Teacher By Mary Ann Larsen EDUC 5130 Spring 2005 Mary Ann Larsen EDUC 5130 Spring 2005 Table of Contents 1. Outline of Conceptual Organizer 2. Overview 3. Unit 1 Vocabulary 4. Unit 2 Story Characters 5. Unit 3 Exploring the Setting 6. Unit 4 Identifying the Main Idea 7. Unit 5 Theme Analysis 8. Unit 6 Compare and Contrast Characters 10. Unit 7 Generalizations & Conclusions 11. Design Description 12. Time Log 13. Submission Form 14. References 15. Appendix The Adventures of Tom Sawyer for the Teacher Outline Unit 1 – 4th grade Vocabulary Definitions and Making sentences with context clues Connecting concepts with writing exercise Unit 2 – 4th grade Story Characters Introduce and describe Characters Give examples from the text Web sites to explore characters Unit 3 – 4th grade Describe the setting Explore maps Visit web sites with history of area Illustrate setting with art activity Unit 4 – 4th grade Main Idea identified Supporting details Theme analysis Examples from the book to support theme Unit 5 – 4th grade Compare and Contrast characters Activity with Venn diagram Draw conclusions Unit 6 – 4th grade Problem and resolution Identify story conflicts in groups Identify how conflicts were resolved Identify lessons learned Unit 7 – 4th grade Extensions Calculate distance with maps to enrich math experience Web quests to enrich technology in literature experience Writing activity to better understand characters’ personalities Art depiction of story characters THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Overview The goal of my Instructional Unit was to understand and improve the way fifth grade reading students received and teachers delivered lessons corresponding to Mark Twain’s famous novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. I wanted to align units of instruction with grade level requirements and provide more detail explaining why the lesson was important to cognitive development. By using the Instructional Unit with the novel, research will demonstrate significantly improved student scores in reading. Prior to delivering the lesson, I provided background information for the teacher in an attempt to point out developmental principles and processing theories connected with each unit. The development of the Instructional Unit was a fascinating and effective approach for improving both teaching and understanding while learning about a famous piece of American Literature. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 1 VO CA BUL AR Y BY Mary Ann Larsen Teacher Background Information Children need background knowledge of the concepts, basic vocabulary and ―modified‖ vocabulary (jargon) of the subject matter to sufficiently understand the material they are being asked to read. Without grasping the concept, students have trouble understanding the main idea of the text. The vocabulary base comes from exposure to a word’s meaning and grows out of repeated exposure to that word in a variety of contexts, both heard and read. In this unit, fifth grade students will play ―Dictionary Race‖ and make sentences with ―Context Clues.‖ Materials ● 240 ruled 3 x 5 index cards ● Class set of dictionaries ● Paper and pencils ● Enough copies of “Context Clues” for each student in class Activity Write new words on word cards into appropriately sized cards. Give each student a dictionary. Hold up one word at a time for students and let them race to find it in the dictionary. The first student to find the word needs to correctly state the page number on which he or she found it in order to earn a point. Then give every student time to find the correct page and to copy the definitions onto index cards or writing paper. Mark sure everyone is finished before you continue on to the next word. The student with the most points at the end of the game wins. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 1 VO CA BUL AR Y By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Vocabulary List Chapters 1-8 Chapters 9-15 ● perplexed ● derision ● melancholy ● regalia ● tranquilly ● alloy ● alacrity ● impudence ● ambuscade ● rendezvous ● mortified ● apprehensively Chapters 16-22 Chapters 23-30 Chapter 31-36 ● mutinous ● solitary ● vagabond ● stupendous ● prosecution ● lucid ● persistently ● auspices ● proprietor ● eloquent ● infested ● oppressive ● vexation ● haggard ● fatigue ● lacerate ● defense ● perilous ● urchin ● delirium ● apathy ● immense ● verdict ● somber ● oppressive ● delirium ● episode ● onslaught ● apprehensive ● posse ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 1 VO CA BUL AR Y BY Mary Ann Larsen Continued Data Collection Move around the room and observe the students as they write definitions and words onto index cards. Check each students work. When all students have completed their task, continue onto the next word and tally the points on the chalkboard. Sentences with Context Clues Conduct a class discussion giving each student a turn to make a sentence with a vocabulary word. Students who guess correctly what the vocabulary word means get a point. Encourage students to use their context clues. Provide a ―Context Clues‖ handout and read over it before asking students to use it with vocabulary. Follow Up Activities 1. Play ―Charades‖ with the new words. Divide the class into two teams. Have students take turns acting out the definitions. 