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									       WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

                       AND

         ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION
WMO                                          ESCAP
             FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC




      WMO/ESCAP PANEL ON TROPICAL CYCLONES




              THIRTY-FIFTH SESSION


                 Manama, Bahrain

                 (5 to 9 May 2008)




                  FINAL REPORT
                 GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE SESSION


1.     ORGANIZATION OF THE SESSION

        The thirty-fifth session of the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones hosted by
WMO was held at WMO Office for West Asia, UN House, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain from
5 to 9 May 2008.

Attendance

         The session was attended by 18 participants from six (out of eight) Members of the
Panel on Tropical Cyclones, namely, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and
Thailand. It was also attended by observers from China, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Delhi, Bahrain Meteorological Service, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and
representatives from WMO, UNESCAP and Technical Support Unit (TSU). The list of
participants in the session as well as the capacities in which they attended is given in
Appendix I.

OPENING OF THE SESSION (Agenda item 1)

1.1  The opening ceremony commenced at 09:30 a.m. on Monday, 5 May 2008 at the
WMO Office for West Asia.

1.2   Mr Abdullahi Majeed, Deputy Minister of Environment, Energy and Water of Maldives
and Chairman of the Panel, declared the session open.

1.3      Mr A.Majeed H.Isa, Permanent Representative of Bahrain with WMO and President
of Regional Association II of WMO, welcomed the participants and extended the warmest
greetings. He emphasized that the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are characterized by
the frequent occurrence of tropical cyclone-related disasters, which claim many lives and
inflict heavy damages in the region every year. Mr. Isa recognized the role of the Panel in
reducing losses caused by tropical cyclones and highlighted its well organized activities
under the spirit of cooperation among the Panel Members. He expressed his gratitude to the
Panel for its firm commitment to mitigation of tropical cyclone disasters and urged the Panel
to continue its efforts to improve the quality of life of the people in the region.

1.4     Speaking on behalf of UNESCAP, Mr Ti Le-Huu expressed his sincere appreciation
to the Regional Office for West Asia of WMO for hosting this session in Manama, Bahrain
and the Government of Kingdom of Bahrain for providing logistical supports. He noted
important achievements by the Panel Members in mitigating socio-economic impact of
cyclone-related disasters during the past two decades, from about 18,200 people killed
annually during the decade 1990-99 to about 2,100 people annually during the past seven
years, from 2000 to 2006. He also noted, however, the severe impact of Cyclone Sidr, which
hit Bangladesh last year, and Cyclone Nargis, which hit Myanmar on 1 May 2008. The large
number of fatalities by these two cyclones raised a number of issues that deserve our
attention and called for renewed cooperation to address not only saving lives, but also
contributing to poverty reduction and improving quality of life. In that context, he expressed
satisfaction with the presence of a strong team from the Department of Disaster Mitigation
and Prevention of the Royal Kingdom of Thailand, headed by its Director General, to the 35th
Session, to reflect the commitment of Thailand has agreed to assume the Chair of the
Working Group on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness, as had been agreed at the 34th
Session. He also expressed sincere appreciation to the Government of Pakistan for the
continuing support in hosting the Technical Support Unit of the Panel and in providing the
services of a coordinator and a meteorologist to support the activities of the Panel since 2000
and to the Government of India for its continuing technical assistance in providing the
                                            -2-

services of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre-Tropical Cyclone New Delhi for
the valuable support extended to all Members of the Panel.

1.5      Speaking on behalf of Mr Michel Jarraud, Secretary-General of WMO, Dr Tokiyoshi
Toya, Regional Director for Asia and the South-West Pacific, welcomed all the participants
and expressed his appreciation to the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain through Mr
Majeed Isa, president of RA II and Permanent Representative of Bahrain with WMO, and to
Mr Aqa, UN Resident Coordinator in Bahrain for substantial support being provided to the
activities of the WMO Office for West Asia, which enabled the thirty-fifth session to be held in
Manama, Bahrain. In referring to some key activities carried out by the WMO Office for West
Asia since its inauguration in March 2007, he stressed the significant meaning of holding the
first meeting at this Office to demonstrate its contributions to the Members in the Region.
With emphasis on the important role the Panel is playing in tropical cyclone monitoring,
forecasting, warning, and disaster risk reduction services, Dr Toya stressed that
collaborations and synergies among Panel Members should be consolidated and the role
and functions of RSMC-New Delhi be strengthened, as well as the hydrological component
of the Panel. In ensuring WMO‟s continued support to Panel‟s efforts to mitigate impacts and
risks of tropical cyclone-related disasters, he wished the participants a very successful
session and a pleasant stay in Bahrain.

1.6     Mr. Sayed Aqa, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in
Bahrain welcomed the participants and expressed his pleasure for holding the meeting at
UN House in Bahrain which demonstrates the spirit of cooperation among the various UN
agencies. He, further, noted the excellent contribution of the newly established WMO Office
for West Asia in supporting the efforts of the UN team in delivering services to the region. Mr.
Aqa took this opportunity to express his gratitude to the Government of Kingdom of Bahrain
for their recent contribution of US$ one million towards the UN Secretary General‟s Global
Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction that is coordinated by ISDR. The Report is
planned to be launched in May 2009 in Bahrain.

2.     ELECTION OF THE CHAIRMAN AND VICE-CHAIRMAN (Agenda item 1.2)

Election of the Chairman and Vice-chairman of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones

2.1    Mr Abdullahi Majeed (Maldives) and Mr. Thosakdi Vanichkajorn (Thailand) were
unanimously elected as Chairman and Vice-chairman of the Panel, respectively, to hold their
posts until the next session.

Election of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee

2.2   Mr G.B. Samarasinghe (Sri Lanka) was elected as Chairman of the drafting
committee.

3.     ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA (Agenda item 3)

       The Panel adopted the agenda as given in Appendix II.

4.     WORKING ARRANGEMENTS (Agenda item 4)

       The Panel decided on its working hours and the arrangements for the session.

5.     FOLLOW-UP ACTION ON PTC-34 (Agenda item 5)

5.1         A detailed review of the recommendations of the thirty-fourth session and their
follow-up action taken was carried out based on the action sheet shown in Appendix III.
                                          -3-

5.2      The Panel was informed by WMO that the study on suitable conversion factors
between the wind speeds of different time-frame has been delayed and the main report and
the one-page summary of the report will be finalized during the late 2008. As regards to
manuals on flood forecasting, those on “Low Flow Estimation and Prediction” and “Stream
Gauging” will be published during 2008.

5.3     On the subject of training activites within the framework of TCDC, Pakistan informed
the Panel that presently two particpants from each of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal
and Sri Lanka have been attending Preliminary Meteorology Course (BIP-MT) in Pakistan.
The course is fully funded by the Government of Pakistan. Pakistan also expressed its
commitment to the continuation of such training in the future.

5.4       The Panel requested the Members responsible for the ongoing actions, to continue
their efforts towards early achievement.

6.     REVIEW OF THE 2007 CYCLONE SEASON (Agenda item 6)

6.1      The Director of RSMC New Delhi presented a review of the 2007 cyclone season on
the basis of the comprehensive report entitled “Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North
Indian Ocean during 2007” which was distributed during the session.

6.2       The Director of RSMC New Delhi informed the Panel that the year-2007 was a year
of near normal cyclonic activity over north Indian Ocean. The basin witnessed the formation
of twelve cyclonic disturbances against a normal of fifteen. Out of twelve disturbances, five
intensified upto the intensity of deep depressions and two into cyclonic storms and one each
into very severe cyclonic storm and super cyclonic storm. One cyclonic storm”YEMYIN”, a
super cyclonic storm “GONU”, and one deep depression formed over the Arabian Sea.
However, this deep depression dissipated over the sea itself. The Bay of Bengal witnessed
the formation of one very severe cyclonic storm “SIDR”, one cyclonic storm “AKASH”, four
deep depressions and three depressions during the 2007 cyclone season.

6.3  The summary report on the 2007 cyclone season provided by the RSMC is given in
Appendix IV.

6.4       The Panel expressed its appreciation to the RSMC New Delhi for the continued
valuable contribution it was making to its Members, and emphasized the importance of
further strengthening the existing cooperation and collaboration between the national
warning centres and RSMC New Delhi. In this context, many Members expressed the view
that it is necessary to secure direct communications between the RSMC and the national
warning center of the Member coutries and to establish the point of contact on both sides.

6.4    The representatives of the Panel Members reported to the session a review of the
2007 cyclone season of their respective countries, summaries of which are given in
Appendix V.

7.     COORDINATION WITH OTHER ACTIVITIES OF THE WMO TROPICAL CYCLONE
       PROGRAMME (Agenda item 7)

7.1      The Panel was informed by the WMO Secretariat that the 15th WMO Congress
(Geneva, May 2007) discussed Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) from a broad
perspective. Major guidance given from the Congress is represented by the following key
points:
    1) To continue to give priority to capacity building, particularly in Small Island
        Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs);
    2) To promote cooperation with relevant WMO programmes such as DRR, PWS,
        MMOP, HWR and AREP;
                                           -4-

   3) To facilitate participation of hydrologists and DRR experts in the regular sessions of
        the five tropical cyclone regional bodies;
   4) To pursue recommendations from the Sixth International Workshop on Tropical
        Cyclones (IWTC-VI).
TCP‟s activities during the inter-sessional period in 2007 and 2008 were implemented based
on this guidance and contributed to various outcomes of WMO Strategic Plan, in particular
Expected Result (ER) I (better forecasts and warnings) and ER VI (Multi-hazard early
warning and DRR).

7.2      The Panel was also informed that during the reporting period, the 40th session
ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee was held in Macao, China from 21 to 26 November 2007.
Currently, arrangements are underway for the 35th session WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical
Cyclones (5-9 May 2008, Bahrain), 12th session of RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (18-24
July 2008, Niue) and 18th session of RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (6-10 October 2008,
Malawi). Under the guidance as above, TCP is collaborating closely with DRR programme to
promote involvement of DRR community in these sessions.

7.3      The Panel was pleased to note that various training programmes were arranged by
TCP to address the issue of sustainable development of NMHSs. In particular, RA IV
Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting and Warning (Miami, USA, 16-28 April 2008 & 7 -19
April 2008) and Southern Hemisphere Training Course on Tropical Cyclones and Workshop
on PWS (Melbourne, Australia,10-21 October 2007) were organized in cooperation with
Public Weather Services Programme and highly valued for the practical training for
operational forecasting as well as media skills. A similar event is planned jointly with PWS to
be held in the Typhoon Committee region as a roving seminar in 2008. Attachment training
was carried out by 4 RSMCs including RSMC Nadi, which hosted the training for the first
time despite of its unfavorable operational situation. The Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
hosted the attachment training for storm surge experts for the consecutive 7 years.

7.4      The Panel noted that TCP are making efforts also to promote application of research
findings to operations in cooperation with AREP. International Training Workshop on
Tropical Cyclone Disaster Reduction was held in Guangzhou, China in March 2007 and the
RA I Regional Workshop on Tropical Cyclone Research will be held in La Réunion next
month.

7.5      The Panel noted with pleasure that TCP has undertaken the update of “Global
Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting” to respond to the recommendation of IWTC-VI. A
new structure is currently under review based on the two major concepts:
    1) It should be published primarily as a Web version in view of cost saving and easier
       access;
    2) It should have linkages with associated hazards (storm-surge, flash flood, etc.) from a
       multi-hazard point of view.
Noting that update of the Global Guide is a long-standing issuen and highly beneficial to the
Members, the Panel requested WMO to publish the new version as early as possible.

7.6      The Panel was informed that the scope of the Regional Workshop on Storm Surge
and Wave Forecasting has been reviewed by TCP. This workshop aims to enable trainees
to run operational wave and storm surge forecasting. Origin of the workshop is traced to
Storm Surge Workshop in the South China Sea which was held in 2002 in Viet Nam in
cooperation with Typhoon Committee. Since then, the workshop was held four times mainly
for the Members in RA II and RA V regions. During the years, storm-surge operation has
been initiated at several NMHSs. TCP, in cooperation with MMOP, plans to expand its target
region to all TC regions to include RA IV and RA I. The Fifth workshop is planned tentatively
to be held in Melbourne, Australia in December 2008.

7.7     The Panel was informed that completion of the Study on the Wind Averaging
Guideline has been delayed. A main report, which was submitted by the Systems
                                            -5-

Engineering Australia Pty Ltd (SEA) in January 2008, is currently under review by TCP
Technical Coordination Meeting and a one-page summary for inclusion in operational
manuals is being produced by SEA. In this regard, the Committee expressed a view that
establishment of the Wind Averaging Guidelines are particularly required for the Hurricane
Committee region where different averaging standards are applied to wind speed
observations. The Committee requested the WMO Secretariat to finalize this study as early
as possible and to bring the results for discussion at the next session of the Committee
before they could be integrated into the Operational Plan. The Panel expressed its
appreciation for the comprehensive information provided by the WMO Secretariat on the
implementation of the WMO Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP). It noted with satisfaction
the developments and progress made in both the general and the regional components of
the TCP since the thirty-fourth session.

8.     REVIEW OF THE COORDINATED TECHNICAL PLAN AND CONSIDERATION OF
       THE WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS (Agenda item 8)

         The Panel reaffirmed the necessity of early re-establishment of the Coordinated
Technical Plan and Work Programme which has been pending since the last session. It
agreed to assign this task to the High Policy Working Group (PWG), which was set up during
this session, and requested the Working Group to present a draft at the next session (see
para. 8.6.3).

8.1       Meteorological component (agenda item 8.1)

8.1.1      Under this item, Members were invited to present reports on the current progress in
dealing with problems encountered and on programmes for the modernization of observing
and telecommunication networks and forecasting systems, aiming at further improvements in
tropical cyclone monitoring, forecasting and warning services. The Panel reviewed the
activities under the meteorological component of the Members during the past year, details
of which are presented in Appendix V.

8.1.2      The Panel was informed that according to the results of Special MTN Monitoring
(SMM) exercises carried out in January, April, July and October 2006 and 2007, the
availability of SYNOP reports from a total of 252 surface stations in the Regional Basic
Synoptic Network (RBSN) of the Panel Members ranged from 45 to 100 per cent. The
availability was more than 74 per cent for all countries, except for Myanmar (45 per cent).
The total availability in 2007 was similar to that of 2006; there is a significant increase in the
number of reports received from Pakistan and a significant decrease in the number of reports
received from Myanmar.

8.1.3      The availability of expected TEMP reports on the MTN from a total of 53 upper-air
stations in the RBSN operated by the Members ranged from 0 to 58 per cent. The
availability was less than 25 per cent for Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan. There was a
significant decrease in the number of reports received in 2007 in comparison with 2006, in
particular from India and Pakistan.

8.1.4     The Panel was informed that overall numbers of observations of AMDAR aircraft
ranged from 230,000 to 250,000 per day. However, there has been limited progress in
AMDAR programme in this region and a fresh attempt to find actively participating NMS's
and airlines in the region is needed. The underlying infrastructure appeared to be excellent,
with Emirates and other regional airlines acquiring new and ACARS equipped aircraft in large
numbers and the regional network is expanding rapidly. A strong commitment from NMHSs
would be needed for a kick start of the process.

8.1.5     As regards Water Vapour project, most of the sensors installed on a test basis are
flown in the US. Three Lufthansa Airbus 319 currently testing the sensor are on short and
medium haul aircraft, and do not serve the larger Gulf region. Further tests are being carried
                                            -6-

out and significant funding issues need to be resolved before a widespread installation of
such sensors can be expected.

8.1.6    The Panel noted that the next AMDAR Panel meeting will be held in Malaysia in
October 2008, and is expected that the existing SE Asian project will be able to expand
towards the Gulf and Bay of Bengal regions.

8.1.7    The Panel was informed that the Members continued to provide extensive support
for ocean observation programmes such as the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), the Ship Of
Opportunity Programme (SOOP), the Automated Shipboard Aerological Programme (ASAP),
the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), the Data Buoy Cooperation Panel
(DBCP), and the Argo profiling floats. They also provide support to climatic projects like the
Marine Climatological Summaries Scheme (MCSS), the Global Temperature Salinity Profile
Programme (GTSPP), and the VOS Climate Project (VOSClim).

8.1.8     The Panel noted with pleasure that Implementation of marine observing network in
the region has continued to expand, thanks to prominent role of the Members in the region.
The Tropical Moored Buoy network is being extended across the Indian Ocean (15 of 47
sites have been deployed) to complete a coverage of the equatorial regions of the Atlantic,
Pacific, and Indian Oceans – the heat engine of global climate and weather patterns.

8.1.9     With respect to the space-based observing system related to tropical cyclones
specifically, the Panel noted that operational or R&D satellites are particularly useful for the
detection, monitoring and structure characterization of tropical cyclones and for predicting
their evolution. Observations of particular relevance are the permanent high resolution
visible and infrared imagery from geostationary spacecraft, microwave sounding from LEO
satellites (e.g. with AMSU instrument) to derive total precipitable water, microwave imagery
associated with active microwave sensors for precipitation rate (like TRMM and the future
GPM), as well as scatterometry altimetry and/or microwave imagery to derive ocean surface
wind fields (e.g. with Quikscat, Jason-1, or METOP/ASCAT) and sea state.

8.1.10 The Panel expressed a concern about possible discontinuation of sea surface wind
observations by satellites over the next decade. Noting that this data is indispensable to
monitoring and forecasting of tropical cyclones, the Panel urged relevant space agencies to
give due consideration on the continuation of this service.

8.1.11 The representative of IIT informed the Panel that a forecast demonstration project is
planned to be carried out from 2009 to 2011 by IMD with the support of Indo-US S&T Forum
in New Delhi and National Scientific Foundation (NSF) in USA. The objective of the project
is to reduce the error in landfall forecast in the Bay of Bengal. Consolidated observations
from aircraft, ship, space, data-buoys and surface will be used in this project during cyclone
period.

8.1.12 Many Members emphasized that availability of NWP products is essential for
tropical cyclone forecast operations and expressed that the EPSgrams provided by the
Europian Center for Mediam Range Forecast (ECMWF) are extremely useful in this regard.

8.2       Hydrological Component (agenda item 8.2)

8.2.1       Under the hydrological component, the Panel reviewed the activities of its Members,
WMO and UNESCAP. The representatives of the Members reported the activities of their
respective countries as reflected in Appendix V. In 2007, several important improvements in
the hydrological component had been made in the Panel Members, including the
development of integrated flood forecasting systems, real-time monitoring of water level and
rainfall, risk mapping and participation of stakeholders in flood warning systems.
                                            -7-

8.2.2     The Panel noted with appreciation to the strong spirit of cooperation among the
concerned Members of international river basins in the region on the exchange of
hydrological data, especially for flood forecasting. In noting that such a strong spirit of
international cooperation in other international river basins could effectively lead to not only
saving lives, but also conducive environment for economic development and ultimately to
building trust for major investment, the Panel was pleased to note the willingness of the
delegations of Bangladesh and India to seek authorization from their respective
Governments to organize a regional workshop to enable all the agencies involved in flood
forecasting operations to discuss specific joint activities aiming at enhancing further the flood
forecasting services for socio-economic development. In this context, the Panel called on
UNESCAP, WMO and other international organizations to provide financial and technical
assistance to organize such a regional workshop. In this connection, the Panel noted that
the delegations of Bangladesh and India will inform UNESCAP and WMO through the TSU of
the decisions by their respective Governments within six weeks after the Session, for further
arrangements.

Activities of UNESCAP

8.2.3    In 2007, ESCAP took an active part in the preparation and organization of the First
Asia-Pacific Water Summit, which was held in Beppu, Japan in December 2007. The most
important activities were carried out under the framework of Key Results Area 4 on
“Monitoring of Investment and Results”, for which ESCAP was the Team Leader. As the
Team Leader, ESCAP was able to mobilize support and participation of a good number of
UN agencies, international organizations and most importantly several countries in the region.
The preparation for Key Result Area 4 involved the organization of an website for discussion
at the UNESCAP-FAO joint website on Strategic Planning and Management, a regional
workshop on “Monitoring of Investment and Results”, held as part of the Third South-East
Asia Water Forum in Kuala Lumpur in October 2007 and finally a parallel session at the First
Asia-Pacific Water Summit on 3 December 2007. The results of the preparation and
recommendations are posted on the website of the Asia-Pacific Water Forum, UNESCAP
and the Third South-East Asia Water Forum. It may be noted that monitoring of investment
and results for water-related disasters was included in the preparation for KRA4.

8.2.4. In addition, UNESCAP was entrusted to be the regional coordinator for the
implementation of the International Year of Sanitation 2008, which included a regional
launching at the First Asia-Pacific Water Summit and also in the commemoration of the
World Water Day 2008, which was held in Bangkok on 20 March 2008. India took an active
part in this activity.

Activities of WMO

RA II (Asia) Working Group on Hydrology (WGH)

8.2.5. Interim progress reports have been received from experts of the Working Group on
the following topics of its current work plan:
       • Disaster Mitigation – Improvements to Short-duration (Flash) Flood
       • Forecasting Capabilities in Urban Areas
       • Disaster Management – Climate Variability and Hydrological Aspects of Drought
       • Water Resources Assessment, Availability and Use (Surface water and
          groundwater) in cooperation with UN ESCAP and IGRAC
       • Improved Accuracy of Flow Measurements and Estimation in RA II.
Full reports are expected to be available by August 2008.
                                          -8-

8.2.6.     The Working Group had its meeting 26 - 30 March 2007 in Beijing, China. As a
result of the meeting, participants proposed the following themes for its future Workplan
2008-2012 to be considered by XIV-RA II in December 2008:

         Theme 1:     Improving Institutional Capacity including the implementation of the RA
                      II Strategic Plan for NHSs and Technology Transfer in the context of
                      HOMS

         Theme 2:     Disaster Mitigation – Implementation of the WMO Flood Forecasting
                      Initiative including Flash Flood Forecasting Capabilities and Mass
                      Movements

         Theme 3:     Disaster Management – Hydrological Aspects of Drought, including
                      Drought Monitoring, Regional Water availability analysis, assessment
                      of water scarcity and deficits

         Theme 4:     Water Resources Assessment, Availability and Use (Surface water
                      and groundwater) and Sedimentation in Rivers and Reservoirs

         Theme 5:     Improved Accuracy of Hydrometric and Sediment Observations
                      including Space-based Technologies in RA II

         Theme 6:     Hydrological responses to climate variability and change and
                      promotion of the use of climate information by water managers

         Theme 7:     Regional exchange of hydrological data and information including
                      WHYCOS and contributions of regional aspects of INFOHYDRO

The proposed themes would ensure continuity in key subject areas over the coming four
years. Theme 6 is in particular addressing new needs and requirements and will need to be
closely coordinated with other programme areas of WMO and RA-II Working Groups.

WMO’s Commission for Hydrology (CHy)

8.2.7.    In the framework of its Quality Management Framework, the Commission has
made dedicated efforts in the development of Manuals on “Flood Forecasting and Warning”,
“Low Flow Estimation and Prediction”, “Stream Gauging” and PMP which are all in advanced
stages of development and will be disseminated to Members once published.

8.2.8.     With the financial and technical support from the Governments of Japan, the
Netherlands and Switzerland, the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM)
has been functioning under the guidance of its Advisory Committee, where CHy is
represented by its President and one Regional Representative. It has been providing the
crucial inputs to NHSs responsible for flood management, and has been providing WMO
Members with flood management policy guidance. The APFM is presently developing
various tools for facilitating implementation of IFM and is working on the establishment of a
decentralized HelpDesk on IFM. The APFM and the other activities of the HWRP are
contributing to the International Flood Initiative, which has been established jointly by
UNESCO, WMO, ISDR, UNU and other partners such as IAHS and IAHR. The President of
CHy is a member of the Advisory Committee of IFI, the first session of which was held on
26th January 2007 in Geneva. ICHARM acts as the secretariat for the IFI. An action Plan is
under preparation. The APFM can be viewed under: http://www.apfm.info
                                           -9-

WMO’s Flood Forecasting Initiative

8.2.9.    As an important milestone in the WMO Flood Forecasting Initiative, under which a
number of workshops/activities were carried out during 2004-2007, a Synthesis Conference
was organized in November 2007 in Geneva, which produced the “Strategy and Action Plan
for the Enhancement of Cooperation between National Meteorological and Hydrological
Services for Improved Flood Forecasting”. The president of CHy chaired the Synthesis
Conference. The strategy can be found in: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/hwrp/
documents/FFInitiativePlan.pdf. Cg-XV, through its Resolution 21 on the subject, endorsed
the Strategy and Action Plan.

8.2.10. Another important development in the implementation of the FFI has been the
inclusion of the Implementation of the Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) project with a
global coverage, in collaboration with the US National Weather Service, the US Hydrologic
Research Centre and USAID/OFDA. First activities include preparations to establish regional
system components in the Mekong River Basin. These will be followed by components in
other regions.

World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS) Programme

8.2.11. The MEKONG-HYCOS project is aiming to establish a regional flood information
system over a period of five years. This project is fully funded by France as development
partner. The first meeting of the Project Coordination Committee has been held in January
2008 in Hanoi, Vietnam. With the tendering process completed and the procurement stage
imminent it is expected that the first batch of gauging stations and related equipments will be
installed at the selected sites of the participating countries before the onset of the monsoon
period 2008. The data generated will be fully used by the Flood Management and Mitigation
Programme (FMMP) of the Mekong River Commission who executes the project in
collaboration with WMO. The FMMP has repeatedly sought closer contact to the
ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee to further seek ways to improve its pre-warning and flood
forecasting products.

8.3     Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP) Component (Agenda item 8.3)

8.3.1     Under this agenda item, the Panel reviewed the activities of its Members and
discussed the related activities of WMO and UNESCAP. The representatives of the
Members reported the situations on disaster mitigation and related disaster management
activities of their respective countries in the past year and the future plans. The Panel noted
with appreciations the participation of the DPP experts from the host country. In view of the
importance of DPP for effective impacts of the Panel‟s activities, the Panel urged Members to
send their DPP experts to take part in future sessions. In this connection, it decided to re-
establish a Working Group on DPP (WG-DPP) and renewed its invitation for Thailand and
Oman to assume Chair and Vice Chair respectively. The Panel took note of the multi-hazard
early warning concept paper together with a draft work plan proposed by UNESCAP as had
been requested by the Panel at its 34th Session, as shown in Appendix VI. The Panel
endorsed the concept paper and requested the Chair of WG-DPP through to TSU to
establish a Task Force to assist the WG-DPP to implement the proposed Multi-hazard early
warning concept in cooperation with UNESCAP and WMO.

8.3.2    Most of the Panel Members continued their efforts to provide training to
stakeholders to enhance awareness and participation. Summary of DPP activities of Panel
Members is given in Appendix V.

Activities of WMO

8.3.3    The Panel was informed that in June 2007, WMO Congress XV adopted WMO
Strategic Goals in disaster risk reduction, derived from key activities of the Hyogo Framework
                                          - 10 -

for Action falling under the mandate of NMHSs. Furthermore, a sustainable DRR integrated
capacity development action plan was approved, based on Members‟ needs that were not
currently addressed by ongoing activities and built upon the following five major thrusts: (i)
modernization of NMHSs and observing networks; (ii) implementation of national operational
multi-hazard early warning systems; (iii) strengthening of hazard analysis and
hydrometeorological risk assessment tools; (iv) strengthening NMHSs cooperation with civil
protection and disaster risk management agencies; and (v) coordinated training and public
outreach programmes. This action plan is built upon priority areas of the WMO Strategic
Plan 2008 – 2011 and is being implemented through concrete regional and national projects.

