffolding to support the students in their efforts to analyze a
  chapters theme as they begin to understand how information received
  through the reader’s senses involves connecting new information to prior
  knowledge.

      Long-term memory is where we’ve stored our knowledge about
  various behaviors. Information processing theorists believe that related
  pieces of information in long-term memory are often connected with one
  another through a process of meaningful learning. In this lesson, we will
  attempt to recognize a relationship between new information and
  something else already stored in long-term memory as themes are
  analyzed.

Materials

● 33 - 3x5 ruled index cards with one term from the list printed at the
top
● Old newspapers and magazines
● One white poster board for every two students
● Pencils and notebook paper
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                      Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                       Re ad ing Un it 5

                                                             TH E ME A NA L YS I S
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                            Continued

Activity

       On the chalkboard define ―theme‖ for students as a main topic or
  subject of elaboration and remind them that ―theme‖ is often
  repeated in different forms of presentation throughout a chapter.
  Write the theme adventure. Ask students for examples to support
  this theme. Suggest Mark Twain’s famous novel.

       Then, begin this meaningful learning set by asking students to
  work in pairs with a pair of terms written on index cards. Then break
  out students into groups of two, each student making notes on an
  index card defining what their term means to them. Allow a
  dictionary to clarify misunderstandings: dreary mood;
  reconciliation; vindictive; joyful; admiration; betraying;
  stuck-up; guiltiness; mischievous; grieving; anxious;
  gratefulness; affection; chaos; attentive; unwelcoming;
  capable; loving; smothering; muster; awed; glorified;
  lonesome; stifling; companionship; furious; mysterious;
  sumptuous; light-hearted; fixed-hopes; solemn;
  perishing hope; oppressiveness.

Data Collection

   Ask questions in class that test students’ understanding of the things
presented in order to help them keep their minds on the assignment.
Encourage students to take notes; research tells us that note taking
usually helps students learn information, partly because it makes them
pay attention to what they are hearing.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                                                               Fifth G rad e
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                                                              Re ad ing Un it 5
                        FOR THE TEACHER
                                                            TH E ME A NA L YS I S
                       By Mary Ann Larsen
                           Continued

Follow Up Activities
    When all students have completed their meaningful learning set with
index cards, instruct them to communicate their knowledge of the terms to
each other in their paired group. Then, organize the information on poster
boards with existing knowledge using pictures from newspapers or
magazines that represent each term. Display them in class and discuss.

                                                                             Picture



                                                                         Knowledge



                                                                             TERM




Assessment
        Students use information to effectively write a theme analysis.
Students select a chapter and provide examples from the story to support
its theme. Students should use the information received in class and
posters displayed to fill in missing details and draw inferences as they
recall from long-term memory.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                      INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                       Fifth G rad e
                       FOR THE TEACHER                        Re ad ing Un it 6

                                                              CO MP A R E A ND
                       By Mary Ann Larsen
                                                               CO NT RA S T
                                                              CH AR ACT E R S




  Teacher Background Information

       In this lesson students will be asked to consider multiple perspectives
  of the stories’ characters. You will find that different students will have
  different knowledge bases, including different schemas and scripts that
  they will use to make sense of the characters. Students of diverse cultural
  backgrounds may impose unique meanings and/or may have trouble
  making any sense of the characters because they lack the knowledge
  base necessary for understanding the characters. Teachers can increase
  the students’ multicultural awareness by promoting multiple constructions
  of the characters. Ultimately, helping our students understand and
  appreciate the fact that there may be several, equally valid interpretations
  of a character.


Materials

● Venn diagram (2) on overhead with vis a vis marker and tissue
● Southern Cooking recipes
● Percussion instruments such as tambourines, maracas, triangles,
  rasps, cymbals
● Southern instruments such as guitars, banjo, washboard and
  thimbles, spoons
● small tin coffee cans with beans sealed inside to use as an
instrument
● cardboard roll, wax paper, and rubber bands to make kazoos
● comb and tissue paper harmonica
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                      Fifth G rad e
                        FOR THE TEACHER                       Re ad ing Un it 6

                                                             CO MP A R E A ND
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                                                              CO NT RA S T
                            Continued                        CH AR ACT E R S

Activity

        Music is a way for people to express their hopes, dreams, fears,
and disappointments. Tom Sawyer certainly would have listened to
music at church or at a picnic. Music has always been a part of
Southern culture and a major influence across the United States. Have
students collect examples of the various kinds of music listed below and
listen to them in class while students work quietly on seatwork. Choose
two or three famous songs for students to play-along with in class.