2. Use index cards to play a matching game. Ask students to put their new words on one set of cards and definitions on another set. Ask students to spread the cards out facedown-word set on one side, definition on the other. Tell students the object of the game is to match the words with definitions. Each time students make a match, they keep the pair of cards. The students who have the most cards at the end of the game win. Assessment Create a one page matching test for each chapter unit. Make enough copies for each student in your class. Review the words a day before you administer the test. Conduct an assessment after each unit and a cumulative assessment at the end of the novel. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S BY Mary Ann Larsen Teacher Background Information An obvious cultural difference in Mark Twain’s book is in the language. By the third line of the novel, the main character of Mark Twain’s book is already in trouble, and that is the way he remains for nearly the entire book. Tom Sawyer, an impish but charming boy, enjoys everything about growing up on the banks of the Mississippi except going to school and sitting still. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain’s characters speak Southern dialect. One reason was that Twain was a master of Southern dialect and its many variations. When Twain went on speaking tours, he often entertained his audiences by reading or speaking in thick Southern dialects. Recently-discovered evidence shows that Twain worked and reworked the spellings of words in his written work to get the dialect just right. Today, however, readers sometimes find the dialects difficult to understand. Materials ● Paper and pencils ● Enough copies of “Southern Dialect” for each student in class ● Computer with Internet access Activity To become acquainted with these speaking patterns before reading the novel, students will need to find a partner and try to read the sentences below aloud. Then try to translate the sentences into modern English. Allow students to explore the list of Mark Twain web sites for more information on the characters in his story. Then, test your ―Southern Dialect‖ with the attached quiz also found at http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S BY Mary Ann Larsen Continued Activity continued Assess students understanding of the characters with a letter writing activity. To accommodate visual learners, students make character webs and display in class. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Southern Dialect Sentences 1. ―Tom, it was a middling warm in school, warn’t it?‖ ______________________________ ________________________________________________________ _________________ 2. ―Oh, I dasn’t, mars Tom. Ole missis she’d take an’ tar de head off’n me. Deed she would.‖ ______________________________________________________ _________ _________________________________________________________ ________________ 3. ―Well Sid don’t torment a body the way you do. You’d be always into that sugar if I warn’t watching you.‖ ______________________________________________________ ____ _________________________________________________________ ________________ 4. ―I’m a-laying up sin and suffering for us both, I know. He’s full of the Old Scratch, but laws-a-me! He’s my own dead sister’s boy, poor thing…‖ ________________________ ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Southern Dialect Sentences continued 5. ―Can’t, Mars Tom. Old missis, she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop fooling roun’ wid anybody.‖ ______________________________________________________ _________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________ ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S BY Mary Ann Larsen Continued Data Collection Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to translate the sentences into modern English. Check each students work. When all students have completed their task, instruct them to complete the ―Southern Dialect‖ quiz on the computer (0% is pure Yankee and 100% is pure Dixie). The site automatically computes their scores. Discuss the results. Southern Dialect Quiz http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm Follow Up Activities 1. Many students need to better understand characters' personalities in literature. Explore web sites with author and character information. Ask students to briefly describe each of the following characters on a separate piece of notebook paper. Discuss a character trait common to the group. Brainstorm and list this character's traits. 1. Mark Twain 2. Tom Sawyer 3. Aunt Polly 4. Huck 5. Becky Thatcher http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html http://www.pbs.org/marktwain/ http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/tomsawyer/ Assessment To help students think about how a character feels about life, students pretend to be one character writing a letter to another character from the story. Share the letters and discuss ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 2 STO R Y CH AR ACT E R S BY Mary Ann Larsen Continued character traits. Make a bulletin board of the letters, leave off the names and guess who the characters are, correspond with a character (student write both letters, or use partners), make a web of a character's traits. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 3 E X PLO RI NG TH E S ETT ING BY Mary Ann Larsen Teacher Background Information A Swiss developmentalist named Jean Piaget believed that children are not just passive receivers of environmental stimulation; he believed that, instead, they are naturally curious about their world and actively seek out information to help them understand and make sense of it. In this lesson, the teacher will provide experiences to help students construct an increasingly more accurate and complete understanding of the stories setting. Hannibal, Missouri is the dusty little town on the Mississippi River where Mark Twain (born Samuel Langhorne Clemens November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri) spent his boyhood and is the place upon which he based the setting of Tom Sawyer. Students will investigate facts about Hannibal with a historic map and illustrate places along the Mississippi River the boys visited. Materials ● Enough copies of the “Historic Chamber of Commerce Map” for each student in class ● United States Map (class poster) ● (12) 12 inch rulers ● Construction paper ● Colored Pencils and eraser Activity Assess students understanding of the historic map as they identify the following locations. Mark each place with a matching colored pencil. 1. Mississippi River 6. Site of Huck Finn’s old home 2. River front/Steamboat landing 7. Site of Joe Harper’s house 3. Becky Thatcher’s Home 8. Turtle Island 4. Mark Twain’s Home 9. Jackson Island 5. Muff Potter’s jail site 10. Mark Twain Cave ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 3 E X PLO RI NG TH E S ETT ING By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Chamber of Commerce Historic Map – Hannibal, Missouri Map attached. Data Collection Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to locate points of interest. Check each students work. Follow Up Activities When all students have completed their data collection task, instruct them to find Missouri on the United States Map posted in the classroom. Locate the Mississippi River and Hannibal. Use the U. S. maps scale and a ruler to measure the distance from Hannibal, Missouri to where our school is located. Calculate the mileage between these two points. Assessment Students apply their new knowledge of Mark Twin’s Boyhood Home, Hannibal, Missouri, and the Mississippi River with an art activity. Instruct students to choose a chapter from the novel and illustrate the setting. The setting must be neat, colorful, and include at least three labeled historic places previously located on the Chamber of Commerce Historic Map. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 4 ID EN TIF Y IN G T H E MA I N I D EA BY Mary Ann Larsen Teacher Background Information In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer chapters 16 – 22, Tom, Huck, and Joe set off to Jackson Island, across the river from home to live out their Pirate adventure. As students look back at this period of time they without a doubt will benefit more from acquiring facts, concepts, and ideas in an integrated, interrelated, and meaningful fashion as the teacher emphasizes conceptual understanding. Students will be asked to teach what they have learned to others—a task that encourages them to focus on main ideas, pulling them together in a way that makes sense. Materials ● Internet search engine to find Web sites about pirates ● White construction paper, crayons, used damp tea bag large Activity Students in groups of three investigate pirates from ancient times. One member is the research gatherer, one is the writer, and one is the illustrator. Together they answer questions: What type of coins or other loot might pirates have found aboard ships in the 1800’s? What type of equipment did pirates use to hunt for treasures? What types of ships did pirates use? Each group writes an illustrated one page report and shares their findings with the class. http://www.piratesinfo.com/ http://www.vleonica.com/lafitte1.htm http://www.vleonica.com/pirates.htm http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/pirates/maina.html http://www.mariner.org//educationalad/ageofex/drake.php http://historicbeaufort.com/blackbeard1.htm ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 4 ID EN TIF Y IN G T H E MA I N I D EA By Mary Ann Larsen Continued http://184.108.40.206/captain.htm http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/kidd.html http://pirateannie.fateback.com/ Data Collection Move around the room and observe the students as they attempt to locate information on pirates. Check each students work and how students work together in a group. Instruct students to share responsibilities for gathering and producing information. Follow Up Activities When all students have completed their data collection task, instruct them to present their groups’ illustrated report to the whole class. Assessment Make A Treasure Map Have the children draw an island on their construction paper. Write the name of the water that surrounds their island (ocean, bay, cove, lake) on the map. Draw a compass rose in the lower right hand corner of the treasure map. Things to include on the island: symbols for hills, mountains, pond, lakes, forest, and trees, big X to mark where the treasure is. When the treasure maps are finished age the maps by pressing a damp tea bag all over it. Tear the jagged edges all round the treasure map to make it look rough. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 5 TH E ME A NA L YS I S By Mary Ann Larsen Teacher Background Information One of the reasons Mark Twain’s writing has become a classic piece of literature is because it affects the reader’s senses. The sensory register is the component of memory that holds information that you receive through your senses; hearing, seeing, tasting, and feeling. In this lesson, students read to make connections with examples from small town life in Missouri that support themes and sensory impressions. In doing so, they move information from the sensory register into working memory and eventually long-term memory for processing and retrieval. Working memory, also known as short-term memory, is processed further because of its short duration, five to twenty seconds. The teacher uses scaffolding to support the students in their efforts to analyze a chapters theme as they begin to understand how information received through the reader’s senses involves connecting new information to prior knowledge. Long-term memory is where we’ve stored our knowledge about various behaviors. Information processing theorists believe that related pieces of information in long-term memory are often connected with one another through a process of meaningful learning. In this lesson, we will attempt to recognize a relationship between new information and something else already stored in long-term memory as themes are analyzed. Materials ● 33 - 3x5 ruled index cards with one term from the list printed at the top ● Old newspapers and magazines ● One white poster board for every two students ● Pencils and notebook paper ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 5 TH E ME A NA L YS I S By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Activity On the chalkboard define ―theme‖ for students as a main topic or subject of elaboration and remind them that ―theme‖ is often repeated in different forms of presentation throughout a chapter. Write the theme adventure. Ask students for examples to support this theme. Suggest Mark Twain’s famous novel. Then, begin this meaningful learning set by asking students to work in pairs with a pair of terms written on index cards. Then break out students into groups of two, each student making notes on an index card defining what their term means to them. Allow a dictionary to clarify misunderstandings: dreary mood; reconciliation; vindictive; joyful; admiration; betraying; stuck-up; guiltiness; mischievous; grieving; anxious; gratefulness; affection; chaos; attentive; unwelcoming; capable; loving; smothering; muster; awed; glorified; lonesome; stifling; companionship; furious; mysterious; sumptuous; light-hearted; fixed-hopes; solemn; perishing hope; oppressiveness. Data Collection Ask questions in class that test students’ understanding of the things presented in order to help them keep their minds on the assignment. Encourage students to take notes; research tells us that note taking usually helps students learn information, partly because it makes them pay attention to what they are hearing. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER Fifth G rad e INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Re ad ing Un it 5 FOR THE TEACHER TH E ME A NA L YS I S By Mary Ann Larsen Continued Follow Up Activities When all students have completed their meaningful learning set with index cards, instruct them to communicate their knowledge of the terms to each other in their paired group. Then, organize the information on poster boards with existing knowledge using pictures from newspapers or magazines that represent each term. Display them in class and discuss. Picture Knowledge TERM Assessment Students use information to effectively write a theme analysis. Students select a chapter and provide examples from the story to support its theme. Students should use the information received in class and posters displayed to fill in missing details and draw inferences as they recall from long-term memory. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 6 CO MP A R E A ND By Mary Ann Larsen CO NT RA S T CH AR ACT E R S Teacher Background Information In this lesson students will be asked to consider multiple perspectives of the stories’ characters. You will find that different students will have different knowledge bases, including different schemas and scripts that they will use to make sense of the characters. Students of diverse cultural backgrounds may impose unique meanings and/or may have trouble making any sense of the characters because they lack the knowledge base necessary for understanding the characters. Teachers can increase the students’ multicultural awareness by promoting multiple constructions of the characters. Ultimately, helping our students understand and appreciate the fact that there may be several, equally valid interpretations of a character. Materials ● Venn diagram (2) on overhead with vis a vis marker and tissue ● Southern Cooking recipes ● Percussion instruments such as tambourines, maracas, triangles, rasps, cymbals ● Southern instruments such as guitars, banjo, washboard and thimbles, spoons ● small tin coffee cans with beans sealed inside to use as an instrument ● cardboard roll, wax paper, and rubber bands to make kazoos ● comb and tissue paper harmonica ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 6 CO MP A R E A ND By Mary Ann Larsen CO NT RA S T Continued CH AR ACT E R S Activity Music is a way for people to express their hopes, dreams, fears, and disappointments. Tom Sawyer certainly would have listened to music at church or at a picnic. Music has always been a part of Southern culture and a major influence across the United States. Have students collect examples of the various kinds of music listed below and listen to them in class while students work quietly on seatwork. Choose two or three famous songs for students to play-along with in class. ● Country ● Western swing ● Bluegrass ● Zydeco ● Cajun ● Gospel Visit the following web sites for great information on Southern music in the United States. Set the purpose for discussion by asking students to find the history of bluegrass or one of the other music genres listed above. 