8.3.4    Following EWC-III, with the commitment to advance the second priority area of the
Hyogo Framework for Action, namely “identifying, assessing and monitoring disaster risks
and enhancing early warnings”, WMO assembled experts from 20 agencies involved in the
four components of early warning systems for the international Symposium on Multi-Hazard
Early Warning Systems for Integrated Disaster Risk Management, from 23 to 24 May 2006.
The experts identified major gaps and needs concerning governance, legislative,
organizational and technical aspects related to the four components of early warning
systems: (i) risk identification and linkages to early warnings; (ii) technical and operational
capacities for observing, detecting, monitoring, forecasting and warnings of hazards; (iii)
communication and dissemination mechanisms; and (iv) integration of risk information and
early warnings in emergency preparedness, planning and response.

8.3.5     The Symposium recommended that good practices be documented to demonstrate
the benefits that can be achieved through an increased integration of National Meteorological
and Hydrological Service warning and related services in emergency preparedness,
response, recovery planning and operational processes. Demonstration projects have
already been initiated with France and China (Shanghai) to demonstrate and document good
practices where early warning systems are supported by appropriate governance and
legislation, organizational coordination mechanisms and operational frameworks. The expert
meeting on "Role of NMHSs in DRR Coordination Mechanisms and Early Warning Systems"
provided a common framework for documentation of operational processes at the national
level. As a next step, the Second Symposium on Multi-hazard Early Warning Systems is
planned for the first quarter of 2009, to be hosted by Météo-France in Toulouse, to share
lessons learned about multi-hazard early warning systems and launch pilot projects in
developing countries, together with agencies involved in all aspects from observing to
community preparedness.

8.3.6     The Panel was informed that on this basis, WMO in now initiating demonstration
projects in selected countries, leveraging capacities, resources and expertise from several
technical and donor agencies for development of multi-hazard early warning systems. The
first coordination meeting for Central America took place in January 2008 in New Orleans.

Activities of UNESCAP

8.3.7 In 2007, UNESCAP in cooperation with the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre
(ADPC) implemented Phase 4 of the project on Partnership for Disaster Reduction – South-
East Asia, which was funded by the Humanitarian Aid Office of European Commission
(ECHO). The project focused mainly on three countries of South-East Asia to enhance the
capacity of the National Disaster Management Offices in the promotion and implementation
of community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) at the national level through the
application of strategic planning and management for institutionalization of CBDRM and the
implementation of pilot project on the integration of CBDRM into local development planning.
At the end of the project, a regional workshop for disaster management practitioners was
held in Phnom Penh from 2 to 4 April 2008 for experts and practitioners not only in South-
East Asia but also other countries in the region to come and share experiences. Experts
from Bangladesh and India was also invited and participated in the Forum.
                                             - 11 -

8.3.8 As part of the implementation of pilot community-based tsunami projects
implemented in India (on livelihood) and Sri Lanka (on early warning), a concluding workshop
for sharing experience and promotion of partnership was organized in Bangkok from 21 to 23
April with several participants from the Panel Member countries took active part in the
workshop, including Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and
Thailand. The findings and recommendations are expected to be submitted to the Third
Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction to be held in Kuala Lumpur from 2
to 4 December 2008. The Panel Members were invited to join UNESCAP in the preparation
for this Conference.

8.3.9. In 2007, UNESCAP also compiled regional experiences and practices on the
integration of water-related disaster preparedness and mitigation into development planning.
These efforts culminated into a set of Guidelines, which had been published on the
UNESCAP website. Members are invited to visit and download the publication for reference.

8.3.10 As practices in the previous years, UNESCAP in cooperation with partners organized
the Annual Forum on Natural Disaster Reduction on 10 October 2007 to commemorate the
International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction at the United Nations Conference Centre in
Bangkok. The event included also a seminar on the theme “Education on Disaster Risk
Management for Socio-economic Development” at the Asia Pacific Regional Workshop on
School Education and Disaster Risk Reduction.

8.3.11. UNESCAP in cooperation with SOPAC and other international organizations
convened a side event on Problems of Disaster Risk Reduction in Island Countries of
the Second Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held in New Delhi from
7 to 9 November 2007.

8.4         Training component (agenda item 8.4)

8.4.1 The Panel reviewed the involvement of its Members in various education and training
activities supported under WMO Voluntary Cooperation Programme (VCP), regular budget
(RB), UNDP and TCDC arrangements.

8.4.2 The Panel noted the number of training events and workshops, which were organized
in 2007 for the benefit of its Members. Since its last meeting, the Panel had benefited from
WMO‟s education and training activities, relating to the, relevant training courses, workshops
and seminars, among those were the following:

         Training Course on Operational Tropical Cyclone Forecasting at RSMC Tropical
          Cyclone – New Delhi (RSMC New Delhi, India, 29 January -9 February 2007) ), this
          training course is aimed at on-site training for operational forecasters and was
          attended by three participants.

         WMO International Training Workshop on Tropical Cyclone Disaster Reduction
          (Guangzhou, China, 26 – 31 March 2007) ), the major purpose of this workshop was
          to provide training and experience on new knowledge gained from recent advances
          on tropical cyclone research and was attended by 17 participants.

         Training Course on Storm Surge Forecasting at the Indian Institute of Technology
          (IIT), New Delhi (New Delhi, India, 20 August to “September 2007) ), this training
          course is for capacity building in the Panel region for storm surge forecasting and was
          attended by two participants.

8.4.3 The Panel noted that WMO fellowships for long-term and short-term training
continued to be granted to the Member countries of the Panel under the various WMO
programmes.
                                           - 12 -


8.4.4 The Panel expressed appreciation to Panel‟s Member countries, which offered their
national training facilities to other Members and the Panel strongly recommended that such
endeavors should continue in the future and be strengthened. The Panel urged its Members
to make maximum use of such training facilities.

8.4.5 The Panel noted the recent development of the ETRP Website and the current
initiatives to facilitate online access to worldwide training resources, as well as exchange of
meteorological case studies and related documentation between advanced and less
advanced training institutions.

8.4.6 The Panel was pleased to note that the attachment of tropical cyclone forecasters at
the RSMC New Delhi and the attachment of storm surge experts at IIT Delhi were
successfully conducted. The Panel expressed appreciation to RSMC New Delhi and IIT
Delhi for providing Members with such valuable opportunities of training. It requested the
RSMC New Delhi and IIT Delhi to continue this training activity for the Members.

8.4.7 The representative of IIT Delhi informed the Panel that it will start M. Tech masters
program from July 2009. This programme is sponsored by the Ministry of Earth Science
(MoES), Government of India. IMD and the Ocean division of MoES propose to sponsor up
to five meteorologists and oceanographers for the programme. IIT Delhi expressed its
willingness to consider admitting meteorologists and oceanographers who are sponsored by
the Members or WMO. Prerequisite for admission is that the candidates seeking admission
should have either M. Sc. Or B. Tech degree. The M. Tech programme duration is two year
(one year course work + one year project) and candidates may be allowed to do their project
in their respective countries.

8.4.8     A summary report on the 2007 training activities and future plan of Members is
given in Appendix V.

8.5       Research component (agenda item 8.5)

8.5.1       The Panel was informed that the International Training Workshop on Tropical
Cyclone Disaster Reduction was successfully held in Guangzhou, China, from 26 to 31
March 2007. Of the 60 participants, 45 were operational forecasters from members of the
five tropical cyclone regional bodies while 15 were tropical cyclone researchers. The
lecturers included leading experts in the field of tropical cyclone research and forecasting
namely Dr Peter Black, Prof. Lianshou Chen, Prof. Russell Elsberry, and Mr. Chip Guard.
The training workshop provided the trainees with new knowledge gained from recent
advances on tropical cyclone research and how best to apply these to operational prediction
activities in order to enhance the accuracy and usefulness of tropical cyclone forecasts and
warnings. It also enabled participants to be aware of the issues associated with disaster
mitigation, such as factors contributing to human and economic losses, conveying
forecasting and warning information to stakeholders, users and the general public, evaluating
the effectiveness of warning systems, mitigation strategies and community capacity building
for disaster reduction.

8.5.2      The Panel was informed that the Tropical Cyclone Panel of the World Weather
Research Programme‟s Working Group on Tropical Meteorology Research organized an
“Expert Meeting to Evaluate Skill of Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Forecasts”. The meeting was
held in Boulder, Colorado, USA from 24 to 25 April 2008 and reviewed the status of a
number of statistical and dynamical techniques for seasonal forecasts. As recommended by
the Sixth International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (San Jose, November 2006) the
meeting formally established a website for seasonal tropical cyclone forecasts, which is now
proposed to be on the WMO/WWRP/TMR website. In developing this website the expert
group: (i) Defined the metrics for the forecast and (ii) Set guidelines for verification measures
                                          - 13 -

(seven measures for deterministic forecasts and three for probabilistic forecasts) and chose
appropriate reference score.

8.5.3      The Panel was infirmed that steps are underway to organize the Regional
Research Workshop on Tropical Cyclones in La Réunion, France, from 26 to 30 May 2008.
The workshop will focus on the following main topics: (a) current status of research activities
on tropical cyclones and tropical convection in the south-west Indian Ocean (b) future
research activities in the region and (c) research needs in the south-west Indian Ocean. The
objectives of the workshop are: (a) to determine the areas of research which are of particular
interest to the Members of the RA I (Africa) Tropical Cyclone Committee for the South West
Indian Ocean and (b) to develop future collaborations between researchers in the region.

8.5.4     A summary report on the 2007 research activities and the future research activities
of the Panel Members is given in Appendix V.

8.6       New Joint Initiatives (Agenda item 8.6)

8.6.1       Two new joint initiatives were discussed during the 35th Session. One is related to
the work plan for the WG-DPP on the Multi-hazard Early Warning System Concept submitted
by UNESCAP as shown in Appendix VI. The other joint initiative is a continuation of the
discussion based on the recommendation of the Deputy Minister of Environment, Energy and
Water, Government of Maldives at the 34th Session and reiterated by him during the 35th
Session in his position as Chair of the 35th Session on possible reform efforts of the Panel to
revitalize the effectiveness and visibility of the Panel.

8.6.2.   With respect to the first joint initiative, the Panel endorsed the proposal to develop
an Integrated Hazard Awareness Display (IHAD) as a mechanism to promote the
development of multi-hazard early warning systems in the Panel Area as elaborated in
Appendix VI. The Panel also endorsed the proposal for TSU to develop a detailed project
for submission to the ESCAP Multi-donor Voluntary Trust Fund on Tsunami Early Warning
Arrangements in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia for possible funding. In this
connection, the Panel requested TSU to establish a Task Force on IHAD for the
development of such project proposal for submission to UNESCAP before 15 August 2008.

8.6.3.     With respect to the second joint initiative, the Panel decided to establish a High-
level Policy Working Group (PWG) to discuss priority activities aiming at enhancing the
effectiveness and visibility of the Panel. It also endorsed the Terms of Reference of PWG as
shown in Appendix VII and requested WMO in cooperation with UNESCAP and TSU to
convene such meeting of PWG before the 36th Session and authorize WMO to use the Trust
Fund to organize such a meeting. Due to the limitation of financial resources, the Panel
decided to authorize the use of PTC Trust Fund for a maximum of 4 participants,
representing four Members of the Panel, to participate in such a meeting and welcome
participation of other Panel Members at their own costs. The Panel appointed Dr Qamar-uz-
Chaudry to be the Chair of PWG and requested him to prepare all background documents in
cooperation with WMO and UNESCAP before the meeting of PWG.

8.7       Publications (agenda item 8.7)

8.7.1   Publications issued under the programmes of the Panel fall into two categories
(a) Panel News, and (b) the Annual Review of the Tropical Cyclones affecting the Bay of
Bengal and the Arabian Sea. Information on the current status of each is presented below:

Panel News
8.7.2      Panel News No.24 was published in October 2007 by TSU and had already been
distributed to the Members and others concerned. The 25th issue of the Panel News which
was published in Aptil 2008, was distributed to the Members during the 35th Session of PTC.
The Panel commended TSU for the new and attractive format of Panel News No. 25 and
                                          - 14 -

recommended that Panel News continue to target policy makers. It therefore requested the
Members to also provide policy related information to TSU for inclusion in the future issues
including the next issue which is scheduled to be published in October 2008.

Annual Review

8.7.3    The Panel on Tropical Cyclones Annual Review for the year 2006 which was
consolidated and finalized by the Chief Editor, Dr. H.R. Hatwar (India) with contributions from
the National Editors was submitted to WMO in January 2008 for publication as soon as
possible.

9.      REVIEW OF THE TROPICAL CYCLONE OPERATIONAL PLAN (Agenda item 9)

9.1       The Panel expressed its appreciation to Dr. Samarendra Karmakar, former Director
of Bangladesh Meteorological Department, who kindly served as rapporteur to finalize the
2007 Edition of the Operational Plan.

9.2        The Panel reaffirmed that the basic purpose of the operational plan is to facilitate
the most effective tropical cyclone warning system for the region with existing facilities. In
doing so the plan defines the sharing of responsibilities among Panel countries for the
various segments of the system and records the coordination and cooperation achieved.
The plan contains the agreed arrangements for standardization of operational procedures,
efficient exchange of various data related to tropical cyclone warnings, archival of data and
issuance of tropical weather outlook for the benefit of the region, from a central location
having the required facilities for this purpose (i.e. RSMC New Delhi), as agreed upon by the
Panel.

9.3       The operational plan contains an explicit formulation of the procedures adopted in
the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea region for the preparation, distribution and exchange
of information and warnings pertaining to tropical cyclones. Experience has shown that it is a
great advantage to have an explicit statement of the regional procedures to be followed in
the event of a cyclone and this document is designed to serve as a valuable source of
information to be readily available for reference by the forecaster and other users.

9.4      Tha Panel designated Mr. B. K. Bandayopadhyay, Director of RSMC New Delhi as
rapporteur to update the Operational Plan to prepare the 2008 edition. Noting that the 2008
cyclone season had virtually started, the Panel urged Members to communicate their
amendments to the rapporteur for the update as soon as possible and not later than 15 June
2008. The Panel also requested the rapporteur to make a comprehensive review of the
structure and format of the current Opeartinal Plan and offer suggestions for improvements
at the next session.

9.5       Recognizing that the Members require established communication with RSMC New
Delhi for close coordiantion, the Panel decided that the list of address/telephone of the
Members in the Operatinal Plan should be updated to include the names and direct contacts
of focal poinsts of the forecast center of each Member country to ensure communication with
RSMC New Delhi (see para. 6.3). Accordingly, the Panel requested the Members to
designate two or more focal poinsts and send their names, phone/fax number and e-mail
address to the rapporteur through TSU by the above deadline, along with the amendments to
the Operational Plan.

9.6    The Panel invited WMO to issue the 2008 Edition of the Operational Plan as early as
possible.
                                         - 15 -

10.      Technical Support Unit (Agenda item 10)

10.1     The Panel expressed its gratitude to the Government of Pakistan for hosting the
Technical Support Unit (TSU) and appreciated the services being rendered by
Dr Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudhry, Director-General of Pakistan Meteorological Department
(PMD) in his capacity as Coordinator-TSU and Mr. Ata Hussain, Deputy Director
(Coordination and International Met. Section) PMD as the Meteorologist-TSU.

10.2      The Panel was briefed by Mr. Hussain on the activities of TSU during the
intersessional period. The Panel expressed its satisfaction with the work of the TSU. The
summary of the activities of TSU is given in Appendix VIII.

10.3      The Panel would like TSU to take a major role in the management of joint projects
of the Panel. In this connection, the Panel urged WMO, UNESCAP and TSU to review the
current status of the legal and institutional framework of TSU with a view to recommending
possible strengthening measures and report the findings to all the Members through TSU as
soon as possible.

10.4      TSU provided the Panel with a detailed breakdown of its expenses incurred during
the Inter-sessional period (see Appendix IX). Keeping in veiw some savings, TSU
requested the Panel for provision of US$ 2,000 for its expenses during the year 2008.

11.      SUPPORT FOR THE PANEL’S PROGRAMME (Agenda item 11)

11.1 The Panel was informed of the technical cooperation activities of WMO and ESCAP
in support of the programmes of the Panel carried out in 2007, including the Voluntary
Cooperation Programme (VCP), Trust Fund arrangements, Emergency Assistance Fund
scheme and Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) activities, and
expressed its appreciation to WMO, ESCAP and collaborating partners for providing
assistance to Members of the Panel.

11.2 The Panel noted that, in 2007, Maldives and Pakistan made cash contributions to the
Voluntary Cooperation Fund (VCP(F)). Four VCP project requests were submitted by four
Members of the Panel. The Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis Process
System (MICAPS) was provided to Bangladesh, Maldives and Myanmar by China. Maldives
also received support from TOTEX Corporation, Japan for meteorological balloons. The
installation of an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) is planned for May-June 2008 in
Myanmar with the support of MEISEI Electric Co. Ltd, Japan. Sri Lanka has received
support from Japan; MEISEI Electric Co. Ltd, Japan; TOTEX Corporation, Japan; and the
VCP(F) for the replacement of an upper-air system and provision of radiosondes and
balloons in 2007-2008. China supported Myanmar and Sri Lanka for the provision of
FengYunCast systems in 2007-2008.

11.3 The panel was informed of the progress of the Trust Fund project for Oman and
UNDP project for Maldives. It also noted with satisfaction that the GTS upgrade projects,
developed after the disastrous tsunami in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004, had
successfully been completed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan through the WMO/ISDR
Trust Fund/VCP projects and in Maldives and Sri Lanka through bilateral arrangements with
the support of the USA. The Panel welcomed the initiation of the Trust Fund project for the
installation of a Doppler weather radar in Sri Lanka.

11.4 Within the framework of the TCDC, China organized the WMO Symposium on
Strengthening Cooperation among NMHSs and WMO followed by the 2007 Study Tour in
China from 3 to 13 September 2007 for 21 participants, mainly International Advisors, from
21 Members of WMO. Bangladesh and Myanmar participated in the Symposium and Study
Tour in 2007.
                                           - 16 -

11.5 The Panel was informed that Pakistan provided ten-fellowships to meteorological
personnel, two each from Bangadesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka for four
months Meteorological Technicians Training Course in Pakistan during February-June 2008.
Pakistan also indicated its willingness to continue this fellowship programme in coming
years..

11.6 The Panel also noted the recent emergency assistance provided under the
Emergency Assistance Fund scheme to WMO Members affected by natural disasters,
including Bangladesh and Pakistan, and those emerging from conflict. Affected Members
who need emergency assistance were advised to utilize this scheme, and all Members were
requested to consider possible support to the affected NMHSs. The Panel was pleased to
note the proposed WMO initiatives for the emergency assistance for Myanmar, including a
WMO needs assessment mission in collaboration with ESCAP and TSU, financial support for
Myanmar‟s participation in the relevant international meetings, provision of training
opportunities with higher priority as well as the technical assistance for the restoration of
damaged basic meteorological and hydrological networks.

11.7 The Panel further noted that WMO and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre
(ADPC) agreed to cooperate on capacity building for preparedness, mitigation and early
warning of natural hazards, in the area of the enhancement of capacity of NMHSs to deliver
their products to end-uses for early warning arrangements for disaster risk reduction. The
Panel considered that the proposed joint project for “Reducing risks in low elevation coastal
zones to tsunami and other natural hazards” for Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand,
being submitted to the UNESCAP Multi-donor Voluntary Trust Fund on Tsunami Early
Warning Arrangements in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia for funding, would benefit
substantially the above countries, in particular Myanmar, in their efforts to enhance capacity
of NMHSs for early warning arrangements for disaster risk reduction.

11.8 The Panel was informed of the planned update/revision of the RA II Regional
Strategic Plan and the concept of the reform of XIV-RA II session, which will be held in
Tashkent, Uzbekistan in early December 2008. It noted that the reform would be considered
for, among others, the duration, agenda, work plan, documentation and scientific lectures.

11.9 The Panel noted with appreciation that WMO and UNESCAP would continue to
undertake activities in support of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones.

Panel on Tropical Cyclones Trust Fund (PTCTF)

11.10     The establishment of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones Trust Fund (PTCTF)
indicated a step towards achieving self-reliance of the Panel. At the moment, the Fund is
being used not only for the provision of institutional support but also as funding support to the
representatives of Panel Members attending training events and conferences.

11.11    Members were urged to continue to enhance their contributions to the Trust Fund
as a substantial support for the Panel‟s activities.

11.12    The Panel endorsed the use of the Trust Fund for 2008 for the following specific
purpose:
         ・ Supplemental support for the attendance of members of the Policy Working
            Group at its first meeting to be held in late 2008 or early 2009 before the 36th
            session. (US$ 4,000)
         ・ Support to the attachement training at RSMC New Delhi for per diem of the
            participants (US$ 6,000)
         ・ Support to TSU for its operating expenses including those for printing Panel
            News and running TSU-website. (US$ 2,000)
                                          - 17 -

Any other emergency expenditure that can be justified for the use of the PTCTF requires the
concurrence of both the TSU Coordinator and the Panel on Tropical Cyclones Chairman.

11.13    A detailed financial report on the Trust Fund as of 31 December 2007 was
submitted (see Appendix X).

12.     SCIENTIFIC LECTURES

12.1     The Panel devoted a session for the presentation of lectures and technical
discussions under the theme – “Panel Members Working Together to Cope with Climate
Change”. The list of presentations is as follows:

     Climate Change Projections in Bengladesh - Ms. Arjumand Habib, Director, BMD,
      Bangladesh.

     Climate Change Activities in Sri Lanka - Mr. G.B Samarasinghe, Director (Operational
      Met.), DoM, Sri Lanka.

     National Adaptation to Climate Change - Mr. Ali Shareef, Assistant Director General ,
      DoM, Maldives.

     UNESCAP Experiences in Policy Tools and Practices on Adaptation Planning - Dr . Ti
      Le-Huu, Cheif Sustainable Development and Water Resources Section, UNESCAP,
      Thailand.

     Long Term Trend in the Frequency of Cycloninc Disturbances over the North Inidan
      Ocean – Dr B. K. Bandyopadhyaya, India

     Climate Change Science - Dr. Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudhry, Director General, PMD,
      Islamabad, Pakistan

     Wind Damage & Storm Surge Mapping for Andhera Pradesh Coast of India - Dr. S. K.
      Dube, Professor, IIT, New Delhi, India

     A Neural Network Model for Surface Air Temperature estimation over Eastern Part of
      Thailand in 2004 - Dr. Wattana Kanbua, Director, Marine Meteorological Centre, TMD,
      Thailand

     Implementation of Neural Netrwork for Spatial-Temporal Interpolation of Sea Surface
      Temperatures - Dr. Wattana Kanbua, Director, Marine Meteorological Centre, TMD,
      Thailand

     Projection of the change in future weather extremes - Dr. Akio KITOH, Meteorological
      Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency (read by Mr. Kuroiwa)


12.2      The Panel expressed its deep appreciation to the above lecturers for their
informative and excellent presentations.

12.3.      The Panel noted the rich exchange of ideas among the participants aiming at
assisting the Panel Members in coping with possible impacts of climate change. The Panel
noted the importance of assessing possible impacts and corresponding measures for
adaptation. The Panel called on all NMHSs Members to enhance interaction among
themselves and also with other prominent experts on this subject so as to provide inputs for
the identification of possible scenarios for better assessment of adaptation costs. The Panel
also noted the importance of good assessment of adaptation costs in the ongoing global
process of negotiation for better coping with climate change beyond 2012.
                                          - 18 -

13.       OTEHR MATTERS

13.1      The Panel noted with sorrow the severe impacts of the Cyclone “NARGIS” on
Myanmar. It conveyed its deep condolences and sympathy to the Government of Myanmar,
as the country had been seriously affected by the Cyclone “NARGIS” in terms of the loss of
lives, damage to properties and significant disruption of socio-economic activities.

13.2      The Panel expressed its full support to the proposed initiatives to be taken by WMO
in cooperation with UNESCAP and TSU for a mission on assessment of needs of priority
activities aiming at preventing occurrence of similar disasters and also for restoration of
damaged basic meteorological and hydrological networks.

13.3      The Panel also encouraged the Members and WMO and UNESCAP to extend their
assistance to Myanmar on priority training activities, especially those required to address
gaps identified by the assessment mission mentioned earlier. In this connection, the Panel
expressed its appreciation to Pakistan for the offer to include two Myanmar meteorological
officials in its training programme in 2008-09.

13.4      The Panel expressed its concern about the overall meteorological facilities in
Bangladesh, especially in veiw of the fact that Bangladesh is the most vulnerable among the
Panel Member countries. Panel Members encouraged BMD to take up its modernization with
its Government on priority.

14.       DATE AND PLACE OF THE THIRTY- SIXTH SESSION (Agenda item 14)

14.1      The Panel noted that WMO would cosponsor the First Indian Ocean International
Conference on Climate Change and Tropical Cyclone in Oman in March 2009 and that WMO
informed the Panel that Oman is willing to host the thirty sixth Session back to back with the
Conference.

14.2      The Panel noted that Thailand and Pakistan have also expressed their willingness
to host the next session in 2009, subject to their Government‟s approval.

14.3      The Panel agreed that if invited, the parties concerned would confirm their intention
within a month.

14.4      Exact dates and venue of the next session would be determined based on the
consultation between WMO, UNESCAP, Chairman of the Panel, TSU Coordinator and the
Members concerned.

15.       ADOPTION OF THE REPORT (Agenda item 15)

          The report of the thirty-fifth session was adopted at 1130 hours on 9 May 2008.

16.       CLOSURE OF THE SESSION

16.1      The Panel expressed its sincere appreciation to the Regional Office for West Asia
of WMO for hosting this session and the Government of Kingdom of Bahrain and the office of
UNDP in Bahrain for providing logistical supports. It also thanked the Bahrain Meteorological
Service for its warm hospitality. The Panel also expressed its deep appreciation to Mr
Abdullahi Majeed, Chairman of the Panel, Mr. Thosakdi Vanichkajorn, Vice-chairman of the
Panel as well as Mr G.B. Samarasinghe, Chairman of the Drafting Committee, for their
successful conduct of the session.