             ● Country            ● Western swing
             ● Bluegrass          ● Zydeco
             ● Cajun              ● Gospel

      Visit the following web sites for great information on Southern
music in the United States. Set the purpose for discussion by asking
students to find the history of bluegrass or one of the other music
genres listed above.
               1. Southern Gospel Music Association at
                      http://www.sgma.org/
              2. Southern Music Network at
                      http://www.southernmusic.net/
              3. Brief history of Cajun, Creole, and Zydeco music
                      http://www.lsue.edu/acadgate/music/history.htm
                      and samples of music at

             http://www.vanguardrecords.com/Creolebred/home.html
             4. PBS Bluegrass History with a Timeline and sample
             songs

      http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/shows/bluegrass/bluegrass.html
              5. History of Western Swing at
                    http://nfo.net/usa/weswing.html
                    and with sample songs at

             http://www.roughstock.com/history/westernswing.html
             6. Country Music History at
                     http://www.countrymusicplanet.com/history/
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                        FOR THE TEACHER                       Fifth G rad e
                                                             Re ad ing Un it 6

                       By Mary Ann Larsen                    CO MP A R E A ND
                           Continued                          CO NT RA S T
                                                             CH AR ACT E R S

             7. Mississippi River of Song by PBS at
                   http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/music/
                   and artists in the area of Tom Sawyer’s home

             http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/artists/e2-home.html


Data Collection

    In a whole class discussion, use two Venn diagrams on the overhead
to compare the following characters similarities and differences. Ask
students how Tom Sawyer is like Huck Finn? How are they different?
How is Aunt Polly like Becky Thatcher? How are they different? Discuss
the students understanding of each character. Ask students to find
sentences in the novel to support their knowledge of each character. Ask
students to respond with a brief explanation on paper why they would
choose one character over another. Listen to Southern music while
working quietly in seats. Share responses in class.


      ● Tom Sawyer               ● Aunt Polly
      ● Huck Finn                ● Becky Thatcher

Follow Up Activities
    Have fun making old-fashioned music in class by making some simple
instruments found in the materials list above. Practice playing the
homemade instruments, percussion instruments, and Southern
instruments in class. Then, have a Southern Celebration day in the
classroom. Invite other classmates or family members to take part in the
celebration. Southerners are famous for their hospitality. Add some of the
great Southern dishes for sampling famous foods. Allow students to play
instruments to prerecorded Southern music.
                 ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                        FOR THE TEACHER                       Fifth G rad e
                                                             Re ad ing Un it 6

                       By Mary Ann Larsen                    CO MP A R E A ND
                           Continued                          CO NT RA S T
                                                             CH AR ACT E R S

Assessment


       Write a short illustrated essay sharing something you’ve learned
about the characters and Southern culture after completing this lesson.
              ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                    INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT                     Fifth G rad e
                     FOR THE TEACHER                      Re ad ing Un it 7

                                                       G en e ra liz ati on s and
                     By Mary Ann Larsen
                                                           Con clu s ion s




Teacher Background Information
     In this lesson students will be encouraged to elaborate on material
found in the novel or to expand on it using things they already know to
make generalizations and draw conclusions. Research studies show that
this process of elaboration facilitates learning and memory. Elaboration
appears relatively late in child development (usually around puberty) and
gradually increases throughout the teenage years. As students organize
what they already know a new knowledge that is uniquely their own
emerges.

Materials

● Generalizations and Conclusions handouts
● Interpreting Quotations worksheets

Activity

    As an overview, read aloud with students the handout titled
Generalizations and Conclusions. Explain how facts are determined by
drawing conclusions as we travel a path asking questions as to who,
what, where, when, and how events occurred. Then, discuss how
crossing over from fact to opinion might mean seeing something from
someone else’s point of view. Mention events from the story to provide
examples:

    With so many problems at home, Tom and his friends Huck and
Joe decide to                   leave town, running away to Jackson
Island. While the boys are off pretending to        be pirates, the
townspeople conclude that the boys have drowned. When the boys
    return, they show up at their own funerals and become heroes.

   Ask students, what conclusions can be based on this
passage?
                  ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                       NSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                        FOR THE TEACHER                            Fifth G rad e
                                                                  Re ad ing Un it 7
                        By Mary Ann Larsen
                                                             G en e ra liz ati on s and
                            Continued                            Con clu s ion s


  Tom and his friends are still alive.
     Ask students, how do you know? Is this a fact or an opinion?

      Huck and Tom find Injun Joe’s treasure in the cave and become
  wealthy.
      Huck discovers, however, that wealth is not as valuable as
  freedom.

     Ask students, what generalization can you make based on this
  passage?

       Huck rather have freedom to roam the riverbanks than be wealthy.
       Ask students, do you agree with this statement? Why or why
       not?

Data Collection

    Students are to complete the Interpreting Quotations worksheet on a
    separate sheet of paper, explain the meaning of the quotations.
    Explain why it is a conclusion or a generalization. The teacher should
    move around the room and observe students as they complete the
    activity.
Follow Up Activities
    Students discuss their findings of the Interpreting Quotations. Which
students chose fact and which chose opinion? Ask students, how did
someone else’s interpretation change your opinion?