1. Southern Gospel Music Association at http://www.sgma.org/ 2. Southern Music Network at http://www.southernmusic.net/ 3. Brief history of Cajun, Creole, and Zydeco music http://www.lsue.edu/acadgate/music/history.htm and samples of music at http://www.vanguardrecords.com/Creolebred/home.html 4. PBS Bluegrass History with a Timeline and sample songs http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/shows/bluegrass/bluegrass.html 5. History of Western Swing at http://nfo.net/usa/weswing.html and with sample songs at http://www.roughstock.com/history/westernswing.html 6. Country Music History at http://www.countrymusicplanet.com/history/ ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Fifth G rad e Re ad ing Un it 6 By Mary Ann Larsen CO MP A R E A ND Continued CO NT RA S T CH AR ACT E R S 7. Mississippi River of Song by PBS at http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/music/ and artists in the area of Tom Sawyer’s home http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/artists/e2-home.html Data Collection In a whole class discussion, use two Venn diagrams on the overhead to compare the following characters similarities and differences. Ask students how Tom Sawyer is like Huck Finn? How are they different? How is Aunt Polly like Becky Thatcher? How are they different? Discuss the students understanding of each character. Ask students to find sentences in the novel to support their knowledge of each character. Ask students to respond with a brief explanation on paper why they would choose one character over another. Listen to Southern music while working quietly in seats. Share responses in class. ● Tom Sawyer ● Aunt Polly ● Huck Finn ● Becky Thatcher Follow Up Activities Have fun making old-fashioned music in class by making some simple instruments found in the materials list above. Practice playing the homemade instruments, percussion instruments, and Southern instruments in class. Then, have a Southern Celebration day in the classroom. Invite other classmates or family members to take part in the celebration. Southerners are famous for their hospitality. Add some of the great Southern dishes for sampling famous foods. Allow students to play instruments to prerecorded Southern music. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Fifth G rad e Re ad ing Un it 6 By Mary Ann Larsen CO MP A R E A ND Continued CO NT RA S T CH AR ACT E R S Assessment Write a short illustrated essay sharing something you’ve learned about the characters and Southern culture after completing this lesson. ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Fifth G rad e FOR THE TEACHER Re ad ing Un it 7 G en e ra liz ati on s and By Mary Ann Larsen Con clu s ion s Teacher Background Information In this lesson students will be encouraged to elaborate on material found in the novel or to expand on it using things they already know to make generalizations and draw conclusions. Research studies show that this process of elaboration facilitates learning and memory. Elaboration appears relatively late in child development (usually around puberty) and gradually increases throughout the teenage years. As students organize what they already know a new knowledge that is uniquely their own emerges. Materials ● Generalizations and Conclusions handouts ● Interpreting Quotations worksheets Activity As an overview, read aloud with students the handout titled Generalizations and Conclusions. Explain how facts are determined by drawing conclusions as we travel a path asking questions as to who, what, where, when, and how events occurred. Then, discuss how crossing over from fact to opinion might mean seeing something from someone else’s point of view. Mention events from the story to provide examples: With so many problems at home, Tom and his friends Huck and Joe decide to leave town, running away to Jackson Island. While the boys are off pretending to be pirates, the townspeople conclude that the boys have drowned. When the boys return, they show up at their own funerals and become heroes. Ask students, what conclusions can be based on this passage? ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER NSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Fifth G rad e Re ad ing Un it 7 By Mary Ann Larsen G en e ra liz ati on s and Continued Con clu s ion s Tom and his friends are still alive. Ask students, how do you know? Is this a fact or an opinion? Huck and Tom find Injun Joe’s treasure in the cave and become wealthy. Huck discovers, however, that wealth is not as valuable as freedom. Ask students, what generalization can you make based on this passage? Huck rather have freedom to roam the riverbanks than be wealthy. Ask students, do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? Data Collection Students are to complete the Interpreting Quotations worksheet on a separate sheet of paper, explain the meaning of the quotations. Explain why it is a conclusion or a generalization. The teacher should move around the room and observe students as they complete the activity. Follow Up Activities Students discuss their findings of the Interpreting Quotations. Which students chose fact and which chose opinion? Ask students, how did someone else’s interpretation change your opinion? Assessment Students are to complete the Tom Sawyer WebQuests at http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/ts/viewTrack.do?number=108041 and submit their scores on the quiz at the end of the Webquest. References 1. Character information. Retrieved April 4, 2005 from http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html http://www.pbs.org/marktwain/ http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/tomsawyer/ 2. Southern Dialect Quiz. Retrieved April 4, 2005 from http://mywebpages.comcast.net/lgrob/southern_dialect_quiz.htm 3. Mark Twain Map. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/tomsawye/nostalgia/36map.html 4. Pirate Information. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from http://www.piratesinfo.com/ http://www.vleonica.com/lafitte1.htm http://www.vleonica.com/pirates.htm http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/pirates/maina.html http://www.mariner.org//educationalad/ageofex/drake.php http://historicbeaufort.com/blackbeard1.htm http://220.127.116.11/captain.htm http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/kidd.html http://pirateannie.fateback.com/ 5. Southern Music. Retrieved April 15, 2005 from 1. Southern Gospel Music Association at http://www.sgma.org/ 4. Southern Music Network at http://www.southernmusic.net/ 5. Brief history of Cajun, Creole, and Zydeco music http://www.lsue.edu/acadgate/music/history.htm and samples of music at http://www.vanguardrecords.com/Creolebred/home.html 4. PBS Bluegrass History with a Timeline and sample songs http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/shows/bluegrass/bluegrass.html 4. History of Western Swing at http://nfo.net/usa/weswing.html and with sample songs at http://www.roughstock.com/history/westernswing.html 5. Country Music History at http://www.countrymusicplanet.com/history/ References Continued 6. Mississippi River of Song by PBS at http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/music/ and artists in the area of Tom Sawyer’s home http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/artists/e2-home.html The Guide for Using The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in the Classroom. (2002). Teacher Created Materials. Eyles, K: Author. Tom Sawyer WebQuests. Retrieved April 15, 2005 from, http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/ts/viewTrack.do?number=10 8041 Generalizations and Conclusions. (2000). GF Educators, Inc. THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Design Description Designing the Instructional Unit (IU) will probably be best remembered for the pleasure I received in just watching my ideas unfold before my very eyes. After spending time reflecting on the ―Information Processing Theory‖ and how meaningful information can be organized to improve comprehension, I began catching schemas with my pencil and paper as they flowed from my long term memory. As I sat drawing clusters of major components in traditional reading instruction, a working map developed. This map would later turn out to be my outline for the IU called ―The Adventures of Tom Sawyer for the Teacher.‖ A brief description of the required project elements was provided and I began gathering graphics for my cover page. Several hours was spent just figuring out how the first IU would look. My left brain was at work. At first I thought two columns would be better, besides, I already had a newsletter template that could be used. This didn’t work out though, not enough space to fit all the information my individual IU’s had to deliver. I settled on the full 8 1/2 x 11 pages and was glad I did. After constructing my first IU and applying colors with a critical eye it dawned on me that this novel was first published in 1876. Regular white paper wouldn’t do, I had to make the paper look old. So, I purchased paper that looked old. Wonderful, the visuals were complete. The next step was downloading Inspiration for its organizational features. This took a couple of days but well worth the effort because I really enjoy its outline-to-web feature. This big step in the process plunged me further into critically thinking about the contents within each IU. Settling on the seven IU’s my project contains was an easy task: Vocabulary, Story Characters, Exploring the Setting, Identifying the Main THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT FOR THE TEACHER Design Description Continued Idea, Theme Analysis, Compare & Contrast Characters, Generalizations & Conclusions. Only one title was changed, that of Generalizations & Conclusions. It was originally Story Problem & Resolution. Providing background information for the teacher required me to reflect on the reason for a learning activity. Applying what I know about cognitive development and theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Erickson, and Information Processing theorists was challenging. Their theories served to support my choices of activities. In most cases though, the activity came before the theory was correlated. I wanted my IU’s to be interesting, fun, and provide opportunities to share. Again, this unfolded as I searched the Internet for cultural information about the South and the Mississippi River. The region where this story takes place, Missouri, is rich with history of Mark Twain. Locating historical information on Southern music was enjoyable as I listened to the different genres detailed in IU6. It is my hope this IU will become a user friendly tool for other reading teachers interested in studying with children The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
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