16.2      The thirty-fifth session of the Panel was concluded on 9 May 2008 at 1240 hours.

                                  ____________________
                                   LIST OF APPENDICES


Appendix I      List of Participants

Appendix II     Agenda

Appendix III    PTC-34 Action Sheet

Appendix IV     2007 Cyclone Season Summary

Appendix V      Country Report of Members
                 (1) Bangladesh
                 (2) India
                 (3) Maldives
                 (4) Pakistan
                 (5) Sri Lanka
                 (6) Thailand

Appendix VI     Multi-hazard Early Warning System Concept - Proposal on Integrated Hazard
                Awareness Display

Appendix VII    Interim Terms of Reference of PWG

Appendix VIII   Activities of TSU during the Inter – Sessional Period 2007-2008

Appendix IX     Statement of TSU Accounts

Appendix X      Statement of Account of the Panel‟s Trust Fund
                                                      APPENDIX I




                                               List of Participants

      Name                           Designation                           Contact Information



     Bangladesh
1.       Ms. Arjumand Habib         Director BMD                           Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD)
                                    & P R of Bangladesh for WMO            Meteorological Complex, Agargaon,
                                                                           Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.
                                                                           Tel: 88 02 8116634
                                                                           Fax: 88 02 811 9832 / 88 02 8118230
                                                                           Email: directorbmd2005@yahoo.com,
                                                                                  wczhasan@accesstel.net


     India

2.       Mr. Bandayopadhyay B. K.   Director,                              India Meteorological Department (IMD),
         Mausam Bhavan,             Northern Hemisphere Analysis Centre,   Lodi Road, New Delhi- 110 003, India
                                    IMD, New Delhi                         Tel: +011-24611068
                                                                           Fax: +011- 24643128
                                                                           Email:bkbando1705@yahoo.co.in


     Maldives
3.       Mr. Majeed Abdullahi       Deputy Minister of Environment,        Ministry of Environment, Energy
                                    Energy and Water, Maldives             and Water
                                    & P R of Maldives with WMO             3rd Floor Fen Building, Male, Maldives
                                                                           Tel: + 960-332 4861 / 332 3825
                                                                           Fax: +960-332 2286 / 332 0021
                                                                           Email: majeed@meteorology.gov.mv
                                                                           Abdullahi.majeed@environment.gov.mv


4.       Mr. Ali Shareef            Assistant Director General             Department of Meteorology,
                                    DoM, Maldives                          Hulule 22000, Maldives.
                                                                           Tel: + 960-3326200
                                                                           Fax: +960-3341797
                                                                           Email: shareef@meteorology.gov.mv

     Pakistan
5.       Dr. Qamar-uz-Zaman         Director General PMD                   Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD)
         Chaudhry                   & P R of Pakistan with WMO             Sector H-8/2, Islamabad, Pakistan
                                                                           Tel: +92 51 9250367
                                                                           Fax: +92 51 9250368
                                                                           Email: pakmet_islamabad@yahoo.com
                                                                           dgmetpak@hotmail.com , qamarc@hotmail.com



6.       Mr. Ata Hussain            Deputy Director                        Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD)
                                    Coordination &                         Sector H-8/2, Islamabad, Pakistan
                                                    APPENDIX I, p.2



                                       International Met. Section, PMD      Tel: +92 51 9250593
                                                                            Fax: +92 51 9250368
                                                                            Email: pakmet_islamabad@yahoo.com
                                                                            atahussaingill@yahoo.co.in


     Sri Lanka
7.       Mr. G.B Samarasinghe          Director ,Operational Meteorology,   Department of Meteorology (DoM),
                                       DoM, Sri Lanka.                      383, Bauddhaloka Mawatha,
                                                                            Colombo 7, Sri Lanka
                                                                            Tel: +94-11-2694104
                                                                            Fax: +94-11-2698311 / 2685566
                                                                            Email: sbaladev_24@yahoo.com /
                                                                                   meteo1@sltnet.lk


     Thailand
8.       Mr. Thosakdi Vanichkajorn     Deputy Director General, TMD         Thai Meteorological Department (TMD)
                                                                            4353 Sukhumvit Road, Bangna
                                                                            Bankok 10260, Thailand
                                                                            Tel: +66-2- 3992355
                                                                            Fax: +66-2- 3989229/ 3989875
                                                                            Email: ramasoon1@hotmail.com

9.       Dr. Wattana Kanbua            Director                             Thai Meteorological Department (TMD)
                                       Marine Meteorological Centre, TMD    4353 Sukhumvit Road, Banena,
                                                                            Bankok 10260, Thailand
                                                                            Tel: +66-2- 3994561
                                                                            Fax: +66-2- 3669375
                                                                            Email: watt_kan@hotmail.com
                                                                            watt_kan@yahoo.com


10.      Mr. Pongsthakorn Suvanpimil   Expert on Hydrology, RID             Royal Irrigation Department (RID)
                                                                            811 Samsen Road, Dusit,
                                                                            Bankok 10300, Thailand
                                                                            Tel: +66-2- 2413348
                                                                            Fax: +66-2- 2413348
                                                                            Email: pongsthakorn@yahoo.com


11.      Mr. Anucha Makkhavesa         Director General, DDPM               Department of Disaster Prevention and

                                                                            Mitigation (DDPM)
                                                                            3/12 U.Tong Nok Road, Dusit,
                                                                            Bankok 10300, Thailand
                                                                            Tel: +66-2- 2430040
                                                                            Fax: +66-2- 2432211
                                                                            Email: foreign_dpm@yahoo.com
                                                                            foreign_dpm@hotmail.com
                                                                            Website: www.disaster.go.th

12.      Mr. Adthaporn Singhawichai Director, Research & International      Department of Disaster Prevention and
                                    Cooperation Bureau, DDPM                Mitigation (DDPM)
                                                                            3/12 U.Tong Nok Road, Dusit,
                                               APPENDIX I, p.3


                                                                 Bankok 10300, Thailand
                                                                 Tel: +66-2- 2433518
                                                                 Fax: +66-2- 2437259
                                                                 Email: A_ Singhawichai@hotmail.com

13.     Mr. Suporn Ratananakin   International Cooperation       Department of Disaster Prevention and

                                 Expert, DDPM                    Mitigation (DDPM)
                                                                 3/12 U.Tong Nok Road, Dusit,
                                                                 Bankok 10300, Thailand
                                                                 Tel: +66-2- 2417478
                                                                 Fax: +66-2- 2432231
                                                                 Email: rsuporn@yahoo.com

      OBSERVERS

      CMA, China

14.     Dr. Ye Xiaodong          Project Officer                 Division of Weather,
                                                                 Deptt. of Forecasting Services & Disaster
        Mitigation
                                                                 China Meteorological Administration (CMA),
                                                                 No. 46, Zhongguancun South Street,
                                                                 Beijing 10081, China.
                                                                 Tel: +8610-68406682
                                                                 Fax: +8610-62175924
                                                                 Email: yedc1234@126.com,
                                                                 yexd@cma.gov.cn

  IIT-New Delhi, India
15.     Dr. Shishir Kumar Dube   Professor                       Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS),
                                                                 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT),
                                                                 Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
                                                                 Tel: +91-11-26591308
                                                                 Fax: +91-11-26591386
                                                                 Email: skdube@cas.iitd.ac.in
  Technical Support Unit (TSU) of the Panel
16.      Dr. Qamar-uz-Zaman      Coordinator - TSU               TSU c/o Pakistan Meteorological Department
        (PMD)
         Chaudhry                                                Sector H-8/2, Islamabad, Pakistan
                                                                 Tel: +92 51 9250367
                                                                 Fax: +92 51 9250368
                                                                 Email:tsupmd@yahoo.com,
                                                                 tsupmd@hotmail.com
                                                                 dgmetpak@hotmail.com , qamarc@hotmail.com


17.      Mr. Ata Hussain         Meteorologist - TSU             TSU c/o Pakistan Meteorological Department
        (PMD)
                                                                 Sector H-8/2, Islamabad, Pakistan
                                                                 Tel: +92 51 9250593
                                                                 Fax: +92 51 9250368
                                                                 Email:tsupmd@yahoo.com,
                                                                 tsupmd@hotmail.com
                                               APPENDIX I, p.4


                                                                   atahussaingill@yahoo.co.in

  WMO
18.   Dr. Tokiyoshi Toya       Regional Director for Asia and      World Meteorological Organization
                               the South-West Pacific              Tel: +41 22 730 8252
                                                                   Fax: +41 22 730 8118
                                                                   Email: ttoya@wmo.int


19.   Mr. Koji Kuroiwa         Chief, Tropical Cyclone Programme   World Meteorological Organization
                               Division                            Tel: +41 22 730 8453
                                                                   Fax: +41 22 730 8128
                                                                   Email: kkuroiwa@wmo.int


  UN ESCAP
20.   Dr. Ti Le-Huu            Cheif, Sustainable Development      UN ESCAP
                               and Water Resources Section,        UN Bledg., Rajadamnern Nok Avenue
                               UN ESCAP                            BKK 10200, Thailand.
                                                                   Tel: +(66-2) 288-1450
                                                                   Fax: +(66-2) 288- 1048/ 288-1059
                                                                   Email: ti.unescap@un.org

  Local Organizing Committee (Bahrain)

21.   Dr. Jaser Rabadi         WMO Representative for West Asia    UN House
                                                                   P.O Box 26814, Manama, Bahrain
                                                                   Tel: + 973 17319401
                                                                   Fax: + 973 17311607
                                                                   Email: rabadi@wmo.int


22.   Mr Adel Daham            Supervisor Met. Operations          Meteorological Directorate
                                                                   Civil Aviation Affairs,
                                                                   P.O. Box 586, Kingdom of Bahrain
                                                                   Tel: + 973 36999138
                                                                   Fax: + 973 17320630
                                                                   Email: dahoom59@hotmail.com


23.   Mr. Dheya Ali Alalawi    Supervisor Met. Operations          Meteorological Directorate
                                                                   Civil Aviation Affairs,
                                                                   P.O. Box 586, Kingdom of Bahrain
                                                                   Tel: + 973 39447776
                                                                   Fax: + 973 17320630
                                                                   Email: dalawi@caa.gov.bh

24.   Mr.Nader Ahmed Abdulla   Senior Climatologist                Meteorological Directorate
                                                                   Civil Aviation Affairs,
                                                                   P.O. Box 586, Kingdom of Bahrain
                                                                   Tel: + 973 17329045
                                                                   Fax: + 973 17320630
                                                                   Email: nader@caa.gov.bh


25.   Ms.Haneen Mahmood        Meteorologist                       Meteorological Directorate
APPENDIX I, p.5


                  Civil Aviation Affairs,
                  P.O. Box 586, Kingdom of Bahrain
                  Tel: + 973 36077441
                  Fax: + 973 17320630
                  Email: hthawadi@caa.gov.bh
                                 APPENDIX II




                                   AGENDA


1.    OPENING OF THE SESSION

2.    ELECTION OF THE CHAIRMAN AND VICE-CHAIRMAN

3.    ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA

4.    WORKING ARRANGEMENTS

5.    FOLLOW-UP ACTION ON PTC-34

6.    REVIEW OF THE 2007 CYCLONE SEASON

7.    COORDINATION WITH OTHER ACTIVITIES OF THE WMO TROPICAL CYCLONE
      PROGRAMME

8.    REVIEW OF THE COORDINATED TECHNICAL PLAN AND CONSIDERATION OF
      THE WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

      8.1   Meteorological component
      8.2   Hydrological component
      8.3   Disaster prevention and preparedness component
      8.4   Training component
      8.5   Research component
      8.6   New joint initiatives
      8.7   Publications

9.    REVIEW OF THE TROPICAL CYCLONE OPERATIONAL PLAN

10.   TECHNICAL SUPPORT UNIT

11.   SUPPORT FOR THE PANEL'S PROGRAMME

12.   SCIENTIFIC LECTURES

13.   OTHER MATTERS

14.   DATE AND PLACE OF THE THIRTY- SIXTH SESSION

15.   ADOPTION OF THE REPORT

16.   CLOSURE OF THE SESSION
                                                               APPENDIX III



                                                             ACTION SHEET


                          THIRTY-FOURTH SESSION OF THE WMO/ESCAP PANEL ON TROPICAL CYCLONES

                                               (Male, Maldives, 25 February to 1 March 2007)



Para. No.             Subject                            Action Required                  Responsible     Deadline    Remarks

   6.4      Advisories and verbal guidance Consider more frequent issuance of advisories RSMC New Delhi   ASAP
            from RSMC.                     and telephone contact with Members during
                                           tropical cyclone events.

   7.7      Study on suitable conversion    Include a one page executive summary of the WMO (TCP)         RA I XXIV
            factors between the WMO 10-     study in the Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone
            minute standard average wind    Forecasting and in the Operational Plans/Manual
            and 1 minute, 2 minute and 3-   of the TC regional bodies in a suitable format.
            minute “sustained” winds.


   8.       Working    Group     on    the Hold a face-to-face meeting in late 2007 to WMO (TCP)          Dec 2007
            Coordinated Technical Plan and prepare the new Coordinated Technical Plan and
            Work Programme                 distribute it to the Members with findings and
                                           recommendations at least one month prior to the
                                           next session.
                                                                      APPENDIX III


Para. No.               Subject                                Action Required                      Responsible   Deadline          Remarks

  8.2.2     Regional workshop to enhance      Seek authorization from the Government to           Bangladesh      Six weeks after
            further the flood forecasting     organize the regional workshop and inform                           the 34th
            services for socio-economic       UNESCAP and WMO through the TSU of the              India           session
            development.                      decisions by the Governments within six weeks
                                              after the Session.


 8..2.4     Increasing socio-economic         Assist in regional cooperative efforts to address   WMO (HWR)       ASAP
            impacts of stormed rainfalls in   the issue of increasing trend of water-related
            all Member countries of the       disasters                                           UNESCAP
            Panel.


  8.2.7     Advisory services from            Make use of the services.                           Members         ASAP
            UNESCAP to the Panel
            Members on water resources
            planning and management.


  8.2.9     Manual on Flood Forecasting       Prepare these manuals and make available to         WMO (HWR)       ASAP
            and Warnings, Manual on Low       Memers.
            Flows and Prediction, and
            Manual on PMP.


  8.3.1     DPP expert.                       Send DPP experts to take part in the PTCsession.    Members         ASAP


  8.3.1     Working Group on DPP              Nominate Chair and Vice-chair respectively and      Thailand        Six weeks after
                                              inform the TSU, UNESCAP and WMO of their                            the 34th
                                              nominees.                                           Oman            session
                                                                       APPENDIX III


Para. No.               Subject                                 Action Required                          Responsible   Deadline        Remarks

  8.3.1     Work plan to enhance               Prepare the detailed work plan for circulation to all   DPP Chair &     ASAP
            cooperation among the              Members.                                                Vice-chair
            Members on DPP.
                                                                                                       UNESCAP


  8.4.6     Attachement training at IIT        Include the training on tsunami propagation model IIT                   August 2007
            Kharagpur (Delhi).                 in the curriculum in addition to storm surge model.


  8.4.7     Fourth EUMETSAT satellite          WMO Secretariat to provide financial assistance WMO                     February 2008
            application course at the Muscat   as necessary.
            Center of Excellence during
            February 2008.


  8.5.4     Research work in the mutually      Invite one or two scientists from each Member Pakistan                  ASAP
            agreed fields of meteorology       country to Pakistan for initiating/carrying out joint
            and related sciences in            research work.
            Pakistan.


  8.8.1     Establishment of a regional        Present ideas on possible framework for the UNESCAP                     ASAP
            multi-hazard early warning         establishment of a regional multi-hazard early
            system.                            warning system for discussion.


  8.8.4     Concept paper on a regional        Prepare the concept paper and submit it to all the UNESCAP              May 2007
            multi-hazard early warning         Members by May 2007 for consideration by the
            system .                           respective Governments.
                                                                   APPENDIX III


Para. No.               Subject                             Action Required                      Responsible    Deadline       Remarks

  8.8.5     Reports of achievements in      Provide reports of achievements during the ICAO, IFRC,              35th session
            disaster risk management as     preceding year at the 35th session.        ADRC, UNDP
            well as multi-hazard early                                                 and ISDR
            warnings.


  8.8.6     Storm Surge Project             Implement the Storm Surge project on the basis of   Members         ASAP
                                            current level of support by the respective
                                            Governments.


  8.8.7     Task Force for the new joint    Appoint the Task Force after obtaining approval by Panel            ASAP
            initiative.                     all the Governments.


   9.4      2007 Operational Plan           Communicate amendments to Dr. Samarendra Members                    End of March
                                            Karmakar                                                            2007
                                            .

   9.5      2007 Operational Plan           Issue issue the 2007 Edition.                       WMO             ASAP


  10.4      Legal and institutional         Review the current status of the legal and TSU                      ASAP
            framework of TSU                institutional framework of TSU and report to all the WMO
                                            Members.                                             ESCAP


  11.6      Training activities among the   Provide the WMO Secretariat with the information Members who        ASAP
            Members within the framework    on the activities.                               offered training
            of TCDC                                                                          opportunities
                                                                         APPENDIX III


Para. No.               Subject                                  Action Required         Responsible   Deadline   Remarks

  11.7      Inventory of experts in the fields   Develop the inventory                  TSU            ASAP
            of maintenance of
            meteorological equipment, ICT,
            and other relevant fields.
                                         APPENDIX IV




                          2007 CYCLONE SEASON SUMMARY


       CYCLONIC ACTIVITIES OVER NORTH INDIAN OCEAN DURING 2007

       The year-2007 was a year of near normal cyclonic activity over north Indian Ocean. The
basin witnessed the formation of twelve cyclonic disturbances (Table 2.1) against a normal of fifteen.
Out of twelve disturbances, five intensified upto the intensity of deep depressions and two into
cyclonic storms and one each into very severe cyclonic storm and super cyclonic storm. Tracks of
the cyclonic disturbances formed over north Indian Ocean during 2007 are shown in Fig. 2.1.
       Two cyclonic storms, including a super cyclonic storm “GONU”, and one deep depression
formed over the Arabian Sea. However, this deep depression dissipated over the sea itself. The Bay
of Bengal witnessed the formation of one very severe cyclonic storm, one cyclonic storm, four deep
depressions and three depressions during the year. The brief synopses of the cyclonic storms are
given below:

(a)    Cyclonic storm "AKASH" over the Bay of Bengal during 13-15 May, 2007

         During the onset phase of southwest monsoon, a low pressure area formed over south
Andaman Sea on 11 May, 2007. It concentrated into a depression over eastcentral Bay of Bengal on
13 May and into a cyclonic storm "AKASH" on 14 May. The cyclonic storm continued to move in a
north-northeasterly direction under the influence of upper tropospheric trough in westerlies and
crossed south Bangladesh coast, close to south of Cox's Bazar between 2200 and 2300 UTC of 14
May. After crossing the coast, system weakened gradually and continued to move in the same
direction. The system caused heavy rainfall over Myanmar, Bangladesh and northeastern states of
India.

(b)    Super Cyclonic storm “GONU” over the Arabian Sea during 01-07 June, 2007

         A low pressure area developed over eastcentral Arabian Sea on 31 May 2007. It
concentrated into a depression over the same area and then into a cyclonic storm “GONU” at 1200
UTC of 1 June. Thereafter, it moved in a north-northwesterly direction and intensified into a severe
cyclonic storm at 0300 UTC of 3 June. It intensified into a very severe cyclonic storm at 1800 UTC of
3 June. The satellite imagery showed open eye at 0600 UTC of 4 June 2007. It intensified into a
super cyclonic storm (T6.5) at 1500 UTC of 4 June. Thereafter, it moved in a west-northwesterly
direction and started weakening gradually due to relatively colder sea surface temperature and
increasing vertical wind shear. It crossed Oman coast as a very severe cyclonic storm around 0300
UTC of 6 June. After crossing Oman coast, it emerged into the Gulf of Oman, weakened gradually
and moved in a north-northwesterly direction. It made second landfall over Iran coast near long.
58.50 E between 0300 and 0400 UTC of 7 June 2007 as a Cyclonic Storm. The system caused loss
of life and property in Oman and Iran due to heavy rainfall, strong winds and storm surge.

(c)    Cyclonic Storm “YEMYIN” over the Arabian Sea during 25-26 June, 2007

       The remnant of a deep depression which developed over westcentral Bay of Bengal on
21 June, 2007 and moved west-northwestwards across south India during 22-23 June and
emerged into Arabian Sea as a low pressure area, concentrated into a depression over
northeast Arabian Sea at 0300 UTC of 25 June. The depression further intensified into a deep
depression at 1200 UTC of the same day and into a Cyclonic Storm “YEMYIN”, at 2100 UTC
of the same day. It moved in a northwesterly direction and crossed Pakistan coast near
                                          APPENDIX IV


longitude 64.00 E between 0200 and 0300 UTC of 26 June. The cyclonic storm “YEMYIN”
caused extensive damage over south Pakistan due to heavy rain and strong winds.

(d) Very Severe Cyclonic Storm “SIDR” over the Bay of Bengal during 11-16 November,
     2007

         An upper air cyclonic circulation lay over southeast Bay of Bengal and adjoining area of
south Andaman Sea during 8-10 November, 2007. Initially moderate upper-level wind shear
inhibited organisation of the system, while strong diffluence aloft aided in developing
convection. During this period, easterly wave was also active and vertical wind shear
decreased significantly as the circulation became better defined. Under the influence of these
factors, a low pressure area formed at 0300 UTC of 11 November over southeast Bay of
Bengal and neighbourhood. It concentrated into a depression and subsequently into a deep
depression on the same day. Moving in a northwesterly direction, it intensified into cyclonic
storm “SIDR” and lay centred at 0300 UTC of 12 November, about 220 km southwest of Port
Blair. It further concentrated into severe cyclonic storm at 1200 UTC and very severe cyclonic
storm at 1800 UTC, while moving in a north-northwesterly direction. It continued to move in
north-northwesterly direction till 0000 UTC of 13th. It then moved in a northerly direction and lay
centred at 0300 UTC of 15 November near lat 18.00 N & long. 89.00 E, about 530 km south of
Kolkata. The system then moved rapidly and lay centred at 1200 UTC of 15 November near
lat. 21.00 N and long. 89.00 E, about 200 km south-southeast of Kolkata. It then started to move
north- northeastwards and crossed west Bangladesh coast around 1700 UTC near longitude
89.80 E and lay centred at 1800 UTC near lat. 22.50 N and long 90.50 E, about 100 km south of
Dhaka, Bangladesh. It weakened rapidly into a cyclonic storm, while moving northeastwards. It
further weakened into a depression and lay centred at 0300 UTC of 16 November, about 50 km
north of Agartala. It lay as well marked low pressure area over northeastern states at 1200 UTC
of 16 November and became unimportant at 1500 UTC of the same day.

        RSMC, New Delhi mobilized all its resources, both technical and human, to track these
tropical disturbances that formed over the north Indian Ocean and issued timely advisories to
WMO / ESCAP Panel countries and to the national agencies.

        Some of the characteristic features of these cyclonic disturbances are given in (Table
2.2). The statistical data pertaining to the monthly frequencies, total life time (days), frequency
distribution (intensity-wise and basin-wise) are given in (Table 2.3). The detailed characteristics
of these disturbances are presented and discussed in Sec. 2.1 to 2.12. Comprehensive
information on tropical cyclone activity over the north Indian Ocean for last eleven years is
given in (Table 2.4).

Salient features:

   ●   Four cyclonic storms including one super cyclonic storm (GONU), one very severe
       cyclonic storm (SIDR) and two cyclonic storms (AKASH and YEMYIN) formed over
       north Indian ocean during 2007. However, none of the cyclonic storms had landfall over
       the Indian coast.
   ●   The first ever super cyclonic storm developed over the Arabian Sea as per recorded
       history of IMD.
      The super cyclonic storm, GONU made landfall over Iran with cyclonic storm intensity
       and caused loss of 23 lives and the properties worth $2.5 million. This was the second
       landfalling cyclonic storm over Iran after 4th June 1898.
                                   APPENDIX IV




                                      Table 2.1

      Cyclonic disturbances formed over north Indian Ocean during 2007

      Depression over Andaman Sea and adjoining eastcentral Bay of Bengal during 3-
1.
      5 May, 2007

2.    Cyclonic storm "AKASH" over the Bay of Bengal during 13-15 May, 2007

3.    Super cyclonic storm “GONU” over the Arabian Sea during 01-07 June, 2007

4.    Deep depression over the Bay of Bengal during 21-23 June, 2007

5.    Cyclonic storm “YEMYIN” over the Arabian Sea during 25-26 June, 2007

6.    Deep depression over the Bay of Bengal during 28-30 June, 2007

7.    Deep Depression over the Bay of Bengal during 04-09 July, 2007

8.    Deep depression over the Bay of Bengal during 5-7 August, 2007

9.    Depression over the Bay of Bengal during 21-24 September, 2007

10.   Depression over the Bay of Bengal during 27-29 October, 2007

11.   Deep depression over the Arabian Sea during 27 October to 2 November, 2007

12.   Very severe cyclonic storm “SIDR” over the Bay of Bengal during 11-16
      November, 2007
                                         APPENDIX IV


                                           Table 2.2

    Some Characteristic features of cyclonic disturbances formed over north Indian Ocean and
                                  adjoining region during 2007
Cyclonic Storm Date, Time Date,              Time Estimated            Estimated       Max.
/ Depression     & Lat.(0N)/ (UTC) place of lowest central
                 Long. (0E) landfall/                pressure, Date Maximum            T.    No.
                 of genesis       dissipation        &Time (UTC) & wind speed Attained
                                                     lat.oN / long.oE  (kt), Date &
                                                                       Time

Depression       03 May,   Crossed                 998 hPa at         25 kt at
over the Bay of           Arakan Coast
Bengal,3-5 May 1200 UTC near                       1200 UTC of        1200 UTC of
                near      16.30N/94.50E
                          between 0100             03 May near        05 May           T 1.5
                13.5/93.0 & 0300 UTC of
                          05 May                   13.5/93.0


Cyclonic Storm 13 May ,     Crossed                 990 hPa at        45 kt at
“AKASH” over                Bangladesh
the    Bay    of 0300 UTC   Coast close to         0300 UTC of 14 0600 UTC of
Bengal     13-15 near       south of Cox‟s         May near       14 May
May                         Bazar      near                                            T 3.0
                 15.0/90.5  21.2/92.2              16.5/91.0
                            between 2200
                            & 2300 UTC of
                            14 May
Super Cyclonic 01 June,     Crossed                920 hPa at         127 kt at
Storm “GONU”                Makaran Coast
over the Arabian 1800 UTC as        cyclonic       1500 UTC of        1500 UTC of
sea 01-07 June   near       storm      near
                            long.    58.00E        04 June near       04 June          T 6.5
                 15.0 /68.0 between 0300
                            and 0400 UTC           20.0/64.0
                            of 07June

Deep            21June ,         Crossed north     988 hPa at         30 kt at
Depression                       Andhra
over the Bay of 0300 UTC         Pradesh coast     1200 UTC of        1200 UTC of
Bengal          near             north        of
21-23 June                       Machilipatnam     21 June near       21 June          T 2.0
                15.5/86.0        between 0100
                                 and 0300 UTC      16.0/84.0
                                 of 22 June
                                       APPENDIX IV


Cyclonic Storm 25 June ,      Crossed        986 hPa at         35 kt at
“YEMYIN” over                 Pakistan coast
Bay of Bengal 0300 UTC        near 25.5/64.0 2100 UTC of        2100 UTC of   2.5
25-26 June     near           between 0200-
                              0300 UTC of 26 25 June            25 June
                23.5 /67.5    June
                                             Near 23.5/66.0

Deep            28 June ,     Crossed        986 hPa at         30 kt at
Depression                    Orissa  coast
over the Bay of 0000 UTC      near      Puri 0600 UTC of        0300 UTC of   T 2.0
Bengal          near          between 0000-
                              0100 UTC of 29 28 June            28 June.
28-30 June      18.5/ 87.0    June
                                             Near 18.5/ 87.0




Deep            04 July                        988 hPa at       30 kt at
Depression
over the Bay of 0300 UTC                       0600 UTC of      1200 UTC of      **
Bengal,         near
                                   *           05 July          05 July.
04-09 July      22.0 / 89.5
                                               Near 23.0/88.0

Deep            05 August ,   Crossed orissa   984 hPa at       30 kt at
Depression      0000 UTC      coast between
over the Bay of near          Chandbali and    2100 UTC of      1800 UTC of   T 2.0
Bengal          20.0/88.5     Paradip,
                              between 0100     05 August        05 August
05-07 August                  and 0200 UTC
                              of 06 August.    Near

                                               20.5/87.5

                21            Crossed orissa 990 hPa at         25 kt at
Depression
                September     coast near Puri
over the Bay of
                              between 1300- 0900 UTC of 23      1200 UTC of
Bengal
                1200 UTC      1400 UTC of 22 September near
                near          September.                        21            T 1.5
21-24
                                              21.0/82.5         September.
September
                18.0/ 86.5

                27 October, Dissipated over 1004 hPa at     25 kt at
Depression      1800 UTC the west central
                near        Bay of Bengal.  0300 UTC of     1800 UTC of       T 1.5
over the Bay of
                11.5/85.5
Bengal
                                             28    October, 27 October.
                                            Near
27-29 October
                                               11.5/84.5
                                       APPENDIX IV


                                                 1000 hPa at        30 kt at
Deep
                 27 October , Dissipated over 0000 UTC of           0300 UTC of     T 2.0
Depression
                 1800 UTC the west central
over the Arabian
                 near         Arabian Sea.    31 October,           28 October.
sea
                 10.5/66.5
                                              Near 11.5/65.5
27 Oct.-2 Nov.