Assessment
         Students are to complete the Tom Sawyer WebQuests at
http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/ts/viewTrack.do?number=108041
and submit their scores on the quiz at the end of the Webquest.
                            References

1. Character information. Retrieved April 4, 2005 from
http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html
http://www.pbs.org/marktwain/
http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/tomsawyer/

2. Southern Dialect Quiz. Retrieved April 4, 2005 from
http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm

3. Mark Twain Map. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from
http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html

4. Pirate Information. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from
 http://www.piratesinfo.com/
 http://www.vleonica.com/lafitte1.htm
 http://www.vleonica.com/pirates.htm
 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/pirates/maina.html
 http://www.mariner.org//educationalad/ageofex/drake.php
 http://historicbeaufort.com/blackbeard1.htm
 http://208.234.21.196/captain.htm
 http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/kidd.html
 http://pirateannie.fateback.com/

5.   Southern Music. Retrieved April 15, 2005 from
          1. Southern Gospel Music Association at
                 http://www.sgma.org/
          4. Southern Music Network at
                 http://www.southernmusic.net/
          5. Brief history of Cajun, Creole, and Zydeco music
                 http://www.lsue.edu/acadgate/music/history.htm
                 and samples of music at

           http://www.vanguardrecords.com/Creolebred/home.html
           4. PBS Bluegrass History with a Timeline and sample
           songs

     http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/shows/bluegrass/bluegrass.html

           4. History of Western Swing at
                  http://nfo.net/usa/weswing.html
                  and with sample songs at

           http://www.roughstock.com/history/westernswing.html
           5. Country Music History at
                   http://www.countrymusicplanet.com/history/
                    References Continued

        6. Mississippi River of Song by PBS at
              http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/music/
              and artists in the area of Tom Sawyer’s home

         http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/artists/e2-home.html


The Guide for Using The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in the
Classroom. (2002). Teacher Created Materials. Eyles, K: Author.

Tom Sawyer WebQuests. Retrieved April 15, 2005 from,
http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/ts/viewTrack.do?number=10
8041

Generalizations and Conclusions. (2000). GF Educators, Inc.
               THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                        INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                         FOR THE TEACHER

                         Design Description

        Designing the Instructional Unit (IU) will probably be best
remembered for the pleasure I received in just watching my ideas unfold
before my very eyes. After spending time reflecting on the ―Information
Processing Theory‖ and how meaningful information can be organized to
improve comprehension, I began catching schemas with my pencil and
paper as they flowed from my long term memory.
        As I sat drawing clusters of major components in traditional reading
instruction, a working map developed. This map would later turn out to be
my outline for the IU called ―The Adventures of Tom Sawyer for the
Teacher.‖ A brief description of the required project elements was
provided and I began gathering graphics for my cover page.
        Several hours was spent just figuring out how the first IU would
look. My left brain was at work. At first I thought two columns would be
better, besides, I already had a newsletter template that could be used.
This didn’t work out though, not enough space to fit all the information my
individual IU’s had to deliver. I settled on the full 8 1/2 x 11 pages and
was glad I did.
        After constructing my first IU and applying colors with a critical eye
it dawned on me that this novel was first published in 1876. Regular white
paper wouldn’t do, I had to make the paper look old. So, I purchased
paper that looked old. Wonderful, the visuals were complete.
        The next step was downloading Inspiration for its organizational
features. This took a couple of days but well worth the effort because I
really enjoy its outline-to-web feature. This big step in the process
plunged me further into critically thinking about the contents within each
IU.
        Settling on the seven IU’s my project contains was an easy task:
Vocabulary, Story Characters, Exploring the Setting, Identifying the Main
              THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
                        INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT
                         FOR THE TEACHER

                         Design Description
                             Continued


Idea, Theme Analysis, Compare & Contrast Characters, Generalizations &
Conclusions. Only one title was changed, that of Generalizations &
Conclusions. It was originally Story Problem & Resolution.
        Providing background information for the teacher required me to
reflect on the reason for a learning activity. Applying what I know about
cognitive development and theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Erickson, and
Information Processing theorists was challenging. Their theories served
to support my choices of activities. In most cases though, the activity
came before the theory was correlated.
        I wanted my IU’s to be interesting, fun, and provide opportunities to
share. Again, this unfolded as I searched the Internet for cultural
information about the South and the Mississippi River. The region where
this story takes place, Missouri, is rich with history of Mark Twain.
Locating historical information on Southern music was enjoyable as I
listened to the different genres detailed in IU6. It is my hope this IU will
become a user friendly tool for other reading teachers interested in
studying with children The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

								
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