                  11           Crossed           944 hPa at 0300 115 kt at
Very    Severe
                  November     Bangladesh        UTC      of  15
Cyclonic Storm
                  0900 UTC     coast    around   November, near 0300 UTC of T 6.0
“SIDR” over the
                  near         1700 UTC of 15    18.0/89.0       15 November.
Bay of Bengal
                  10.0/92.0    November near
11-16 November
                               89.8. 0E


       * : The system formed over Bangladesh coast

       ** : The system attained the maximum intensity (deep depression) over land area.
                                         APPENDIX IV




                                              Table 2.3



           Statistical data relating to cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian

                                     Ocean during 2007



A) Monthly frequencies and total lifetime of cyclonic disturbances (CI  1.5)

                                                                                         Life

                 Ja    Fe           Ap             Ju           Au   Se   Oc   No   De   Time
S.No   Type                 Mar          May              Jul
                 n     b            r              n            g    p    t    v    c    in

                                                                                         (Days)

1.     D                                                                              13.25

       DD                                          
2.                                                                                    11.88
                                                   

                                         
3.     CS                                                                               1.88



4.     SCS                                                                               0.88


                                                                               
5.     VSCS                                                                              5.75


                                                   
6.     SuCS                                                                              0.25


              Peak intensity of the system
                                          APPENDIX IV


  B)     Frequency distribution of cyclonic disturbances of different intensities based   on
         satellite assessment.



CI No.                    1.5     2.0    2.5   3.0      4.0   5.0   6.0   7.0




No. of disturbances       12       9       4      3         2      2      2      -




  C)     Basin-wise distribution of cyclonic disturbances



Basin                               Number of cyclonic disturbances

Bay of Bengal                       9

Arabian Sea                         3

Land depression                     --
                                   APPENDIX IV



                                           Table 2.4

  Cyclonic disturbances formed over north Indian Ocean and land areas of India
                               during 1997-2007


Year          Basin    D      DD      CS        SCS    VSCS    SuCS      Total

              BOB      1      4       1         1      1         --      8
1997
              ARB      1      --      --        --     --        --      1
              BOB      --     3       --        1      2         --      6
1998
              ARB      --     1       1         1      1         --      4
              BOB      1      3       1         --     1         1       7
1999
              ARB      --     --      --        --     1         --      1
              BOB      1      --      3         --     2         --      6
2000
              ARB      --     --      --        --     --        --      -
              BOB      2      --      1         --     --        --      3
2001
              ARB      --     --      2         --     1         --      3
              BOB      1      1       2         1      --        --      5
2002
              ARB      --     --      1         --     --        --      1
              BOB      2      2       --        1      1         --      6
2003
              ARB      --     --      --        1      --        --      1
              BOB      2      --      --        --     1         --      3
2004          ARB      --     2       --        3      --        --      5
              LAND     2      --      --        --     --        --      2
              BOB      2      3       4         --     --        --      9
2005          ARB      2      --      --        --     --        --      2
              LAND     1      --      --        --     --        --      1
              BOB      5      2       1         --     1         --      9
2006          ARB      --     1       --        1      --        --      2
              LAND     1      --      --        --     --        --      1
              BOB      3      4       1         --     1         --      9
2007
              ARB      --     1       1         --     --        1       3

       D: Depression         DD: Deep Depression,   CS: Cyclonic Storm
       SCS: Severe Cyclonic Storm VSCS: Very Severe Cyclonic Storm
       SuCS: super Cyclonic Storm
       BOB: Bay of Bengal    ARB: Arabian Sea
                                                                                      APPENDIX IV




Fig.2.1 Tracks of cyclonic disturbances formed over north Indian Ocean During 2007.
                     APPENDIX V (1)




BANGLADESH COUNTRY REPORT

The WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones activities



  The Thirty-fifth Session of the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical
                         Cyclones

                    05 - 09 May 2008

                    Manama, Bahrain




                          By
         Bangladesh Meteorological Department
                  Dhaka, Bangladesh.
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


1.     GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1    Geographical Environment

Geography:
        Bangladesh is roughly located between 20.57oN and 26.63oN and 88.02oE and 92.68oE.
It is bounded on the west, north and east by India and on the south by the Bay of Bengal. In the
extreme east, there is a common border with Myanmar. Bangladesh is one of the largest deltaic
countries in the world with an extremely flat plain having only small hilly areas in the
northeast and southeast regions.
       The entire area of Bangladesh is about 1, 44,735 sq. km.
        The country is subject to meteorological, hydrological and seismic hazards. Bangladesh
is frequented by floods almost every year due to the up stream flow (92%) of three major
tributaries (i.e. Padma, Jamuna and Meghna) and local heavy rainfall (8%). The latest four
severe floods occurred in 1987, 1988, 1998 and 2004.

Population:
       The population is about 135 millions of which about 80% live in the rural areas.

Climate:
       Bangladesh lies in the sub-tropical monsoon climate regime. Based on the analysis of
pressure, rainfall and temperature, the climate of this country can be described under the
following four seasons:
1.     Winter or Northeast Monsoon (December – February): This season is characterized
       by very light northerly winds, mild temperature and dry weather with clear to
       occasionally cloudy skies over the country. The mean temperature is in the range of 18-
       21oC.
2.     Summer or Pre-Monsoon (March - May): The mean temperature during the summer
       months remains within 23-30oC. April and May are the hottest months. The highest
       temperature ranging from 41-45oC is attained in the northern and northwestern districts.
       Over rest of the country it ranges from 38-41oC. This season is characterized by
       cyclogenesis in the Bay of Bengal. Some of the depressions may develop into cyclonic
       storms which travel generally northwestwards initially and then recurve to northeast
       moving towards Bangladesh and Myanmar coasts. Some of these storms may attain
       hurricane intensity and are associated with storm surges. The cyclone that hit the east
       coast of the country on 29 and 30 April 1991 reportedly resulted in nearly 1, 38,882
       deaths.
3.     Southwest Monsoon or Monsoon (June - September): In this season, the surface
       wind changes to southerly direction over the southern and the central districts and to
       southeasterly over the northern districts of the country. Wind speed is light to moderate.
       Tropical depressions and storms form in the Bay of Bengal during the season and
       generally move northwestwards over India and sometimes crosses Bangladesh coast.
       Storms, however, seldom attain hurricane intensity in this season.
4.     Autumn or Post-Monsoon (October - November): This is the transitional season
       from summer monsoon to the winter. Rainfall decreases considerably in October and
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


         November and the dry period starts setting in over the country. The district of Sylhet
         gets 200-250mm of rain in October and the rest of the country gets about 100-170mm.
         In November the amount of rainfall over the southeastern coastal districts amounts to
         25-65mm, whereas the rest of the country gets only 1-3 rainy days in the month of
         November.
         The mean temperature falls from 28-29oC in September to 25-26oC in October and to
         23-25oC in November. The highest maximum temperature hardly exceeds 29.0oC and
         the lowest minimum does not fall below 10.0oC throughout the country.
         Tropical cyclones form over the Bay of Bengal in this season and moves initially
         towards west and then towards northwest and at times towards northeast affecting
         Bangladesh coast. Some of the storms in this season may attain hurricane intensity.



2.       BANGLADESH METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT

2.1      Structure
2.1.1 Headquarters
Government Department:                       Ministry of Defence
Service:                                     Bangladesh Meteorological Department
Address:                                     Meteorological Complex, Agargaon, Dhaka-1207.
Telephone                                    : +(88 02) 8116634; +(880 02) 8119832.
Telefax                                      : +(88 02) 8118230
Telex                                        :METEOR, DHAKA.
E-mail                                       :directorbmd2005@yahoo.com
Web site                                     :http://www.bmd.gov.bd (being developed)
2.1.2 Organization
       The Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD), which is under the Ministry of
Defence, has eleven divisions at its Headquarters in Dhaka namely, Administration Division,
Planning Division, Agrometeorology Division, Meteorological Training Institute, Forecasting
Division, Synoptic Division, Climate Division, International Meteorology Division, Workshop
and Laboratory, Electronic and Instrument Division and Communication Division. The
Department also maintains two regional offices: Storm Warning Centre (SWC), Dhaka and
Meteorological and Geophysical Centre (M&GC), Chittagong.


2.1.3 Staff and budget
         Officers:      134
            Staff:      923
            Total:     1057
                                        APPENDIX V (1)




2.1.4 General fund contribution to WMO
        Contribution paid (CHF)
          Year        Total payment
          1998       12,493.00
          1999       12,493.00
          2000       12,444.00
          2001       11,544.00
          2002       12,441.50
          2003       12,429.79
          2004       12,076.77
          2005       12,490.00
          2006       12,490.00
          2007       12,490.00
2.1.5        Development Plans of BMD

          To equip BMD with the latest technicalities and attain advancement in
forecasting as well as in other fields of Meteorology, a number of projects have been
taken up:

        a. Establishment of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system.
        It is under implementation with full Government of Bangladesh (GoB) funds. An open
        international tender was floated seeking consultancy service and UK Met Office won the
        bid. The consultants Team visited BMD several times and they are preparing Technical
        Documents after making proper assessments. It is likely to be completed in three phases.

        b. Establishment of three new Seismic Observatories at Dhaka, Rangpur and
           Sylhet and renovation of the existing seismic observatory at Chittagong.
        The Project has been implemented with full GoB funds. A WAN (TCP/IP network, 64
        kbps) between the four seismic stations has been setup having a centralized monitoring
        and analyzing system at BMD Headquarters.

        c. Replacement of Cox‟s Bazar and Khepupara Meteorological Radars with S-
           Band Doppler System.
        The project has been implemented under grant assistance of the Government of Japan.
        The Doppler Radar at Cox‟s Bazar has become operational in March 2007 and the
        Doppler Radar at Khepupara became operational since march 2008.

        d. Establishment of Doppler Meteorological and Hydrological Radar at Moulvi
           Bazar.
        This project is in the implementation stage and is likely to be completed in the first
        quarter of next year.
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


      e. Establishment of 14 new observatories in the riverine area for reducing river
         capsizes during the nor‟westers season.
      It was supposed to be completed by June 2007, but the period had to be extended by one
      year as land acquisition is a cumbersome process and takes a long time.

      f. Upgradation of GTS link from 2.4 Kbps to 64 Kbps for Tsunami message
      reception and dissemination.
      WMO implemented the project as an aid and already completed this in 2007. A training
      programme of three Engineers of BMD was arranged in Japan under the project.

      g. Strengthening of Agro-meteorological Services in Bangladesh including
      Establishment of 7 (Seven) Agro-meteorological Pilot Stations.
      The project implementation work is going on under GoB Fund.

      h. Establishment of 5 (Five) First Class Meteorological Observatories in BMD.
      The project implementation work is going on in full swing under GoB Fund.

      i. Strengthening of Meteorological Training Institute and R&D Cell in BMD.
      The project is underway.

      j. Technical cooperation for Human Capacity Development under JICA
         Assistance.
    Long-term Development Plans:
        -   Upgradation of BMD‟s Data Collection and Processing System with Automation
            and Networking.
        -   Modernization of Data Processing and Archiving System of Climate Division of
            BMD Head Office. Suitable climatological software for climate data processing
            (input, retrieval etc.) will be required. In this respect, BMD needs assistance from
            WMO/any Donor agency.
        -   Upgradation of the Training Institute and Research & Development Cell.
     Higher Training Courses on Meteorology, Electronics, Communication and Mechanical
     Engineering need to be introduced. One consultant should be appointed in this respect to
     evaluate the needs for the upgradation of Meteorological Training Institute and the R & D
     Cell established in the Institute.
        -      Human capacity building on operational weather analysis and forecasting and
               relevant technical issues.
     Assistance is required for upgradation of the Meteorological Training Institute and the
     R&D Cell of BMD as well as for the capacity building with higher training/degree in
     Meteorology.
3.      FOLLOW-UP ACTION ON PTC-33 (Agenda item 5)

     Bangladesh Meteorological Department tried its best to follow the recommendations made
     in the Thirty-fourth session of PTC.
                                          APPENDIX V (1)


4.     REVIEW OF THE 2007 CYCLONE SEASON (Agenda item 6)
4.1    Extreme Weather Events in Bangladesh and Tropical Cyclones in the Bay of
       Bengal during January-December 2007

4.1.1 Extreme Weather Events in Bangladesh

4.1.2 Cyclones and depressions in the Bay of Bengal in 2007


1. Cyclonic Storm “Akash” (13-15 May, 2007 )
The low over East Central Bay and adjoining area intensified into a well marked low over the
same area in the morning of 13 May, 2007. Again it concentrated into a Depression at 13, 0900
UTC over the same area (Lat.15.5°N, Long.90.5°E). The system remained practically
stationary for some time then it moved slightly North-Northeastwards into East Central Bay
and adjoining North Bay and concentrated into a Deep Depression at 14, 0000 UTC, it further
intensified into Cyclonic storm “Akash” at 14, 0600 UTC over the same area. The storm
moved northwards into North Bay at 0900 UTC. The cyclonic storm “Akash” moved North-
northeastwards, grazed the coast and crossed Chittagong – Cox‟s Bazar coast near Chittagong
at 15,0300 UTC. Maximum wind speed recorded at Cox‟s Bazar 83 kph and at Chittagong 74
kph. Chief amount of rainfall (in 24 hrs) on 14th May recorded at Cox‟Bazar 107mm,
Chittagong 71mm, Sandwip 82 mm, Comilla 58 mm, M.Court 95 mm and Feni 55 mm.

       26
                   Cyclonic Storm "AKASH"
       24
                        13-15 May, 2007

                                                                   15.0900
       22
                                                         15,0000
                                                         14,2100
       20
                                                         14,1800

                                                       14,1500
       18
                                                       14,1200

                                                       14,0600
       16                                             14,0000
                                                     13,1800
                                                     13,1500


       14


       12


       10


        8


                        80                 85            90                  95



2. Severe Cyclonic Storm with a core of hurricane winds „SIDR‟ of 11-16 November 2007
                                      APPENDIX V (1)


A low was detected first at 0000 UTC of 10.11.2007 over South Andaman Sea and adjoining
area. The system initially moved slightly northwestwards into South East Bay and adjoining
area and intensified into a well-marked low at 1200UTC of the same day. After that it moved
slightly northwestwards and intensified into a depression over the same area (Lat. 9.50N and
Long. 92.00E) at 0600 UTC of the next day. Then the system remained practically stationary
for some time and intensified into a deep depression over the same area (Lat. 10.00N and Long.
91.50E) at 0000 UTC of 12.11.2007. Then the system moved northwestwards and intensified
further into a cyclonic storm “SIDR” (with ECP 998) and severe cyclonic storm “SIDR” (with
ECP 988) over the same area at 0600 UTC and 1200 UTC of the same day respectively. Then
the system remained practically stationary for some time over South East Bay and adjoining
area and again moved north-northwestwards and concentrated into a severe cyclonic storm
“SIDR” with a core of hurricane winds at 0300 UTC of 13.11.2007 over the same area (Lat.
12.50N and Long. 89.50E). Again the system remained practically stationary for couple of
hours and then started moving northwards keeping same intensity. At 1500 UTC of 15
November, the centre of the system crossed Bangladesh the coast near Baleshwar River at
1800 UTC of the same day and lay centred over southwestern part of Bangladesh. Then the
system recurved northeastwards and weakened gradually. At 2100 UTC it lay centred over
southern and central part of Bangladesh as a land depression.




       Cyclone SIDR hit offshore islands of Bangladesh at approximately 1230 UTC of 15
November and made landfall near Baleshwar River of Barisal-Patuakhali coast at 01500 UTC
during the low tide time. Wind speeds reached up to 220-240 km per hour and affected 15
                                        APPENDIX V (1)


coastal districts fully and 15 other districts partly. When the cyclone SIDR made its landfall on
the coastal region of Bangladesh, a massive destruction took place.

       Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) advised the concerned authorities
about SIDR by issuing Great Danger Signals nearly 27 hours before its landfall. The lead time
enabled the disaster management agencies for the reduction of losses. Even than the cyclone
SIDR killed 3,363 people and damaged houses, all types of crops and trees and washed away
huge number of livestock.

Total damage estimated: about 450 million USD

3. Depression (2-5 May, 2007)
4. Depression (19-22 June, 2007)
5. Depression (26-29 June, 2007)
6. Land Depression during 04-08 July 2007
7. Well Marked Low during 14-17 July 2007
8. Monsoon Depression of 06 August 2007
9. Depression of 13 August 2007
10. Depression of 18 August 2007
11. Depression of 21-23 September 2007
12. Depression of 08-09 October 2007
13. Depression 15-16 October 2007



5.     REVIEW OF THE COORDINATED TECHNICAL PLAN AND
       CONSIDERATION OF THE WORK PLAN FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS
       (Agenda item 8)

5.1     Meteorological Component

5.1.1 Observations and Basic observing networks
       A total of 35 synoptic stations are in operation in Bangladesh. BMD has also10 Pilot
Balloon stations and 3 Rawinsonde stations. All observed data are received and gathered at the
National Meteorological Communication Centre, Dhaka and transmitted through GTS to
RSMC New Delhi.
       The Dhaka, Chittagong and Bogra Rawinsonde Stations have been upgraded to GPS
system recently.
        At present one observation at 0000 UTC is taken at Dhaka and Chittagong. Bangladesh
is facing difficulties in maintaining these observations due to financial constraints. For tropical
cyclones, rawinsonde observations are very important to determine the steering current for the
prediction of cyclone track and even in the day to day forecasting. BMD should have at least
four stations with sufficient resources for regular routine observations.
                                      APPENDIX V (1)


        Four 10 cm S-band radars with modern facilities are being operated at very strategic
points at Dhaka, Khepupara, Cox‟s Bazar and Rangpur; each having a scanning radius of 400
km. Among these the Radars at Khepupara and Cox‟s Bazar are provided exclusively for storm
warning purposes. The conventional radars of Cox‟s Bazar and Khepupara have already been
replaced by Doppler facilities through JICA Assistance. The communication link is also
upgraded with the connection of VSAT link.
       For near real time data transmission, a dedicated network between SWC and the
observatories of BMD along with a website development are in the final stage under assistance
from Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP), UNDP and is likely to be
completed soon.
      SWC receives NWP products and World Area Forecast (WAFS) products from
Bracknell, UK and also from NCMRWF, India through Internet.


Network of meteorological observations in BMD:

          Type of station         No. of                        Remarks
                                  station
  Synoptic                          35      The network gives and average density of a
          RBSN-SYNOP               35      synoptic station per 4,100 km2.
                                    35
          RBSN-CLIMATE
                                    03
          RBSN-TEMP
  Upper-air                                 Three Rawinsonde stations at Dhaka,
                                            Chittagong and Bogra are in operation now.
          Rawinsonde               03
                                            First two stations take one observation at 0000
           stations                         UTC a day. Other one takes observations
                                    10      occasionally.
                                            Ten pilot balloon stations are taking out
          Pilot balloon                    observations four times a day. Because of the
                                            establishment of the Hydrogen Plant in BMD,
           stations                         the gas production is regular and uninterrupted.
                                            As a result, the regularity of pilot balloon
                                            observations has been established.
  Weather radar                     04      10 cm S-band radars at Dhaka and Rangpur and
                                            recently replaced Doppler Radars at Cox‟s
                                            Bazar and Khepupara are in full operation.
                                            For flood monitoring the establishment of a
                                            new Doppler Radar at Moulvi Bazar (north
                                            eastern part of the country) is in process and is
                                            likely to be completed by 2009.
  AWS                               02      Operating in ZIA International Airport
                                            Kurmitola, Dhaka and Shah Amanat
                                            International Airport at Patenga, Chittagong.
  Agrometeorological                12      Are in operation.
  stations
                                      APPENDIX V (1)


    Climatological stations         35       Are in operation.
    Rainfall stations               35       Are in operation.
    Aeronautical stations           09       Are in operation.
    Evaporation stations            12       Are in operation.
    Marine meteorological           01       Working at Chittagong Sea Port
    station                         03
            Ship
    Satellite receiving station     03       MTSAT ground receiving station is now
                                             operational. NOAA ground receiving station is
                                             not working due to some hardware problem.
                                             Experts are trying to solve the problem and
                                             hopefully it will be solved very soon. INSAT
                                             ground receiving station is not functional as it
                                             has not been upgraded from analog to digital
                                             mode. Chinese PCVSAT System and MICAPS
                                             have been installed at SWC, Dhaka through
                                             which GTS data and NWP products (ECMWF,
                                             T213, HLAFS etc.) are being received and
                                             analyzed.
    Others                          01       Establishment of three new Seismological
    Seismological stations                   Observatories at Dhaka, Rangpur, Sylhet and
                                             the modernization of the existing one at
                                             Chittagong and networking between them have
                                             been completed in 2007.


5.1.2 Telecommunication Systems
5.1.2.1 Automation of telecommunication system.
   National telecommunication networks.
        35 BMD Stations are connected to the Dhaka NMCC.
        Data from RTH New Delhi and 10 synoptic observatories of BMD are exchanged on
routine basis through WMO‟s GTS. All the 35 observatories of BMD have been connected
with NMCC Dhaka either by TP or Telephone and Single Sideband (SSB) etc. or by all the
three systems. The UNDP project for connecting 35 observatories with SWC with Internet for
reception of data from the observatories is now in the final stage. Integration is needed with
interface between GTS line and local data acquisition system. The communication between
Radar Station at Cox‟s Bazar and the Storm Warning Centre (SWC) and that between the
Radar Station at Khepupara and the Storm Warning Centre (SWC) have been upgraded with
VSAT link. NMCC uses PC-based Message Switching System (MSS) software obtained from
WMO programme for reception and transmission of all meteorological data.
5.1.2.2 GTS circuits
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


       Dhaka is linked with New Delhi through a circuit having speed of 64 kbps (upgraded
from 2400 bps). The circuit is now operational through PC Hardware/Software developed by
Oriental Electronics Inc., Japan financed by WMO.
Status of implementation of GTS circuits


     Circuits     Type of GTS           Status of                     Future plan
     Dhaka                           implementation
   New Delhi        Regional             64 kbps.                Upgrade to 128 kbps
                     circuit
       The existing speed of GTS is only 64 kbps and should be upgraded to 128 kbps for
acquiring NWP Forecast data.

5.1.3 Weather Forecasting
5.1.3.1 Weather forecasting services
        The Storm Warning Centre of BMD issues routine day-to-day weather forecasts and
tropical cyclone warnings. Two Main Meteorological Offices(MMO) carry out aviation
weather forecasting; one at ZIA International Airport, Kurmitola, Dhaka and the other at Shah
Amanat International Airport at Patenga, Chittagong. Besides these, there are two Dependent
Meteorological Offices (DMO) at Cox‟s Bazar and Sylhet, respectively.
        Except aviation weather forecasts, which are issued by Meteorological Offices at Zia
International Airport at Dhaka and eight other airports, major weather forecasts are issued by
the Storm Warning Centre. Cyclone bulletins for national and international users in various
sectors are issued at frequent intervals whenever cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal and
much has been achieved in reducing losses to human lives and property.
5.1.3.2 Dissemination of Cyclone Forecasts and Warnings
         The dissemination of cyclone information such as cyclone forecasts and warnings is an
important task of disaster preparedness in Bangladesh. BMD plays an important role by
initiating the warnings related to the formation of tropical disturbances in the Bay of Bengal
and transmitting the warnings to disaster management sectors. The warnings and special
weather bulletins are also disseminated to important Govt. Organizations, TV, Radio, mass
media, etc. All the organizations work as per Standing Orders of Bangladesh Government
during disasters.
      National dailies publish weather bulletins regularly, which in turn help increase public
awareness.
      There are nearly 2300 cyclone shelters, but needs are more to cover the whole coast of
710 Km stretch.


5.1.4 NWP activities

        The Government of Bangladesh approved the project of Numerical Weather Prediction
(NWP) with GoB funds. UK met office has been given the responsibility to prepare the
specification for the procurement and make proposal for the NWP system design and the
                                      APPENDIX V (1)


requisite manpower to run the system operationally. This project will be implemented in three
phases.


5.1.5      Climatological Services

5.1.5.1 Computerized system for climate data management
       BMD uses its own Fortran Programs for data processing but it needs to be up graded to
meet the demand of the society as well to meet the pressing requirement of BMD for its overall
capacity enhancement to face the challenge of participation in climate change activities. WMO
is requested to send an Expert Team to visit BMD to make assessment for upgradation of
climatological data processing in order to meet the increasing demand of data from different
stake-holders.
5.1.5.2 Data storage and climatological publications
               Data storage and archiving are a regular phenomena in Bangladesh
Meteorological Department. BMD supplies the Meteorological Data to the end users and also
for research purposes with minimum charge. The archival system needs upgradation.

5.1.6 Meteorological Satellites

       INSAT MDD Receiving System was installed at the Storm Warning Centre, Dhaka and
it was fully operational for reception of Satellite image, Cloud Motion Vector (CMV) and
Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) charts along with GTS and Aviation data (METAR,
SPECI etc.). But because of the change over of INSAT from analogue to digital system.
INSAT MDD receiving system to be upgraded to the digital system.

        BMD has NOAA and MTSAT (GMS) Satellite Receiving Stations.

        The Chinese FY-series of geostationary satellite over 110° E longitude is nearerto the
Bay of Bengal and so its imageries are obviously of better use to the meteorologists of
Bangladesh. FY satellite receiving system can be installed at BMD for monitoring Tropical
Cyclones in a better way. BMD has received PC VSAT System from China under VCP
programme in July 2006. It was commissioned in April 2007 and is operational. BMD is
receiving GTS data and NWP Products Data (ECMWF, T213 and HLAFS) and MICAPS is
being used for Graphics Display. BMD needs FY-series imageries also.

5.1.7    Tropical Cyclone Names

      BMD has been using a naming convention for the Tropical Cyclones formed in the Bay
of Bengal since the cyclone season of 2006. Accordingly, “MALA” in 2006, “AKASH” and
“SIDR” in 2007 were used by BMD in compliance with RSMC, New Delhi. People of
Bangladesh have gladly accepted the naming system.

5.1.8 ICAO: Aeronautical Meteorological Services in Bangladesh

         The Bangladesh Meteorological Department operates nine Aeronautical
Meteorological Offices (one at Dhaka International Airport and eight at other airports) for
supporting aviation. Bangladesh Meteorological Department provides all sorts of
meteorological information to the Civil Aviation Authority.
                                       APPENDIX V (1)



5.2        Hydrological Component

       BMD provides all sorts of data, information and weather forecast to the Flood
Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC) of Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB).
A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) between SWC, Dhaka and FFWC was established in
1998 through which FFWC receives meteorological and hydrological data (including rainfall
and water discharge data of up stream) along with satellite imageries on-line.

       Bangladesh lies in between 20º 30'- 26º 40' North and 88º. 03‟-92º 40' East occupying
and area of 147570 Sq. kms Continuous setting of hydrological process is going on in this area
with the Bay of Bengal in the south and Great Himalayas in the North. Three major river
systems Meghna-Ganges–Brahmaputra are flashing the country every year with an average
volume of 14 Billion-m3 of water.

        Floods continue to be a major hazard in Bangladesh. Floods in 1987, 1988, 1998 and
2004 caused widespread damage in rural and urban areas and set back the country‟s efforts to
alleviate poverty. For the flood protection both structural and non-structural measures are often
taken. Bangladesh started National flood Forecasting and Warning Services in its FFWC
(Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre) since 1972. FFWC is using MIKE-11 model of
Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) for flood forecasting services. WMO has taken up Pilot
project for Flash flood in northeastern part of the country. Rain estimation by Satellite
technology has been adapted to increase the lead-time beyond 72 hours. The regional forum
ICIMOD has extended this technology. Improved inundation maps based on topographic and
latest information on structures are issued form the FFWC. Bangladesh is also enjoying the
regional hydro-metrological information flow from upper countries, India, Nepal and China.
CFAB/CFAN of Georgia Institute of Technology (GATECH) is helping FFWC by providing
water discharge data with a view to enhancing the flood forecasting lead-time.


5.3       Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP) Component (Agenda item 8.3)

5.3.1 Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP)

       The Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) of Bangladesh Red Crescent Society
(BDRCS) came into being in 1972 to minimize loss of lives and properties of the community
people in cyclone disaster. Since 1973, the programme is being implemented jointly by the
BDRCS and the Government of Bangladesh.

5.3.1.1 Working Area

       The programme covers 11 coastal districts (31 Upazillas) and is aided by 42,675
volunteers including 14,225 female in 2845 units (village). CPP is planning to increase the
number of units in the southwestern part of Bangladesh after having experience of the severe
cyclonic storm Sidr in 2007.

5.3.1.2 Objectives

         Disseminate cyclone warning signals issued by the Bangladesh Meteorological
          Department (BMD) to every nook and corner of the cyclone prone areas.
         Assist people in taking shelter.
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


      Rescue distressed people affected by the cyclone.
      Provide First aid to the people injured by the cyclone.
      Assist in relief and rehabilitation operations.
      Assist in the implementation of the BDRCS disaster preparedness plan.


5.3.1.3 Cyclone Preparedness during 2006

       A total of thirteen depressions and two severe cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal.
Both the cyclones “AKASH‟ and “SIDR” hit Bangladesh coast. Cyclone Sidr of 15-16
November 2007 caused colossal damage in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The CPP
volunteers along with local administration were alerted and kept ready for rescuing the victims.

5.3.1.4 Training

    Arranged dissemination meeting with the students of educational institutions of 31
     Upazila under CPP command area. A total of 32,500 students participated in the
     meeting. The ultimate result of arranging this meeting is very much positive and
     significant.
    Arranged orientation on Cyclone Preparedness, self-preparedness & guideline for the
     fishermen in 29 centers. A total of 1450 fishermen participated in the orientation
     Programme.
    The community trainers (TOT holding volunteers) and local CPP officers under took
     short training of RC/RC principles, movements, basic DM, role of volunteers, cyclone
     warning signal etc. with the volunteers attending in their regular unit and union
     committee meetings.
    Arranged refresher training on DM, HR, First Aid tracing and rescue among 2340
     volunteers in 39 centers under CPP command area.
    Arranged three days long (TOT) and refresher TOT on DM first Aid tracing, search and
     rescue for CPP officer's and community trainers at Barishal, Nokhali and Cox's Bazar.
     68 Participants from 31 Upazala under CPP Command area participated in the training
     courses. The respective Zonal officer's and youth volunteers of RC unit conducted the
     training.

5.3.1.5 Awareness Raising Activities

    Volunteers of Tajunuddin and Pathargatha arragned two separate cyclone field
     demonstration in their respective Upazala. About 10,300 community people, local
     elites, Govt. officials NGOs and students of educational institution witnessed the
     demonstration, which reflected the potential impact of cyclone awareness, preparedness
     and mitigation issues.
    International Disaster Reductions Day (IDRD) -2007 was observed by the Bangladesh
     Red Crescent Society in a befitting manner. With the spontaneous participation
     BDRCS officials a colourful rally and a discussion meeting was arranged to mark the
     day. In collaboration with the local administration all CPP field level offices observed
     the day.

5.3.1.6 Wireless Network
                                         APPENDIX V (1)


         There are 3 radio workshops in the programme. In view of repair and maintenance of
          the wireless networks the following warning equipment and wireless sets have been
          repaired in those workshops and in the field by the concerned radio engineer and
          technician.

                         Name of equipments                           Quantity
              HF wireless                                               22
              VHF wireless                                              34
              Radio                                                     21
              Megaphone                                                 83
              Solar panel cage pointing                                 52
              Re-installation VHF center                                01
              Re-installation of VHF sets                               05
              Re-installation of HF Antenna                             07
              Torch light                                               24
              Hand siren                                                28
              Antenna mast painting                                     53

         50 new VHF sets and 26 dip cycle battery have been received from International
          Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent (IFRC) for strengthening the wireless
          network.

         7,100 big size and 33,320 medium size batteries have been procured and sent to the
          CPP field stations to be used in the equipment lying with the warning group volunteers.

5.3.1.7 Organizational Activities

As a continuous process, 3,289 units, 466 unions and 110 Upazilla Committee meetings were
conducted with the volunteers in the stipulated year.

5.3.1.8 Activities of DMB

        BMD disseminates the Tropical Cyclone Warnings and other adverse weather warnings
as per Standing Orders on Disaster to the Disaster Management Bureau (DMB) and Ministry
of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM) in time. The MoFDM and DMB take necessary
steps for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP) in Bangladesh during the impending
tropical cyclone.


5.4       Training Component (Agenda item 8.4)
5.4.1 Foreign Training attended by BMD during 2007
      Beside participating in different Workshops, Seminar and Conference, officers of BMD
underwent foreign training and have participated in 33 training program abroad.


5.4.2 METEOROLOGICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE OF BMD
5.4.2.1 ACTIVITIES
                                       APPENDIX V (1)


          This institute imparts in-service training to BMD's officers and staffs. The training
courses include both theoretical and practical aspects. The practical courses include weather
observation at the surface and upper levels, recording, data analysis and issue of forecasts.
Besides the departmental employees, this institute also conducts special training courses on
meteorology for other organizations too. Training on meteorological instruments and
meteorological communication system are also imparted to the students of various educational
institutions. The institute also guides the M. Sc. /M.S. /Ph. D students of various universities,
who are doing their theses in the field of Meteorology and Environment. In every training
course, clear conceptions about disaster preparedness and management and related Standing
Orders are also imparted. This institute also conducts and co-ordinates research and
investigations on various meteorological problems particularly relating to Bangladesh and the
region. The institute conducts 2-3 courses on an average, every year.
5.4.2.2 Regular Courses
The regular scheduled courses are:
       i.      Class-II Forecaster‟s Course for Class-I Officers.
       ii.     Class-III Assistant‟s Course.
       iii.    Class-IV Observer‟s Course
       iv.     Class-II Forecaster‟s Refresher Course for Class-I Officers.
       5.4.2.3 Areas of Training and Training Method
       i)      Science and Meteorology,
       ii)     Observation of weather phenomena,
       iii)    Transmission and exchange of weather data,
       iv)     Analysis of weather elements and charts,
       v)      Forecasting & monitoring of the all types of weather and natural disasters
       vi)     Recording and monitoring of Earthquake,
       vii)    Satellite & Radar Meteorology,
       viii) Electronic and communication,
       ix)     Research on Meteorology,
       x)      Seminars and workshops in the disaster prone areas,
       xi)     Practical training on Storm Surge Model (Dube Model) with two hours training
               everyday for two months.



5.4.2.4 Monitoring Evaluation

          The Meteorological Training Institute of BMD needs to be upgraded according to the
latest technological development in the field of meteorology to make the ongoing process of
switching to IT based technology successful.
5.6    Research (Agenda item 8.5)
                                      APPENDIX V (1)


           A Research and Development Cell (R&D Cell) has been established in the
Meteorological Training Institute of BMD for undertaking research in Meteorology. But more
facilities are required.

5.7    Storm surge project (Agenda item 8.6)
       BMD already submitted a project entitled “Storm Surge Disaster Reduction in the
North Indian Ocean” as per proforma to TSU. TSU can highlight the status on the project.
5.9    Publications (Agenda item 8.7)
       BMD publishes a Journal “The Atmosphere” every year under the banner of Abhawa
Karmakarta Parishad (Meteporological Officers Association) financed by the Ministry of
Science, Information and Communication Technology (SICT).


6.     REVIEW OF THE TROPICAL CYCLONE OPERATIONAL PLAN (Agenda
       item 9)

             BMD reviewed the Tropical Cyclone Operation Plan. It can be discussed in the
meeting.


7.         TECHNICAL SUPPORT UNIT (Agenda item 10)
           BMD cooperates with TSU regularly.

8.         SUPPORT FOR THE PANEL‟S PROGRAMME (Agenda item 11)
       The payment of contribution to the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones Trust
Fund for the period 2004-2007 could not be possible due to the following problems:
a. For the payment of the contribution to WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones Trust
Fund, our Government's Sanction Title is "Technical Support Unit (TSU), Bangkok, Thailand".
So the Ministry of Finance sanctioned the necessary fund in favour of Technical Support Unit
(TSU) every year to pay the contribution accordingly. But Bangladesh Meteorological
Department (BMD) is paying the contribution to the title "WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical
Cyclone Trust Fund"
b. Now our controlling Ministry has raised the question that the Government's sanction title is
"Technical Support Unit (TSU)" but it is deposited to the title "WMO/ESCAP panel on
Tropical Cyclone Trust Fund" which are not the same. Due to the difference of the title, our
controlling Ministry has stopped the payment of the contribution from 2004.
c. Under the circumstances, we need a letter from WMO to clarify the relation between
WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclone Trust Fund and Technical Support Unit (TSU) for
satisfying our Administrative Ministry to overcome the problem. This will help Bangladesh
Meteorological Department to pay the contribution for the said period.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)



                                 Country Report of INDIA


                    OVERALL FRAMEWORK OF THE CTP (2007-2011)

1.      Meteorology
1.1     Specific objectives
    1) Mark – IV radiosonde has been implemented at all the stations with auto computation
        software. Efforts are being made to improve the systems by replacing the sensors with
        indigenous/ imported solid state sensors. However, status quo on number of existing
        RS/ RW stations is to be maintained till improvement is achieved in radiosonde as per
        recommendation of Sikka Committee on upgradation of observational network formed
        by Ministry of Earth Sciences.
    2) Under the scheme “Up-gradation of standard test facility for barometer and
        thermometer”, various calibration standards were procured. Among them are Stable
        Ozone Generators for calibration and conditioning of ozonesonde sensors. Action for
        purchase of 100 Nos. of Digital Barometers and Dead Weight Testers as primary
        standard is in advanced stage.
    3) Following procurement action is in progress.
         a) Commissioning of new Integrated Airport Meteorological Instruments for 20 airports.
         b) Commissioning of 550 nos. of automatic weather stations ( AWS)
         c) Commissioning of automatic raingauge stations (ARGs) 1350 nos.
    4) It is planned to procure 900 AWS & 4000 ARGs within the next few years to upgrade all
        part time observatories by AWS and DRMS stations by ARGs.
    5) DIWE becomes defective mainly due to malfunctioning of Selsyn motors. These motors
        are out of market and hence all wind vane systems (54 Nos.) in which Selsyn motors
        are used, are being replaced with potentiometric windvanes
    6) Facilities for calibrating the instruments (anemometers, barometers and barographs) are
        being upgraded. As this office is calibrating and certifying surface meteorological
        instruments, this facility will definitely facilitate higher capacity               for
        calibration/certification.
    7) Modernisation of Voluntary Observing Fleets (50 nos). Scheme has been forwarded to
        HQ for approval.
    8) Construction of „Test and Evaluation laboratory‟ and Seismo Observatory as Extension
        of AWS building.
    9) Scheme to modernise 45 airports in India. International airports will be equipped with
        integrated aviation meteorological systems which will include dual base line
        transmissometers catering to need of CAT–I to CAT–III operations.
    10) Lightning detection system.
    11) Anemometer array for detection of wind shear.
    12) Microwave radiometer.
    13) Cloud motion Vector (CMV) data generation frequency per day has been increased and
        it is available at 6 hourly interval (i.e., 4 times daily) from 2005–2006.
    14) 5 GPS stations have been installed at five stations at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
        and Guwahati for measuring integrated water vapour during 2007–2008. 50 more
        number of GPS will be installed at different locations of India in 2008–09.
1.2     Telecom Division is in the process of upgrading Telecom Network using 64 Kbps links
internet and mobile communication. Regarding Telecom training, Telecom centre at Delhi is
conducting training programmes in which Panel countries also participate.
        World Space Satellite transmission is deployed for Broadcast of Met. Data.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)

1.3   NWP computer unit is going to install High Power Computing System to run the different
NWP models during the current year.
1.4   NWP Unit runs the storm surge model for the Indian coasts in real time.
1.5   Efforts are continued to exchange of information among the Panel member countries to
enhance the regional cooperation in Meteorology.

Priority projects

1.2     Development of High Power Computer System (HPCS) to run high resolution models is
in progress. The products generated from the system will be shared with the member countries
through website.
1.3     The available data and information are put up in the IMD website. The data are also
exchanged among member countries through GTS.

2        Hydrology
        FMO‟s issues Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) for different flood prone river
basin. In order to improve QPF this division is developing a model under USAID project of
Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India. Mahanadi river basin is selected for pilot studies in
which Central Water Commission is taking one of hydrological component for flood forecasting.
3.      Disaster prevention and preparedness
I.      Participation in International activities
1) Shri S.R. Ramanan, Director attended a SAARC seminar on “Application of weather and
climate forecasts in Socio–Economic development & disaster mitigation” at Dhaka, Bangladesh
during 5–7 August 2007.
2) Shri S.B. Thampi, Director participated in the first Asian Weather RADAR Conference
(ARAD–2007) at Wuhan, China and presented a Scientific Paper on “Cyclone OGNI–a severe
weather event tracked by DWR Chennai during 21–24 October 2007.
3) Dr. R.V. Sharma, DDGM RMC, Chennai attended WMO International Symposium on “Public
Weather Services: a key to service delivery” held in Geneva during 3–5 December 2007.

II.     Important national level activities
1) Action under progress for replacing conventional Cyclone Detection Radars (CDR) at
Karaikal and Bhuj by C–Band Doppler Weather RADARs (DWR). Other conventional CDRs
also would be replaced by DWRs in a phased manner.
2) Under IMD‟s modernization project, phase–1, 550 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and
1350 Automatic Rain Gauge Stations (ARGs) are to be established all over India in the near
future.
3) As a part of Real Time Seismic Monitoring Network, advanced state of the art Digital
Seismographs have been installed at Regional Meteorological Centre, Chennai and Cyclone
Warning Centre, Visakhapatnam. Multichannel wave form data are being transmitted on Real
time to Central Receiving Stations at Seismo HQs New Delhi and Hyderabad simultaneously.
4) IMD has taken up the task of upgrading the analog CWDS receivers to digital in a phased
manner. Modernisation of the new version of DCWDS which can remove deficiencies in the
present version of DCWDS is being finalised. Power supply modifications for all the 101
DCWDS receivers in the field stations have been completed.
5) World Bank Hydrology project – II is being implemented after the successful completion of
World Bank project – I. This project is being implemented in collaboration with IMD, Central
Water Commissions and other State Government Hydrological Service Agencies.
6) During the year 2007, IMD officials participated in several seminars/ workshops/ training
programmes/ meetings on disaster preparedness and mitigation. Important events are listed
below:
(i) Dr. H.R. Hatwar, DDGM (DM) participated in the Advanced Training–cum–Tutorial Course
on Hurricane – WRF held at IIT, Delhi as Course Co–coordinator during 01–12 January 2007.
(ii) Shri P. Senthamarai Kannan, Met. I attended a training workshop on Hurricane WRF
modeling System of NCEP, USA conducted by IIT, Delhi during 1–12 January 2007.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)

(iii) A meeting of “Committee Experts” was held on 3rd April 2007 for discussing the
specifications of C–Band DWR for installation at Shimla under “Hydrology Project”. Meeting
took place under Chairmanship of Shri P.K. Jain, DDGM (UI), New Delhi and attended by
members from CWC, ISRO, IAF and IMD.
(iv) Shri B. Arul Malar Kannan, Met.-II attended three days workshop on “Climate change and
extreme weather events” at NASC Complex, PUSA New Delhi during 18–20 April 2007.
(v) Dr. P.C.S. Rao, Met. I participated in a core group meeting at Anna University convened by
Shri V.C. Menon, Hon‟ble Member, National Disaster Management Authority, Govt. of India
during 23–24 July 2007.

III.    State level and local activities
1) National Disaster Information System is being implemented at RMC Chennai
2) IMD officers participated in
(i) Various state level pre and post monsoon season (cyclone season) preparedness meetings.
(ii) District level cyclone distress mitigation committee meetings of cyclone prone Andhra
Pradesh state.
(iii) Various other state/ district level meetings, workshops, mock exercises and video
conferences conducted by the state/ local government authorities on disaster management,
early warning systems, flood situation, rescue, relief and rehabilitation, damage assessment
etc.
3) Anna Institute of Management periodically conducts training programs for personnel of
Government/ NGO/ other organizers in Disaster Mitigation and Management. About 510
trainees sponsored by this institute visited RMC Chennai. They were given familiarization in
various aspects of forecasting and warning procedures followed by IMD in disaster mitigation
and IMD officers gave 28 lectures to the trainees on the Role of IMD in disaster Management.
4) Shri Y.K. Reddy, Director delivered a lecture on „Weather RADAR, meteorology and Natural
disasters‟ at Andhra Jatheya Kalasala, Machilipatnam on 8 January 2007.
5) Dr. M. Satya Kumar, Director delivered a lecture on „Role of IMD in Disaster Management‟ at
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad on 22 January 2007.
6) Shri K. Santhosh, Director participated in the activities in connection with inauguration of
State Disaster Mangement Authority in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala during May 2007.
7) Dr. P.C.S. Rao, Met. I attended the nineteenth Dam Safety meeting convened by Secretary
PWD at Govt. Secretariat, Chennai on 31 May 2007.
8) Shri S. Venkateswaralu, Director participated in the seminar on „Tsunami–2004 damages,
resistant strcture valuation‟ convened by Institution of Valuers, Visakhapatnam Branch on 28
July 2007.
9) Dr. Y.E.A. Raj, and Dr. R. Suresh, Directors attended media workshop on „Covering Natural
Hazards and Risks‟ organised by IPDC–UNESCO at University of Madras on 18 August 2007.
10) A training workshop – TN PROBE – Phase II on „Meteorological and Environmental
education for youth in coastal area schools‟ was held at RMC Chennai under the joint auspices
of Dept. of Science and Technology, RMC Chennai and Adithanar College of Arts and Science,
Tiruchendur during 20–22 August 2007.
11) Dr. M. Satya Kumar, Director attended the meting convened by the Hon‟ble Chief Minister
of Andhra Pradesh on „Cyclones and Early Warning Systems‟ on 4 October 2007.
12) A workshop on „All hazards early warning system‟ for various stakeholders was organised
by RMC Chennai on 26 October 2007.
13) Dr. Y.E.A. Raj and Shri S.R. Ramanan, Directors attended the meeting convened by
Commissioner of Revenue Administration, Govt. of Tamil Nadu in connection with signing of
MOU between State Government and IMD for establishing 88 ARGs and 11 AWSs in Tamil
Nadu during November 2007.
Specific Objectives
3.2     At IMD, Telecom Division has given links to different sections like NHAC, Seismo,
Hydrology, Satmet. etc and all latest weather events are placed on IMD website. One central
room for DPP is functional with NHAC.

4.     Training
                                        APPENDIX V (2)

       From India Shri M. C. Rastogi, Director (Telecom) participated in the WMO-IOC
Workshop on the Global Telecommunication Systems (GTS) for effective exchange of Tsunami
Warnings and other related information and other warnings in the Indian Ocean held in
Bangkok, Thailand from 18 to 20 December, 2007.
       From India Shri G. Suresh, Director (Seismology) attended two weeks training
programme in Tsunami Science and Preparedness held in Seattle, USA from 21 July to 26
August 2007

Priority projects

4.1    The training on use of Doppler Weather RADAR products was imparted to the officers
from Meteorological Department of Sri Lanka and Thailand (one each). DWR Chennai and
Kolkata have been organizing periodic training programmes on DWR products for forecasters /
other agencies like IAF, Navy etc.
4.2    Action is in progress
4.3    IIT, New Delhi is conducting training programme on modeling of storm surge.
4.4    Action is in progress by the Central Water Commission (CWC).

5.     Research:

Broad goal

1) The following research papers on tropical cyclones were published in MAUSAM (IMD‟s
Quarterly journal of Meteorology, Hydrology & Geophysics) issues of 2007, Vol. 58, No. 1–4:
(i) Trend of shift in the area of cyclogenesis over north Indian Ocean – Charan Singh and B.R.
Loe.
(ii) Long term trends in the frequency of severe cyclones of the Bay of Bengal: observations
and simulations – O.P. Singh.
(iii) The study of cyclonic disturbances over Indian seas during 1991–2004 – Siddhartha Singh,
R.K. Giri and S.D. Attri.
(iv) Some salient features of the Arabian Sea severe cyclonic storm of 5–10 May 2004 – S.
Sridharan and A. Muthuchami.
(v) Behaviour of tropical cyclones along the east coast of India prior to landfall – Charan Singh
and B.K. Bandyopadhyay.
(vi) Asymmetric structure of severe cyclonic storm of north Indian Ocean as derived through
INSAT OLR data – Y.E.A. Raj, A. Muthuchami and Ramanathan.

ii) Studies on storm surge are being initiated.

Specific objectives

1) Electronic version of IMD‟s Storm Track Atlas (e-Atlas):
        This is a project undertaken at CWRC, RMC Chennai with an objective to bring out an
electronic version of IMD‟s Storm Track Atlas. Development of the software is completed.
Digital database of the tracks of cyclones and depressions that formed over Indian seas during
the period 1891-2006 has been generated in-house.               Tracks of these cyclones and
depressions, given various types of inputs such as year, month, intensity, basin of formation
and dissipation, coastal crossing etc., can be generated instantaneously by using the software.
In addition, several types of tabular outputs and maps depicting spatial variation of features
such as formation, dissipation, movement vector, direction of movement, recurvature, coastal
crossing can be generatred. The e-Atlas software is expected to be made available to users by
March 2008. The e-Atlas should give substantial boost to the cyclone warning capabilities of
India as well as other WMO/ ESCAP Panel countries. WMO/ ESCAP Panel in its 33rd session
appreciated the efforts made by India to digitize the IMD‟s storm track atlas.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)


2) Project CDSTAT

        This is a user friendly software on „Generation of comprehensive database of statistics
on Depressions, Cyclonic Storms and Severe Cyclonic Storms that formed over north Indian
Ocean‟ undertaken at CWRC, RMC Chennai and completed. A report is being published. The
software has been developed in-house and consists of several FORTRAN programs which can
generate any type of statistics on formation, dissipation and coastal crossings of Depression,
Cyclonic storm and Severe Cyclonic storm over North Indian Ocean for the period 1891-2006.
It is constantly updated and can generate some statistics that are not included in the e-Atlas.
Being an in-house software, any additional feature can also be incorporated in future.

3) A project on evaluation of Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS) for Indian coasts has
been completed and has been published as Met. Monograph (No. Synoptic Meteorology-
5/2007). Copies of this monograph are available at the O/o the ADGM (R), IMD Pune.

4) A CLIPER model using LOESS technique for forecasting Cyclonic storms over Indian region
is being developed based on 35 year data of 1971–2005.

5) A project for prediction of Wave Height over Indian Seas using nomograms and dynamical
models and verification using BUOY data is being initiated by RMC Chennai.
                                        APPENDIX V (2)

Summary of Meteorological Activities
A      Surface Observatory Network:

a)      High Wind Speed Recorders (HWSRs)
        10 sets of HWSRs (Ultrasonic type) have been installed at East and West coast stations
of India during Oct. 2000 - May 2001. Also, 10 more HWSRs, procured under World Bank
Project have been installed at West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Coast.
        Presently eight systems installed during Oct. 2000 - May 2001 are unserviceable for
want of spares, mainly spare display and sensor. It has been experienced that the display and
sensor of the systems become defective mainly due to lightning activity at coastal stations.
This office has, therefore, erected new lightning arresters with proper earthing at all the coastal
stations. Indent has also been placed for procurement of spares for maintaining the systems.
In addition, a newly designed DIWE system will also be installed at these stations in due
course.

b)      Radiation Network
        The Radiation network consists of a total of 43 stations. There are 20 principal radiation
stations where measurement of direct solar radiation – (either continuous or spot readings),
Global Solar Radiation, Diffuse Sky Radiation, and Sunshine hours are made. Remaining
radiation stations measure only one or two of these parameters and the duration of sunshine.
All these stations give generally satisfactory performance except for Gulmarg where the
measurements are suspended due to disturbed local conditions since 1-1-1998 as per
information received from the station. Central Radiation Laboratory at Pune is maintaining this
network of radiation measuring stations. It includes maintenance of the absolute standards and
transfer standards, repairing and calibration of sensors, calibration and maintenance of network
instruments, etc. Inter comparison of regional standard Pyrheliometer is done with international
standards after every five years.
        During 2005 - 06 all recorders have been replaced with data logger, thereby improving
data quality and improving MTBF.
        Central Radiation Laboratory, Pune, is a National Centre for India and also designated
as Regional Radiation Centre for RA-II by WMO.

       A radiation measuring station is also functioning at Maitri, Antarctica for last many years,
recording global radiation, diffuse radiation and sun photometer measurements.

c)     AWS NETWORK
               INSAT-AWS systems installed during 1984-85 had become obsolete and have
been replaced with the state of the art systems. One hundred SUTRON make AWS systems
and 25 ASTRA make AWS systems were procured during June 2006. All AWS systems have
been installed. The names of installed AWS field sites are given in the IMD web-site. One
receiving Earth Station in redundant mode has been installed in INSAT-AWS Laboratory,
Pashan, Pune. AWS data from AWS sites are being received at Pune Receiving Earth
Station. From Pune Receiving Earth Station, hourly data is being sent to AMSS Mumbai
through dedicated lease line for onward transmission through GTS to different users. Quality of
AWS data from new AWS stations is under evaluation.

Future Plans:
 1.    It is planned to procure 900 AWS & 4000 ARGs within the next few years to upgrade all
       part time observatories by AWS and DRMS stations by ARGs.
 2.    All wind vane systems (54 Nos.) in which Selsyn motors are used, are being replaced
       with potentiometric windvanes
 3.    Facilities for calibrating the instruments (anemometers, barometers and barographs) are
       being upgraded.
 4.    Modernisation of Voluntary Observing Fleets (50 nos). Scheme has been forwarded to
       HQ for approval.
                                        APPENDIX V (2)

 5.      Construction of „Test and Evaluation laboratory‟ and Seismo Observatory as Extension
         of AWS building.
 6.      Scheme to modernise 45 airports in India has been approved in Council of Meteorology
         and Atmospheric Sciences (CMAS) - 59. International airports will be equipped with
         integrated aviation meteorological systems which will include dual base line
         transmissometers catering to need of CAT–I to CAT–III operations.
 7.      Lightning detection system.
 8.      Anemometer array for detection of wind shear.
 9.      Microwave radiometer.

B        Upper Air Network:
        In I.M.D., upper air observations are made at 39 RS/RW stations twice a day at 00 and
12 UTC. These observations provide Met data i.e. pressure, temperature, humidity & wind at
various levels in the atmosphere upto an altitude of 30-35 kms. Kochi and Jaipur are taking only
RS ascents, no wind measurements are taken.
        There are 62 Pilot Balloon observatories spread all over the country conducting upper air
wind measurements 2 - 4 times a day providing wind speed and direction up to a maximum
altitude of 18 kms employing optical theodolites.

1.       Types of ground equipment used
         RS/RW observatories have been equipped with three types of ground Equipment as
under:
         i.   Radiosonde Ground equipment (ECIL/DIGITAL make) along with X band Wind
              finding Radars (EEC/MULTIMET).
       ii.    IMS-1500 Radiotheodolite
       iii.   SAMEER Radiotheodolite
       All the stations are provided with standby Radiosonde ground equipment so that if the
primary unit goes defective then the ascent may be taken with the standby equipment.

a)       Radiosonde Ground Equipment (RSGE):
        Radiosonde Ground Equipment (RSGE) receives RS data. Wind data is obtained from
EEC/BEL RADARs by tracking the balloon borne passive target. RSGE operates at a frequency
of 401 MHz. IMD procured RSGE from ECIL and also from DIGITAL India limited Mumbai.
Both equipment work on the same principle. ECIL make ground equipments had served their
useful life period. These equipments were replaced by DIGITAL make ground equipments,
which were procured in two lots of 14 numbers in 1986 and 40 numbers in September 1991,
along with main unit spares and other spares.

     Wind finding RADARs are installed at 16 numbers of RSGE stations. The X Band
RADARs are of two types i.e (1) EEC make (2) BEL make multimet RADAR. EEC make
RADARs are installed at 7 stations and BEL make multimet RADARs at 9 stations.

b)       Pilot Balloon Observatories:

        There are 62 PB observatories, which take 2-4 ascents per day for obtaining upper air
wind data with the aid of optical theodolite. 100 nos. optical theodolites indigenously fabricated
and supplied by M/S Scientific Instrument (P) Ltd. Hyderabad were procured in 1990. The
optical theodolites are being serviced and maintained in IMD Workshop by procuring spares
from the manufacturing firm.
        Development of hand held data loggers along with software for PB computations has
been completed under an MOU with SAMEER. After completion of tests the same will be
implemented at 62 stations.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)

       All the optical theodolites would be replaced with new theodolites for improved ascents.
Procurement procedures are in the final stages for 70 numbers of optical theodolites and 5
numbers of electronic optical theodolites.

c)     Cyclone Detection RADAR:
       There are 11 nos of S-band CDR stations out of which 6 are using conventional
RADARs, 4 stations viz Chennai, Kolkata, Machilipatnam and Visakhapatnam have DWRs
imported from M/s Gematronik, Germany and one station SHAR, Sriharikota has indigenous
DWR developed by ISRO
       The proposals of replacing conventional RADARs by latest state of art S-band imported
DWR at Mumbai and Paradip have been included in first phase of Modernisation Plan.

d)     Storm Detection RADAR:
       There are at present 9 X-band RADARs working for the purpose of storm detection.
Also there are 2 S-band RADARs working at S-band at Sriganganagar and Jaiselmer for
monitoring development of convective clouds and thunderstorm formation and one S-band
RADAR at Mausam Bhavan for testing / training purpose.

e)     Wind Finding RADAR
       There are 9 X-band wind finding RADARs working in X-Band at Bhubaneswar AP, Goa,
Mangalore, Visakhapatnam, Bhopal AP, Karaikal, Machilipatnam, Patna AP, and
Thiruvananthapuram.

f)      Weather Cum Wind Finding RADARs
        There are 8 X-band RADARs used for weather cum wind finding purpose.
These are installed at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Mohanbari, Chennai, Hyderabad
airport and Delhi (H.Q.), Patiala and Srinagar.

Future Plans:
        DWRs are to be installed at; Agartala, Karaikal, Goa, Patna, Lucknow, Patiala, Nagpur,
Delhi ( HQ), Mohanbari, Mumbai ,Paradeep and Bhopal. The supply order for indigenous
RADAR have been placed on 29.03.2006 on M/s BEL, Bangalore and the RADARs are
expected to be installed at Bhuj and Kochi by March, 2008.

C       Meteorological Satellites:
i)      Digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination System
        A Digital CWDS (DCWDS) scheme has been implemented in Andhra Pradesh under
Andhra Pradesh Hazard Mitigation and Emergency Cyclone recovery (APHM & ECR) project
under World Bank funds and 100 DCWDS stations in Andhra Pradesh with an uplink station at
IMD Chennai, have been installed. One more DCWDS station has been installed at Kavarati in
Lakshadweep Island.
        DCWDS has advantage of reception of INSAT MSS – Acknowledgement messages
and has shown good results as the quality of voice is good compared to Analog type. Keeping
in view the achievements of above schemes

Future Plan
        IMD is planning to replace the existing 252 Analogue CWDS by DCWDS receivers
increasing the number to 300 Nos. of DCWDS stations all along the East and West Coast of
India. Thus total number of DCWDS receivers will be 400 with uplink stations at IMD (Satellite
Meteorology Division), New Delhi. The existing uplink station at RMC Chennai will work as
standby.
ii)    INSAT – Automatic Weather Stations/ Automatic Raingauage system:
       Under the first phase of modernization of IMD, 125 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS)
were installed. Data of the AWS stations is available on Global Telecommunication System
(GTS) for user agencies.
                                       APPENDIX V (2)

iii)    Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD):
        The analog MDD system is shortly going to be replaced by the digital MDD system.
Under this project one uplink and four downlink stations have been installed under phase – I at
different stations of India. All the systems are working satisfactorily. Through this system,
INSAT imageries, GTS data and analyzed weather charts are regularly being transmitted in
LRIT/ HRIT format using INSAT-3C satellite. The system is user friendly and has the capability
of zooming, sectorization and animation of images. The forecaster can use these for analysis
of cloud top temperatures, charting, and drawing of isotherms. Surface and upper level data,
route forecast, terminal Airport data are also disseminated through this system.
        Under this project 33 more receiving stations in India and 3 receiving stations at
Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka will be installed under Phase-II of the programme which is
expected to be completed by March, 2008.

Future plans:
   i)     India Meteorological Department has proposed expansion of AWS and ARG
          network under modernization programme. 550 AWS and 1350 ARGs will be
          installed all over India under this programme. IMD proposes to have at least one
          AWS in one District and one ARG in a Taluka. In this expansion programme, action
          for procurement of these AWS/ ARG is in progress. The installation of the
          equipment on sites will start from June 2008 and likely to be completed within next
          18 months.
   ii)    IMD is planning to install/ commission two numbers of METOP satellite data
          receiving and processing systems at New Delhi and Chennai. METOP is a polar
          orbiting meteorological satellite operated by the European Organization for the
          Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites. The Satellite is a part of the EUMETSAT
          Polar System. It has several payloads namely.

          a) Advanced very high resolution radiometer/ 3 (AVHRR/3) Visible/ infrared
             radiometer for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice,
             snow and vegetation cover and characteristics, 6 channels.
          b) High resolution Infrared radiation sounder/ 4 (HIRS) Atmospheric sounder for
             temperature and humidity profiles, surface temperature, cloud parameters and
             total ozone, 19 infrared channels (3.8-15 m), 1 visible channel.
          c) Advanced Microwave sounding units A1 and A2 (AMSU-A) Microwave sounder
             for temperature sounding under clear and overcast conditions, 15 channels in
             the 23 to 90 Ghz frequency range.
          d) Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), Self-calibrating, cross-track scanning, five
             channel microwave, full-power radiometer operating in the 89 to 190 GHz range
             to provide information on atmospheric water vapour.
          e) Advanced Data Collection System/ 2 (A-DCS)
          f) Search and Rescue Satellite (SARSAT) aided Tracing System
          g) Space Environment Monitor (SEM-2), Multi-channel charged particle
             spectrometer for measurements of the population of the earth‟s radiation belts
             and the solar proton and electron flux density.
          h) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Infrared Michelson,
             Interferometer for temperature sounding, water vapour and ozone monitoring.
             IASI covered the spectral range from 3.62-15.5 mm, 2112 km swath width and a
             resolution of 12 km at nadir.
          i) Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)
          j) Global navigation satellite system receiver for atmospheric sounding (GRAS).
          k) Global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) Nadir viewing UV and
             spectrometer to measure radiation back scattered from the atmosphere and
             reflected from the earth surface in the UV and visible range 240-790nm with a
             spectral resolution of 0.2-0.4nm.
iii)   Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT) will be introduced in INSAT-3D (expected to be
launched during 3rd quarter of 2008) to give centre and intensity of Tropical Cyclone
                                     APPENDIX V (2)

automatically.   INSAT-3D will have 6 channel imager and 19 channels sounder as
meteorological payloads.
   iii)   50 more number of GPS for measuring integrated water vapour will be installed at
          different locations of India in 2008–09.
                                       APPENDIX V (3)




                           Manama, Bahrain 5 – 9 May 2008

        Review of the 2007 Cyclone Season – Maldives
Pre-monsoon thunder activity prolonged for about 10 hours starting from 5: 45pm on
the 29 April over the central atolls. Damages to several house-hold appliances were
reported during this incident.



THE UNUSUALLY STRONG SWELL, TIDAL WAVES HIT MALDIVES’ ISLANDS




           Tidal waves entering the islands

The swell which caused the unusual tidal waves were originated from the extra-
tropical system in the southern hemisphere, approximately 5630km southwest of
Addu Atoll, Maldives. The deep Polar Lows normally generate these classical winter
waves during the season; however, they were unusually high this winter. According to
reports, the strong high waves first hit Mauritius, La-Reunion on 12 and 13 May 2007.
The maximum swell wave height was estimated at nearly 11m in that region. These
swells travelled far away to the northeast and across equatorial waters without losing
much of the energy they acquired from the strong wind source. The astronomical
factor with relate to the position of earth, sun and moon also played an important role
in enhancing the situation. The highest tide levels were observed during May 16 and
17th. The severity of breaking waves depended highly on peak tide periods.

The unusual swells approached Maldives from southwest and severely hit at the
islands located in the west and southern coast of the atolls. Gushing seawaters from
the tidal waves caused extensive damage to buildings, houses, trees, crops and
household appliances. Although, there was no loss of life, several houses were
waterlogged and many families had to be shifted to unaffected areas. Lashing waves
brought severe damage to number of fishing vessels, inundated and eroded several
beaches and even landslides were reported in some areas. Several islands are short of
fresh water and sewerage systems were destroyed. The total of 88 inhabited islands
was affected by these dangerous waves.
                                   APPENDIX V (3)


Recurrence of tidal waves happened to be more frequent in 2007. Tidal waves again
swamped more than 50 islands across the country on 18 and 19 June and continued to
hamper almost the rest of the month. Significant damages were also reported from
some of those islands.

Maldives experienced similar unusual waves during 10 – 15th of April 1987 caused by
a storm in the south Indian Ocean near Australian region. The waves approached from
southeast and lashed in the atolls mostly in the east. Since then, with the establishment
of monsoons each year, tidal waves had become a known phenomenon.

May

The monsoon trough intensified and brought widespread heavy rain to the Maldives
on 27 May 2007. Frequent squalls that swept several islands in central and northern
atolls between 10 am and 8 pm. Severe damages include blown away 25 roofs,
uprooting number of trees and coconut palms in north, south Thiladunmathi and north
Miladunmadulu atolls. The maximum winds recorded were at the ordered of 46 to 54
miles per hour.

June

With the combined effect of the strong trough of low pressure and the south-west
monsoon, June 2007 happened to be considerably stormy and disastrous month.
Frequent spells of heavy rain, strong gusty winds and rough seas were common
features over the month.

July

A low level circulation formed over the Maldives on 02 July 2007 brought widespread
rain and isolated heavy thundershowers in northern and southern atolls. Heavy rainfall
of 134 mm reported in Fuvahmulah and 64 mm in Gan, Addu Atoll.
The low pressure trough formed over the Maldives on 23rd July brought a high
amount of rainfall to the country. Heavy rain falls for the day were 95 mm in
Hanimaadhoo followed by 59 mm in Kelaa. Flash flooding was reported in southern
and northern atolls.

August

Another trough of low pressure gave heavy rain and isolated squally showers on 21
August 2007. Heavy rainfall of 52 mm was recorded in Veymandoo. Squally winds
increased 49 mph at Hanimaadhoo. As the trough intensified on 29th August, heavy
down pours to central and southern atolls. Heavy rainfall of 76 mm in Gaviyani
fuvanmulah , 70 mm in Dhaalu Kudahuvadhoo and 62 mm in Male‟. This session of
bad weather prevailed till end of the month.

September

On 04 September 2007 heavy rainfall of 112 mm in Kadhdhoo, 98 mm in
Fuvahmulah, 95 mm in Kaadehdhoo and 62 mm in Veymandoo. Strong surface winds
sustained for above 4 hours over the central atolls.
                                   APPENDIX V (3)


The low pressure trough further intensified on 10 September and caused formation of
dense convective clouds over southwest of Maldives. On the following day, 85 mm of
rain recorded at Kaadehdhoo, 81 mm in Veymandoo. Severe flooding was reported in
Dhaalu Meedhoo.
This trough deepened further and concentrated in to a Depression and brought heavy
thundershowers to the country. Rough seas and floods were experienced during these
days.

October

An intense trough on 3 October 2007 gave heavy down pours like 114 mm at
Kaadehdhoo. It is reported that some islands in south Huvadhu Atoll were severely
flooded causing damage to number of household items. Meanwhile, maximum gusty
winds of 44 mph were also reported in Gan. The average surface wind speed of 26 -31
mph sustained for 3 - 4 hours in central Maldives and gusty winds of 53 mph were
recorded at the National Meteorological Centre. The same system brought frequent
heavy showers with isolated thunderstorms to central atolls on 7 October 2007.
The tropical cyclone that formed in the NW of Maldives in the Arabian Sea brought
unsettled weather with strong winds over central and southern atolls disrupting island
to island transportation. A number of structural damage to islands and properties were
also reported.

November

Unlike past several years rainfall was very less during this November. Even the
Severe Cyclonic Storm (SIDR) formed in the central Bay of Bengal did not bring
much precipitation to Maldives. However, a low level circulation formed in the south
brought heavy showers to southern atolls on 15 and 16th November

December

Very intense convective clouds associated with the trough over the Maldives brought
very heavy rain to southern atolls giving a record high amount of rainfall for this year!
Kaadehdhoo in the South registered 199 mm in 24 hours on 6 December 2007. Two
days later Fuvahmulah, also in the south recorded 158 mm. Due to heavy rain, some
islands in South Huvadu atoll and Fuvahmulah have been flooded and several people
from that locality were severely affected by this widespread flood.
The rest of December was also very wet and brought floods to Hadhunmathi as well.

The annual rainfalls totaled at 2532 mm in Kaadehdhoo followed by 2166 mm in
Hadhunmathi area.




                      8. 1 Meteorological Component
                                  APPENDIX V (3)


Upper air Observation

Making of Radio-sonde observation were continued at the Meteorological Office, Gan
(WMO # 43599) in 2007 under the Global Upper-Air Network (GUAN). TEMP
message (at 12UTC) is transmitted daily through GTS from this station.

Like last several years, no upper-air observations were made at Male‟ (WMO #
43555) in 2007. The WF100 wind finding radar with the hydrogen generator remained
unserviceable for many years.

The location of Maldives in the Indian Ocean happens to be a data sparse area, upper
air observations from the south and central Maldives are very important to us as well
as the entire meteorological community in the region. Hence, Maldives urge
assistance from WMO/ ESCAP and Panel members to consider rebuilding of our
upper air network.

Surface Observations

Maldives has 5 meteorological stations of which 4 are manned 24 hours and both
synoptic and aviation reports are made on all five stations. Only two of them are
categorized additionally as upper-air stations.


   -   Hanimaadhoo (43533) surface
   -   Male‟        (43555) surface + upper- wind +AWS
   -   Kadhdhoo    (43577) surface +AWS
   -   Kaadehdhoo (43588) surface 00 – 15 UTC
   -   Gan        (43599) surface + radiosonde +AWS

   -   Dharavandhoo     surface ( AWS)
   -   Nilandhoo        surface ( AWS)

Five Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) were installed and start functioning in mid/
late 2007. Some more additional AWS stations are planned for 2008 as well.

Rainfall Stations

Across the country, Maldives has 7 rainfall stations which measure only accumulated
rainfall for 24 hours and reading are collected at 0300UTC for national use.

   -   HA. Kela
   -   Sh. Funadhoo
   -   B. Dharavandhoo
   -   M. Muli
   -   Dh. Kudahuvadhoo
   -   Th. Veymandoo
   -   Gn. Fuvanmulah

Meteorological Satellites

The INSAT receiving system remains unserviceable since 2003. When efforts had
been made to repair the system eventually failed, the India Meteorological
                                APPENDIX V (3)


Department has agreed upon replacing the old analogue MDD system with a new
digital system. Hence, we urge India to accomplish this task in 2008.

As a part of Multi-hazard Early Warning System, Department of Meteorology
received a Satellite Receiving System and a Doppler Weather Radar. Although the
Radar is not yet operational, satellite imageries from FY2 are received regularly.

Numerical Weather Prediction

Department of Meteorology also runs its own modified MM5 model as a trial and
plan to expand this service in 2008.

Telecommunications

The computer based telecommunication system between the local Meteorological
Offices and the National Meteorological Centre (NMC), functioned very well during
2007.

NMC‟s Global Telecommunications System (GTS) upgrade
The National Meteorological Centre‟s GTS has been upgraded using COROBOR‟s
MESSIR-COMM message switching systems during 2007. This link is a TCP/IP
based multi-channel communication link that is capable of handling vast amount of
data. In addition to RTH New Delhi, Male‟ is also connected to Colombo and
Melbourne through this GTS link. The upgraded GTS is working smoothly.
The National Weather Service (NWS) of the United States in collaboration with the
WMO generously aided Maldives for this program.

Forecasters‟ Workstation

The Analyzing, Forecasting, Data-processing and Operating System (AFDOS) remain
unserviceable. To replace AFDOS, China Meteorological Agency has donated
Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System
(MICAPS). Expert team from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) is
scheduled to arrive early 2008 to install MICAPS.

Meteorological information through internet

The official website of the Department of Meteorology www.meteorology.gov.mv
and http://www.met.gov.mv have served its users very well in 2007. Users can have
easy access to weather forecasts, warnings, meteorological reports and aviation
weather charts. These products were updated whenever required.




                   8. 2 Hydrological Component
                                      APPENDIX V (3)


    Flash flood forecasting can be satisfactorily done when the newly installed Doppler
    Weather Radar become operational. Otherwise there are no much hydrological issues
    in the Maldives.

    8. 3 Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Component
    To establish multi-hazard early warning system in the country, the Department of
    Meteorology (DoM) in collaboration with UNDP had started in 2005, a nation-wide
    project categorized to 3 Phases. At the end of 2007, Phase-I was completed;
    upgrading of communication system (GTS), installation of Doppler Weather Radar
    and Satellite Receiving System at the National Meteorological Centre. Two
    Automatic Weather Stations were installed at Daravandoo of Baa Atoll and Nilandoo
    of Faafu Atoll. One short-period seismometer was installed in Gan Island - Addu
    Atoll. And most of the activities of Phase II were already in place. Hardware for 2
    Broadband Seismometers has arrived in Male‟ and is planned to install them early
    2008.
    DoM upgraded its internet service from 512kbps to 5mbps and a redundant VSAT
    internet service was also acquired in order to collect firsthand information from
    various international organizations easily in time.


    Warnings and advisories

    The Department of Meteorology, Maldives (DoM) issued timely and accurate severe
    weather warnings and disseminated them to the public through mass media and DoM
    website.
    Apart from severe weather or tropical cyclone warnings, tsunami warning reports
    received from PTWC, JMA through GTS and internet were also disseminated to
    public satisfactorily in time.

    Under the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Department, the warnings
    were additionally dispatched through cooperate SMS and Hotlines to designated
    authorities.



                                    8. 4 Training

    In the year 2007, the department has given training in various sectors. Following are
    the details of the short term training given.

           Name of the Training Program                Country           Duration           Participants
     International Training Course on Air
1                                                      Thailand       16 Jan – 15 Feb            1
     Pollution Management
     Training     Course   on   Meteorological
2                                                        India           10 months               1
     Instrumentation
     UNESCO-IOC International Training Course
3                                                      Thailand       29 June – 6 July           2
     on Tsunami Numerical Modeling Course II
                                      APPENDIX V (3)


     Training of Technician Working for ABC
4                                                          Thailand         3 months               2
     Project
     USGS Training Course in Advanced
5                                                          Thailand        20 – 24 Aug             2
     Seismology and Tsunami Warnings
     Regional Program in Advanced Seismology
6                                                          Malaysia        27-30 Aug               2
     and Tsunami Warnings
     Certificate Programme in Tsunami Science &                        July 21 – August
7                                                            USA                                   2
     Preparedness                                                             21
                                                                       20 August –
8    Storm Surge Forecasting in IIT - Delhi                  India                                 1
                                                                       September 2

    These trainings were funded by the WMO, IOC, US-AID and the Maldives
    government.

    In addition to these, the department participated in workshops and seminars held at
    national and international levels.




         Ongoing Graduate level and Post-Graduate level programs
               funded by the department’s regular budget.


           Name of Training Programmes          Country        Duration         Participants

           Master of Science in
     1                                          Malaysia       2007-2009             1
           Communication Engineering

     2     Bachelor of Science in Physics        India        2006-09/10             2

           Bachelor of Science in
     3                                           India        2006-09/10             2
           Geological Sciences
           Bachelor of Science in
     4                                           India         2007-2010             1
           Chemistry

    With the recent introduction of 2 other disciplines; Oceanography and Seismology,
    the department is expanding its network by introducing various equipments in these
    fields and as well as Meteorology. To fully utilize these equipments we urgently need
    to train staffs in these areas.


                Name of Training Program                 Country      Duration      Participants

     1     Bachelor of Science in Oceanography             India      3 Years             2

     2     Bachelor of Science in Meteorology              India      3 Years             2
                                   APPENDIX V (3)


      Advance Training course on General
 3                                                  India     10 months           3
      Meteorology
      Training Course      on    Meteorological
 4                                                  India     10 months           1
      Instrumentation
 5    Training Course on Radar Meteorology          Any       1-2 months          4
      Training course on Data Processing and
 6                                                  Any          Any              4
      Analysis

Assistance is required in the following areas:

NWP
  -    WRF / WAM
  -    Storm Surge Modeling
  -    Tsunami Propagation Modeling
  -    Climate Modeling

                                 8. 5 Research
Research projects on air-pollution were carried-out in the Climate
Observatory of Hanimaadhoo.

Maldives Climate Observatory
Location       in an Island called Hanimaadhoo (≈ 6N, ≈ 73 E)

Major purpose          Monitoring Transboundary Air pollution

Measurement Techniques Remote sensing mainly Passive, In situ Technique
Passive

Equipments Microtops and Cimel Sun photometer for Aerosol optical depth
and for Ozone, Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) to measure number of
particles, Sample mobility Particle Seizer (SMPS) to measure particle size,
Aethelometer for Black carbon, Nephelometer for Scattering and pyranometers
with sun tracer, for direct , diffusive radiation, Wet only collectors for
collecting rain water for pH , EC, and ion analysis.

DATA                 shows the country experience high concentration of
Aerosols in North east Monsoon compare to South West Monsoon and also
rain analysis DATA shows increased acidity (pH<5) in rain water in some
months in the north east monsoon.

                        8. 6 New Joint Initiatives
In the wake of Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC) coming to existence
in late 2007, DoM started negotiations with that centre for possible exchange of data
between the two organizations in regular and timely basis. We are pleased that
                              APPENDIX V (3)


ITEWC mutually agreed to provide tsunami/ earthquake information along with
oceanographic data to Maldives.

                         8. 7 Publications

   (A)   Maldives contributed information on significant weather events and
         developments in the meteorological service to Panel News Letter.



                      **********************
                       APPENDIX V (4)



    Country Report of Pakistan

                   (2007-2008)

                           for


         35th Session of WMO/ESCAP
Panel on Tropical Cyclones for the Bay of Bengal
               & the Arabian Sea
  (Manama, Bahrain from 5th – 9th May, 2008)




          Pakistan Meteorological Department
                  Headquarters Office
              P.O.Box 1214, Sector H-8/2
                  Islamabad-Pakistan
                     Tel: +(92-51) 9250367
                     Fax: +(92-51) 9250368
        Email: tsupmd@yahoo.com, tsupmd@hotmail.com
                                  APPENDIX V (4)




1. Tropical Cyclone activity:

   Tropical Cyclone (YEMYIN) Over the Arabian Sea during 25th – 26th June, 2007

    The remnant of a Deep Depression which developed over West Central Bay of Bengal
    on 21st June and moved West-Northwestwards across South India during 22nd - 23rd




    June before reaching over the Northeast Arabian Sea. Pakistan Meteorological
    Department (PMD) issued its first weather advisory at 0800 UTC. After arriving over
    the North Arabian Sea, this monsoon weather system become intensified and on 25th
    June, at 0900 UTC the system laid as a Deep Depression at a distance of about 150
    km South of Karachi and PMD predicted that it may intensify into a Tropical
    Cyclone. On the same day, this monsoon weather system converted into Tropical
    Cyclone and it laid at about 150 km South of Karachi at Lat. 23.0 N and long 67.0 E
    at 1300 UTC. Then it continued to move in West-Northwesterly direction.

    The Tropical Cyclone was named “YEMYIN”. On 25th June, 2007, at 2200 UTC, the
    system laid at about 100 km from Karachi. Then moving further West-Northwest
    ward, the cyclone “Yemyin” crossed the Makaran Coast near Ormara / Pasni at about
    0600 UTC. Thereafter, while moving further West-Northwest ward, the Cyclone
    weakened rapidly to become firstly a depression and then a low pressure. Under the
    influence of this Cyclone widespread Rainfall was observed in many areas of
    Balochistan and Sindh. Particularly costal areas of Balochistan / Sindh and the areas
    adjoining to the Sindh-Makaran Coast received heavy to extremely heavy rainfall at
    times accompanied with strong gusty winds. National Disaster Management Authority
    (NDMA) reported, as of 14th September, 2007, the death toll were 420 (205 in
    Balochistan and 215 in Sindh) whereas the number of missing persons is 109 (80 in
    Balochistan and 29 in Sindh). About 75,623 houses were destroyed.

2. Meteorological Component

(i) Improvement of facilities:

(a) New Developments in PMD

       A wind assessing equipment – SODAR has been installed at Agro-Met
        Observatory Tando Jam to record wind data, up to the height of 200 meters,
                                   APPENDIX V (4)


        during Monsoon period. The data recorded with SODAR was analyzed /
        compared with Wind Mapping Data recorded at Gharo and Karachi.
      An Aeromet Observatory has been established on 16th March, 2007 to meet the
       meteorological operational requirement at newly established Sialkot
       International Airport Ltd (SIAL).

 (ii) Technical Advancement

 (a) Pakistan Meteorological Department has been using High resolution Regional Model
     (HRM) of DWD (the national meteorological service of Germany) is an operational
     model for numerical weather prediction since January, 2007. For this purpose 13 HP
     DL-380 Servers having 109.2 GHz (436.8 G-FLOPS) processing power, are being
     used at PMD‟s Research & Development Division, Islamabad. The initial and later
     boundary conditions for HRM are taken from DWD‟s global model GME with the
     multilayer soil model.

     Initially the model was run with 28 Km resolution and the simulations were done once
     daily by using GME date of 0000 UTC. However, since March, 2008, the model is
     being run with the resolution of 22 Km and the simulation are also being performed
     twice a day by using GME date of 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. Further, the model
     output for the next 24, 48 and 72 hours (in the form of prognostic weather charts for
     various variables) are also up-dated twice a day at about 0430 UTC and 1630 UTC.
     These products are also available at PMD‟s website www.pakmet.com.pk

     During 2008-2009, PMD is planning to run the model with the resolution of 7 km. In
     this connection process of procurement of necessary hardware to update the existing
     computer system with processing power of 384.0 GHz (1.54 T-FLOPS) has already
     been initiated.

 (b) PMD with the collaboration of the Ministry of Information Technology is exploring
     the possibilities of the issuance of weather warnings to the public through mobile
     phone SMS for the safety of the people in case of high impact weather events like
     severe storms, high winds etc. In this connection, Ministry of Information Technology
     has started negotiating with the Mobile Phone Service Providers.

(iii) Significant Weather Events


    Heavy rainfall during the month of February and March 2007 was recorded due to
     strong westerly waves passing over Pakistan. Heavy snow fall also recorded in the
     hilly areas and over the catchments of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum which resulted
     in the high Flood peak in these rivers causing inundation of low laying areas along
     these rivers. High flood peak at Marala in Chenab River on 13th March 2007 and
     another peak at Mangla in river Jhelum on 20th March, 2007 were recorded due to
     these heavy rains in Kashmir. The torrential rains in Afghanistan and adjoining tribal
     areas of Pakistan also resulted in high flood peak in river Kabul at Noshera on 21st
     March, 2007. On 20th March, the heaviest rainfalls were recorded in 24 hours at
     Kamra (115.7 mm), Drosh (111.1 mm), Chitral (105.6 mm) and Dir (103.0 mm) while
     180.0 inches snowfall was also recorded at Malam Jabba.
                                   APPENDIX V (4)


   In the provinces of Punjab and NWFP day temperature remained extremely high
    during the 2nd week of June recorded. Highest maximum temperatures were recorded
    at Mianwali (51°C) and Bannu (49.6°C) on 9th June, 2007.
   A spell of heavy rainfall was observed from dated 15th to 20th June, 2007 which
    brought the day temperature down 10°C to 12°C. The maximum rainfall recorded
    during the spell at Jhang (153.1 mm), Bahawalnagar (137 mm), Rafique (135 mm),




    Rawalakot (127.2 mm), Sahiwal (132.6 mm) and Lahore (106.7 mm). Besides, 208
    mm rainfall in a day was recorded by Agro Meteorological Observatory, Sargodha on
    29th June, 2007 which is the highest rainfall recorded during the last six years.
   Cloud bursts caused flash floods in three villages of Swat district in the North West
    Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, on 16th June 2007 (at around 1300 hours
    local time), leaving 17 people dead and 60 people injured, mostly children. The three
    affected villages are located about 20 kilometers north of Mingora, the headquarters
    of Swat district. Around 1,850 families (13,000 individuals) live in the affected area,
    out of which an estimated 500 families (4,000 individuals) have been affected by the
    flash floods. The torrents damaged about 500 houses (partially), as well as livelihood
    and livestock in the area.
   Following significant dust storm/gusty winds recorded at Met. Office, Allama Iqbal
    International Airport, Lahore during May and June, 2007. Maximum gust recorded
    on 9th May, 2007 (113 km/hr), on 10th May, 2007 (97 km/hr) and on 3rd June, 2007
    (81 km/hr).

    Tornado hit Karachi

    On 23rd June, 2007, a tornado of weak intensity struck Karachi at about 1700 hrs.
    When all of sudden wind picked up from 12 Kts to 60 Kts (111 Km/h) speed and it
    kept blowing with this high speed for about 10 minutes duration. The severe Dust /
    Thunderstorms accompanied with heavy showers then followed lowering the surface
    visibility as low as 500m at airport with approaching to zero figure in some parts of
    city. This hurricane force wind blown apart the huge bill-boards across the city,
    number of Katcha houses and walls collapsed in suburbs causing about 215 casualties
    as per press and radio reports.


    Thunderstorm killed more than 80

    Over eighty people have been killed in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) on 20th
    July, 2007 (Friday night) due to lightning strike and flash floods. Lightning and
    thunderstorms struck the villages of Nashnamal Jabi and Banaya Kahur in Dir district,
    triggering flash floods in the area. Nine houses in village Nash Namal, Gar Kohi and
    Jaba were also washed away by the flood water raising the number of destructed
                               APPENDIX V (4)


houses to 20, a mosque and dozens of cattle heads were also washed away in the
flood.

Rainfall Situation (October, 2007 to March, 2008)

The normal Area Weighted (AW) rainfall (1961-1990) for the Post Monsoon Season
(October-November) is just 10.6 mm which make this season the driest of all seasons
in Pakistan. But during the year 2007, the season was even drier than it did normally.
The AW rainfall for this season was just 2.2 mm and it was highly below normal
(departure from normal was -79.2%).
For the winter months from December, 2007 to March, 2008, the rainfall received
over Pakistan was also below normal except during the month of January when it was
highly above normal. The AW rainfall over Pakistan for various months is shown in
the table as given below:

Area Weighted Rainfall (AWR) over Pakistan (October 2007 – March, 2008)
 Month        Normal AWR (mm) Actual AWR (mm)              % departure
 October                5.7                  0.2               -97
 November               4.9                  2.0              -59.2
 December              12.4                  6.6              -46.8
 January                17                  35.9             111.4
 February              22.5                 11.0              -50.9
 March                 31.0                  3.3              -89.4

In aggregate, Pakistan remained in the deficiency of rainfall during the months from
October, 2007 to March, 2008 (departure from normal was -37.0%). This deficit in
rainfall not only adversely effected the agriculture produce and water resources of the
country but it also caused health problems for the people especially to the allergic
subjects due to the frequent and prolonged dry spells. Rainfall received during
January and February over main cities of the country is given in the table below:

                January 2008 Rainfall (mm) February 2008 Rainfall (mm)
      Stations
                  Actual        Normal       Actual         Normal
    Islamabad      124.0          59.6        47.0            86.3
      Lahore        24.6          22.9        05.0            30.3
     Karachi        08.0          10.8       Traces           10.4
    Peshawar        89.4          30.8        13.0            47.1
      Quetta        98.0          64.0        15.0            49.5
   Muzaffarabad    207.9         105.9        88.0           136.1

Cold Waves (January – February, 2008)

Sustained low temperature, snow, ice and chilly weather led to severe conditions in
Balochistan, mountainous areas of North Western Frontier Province, northern Areas
and Kashmir during January-February 2008. Transport, energy supply, power
transmission, agriculture and even people‟s daily livelihood were badly disrupted due
to severe cold weather. Pakistan Meteorological Department disseminated
meteorological early-warning information for the general public in a timely manner
through all mass media, e.g. television, radio, newspapers etc.
                              APPENDIX V (4)



The current La Nina event and some unusual
General Circulation features over the Eurasian
continent are believed to have directly contributed
to the widespread low temperatures in the region.
These features persisted for 20-30 days since mid-
January, 2008, causing sequence of (rare but)
severe weather events in the region. Some
significant events are as under:-


Hailstorm drapes Islamabad & Rawalpindi white (10th January, 2008):

Rain spell which was associated with snowfall over hills affected northern and
western parts of the country and lasted for six days starting from 6th January, 2008
and followed by a hailstorm over the twin cities of
Islamabad & Rawalpindi at the end and created
severe cold conditions. It was the first hailstorm of
2008 winter season taking people by surprise and
bringing life to a virtual halt for a considerable
while. Hailstorm which occurred on 10th January,
2008, started at about 1:30 p.m. and lasted for
thirty minutes, was also accompanied by
thunderstorm. The sunlight was completely
blocked turning into night like darkness. Roads of
the twin cities were covered with hails which were of significant size. After the
hailstorm weather became extremely cold.

Significant snowfall was also experienced over the hilly areas. According to the news
media, Nathiagali and Thandiani received two feet snowfall while Abbottabad-Murree
Road, Thandiani-Pattan Khurd Road and other link roads in Galiyat have been closed
due to snowfall. Heavy snowfall over the hills of Naran, Kaghan, Kala Dhaka and
Oogi mountains of district Mansehra were also been reported.

Severe Cold wave (5th - 12th February, 2008):

The whole country was hit by severe cold wave from 5th - 12th February, 2008. The
most affected areas were north Balochistan, North West Frontier Province, Kashmir
and Northern Areas. The lowest temperature of –18°C was recorded at Ziarat, in
northern Balochistan, while at another place Khan Mathter Zai where temperature
reached as low as –15°C.

Due to Severe cold wave conditions over Balochistan and Sindh, the night time
temperatures were generally 3°C to 12°C below normal. On 8th February, 2008,
Nawabshah (in Sindh province) recorded its ever lowest temperature of -3.5°C
breaking the previous record of -3.0°C which was observed on 8th February 1974.

Severe cold conditions and gusty winds also affected routine life in Chaman, Qila
Abdullah, Ziarat and Pishin in Balochistan. A number of persons were killed and
many were forced to be hospitalized due to cold related sickness. Water supply was
                                   APPENDIX V (4)


    disrupted in most parts of northern and central Balochistan. People faced enormous
    difficulties due to water scarcity as water supply pipelines were burst owing to the
    frozen water inside.

    Heavy Snowfall in Balochistan:

    Many places in Balochistan received record snowfall. Ziarat, Khan Mathtar Zai,
    Chaman and Loralai received about 4.5, 3.0, 2.5 and 2 feet of snowfall respectively.
    Provincial capital Quetta and surrounding areas of the valley also received snowfall.
    Barkhan and Zhob were the cities which got snowfall even after 20 and 15 years
    respectively. The Khojak Pass was closed for traffic due to heavy snowfall in the area.

    At least 16 people were reported dead due to extreme cold weather in the areas which
    were badly affected.

3. Hydrological Component

a. Flood season 2007

    There were two significant monsoon spells. First depression affected this area
    between 24th - 26th June, 2007, while the second depression hit the area from 3rd – 5th
    July, 2007. The monsoon depression moved from the Bay of Bengal to India and then
    to Arabian Sea and affected provinces of Sindh and Balochistan giving heavy rainfall,
    however, no river flooding was occurred. Flood Forecasting Division of PMD
    remained vigilant during the Flood Season -2007 and routine flood forecast /
    advisories were issued for the various government functionaries to minimize the risk
    to the life and property of the masses.

    (b) Up-gradation & Installation of Radars

    In order to strengthen the capabilities of flood mitigation in Pakistan, up-gradation of
    the existing radar network is under process. In order to cover the western parts of the
    country from the possible flood situation, proposal of installation of a Weather
    Surveillance Radar has been prepared and submitted to the government for approval.

4. Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Component

   National Disaster Management Commission & National Disaster Management
    Authority:

    Realizing the importance of disaster risk reduction for sustainable social, economic
    and environmental development, the Government of Pakistan established a National
    Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) in 2007 for making disaster risk
    reduction and preparedness policies, systems and capacities. The commission is
    headed by the Prime Minister. A National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
    has also been established to serve as the Secretariat to the NDMC. The NDMC is
    responsible to ensure coordination for disaster risk reduction management in its
    broader sense including all hazards approach to mitigate; prevention, preparedness,
    response and recovery; to oversee the integration of disaster risk management issues
                                   APPENDIX V (4)


    in to sectoral development plans; and to oversee the implementation of this policy
    through the NDMA. Disaster Management Commissions and Authorities at the
    Provincial and District levels assist the NDMA in its functioning in disaster prone
    areas.

    NMDA which has become fully functional. During the last week of June 2007, the
    tropical cyclone “YEMYIN” affected most of the coastal areas along Sindh and
    Balochistan. Heavy rainfall and associated flash floods also created havoc in the
    remote areas of the Sindh and Balochistan. Life and property of thousands peoples
    were affected. NDMA did an excellent job for the recovery and relief operations.
    Rescue and relief agencies under the supervision of NDMA provided food medicine,
    tents and essential supplies of other items to the affected areas through helicopters and
    aeroplanes.

5. Training / Education:


   Training of Met. Personnel from neighbouring countries at IMG, Karachi

    It is the first time that Pakistan Meteorological Department has initiated “Preliminary
    Meteorology Course (A BIP_MT Programme)” for the duration of six months.
    PMD‟s Institute of Meteorology & Geophysics (IMG), Karachi is conducting this
    course. The course is basically designed to meet the professional needs of WMO
    Class-III and IV meteorological personnel from the neighbouring countries. In order
    to broaden the base of WMO‟s Voluntary Cooperation Programme (VCP),
    Government of Pakistan, under their limited resources, provided financial support in
    terms of travel, meals and accommodation etc. to the participants. Two Met.
    personnel from of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka have been
    attending this training since 25th February, 2008.

   Under Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) which was signed between Pakistan
    Meteorological Department (PMD) and the COMSATS Institute of Information
    Technology (CIIT) during July 2004 for cooperation and collaboration in research and
    development activities and human resource development, M.S. Meteorology
    programme is being conducted at CIIT, Islamabad. PMD is providing Lab. Facilities
    and supervision of research projects to the students and faculty members of CIIT
    whereas CIIT has been providing its education / training and research facilities to
    researchers and employees of PMD.

   For the capacity building of PMD‟s scientists, PMD is providing scholarships to the
    potential scientists for M.S. and M.S leading to Ph.D in the fields of meteorology and
    related sciences. Presently, one officer is studying for Ph. D at Stockholm University
    in Sweden on Higher Education Commission Scholarship. While four (05) are doing
    their MS, two in UK and one each in Canada, China and Thailand. During this year,
    one scientist of PMD has succeeded to obtain 03-years Ph.D Scholarship in climate
    change at International Max Planks Research School on Earth System Modeling,
    Hamburg, Germany. The scientist will join his studies during May, 2008. During this
    year, some more scientists are also expected to proceed abroad for their MS and PhD.

   Regular sessions of Postgraduate Diploma in Meteorology are also under way with
    the University of Karachi and in seismology M.Sc. studies at the University of
    Punjab, Lahore. PMD‟s nominated students are also amongst the other students at
    both the institutions.
                                   APPENDIX V (4)



   Ten personnel from Syrian Meteorological Department have completed their training
    on “Special Course in Aviation Meteorology” at PMD‟s Institute of Meteorological
    Geophysics at Karachi during April, 2007. The course is designed for three months
    duration.

   Five Naval officers from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Palestine attended 26th
    Long Navigation & Direction course at PMD‟s Institute of Meteorology and
    Geophysics, Karachi during October – November, 2007.


6. Research:

    (a) Meteorology:

   Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Signed between Ev-K2-CNR Committee
    and PMD

    After approval by the Government of Pakistan,
    Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD)
    and Mount Everest – Mount K2 – National
    Research Council (Ev-K2-CNR) Committee (A
    non-profit Association), Republic of Italy have
    signed a Memorandum of Understanding
    (MoU) on 1st March, 2008 at PMD‟s
    Headquarters, Islamabad. The MoU aims at
    strengthening the scientific base for studying
    climate change impacts by collecting high
    altitude data in the Karakorum Region of Pakistan. The MoU builds upon the recent
    successful scientific and cultural collaboration between Italy and Pakistan, further to
    the celebration of the K2 Golden Jubilee in 2004.

    From PMD‟s side the MoU was signed by Dr. Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudhry, Director
    General and on behalf of Ev-K2-CNR Committee, Mr. Agostino Da Polenza,
    President & Legal Representative of Ev-K2-CNR Committee in the presence of senior
    officials of both the PMD and Ev-K2-CNR Committee.

    Moreover, MoUs relating to the institutional cooperation of PMD with NASA
    regarding Aerosol Robotic Network for assessment of air quality, and with USGS for
    seismological research and up-gradation of seismological facilities of PMD are also
    under process with the government.

   Wind Mapping of Northern Areas of Pakistan (Phase-II):

    PMD is implementing the project of “Wind Mapping of Northern Areas of Pakistan
    (Phase-II)” which is financial supported by Ministry of Science & Technology.
    Besides installation of 21 sites in the northern areas of the country, at 22 more sites,
    100 feet towers have been installed and data obtained from these sites are being
    processed and analyzed regularly at PMD, Islamabad. Wind reports based on one-year
    data for 6-8 stations have been completed.
                                   APPENDIX V (4)


(b) Hydrology:

   National Centre for Drought / Environment Monitoring and Early Warning in
    Pakistan:

    Under the aforementioned project about 25 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) have
    already been installed at various parts of the country with special emphasis on drought
    prone areas of Balochistan and upper Sindh. The process for installation of 10 more
    AWS is in progress and likely to be completed by the mid of May, 2008. Government
    of Pakistan is funding this project. Latest AWS are purchased from the companies of
    Italy and Korea. 10 AWS are also planned to be purchased from Italy for broaden the
    area of observation.

    Network of ordinary rain gauges is also being spread over the country. 260 have
    already been installed and about 150 rain gauges are proposed to be installed upto the
    September, 2008.

    PMD has also launched a separate website for the latest information for the scientific
    community which can be accessed directly by www.ndmc.gov.pk the same is also
    accessible through PMD‟s website www.pakmet.com.pk

   A number of Research work / small projects related to forecasting Techniques,
    Climate Change, Climate modeling, Downscaling for Seasonal and Monthly
    Prediction, Verification of High resolution Regional Model (HRM), were also carried
    out by PMD Scientists at the newly established Research & Development (R&D)
    Division of PMD and they presented their research work at various conferences/
    symposium / workshops at national and international levels during 2006-2007.

    In addition to this, Data base development of the Agrometeorology, Synoptic data
    decoder development, Data bank development for huge volume data are also in
    progress at Research & Development Division.

8. Publications:

   Two Issues of “Pakistan Journal of Meteorology” (Issue No. 7 & 8) have been
    published by PMD during 2007-2008. These issues contain research papers
    contributed by PMD scientists.

   In addition to this PMD Scientists also contributed (both as lead authors and co
    authors) in some research papers which have been published in various international
    journals of USA, Australia & China.
                                             APPENDIX V (5)

                                Country Report of SRI LANKA

1.     REVIEW OF THE 2007 TROPICAL CYCLONE SEASON (Agenda Item 6)

      There were no significant cyclonic circulations directly affecting island weather, although
depressions brought considerable rain, during the year 2007.

        A disturbance originated in the Arabian Sea by 6 April and took a zigzag path to move across
the island to emerge in the Bay of Bengal by 8 April and re- entered the island to dissipate by late 11
April. A depression in the Bay of Bengal was active from 14 to 16 April. A low pressure area in the
South East Bay of Bengal further deepened into a depression and moved towards Myanmar during
30 April to 06 May. A low level disturbance forming just North of Sri Lanka on 02 May also caused a
lot of rains with flooding, injuring 09 people and 17 deaths in the southwest coastal areas. A
depression was in the Eastern Bay of Bengal with yet another during 12-14 May, resulting in very
heavy rains, floods and landslides in Sabaragamuwa province with the heaviest 24 hour fall of 224.3
mm in Anhettigama, and then deepening in to a cyclonic circulation (AKASH) on 13 May. Another low
pressure area in the Arabian Sea deepened into a cyclonic system (GONU) and moved towards
Oman during 31 May – 06 June, land-falling on 5th.

         Very windy conditions prevailed over the island during 19 to 26 June due to a formation of a
depression in the West-central Bay of Bengal that later crossed Andra Coast on 22nd and continued
in the Arabian Sea re-strengthening into a Tropical Cyclone (YEMYIN) to continue Northwestward,
until crossing Pakistan Coast (land-falling on 26th), a very long track for a cyclonic disturbance in the
region. Another low pressure area in Northwest Bay of Bengal on 26th June crossed Orissa coast by
29th as a depression and further moved overland to dissipate on the next day.

        A mild disturbance in the low levels in the vicinity of Sri Lanka by 22 July brought a lot of rains
in many parts of the island but there was no cyclonic activity in August in locality with September
again becoming disastrous with fairly heavy rains and strong winds in the southwest of the country
due to a disturbance that moved from East of Sri Lanka to West on 09th. A low level disturbance in
the Bay of Bengal east of Trincomalee on 22 October many part of the country experienced fairly
heavy rain. Again by 27th a depression caused strong winds and minor damages in the southwest
part of the country. Another spell of heavy rains on 2 and 3 November was due to another mild
disturbance that moved from east to west from south Bay of Bengal; minor floods in the southern
parts caused hardship to local community.

         Cyclone SIDR that developed in preliminary stages in the Andaman island area on 9
November moved away from Sri Lanka, but gave fairly widespread rains with thunder and lightning
activity along with unusually cold weather.

       Most anticipated MAHA cultivation seasonal rains came as a relief with a low pressure area
that developed in to a deep depression in the Bay of Bengal by 13 December. Many places in the
North, East and South were inundated on 17th and afterwards, due to incessant rains.

         Over-all, cyclonic activity in the vicinity of Sri Lanka was relatively low during the year, and the
rainfall was about or above normal only in North-central and Central provinces and isolated parts of
East, Uva and Sabaragamuwa provinces and extreme South.

2.     METEOROLOGICAL COMPONENT (Agenda Item 8.1)

Telecommunications: Data and information exchange with the RTH New Delhi point to point link
operated without disruption. Reliability is now excellently improved with the new upgraded GTS
system (256kbps) established in June 2007 as an USAID project. It has four sub systems, namely,
Communication Server which is installed in Communication Centre, 2 Visualization Terminals that are
connected to the National Meteorological Centre and the Duty Forecaster, and a Visualization aero,
                                          APPENDIX V (5)

established at the Colombo International airport respectively. The information includes meteorological
data, weather charts, forecasts and tsunami warnings and SADIS information.

The basic design study of the project (2007-2009) for improvement of meteorological disaster
information network (both AWS and communication) on a Japanese Government Grant (JICA) was
completed in 2007 and the opening of tenders and evaluation commenced in January 2008.

Synoptic Observations: Data reception from 20 operational stations was very good except during
few occasions due to security reasons in some Northern stations. Observations taken and sent in
plain language by Sri Lanka Navy at Trincomalee (43419) are coded at NMC. Out of five RBCN
stations, a silent station for CLIMAT TEMP data, Colombo (43466), due to non-availability of
continuous data is pending re-activation (no replacement station is available). Nine RBSN stations
are operational except for Vavuniya (43415) where night observations are curtailed due to security
reasons.

Upper-air Observations: Radar wind observations in Colombo (43466) were carried out throughout
except for few isolated incidents. Sonde observations were not possible due to lack of consumables
but these are now available with kind supply by the IMD. Up-gradation of the system by the IMD is
pending. Pilot balloon observations at Hambantota (43497) and Puttalam (43424) were done
satisfactorily at 0000, 0600 and 1200 UTC. Curtailed pilot balloon observations at Trincomalee have
been replaced by new observations at Anuradhapura (43421) in January 2008, now continuing
successfully.

Meteorological Satellites: HRPT receiver of NOAA imageries is still defective and State funds are
sought for replacement. FENGYUNCast satellite receiving system funded by WMO/ Government of
China, is being installed at present.

Ships and Aircraft Reports: Ship Reports are still not received at Colombo radio shore station, as
latest INMARSAT capabilities are not present in Colombo but many are received through RTH.
AIREPs reception at Airport Meteorological office is poor but whatever received is transmitted to
WAFS centres regularly.

(a)    Improvement of Facilities/ Technical Advancements


        Automatic telemeter rain gauge station network connecting 5 stations (locally developed) in
landslide prone areas are installed in NMC in August 2007. Setting up of 20 more telemeter rain
gauges, with solar panels at locations vulnerable to landslides, are in progress and near completion.
See 5 (b) (i)- 8 below.

      Preliminaries to place an order for a Lightning Detection Network system were over by end of
2007 but held up due to budgetary constraints, this year 2008.

        Part payment was made to WMO trust fund for the procurement of Doppler radar with MOU
signed between WMO and the Ministry. An expert visited island in September to find a suitable
location for the radar installation.

       Sites selected and construction work has been started in December 2007 at two new
meteorological stations, Polonnaruwa in the North-central province and Monaragala in the East, both
are paddy cultivation areas. The work is scheduled to be completed in mid –2008.
       Relocation of synoptic observation station Badulla (43479) was accomplished in May 2007
while Mannar (43413) new building construction was completed in June 2007.

        Installation of a disaster management related GIS system under a project funded by USTDA
is being implemented at NMC in December 2007.

        Storm surge model, the new version as per WMO/ESCAP training received, is operational as
a routine at the NMC.
                                           APPENDIX V (5)


3.     HYDROLOGICAL COMPONENT (Agenda Item 8.2)

        The Hydrology Division of the Irrigation Department collects hydrological data that enables
quantification of surface water hydrology analyse and archive these data as the only such institution
concerned with surface water measurements in the island.

        At present this division is collecting surface water levels hourly at 69 Hydrometric stations and
calculating daily average river discharges from 40 stream gauging stations located at 17 major river
basins and it covers over 60% of the total basin area of the island. The Hydrological data thus
collected is made available for water resources development, planning and research work. In addition
to the above work Hydrological Division collects daily rainfall records from 35 rain gauges, out of
which 30 gauges are established in stream gauging stations. This division maintains 10 evaporation
pans also to collect daily evaporation records and maintains two weather stations.

Improvement of Facilities and Technical Advancements, Flood Forecasting and Warning

       The following computer packages are used for water resources planning, Hydrological
Modelling and data processing.

         1.    MIKE II Hydraulic Model
         2.    HEC HMS
         3.    HEC RAS
         4.    HEC DSS Vue
         5.    MIKE BASIN

        In addition to above, monitoring and measuring high flood levels, discharge measurements
during floods and flood mapping of most of the main river basins are carried out by this division.

4.     DISASTER PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS (DPP) COMPONENT (Agenda Item 8.3)

       In addition to the activities by the SLMD on this topic, Disaster Management Centre (DMC)
has related objectives as Hazard Mapping and Risk Assessment, Long-term Disaster Mitigation,
Preparedness to respond to disasters when they occur and Emergency Operations Management.


       Senior Meteorologists/Directorate with Electronics Engineer took part in several Special
inspection visits to severe lightning damage areas on request, to educate the community on basics
and protection methodologies against lightning. In addition, takes part in all related activities by the
DMC and the National Disaster Relief Services Centre (fore-runner to DMC). A session with the
Media personnel pre-cyclone season boosted awareness among journalists and general public. Early
warnings were issued to DMC and other relevant authorities with lead-time to facilitate disaster
managers to act expeditiously.

       SOP for hydro-meteorological events are being developed with signal number system
introduced, for Cyclones and Tsunami presently.


Disaster Events in Brief

       Spells of rain led to flooding and earth slips in the Southwest, parts of Central and
Northcentral and the East during the year, affecting 295,344 persons, reporting injuries and at least
31 deaths. In addition, about 12 deaths and 09 injuries were recorded due to lightning. Strong winds,
sometimes associated with tornadoes claimed 04 deaths injuring about 30 people and damaging
more than 500 houses.
                                          APPENDIX V (5)

        About 450 persons were displaced when Palliyawatte island in the West coast was inundated
by a tidal wave on 16th May evening. The low lying areas of the island went 3 to 4 feet under water.
Nearly 150 fisher families had to abandon their homes.

       Seismic activity was another feature during the period of concern, with a tremor of Richter
scale magnitude 5.8 about 1300 km south-southeast of South Sri Lanka and a tremor of Richter scale
magnitude 5.2 about 300 km East of East Sri Lanka in Bay of Bengal. Several tremors were also felt
in the Southern half of Sri Lanka during 20th July 2007, two minor earth tremors were reported in
Hambantota District causing minor damages to some houses.

(a)     DPP Activities by National Disaster Relief Services Centre (NDRSC)

       Floods claimed the highest proportion of financial allocation in 2007 also (65%, in comparison
to ~ 62% in year 2006), with Landslides (9.27%), Droughts (8.18%) and Cyclones (7.25%) being
other natural hydro-meteorological disasters. Droughts also are becoming a major issue in the
country with no proclaimed national authority, but SLMD presently taking over.

(i)     Financial Assistance for Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Activities- 2007

                                Allocation (Rs)
Type of Disaster
                                                       Percentage of Total
                                                       Allocation
Floods                               159,111,089.00                   65.33%
Landslides                            22,586,775.00                    9.27%
Droughts                              19,921,772.00                    8.18%
Cyclones                              17,662,054.00                    7.25%
Civil Conflicts                       13,148,854.00                    5.40%
Other Relief Assistance                4,166,869.00                    1.71%
Other Wide-spread Disasters            2,098,325.00                    0.86%
Fires                                  1,390,970.00                    0.57%
Sea Erosion                            1,279,695.00                    0.53%
Minor Disasters                          933,490.00                    0.38%
Relief Assistance to Families            827,810.00                    0.34%
of Missing Fishermen
Accidents                                417,205.00                      0.17%
Total Allocation                     232,454,532.12                       100%


(ii)    Programmes for Mitigation of Disasters

        In order to make farmers aware of efficient use of water, 61 farmer organizations from
Divisional Secretary Divisions adversely affected by water scarcity problem were introduced with
widespread water supply systems donated by China.

         Rain water storing tanks, 50 in Trincomalee district and 25 in Anuradhapura district were
supplied in 2007. A ground well and 5 tube-wells to benefit 75 families were constructed in Batticaloa
district under Drought Impact Reduction Programme.


(iii)   Educational and Training Programmes on Disaster Management

        Educational awareness and training programs were conducted from national level to rural
level to include rural level leaders as well.


(b)     DPP Activities by Disaster Management Centre (DMC)
                                           APPENDIX V (5)


        Staff released from Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force & STF) is manning DM units with senior
level Military/ Police officers placed as coordinators in each of the districts, under the supervision of
Government Agents/ District Secretaries. In addition to above contract/ secondment staff, temporary
service personnel are attached to DMC for early response operations.


(i)      Programmes of Disaster Management

1.      Final draft of the National Policy was submitted and discussed at the National Council for DM
at the meeting held on 30th July 2007 and to be finalized.

2        Drafts of the National Disaster Management Plan at different stages have been discussed
with stakeholder agencies.

3.      Disaster Information System (DisInventer) created with the assistance of UNDP and data
collected from 1974 to date with the following agencies involved in National level data validation and
additional data collection.

·      Department of Meteorology
·      Epidemiological Unit of the Ministry of Health
·      Department of Social Services
·      Department of Wildlife Conservation
·      Colombo Municipal Council
·      National Building Research Organization
·      Fire Services Department of Colombo Municipal Council

        However data has been collected for 12 districts including Ampara, Batticaloa and
Trincomalee. Eventually DisInventar was officially launched on 25th May 2007 by accessing in to the
Internet. Computers for data entry and access were handed over to the nine districts where data
validation was completed.

4.       Sri Lanka Disaster Resource Network (SLDRN) is a web-based resource inventory with
controlled access to the database. 289 items, mainly consisting of equipments, human resources and
critical supplies are categorized in the system. The data related to these items are collected from the
line departments and various organizations at the district level. The data is entered in to the web
portal at the district level.

5.       Development of Risk Profile in Sri Lanka in which National Building Research Organization,
Irrigation Dept., and Coast Conservation Dept., are in the process of developing the hazard maps for
Landslide, Flood and Tsunami respectively.

6.     National Safety Day was declared by the Government as 2007           26th of December to focus
on disaster reduction awareness.

7.       Korean funded Environmental project is to enhance the productivity and long-term protection
of ecosystems while improving the quality of life of the communities affected by tsunami through
community participation in environmental management. Activities will focus on organic farming (home
gardens), waste disposal and recycling, establishing linkages with markets for organic produce, and
recycled products, tree planting, and rain water harvesting.

8.       Ratnapura Landslide Early Warning System is a pilot project started by the UNISDR
assistance. Under this project DMC is responsible for installing rain gauges, SLMD/NBRO to collect
automated data and finally NBRO to analyse data and issue early warning. See 3 (a) above

9.      The initial awareness workshop has been conducted for Central Provincial Disaster
Preparedness and Response Plans while PDPRPs and District Disaster Management Preparedness
                                            APPENDIX V (5)

and Response Plans for seven districts are near in completion and awareness workshops have been
conducted in another 15 districts.

        Development of Divisional DPRPs in 82 divisional secretary divisions has been commenced in
14 districts.

10.       Prioritized project proposals for mitigation works in Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara and
Hambantota districts that were severely affected by flood in 2006 and 2007 were commenced and in
progress.
a.                 Drought Mitigation activities such as Construction of 88 Rainwater Harvesting tanks
                   and 32 nos underground tanks and several water supply scheme were completed
                   at several Districts.

b.               Establishment of Natural Barrier by Planting of trees along the South-western
                 coastal belt is in progress and some are already completed.

c.               Studies to mitigate land subsidence and land slides in Central province were
                 undertaken and some are already completed while in others more than 50% is
                 over.

(ii)   Training and Public Awareness

1.        DMC staff has been trained locally (169 persons) and foreign (59 persons).

2.       Different target groups for training included staff of Disaster Management Coordinating
Units, The District and Divisional Secretaries, The Grama Niladhari, Vulnerable communities,
Disaster Management Committee members, Police, the Political hierarchy of the Provincial Councils
and Local Government Authorities, Officers of the Line Ministries, Media personnel, School Children,
School Teachers, Principals, Hospital staff etc.

3.        Staff working in the district disaster management coordinating units (DDMCU) has been
given the basic DM training of 3 days duration, funded by UNDP. Nearly 200 personnel trained which
included newly recruited civilian District Coordinators, Co-coordinating Assistants newly recruited
UNVs and military personnel.

4.        Pilot project for Training of Trainers (TOT) for school teachers of Kalutara and Galle districts
have been planned in collaboration with the Fund for Relief and Development (FRD) for the last
quarter. Video clips on tsunami, cyclones, landslides, drought, and floods will be completed during
the last quarter for distribution to DDMCs as standard training material. These will be integrated to
core disaster management training material as a standard training tool kit by the end of the year with
the help of UNDP and BCPR, India.

5.       Capacity building at village level includes volunteers affiliated with the Grama Niladharis,
Disaster Management Committees. Training covers First Aid, Life Saving, Out-bound training. A large
number of mock drills for evacuation in response to a tsunami early warning were conducted by the
DDMCs for coastal communities.

School preparedness planning

       Ten (10) one day workshops for brainstorming to design the preparedness plan have been
conducted for School Principals and School Teachers in districts of Badulla, Kegalle, Kurunagala,
Matale, Moneragala and Polonnaruwa. Selected teachers from the schools in the districts are
expected to be given a 3-day training and the draft School Preparedness Plan formulated. Thereafter
mock drills for selected hazards will be carried out and video documented for replication in all
schools.

Awareness creation for stakeholders
                                         APPENDIX V (5)


1.        Disaster Management awareness programmes has been conducted for the Divisional
Secretaries for Kalutara, Kegalle, Kurunegala, Matale and Nuwara Eliya districts and, Elected
Members of Local Government Authorities of Kurunegala District and, Community Leaders of
Anuradhapura district and, Hospital staff of Matale Hospital for hospital preparedness with UNDP
funding with UNDP funding. Also for NGO participants in Ampara District in collaboration with the
Green Movement and Youth Corp members of Polonnaruwa district with Youth Corp funding. Also for
Police Officers in the districts of Kegalle, Matale and Nuwara Eliya and, Mass Media campaigns for
the World Disaster Safety Day in October and the National Safety Day in December and School
awareness programmes on request.

2.        Awareness Creation Material were printed in Sinhalese/Tamil/English with GTZ funding in
August 2007 for Tsunami, Landslides, Floods, Cyclones, Lightning and 5 cartoon books for children
(Sinhalese and Tamil) developed with Practical Action on Floods, cyclones, landslides, tsunami and
sea erosion and some other material with UNDP funding.

ICS Training at District Level

       In November 2007, the US Forest Service Resource Persons completed training 30 Sri
Lankan Trainers on Incident Command System in Disaster Management. The Disaster Management
Centre selected the districts of Ampara, Kandy, Galle and Hambantota as pilot districts to introduce
ICS. Two workshops were organized in Galle and Kandy for officials from these four districts.

          ICS simulation exercise in Galle: On 27 June 2007 a simulation exercise to respond to a
severe flood situation using the Incident command System was carried out in the Galle district. The
District Secretariat Galle was supported by the BOI office in Habaraduwa. The National ICS trainers
together with the US Forest Service Resource Persons conducted the simulation.

(c)    DPP Activities by Irrigation Department

       As one of the most harmful disasters, flood hazard maps for Galu Ganga area are developed
using hand held GPS instruments.

        Under the comprehensive study of disaster Management in Sri Lanka, eight hydrological
Observation Centres in Kelani Ganga Basin are provided with Automatic rainfall and water level
recorders with telemetry system under the assistance of JICA, in order to obtain real time data for
real time flood warnings.

       The Hydrology Division of the Irrigation Department installed 04 Automatic Rainfall recorders
with Loggers, and 04 Bubble in Sensor instruments with data loggers for water level monitoring in
Maha Oya, Kelani Gnaga and Attanagalu Oya Basins, under Water Resources Management Project
funded by ADB.

        Hydrology Division of the Irrigation Department operates flood warning system for Kelani
Ganga to safeguard the city of Colombo from floods of Kelani Ganga and operates flood alert system
for Kalu Ganga, Gin Ganga, Nilwala Ganga, Deduru Oya and Mahaweli Ganga. A study is carried out
to upgrade the existing standing orders related to these systems and also to prepare a drainage
Management plan for Bolgoda Basin under IHP UNESCO.


5.     TRAINING ACTIVITIES (Agenda Item 8.4)

      Officers from the SLMD attended following conference/seminar/workshop/training events
sponsored by the WMO since March 2007.

1.       Post graduate training in Meteorology, Australia, WMO/VCP, 5 February 2007-15
         December 2007
                                         APPENDIX V (5)


2.       WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones, Male, WMO/ESCAP, 25 February 2007-1
         March 2007

3.       Aviation Meteorology, Beijing, China, WMO, 6 March 2007- 8 March 2007

4.       Int. Conf on Secure and Sustainable Living: Social and Economic Benefits of Weather,
         Climate and Water. Madrid, Spain, WMO, 19 March 2007- 22 March 2007

5.       Expert Meeting on gender management, WMO, 26 March 2007-29 March 2007

6.       15th WMO Congress, Geneva, Switzerland , WMO 7 May 2007-25 May 2007

7.       Training in storm surge forecasting, WMO/ESCAP, 20 August 2007-2 September 2007

8.       CLIMSOFT training workshop, Vietnam, WMO, 12 November 2007-7 December 2007

9.       Expert meeting on NMHS participation in DRR, Geneva, WMO, 26 November 2007- 28
         November 2007

10.      Training in AWS networking, Hong Kong, China, WMO, 26 November 2007- 30 November
         2007

11.      WMO symposium on PWS: a key to service delivery, Geneva, WMO, 3 December 2007-5
         December 2007

SLMD has planned to conduct a series of awareness/ training sessions on disasters and their
implications and impacts, in order for observers in regional officers be ready and equip with
understanding.

Two positions to train Meteorological Observers of SLMD in general meteorology have been
generously offered in mid-2007 by the PMD. The date for the commencement of the course is yet to
be informed and the Government of Sri Lanka express its sincere thanks to the Government of
Pakistan.

6.    RESEARCH ACTIVITIES (Agenda Item 8.5)

1.    Predicting Storm Surges along Sri Lankan Coasts for 1964, 1978, 1992 Cyclones

2.    Studied about onset, withdrawal and fluctuation of Southwest monsoon using Monsoon Index.

3.    Predicting monthly rainfall (next month) using Climate Predictability Tool (CPT).

7.    NEW JOINT INITIATIVES (Agenda Item. 8.6)

Multi-hazard early warning towers erected with the trust funds of UNESCAP/Korea Government, are
expected to use for dissemination of fisheries forecast from 2008.


                                         ______________
                                          APPENDIX V (6)


                              Country Report of THAILAND


1. NARRATIVE ACCOUNTS OF TROPICAL CYCLONES IN 2007

        During 1st November 2006 to 31st October 2007, Thailand area responsibility,              0-
25 N and 90-120E, experienced 1 tropical cyclone which developed in the Bay of Bengal and
intensified to tropical cyclone “AKASH” on 14th May 2007. It then moved in a northerly direction and
made landfall near Chittagong, Bangladesh later that day. It weakened rapidly as it traveled further
inland on 15th May 2007. Generally, “AKASH” had no effect on Thailand‟s weather.


       However there were 2 tropical cyclones originated in the West Pacific and the Gulf of Thailand
that moved across southern Thailand to the Andaman Sea.


         The first was typhoon “DURIAN” during the end of November 2006 to early December 2006.
It first made landfall at the Philippines and continued its track towards the South China Sea. It
weakened into the tropical storm on 4th December before moving to the southern tip of Vietnam on 5th
December. This storm further moved into the Gulf of Thailand and gradually weakened to be a
tropical depression before making another landfall over southern part of Thailand on 6th December. It
continued to move to the Andaman Sea and finally downgraded into the low pressure cell on 8th
December. DURIAN brought torrential rainfall and flash floods in the upper area of southern Thailand
east coast and produced unseasonable rain in some areas of upper Thailand on 6th December.


        The second was tropical depression (TD2) developed from the active low pressure cell in the
Head Gulf of Thailand on 1st May 2007 and moved westward into Chumphon province on the same
day. It continued to move to the Andaman Sea on the following day and turned northeastward
towards Myanmar on 4th May. This tropical depression moved further inland and downgraded to the
low pressure cell before covering the border of Thailand and Lao P.D.R. on 5 th May and finally
dissipated on 7th May. While TD2 moving through southern Thailand, it produced widespread rain
with isolated heavy and very heavy rainfall in nationwide. Flash floods were experienced in southern
Thailand east coast, Chumphon and Prachuap Khiri Khan Provinces. Moreover, TD2 also produced
torrential rainfall across much of upper Thailand throughout the first week of May.


       The tracks of tropical cyclones are shown in Fig.1.




    Cause of Occurring                    Affected Areas                    Damages
                                     APPENDIX V (6)


1. Durian Depression       5 Provinces namely Surat Thani    Durian brought heavy
   (5 – 7 November 2006)   Prachuapkhirikhan,Chumporn,       windstorm and flooding
                           Nakorn Shithumarat and Songkla    to the affected areas
                                                             but no report of
                                                             casualties. Schools
                                                             were closed and travel
                                                             by sea was prohibited

2. TD2                     5 Provinces, 18 districts,        About 560,164 US
   (1 – 2 May 2007)        70 tambons, 264 villages,
                           29,179 affected, 7,817 families

3. AKASH                                                                -
                                            -
   14 – 15 May 2007)
                                 APPENDIX V (6)


2. METEOROLOGICAL COMPONENT
  a. Improvement of facilities

  + To enhance data exchanges among the TC Members, the Bangkok - Singapore
    GTS circuit has been upgraded from X.25, speed 9.6Kbps to the TCP/IP Frame
    Relay with the speed of 16 Kbps (CIR), and Bangkok - Phnom Penh GTS circuit
    has also been connected using VPN via internet.

  + To strengthen the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System, TMD in collaboration
    with NOAA will deploy 2 more DART Buoys (Deep-ocean Assessment and
    Reporting of Tsunami) in 2007-2008 after the first DART Buoy was installed in
    December 2006. It will be a major milestone of the Tsunami warning system in
    the region for all 27 Indian Ocean countries. The detected information and
    Tsunami warning message will be disseminated via the GTS of TMD for all to
    access.

  + Installed a new communication system to improve the stability and speed of
     International data exchanges, and developed the Tsunami information check and
     monitoring system from GTS.

  + To support Tsunami warning system, 9 tidal gauges will be added to the existing
    9 tidal gauges deployed in the Andaman Sea along the coastal areas of Southern
    Thailand. The installations are expected to complete by 2008. With the expanding
    coverage of the tidal gauges, TMD assures that the tidal wave monitoring will
    contribute beneficial information for the betterment of Tsunami warning in the
    Indian Ocean region..

  + The tropical cyclones and other NWP forecasts from other forecasting centers
    such as RSMC Tokyo, ECMWF, IMD, KMA, and BOM have been taken in
    considerations together with TMD‟s NWP products for more forecasting accuracy,
    in both medium and long range terms.

  + TMD has developed a website at Suvarnabhumi Airport to facilitate data users
    (Air lines) to immediately access necessary data for the Take-off Condition, and
    other data including TAFOR, SIGMET, and METAR.

  + Three C-band Doppler radars have been added to the existing 20 stations in the
    TMD‟s Radar Network in order to enhance the radar observation of the country
    to closely monitor rainfall pattern, cloud movement, and its intensity in the
    remote areas.

  + Replacing volunteer rainfall stations in northern Thailand with 110 automatic
    raingauge stations, apart form the existing 161 automatic stations in the
    telemetring system of TMD.           Data from the automatic stations will be
    incorporated into the existing telemetering network to strengthen flood monitoring
    and warning in the critical flood-risk areas of the country. Moreover, additional
    820 stations will be incorporated into TMD‟s automatic raingauge network by
    2008.


  + Each TMD meteorological station will be equipped with an automatic station,
   thus there will be additional 87 automatic stations in TMD meteorological
   observation network by 2008.
                                  APPENDIX V (6)


   + The Vaisala Model RP20 will replace the Vaisala ‟s retired model at 4 upper air
     stations, the installations are expected to complete in 2008.

   + The improvement of observation for aviation by the deployment of 3 Automatic
     Weather Observation System (AWOS) at 3 local airports of the country.

    +To give warning messages to people promptly, 79 Disaster Warning Towers
     have been constructed in 6 provinces directly affected by the Tsunami as a result
     of the tragedies due to the 26 December 2004 Tsunami Event. However, to be
     able to cost-effectively use and cover all types of natural disasters, including
     torrential rain, flash floods, and landslide etc. apart from Tsunami and
earthquake, TMD has constructed 48 more Warning Towers in the disasters prone
areas of       the country. Totally there are 127 multi-hazard Warning Towers in
National       Warning System of Thailand which will play the major role to deliver
disaster       warning to public more timely, and 144 more towers will be constructed
by 2008.

   b. Technical Advancement

   + The Virtual Wave 3D has been developed and implemented to incorporated
     oceanic wave related data and displayed wave/storm surge forecast dimensionly.

   + Newly designed main website of TMD, in both Thai language and English, has
     been improved to incorporated more information of tropical cyclones, including
     tracks, radar observations, satellite imageries and NWP products to be more
     user-friendly warning tool.


3. HYDROLOGICAL COMPONENT

   Hydrological Activities on November 2006-October 2007
        Rainfall accumulation of Thailand from January 1, 2006 to November 5, 2006
was greater than the long period average record 11 %, especially to the northern part
of Thailand the accumulated rainfall was greater than the average 29 %.
       Normally the month of November is the end period of heavy rainfall under North
Eastern Monsoon for the northern, central, eastern and the western part of the country.
But due to the previous peak flood occurred during October 2006,some flooded area
were still in Yom and Nan river basin for the upper Chao Phraya River Basin such in
Phitsanuklok, Sukhothai, Phichit and U-Thai Thani province with flood depth 0.20-1.50
m.The flooded area for Lower Chao Phraya River Basin covered Singhaburi,
Angthong, Ayuthaya, Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Nakhonpathom, Suphranburi province
and 4 regions of Bangkok Metropolitan with the maximum peak discharge at station
C.2 Nakhonsawan province(confluence of Ping , Wang ,Yom and Nan River Basin)
was 3,220 cms.(as its normal maximum capacity)

       Flood management , Royal Irrigation Department installed 383 large pumps for
flood depth reduction and also diverted the excess flood volume to the west and east
side of Chao Phraya River 30-42 mcm./day and 15-22 mcm./day respectively and
cooperated with the operation the Lad Pho Project (Royal Project) near the river
mouth increased flood drain volume 45-49 mcm./day and estimated draining
schedule will be completed by the end of December 2006 and completed as the plan.
                                   APPENDIX V (6)


        During November 2006 – October 2007 there were many typhoons (TY),
tropical storms (TS), tropical cyclone (TC) and depressions track passed near by the
country, effective and non effective for rainfall increasing as follow :
       - TY CIMARON, November 1-6, 2006 (no direct effected to Thailand)
       - TS CHEBI, November 14-15, 2006 (increased heavy rainfall to Thailand)
       - TY DURIAN, December 3-5, 2006 (no direct effect to Thailand)
       - Depression, May 3-4, 2007 at Andaman Sea (increased heavy rainfall to
         Thailand)
       - TY YUTU, May 18-20, 2007 near Philippines (no direct effect to Thailand)
       - Low pressure trough, May 30 - June 21, 2007 created heavy rainfall through
         Norther- Eastern part of the country
       - TC 03B, June 25-30, 2007 (create heavy rainfall to the west of the southern
         of the country)

      Flood monitoring, Royal Irrigation Department assigned one center “Water
Watch and Monitoring System for Warning Center” to collect data, process, analysis
and report to the executive, TV, radio, newspaper, the governor and related
government and public sector for water disaster forecast, alert and warning.

   a. Improvement of facilities:

   + The Royal Irrigation Department (RID) installed the upper Chao Phraya
     telemetering projects in the Chao Phraya river basin to link with the lower part
     that started from Ayuthaya province down to the gulf of Thailand. The real-time
     in situ and remotely sensed data collection is on hourly basis.

   + Department of Water Resources (DWR) has cooperation with Mekong River
    Commission Secretariat (MRCS) and other Mekong River Country (Lao‟s PDR,
    Cambodia and Vietnam) to improve the hydro-meteorological monitoring network
    In Mekong Mainstream under the Appropriate Hydrological Network Improvement
    Project (AHNIP), Basin development plan, Water utilization program,
    Environment program, Flood mitigation management program and drought
    management program, Mekong HYCOS and start up integrated knowledge
    management program.

   + Department of Water Resources as the National Committee of Thailand for the
     International Hydrology Program (IHP) held the 14th meeting of Regional Steering
     Committee at Bangkok, Thailand. Moreover, we support the proposal framework
     for IHP-VII and prepare the Catalog River of Bangpakong basin.

     Some specific highlighted issues are as follows;
            - Methodologies for integrated river basin management.
            - Promotion of public awareness rising on water management.
            - Institutional development and networking for WET.
            - Guidelines on the sustainable and integrated water management with
               due consideration to public‟s living quality and participation.
            - Increasing the available sources water by improving both existing
               Natural and man-made sources.
            - Flood and drought management

   b. Technical Advancement:

   + The small telemetering system (not included existing large telemetering system)
     especially for rainfall data collection in ungauged area were equipped and moved
                                  APPENDIX V (6)


    those stations along the pressure trough for more accurate rainfall data. The use
    of weather radar, satellite imageries from web-site near real time were one of the
    most important tool for flood management, preparednes, prevention,
    rehabilitation and planning such as Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation
    (GSMap), Global Flood Alert System (GFAS), Sentinel Asia Disaster
    Management, flood monitoring and Asia Pacific Space Agency Forum
    (APRSAF).

 + For 13 existing large scale telemetering system,this year 2008 there is some
   change of the policy, firstly for system maintenance due to less capacity building.
   Royal Irrigation Department has decided to let the consultant firm take in charge
   on maintenance the system and provide the data as RID requested. Secondly,
   RID.has the plan to select only one of the best suitable model for flood work
   which the operators have more experience and skillation to solve the problem of
   different model and operator transfering.

 + At this moment, RID disseminated the forecasted results and warning to the
   concerned agency via internet, radios and televisions.

 + At present, Department of Water Resources has cooperation with Mekong River
   Commission Secretariat in the hydro-meteorological monitoring network in
   Mekong Mainstream and linkage hydrological data (automatic water level).

+ RID expanded area of coverage in case of Chao Phraya river basin by installing
  the upper Chao Phraya telemetering system to strengthen the forecasting results in
  Chao Phraya river basin which is the largest basin in Thailand.

+ Department of Water Resources (DWR) has developed and improved in the
  hydrological and meteorological monitoring network in Bangpakong river basin and
  Prachup Khirikhan, located at Eastern of Thailand for water resource management,
  including flood forecasting and management. Moreover, telemetering hydro-
  meteorological stations was established in Mun and Chi river basin for flood
  forecasting and management. This project aimed to set up the hydro-
 meteorological stations network and early warning system.

+ Department of Water Resources (DWR) has been setting up Early Warning System
  since 2005. At present, it continues to develop and set up a flood and landslide
  warning system in mountain and upland area cover 53 risky villages, dealing with
  system alerts activated heavy rainfall and rising of river levels tomonitor at
  appropriated site. Early warning signal were sent in advance to subscribers and
  communities in real time of the impact of disasters, provided time for people to take
  response actions.

+ Improving the hydrological database system for water resources management,
  planning, construction, and maintenance of hydraulic structures and for scientific
  research, called HYDRO WEBBASE which established at Department of Water
  Resources (DWR) and continued for more effectives useful.

+ Providing E-Service Hydrological data, called IS Hydro, via Department of Water
  Resources‟ website.

+ Department of Water Resources (DWR) set up a master national plan of Flood
  mitigation for short and long term.

+ Exchange of the RID „s in situ and remotely sensed data and uses can be easily
                                   APPENDIX V (6)


  done in the future via the internet. The information gains during this period will
  improve forecasted results.

+ The interaction among members will be increased which will improve t he
 hydrological products of RID to meet our requirement. The integrated
 meteorological products and services are essential in better flood forecasting.

+ At present, Department of Water Resources has cooperation with Mekong River
  Commission Secretariat in the hydro-meteorological monitoring network in Mekong
  Mainstream and linkage hydrological data (automatic water level). The forecasted
  results in the risky area from early warning system and water crisis will be
  transmitted to the related/concerned department and the outside concerned
  departments via internet, SMS, television, radio, mobile telephone and facsimile by
 Water Crisis Prevention Center, Department of Water Resources.

c. Advancement on Unit Hydrograph derivation

+ For Unit Hydrograph, the year 2006 Hydrology Division, Royal Irrigation
   Department (RID) had derived program for the Unit Hydrograph for all 25 main river
   basins of the country based on Snyder and Nash Model.The basic coefficience a, b, c
  and d for those watersheds are provided to calculate : time to peak(tp), peak
  discharge(qp), time duration(tr) by inputting the data: (S)slope, (A) drainage area-sq.km.,
  (L) length of the main stream from the outlet to the upstream divide – km. and (Lc)
  distance from the outlet to a point on the stream nearest to the centroid of the watershed-
  km. For Nash Unit Hydrograph Distribution, calculation the gramma n, k are set. This
  program is easy to use and useful for water management after the rain storm event and
  has introduced the applied program to all the office of regional irrigation for flood
  estimation and forecasting.

4. DISASTER PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS (DPP) COMPONENT

  a. DPP Activities:

  The 2007 key projects of disaster management are as follows:

  + The continual CBDRM Approach
          Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation--DDPM has continually
  implemented project of Community-Based Disaster Risk Management Project
  (CBDRM) since 2004. The objectives are to 1) prepare community in risk areas to
  enable in disaster management by themselves, 2) create disaster prevention and
  mitigation network in the village/community level and 3) set up village working
  group responsible on disaster management in the village. More than 1,676 in risk
  communities have been trained on CBDRM courses. Furthermore, DDPM has
  collaborated with the international organizations and related governmental bodies
  to launch these following CBDRM projects:
          - The Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) coordinated with the
  Ministry of Education conducted the Education for Disaster Preparedness in
  Primary School Project in 2 pilot schools in Phang Nga.
          - German by GTZ has Implemented CBDRM in 2 pilot areas. Two types of
  disaster were selected to achieve the project goals: tsunami disaster in Mooban
  (village) Taplamu, Phang Nga province and flood disaster in Mooban Tung Kraborg
  (village), Trad province.
                                 APPENDIX V (6)


      - DDPM has cooperated with JICA and government agencies concerned to
enhance the disaster management capacity of the government staffs and risk
community members. The 3 project areas focus on flood in Chumporn province,
tsunami in Phuket province and landslide in Mae Hong Son province.

+ OTOS Project
        DDPM has recognized the immediate need to establish a range of search
and rescue capacities at national, provincial and the most importantly in local
levels. Thus, DDPM has launched the “One tambon One Search and Rescue
Team (OTOS) Programme” which will resulted in the establishment, training and
long- term maintenance of specially trained search and rescue team in every
tambon community. DDPM, has incorporated various government agencies and
NGO such as Department of Local Administration, Health Insurance Office, Office
of Health Promotion and Support Fund, and Thai Red Cross, to achieve the
following OTOS objectives;
         To ensure the safety of life, and the rapid and efficient search and
           rescue operation,
         To establish efficient search and rescue team at every provinces,
           district and tambon in the country,
         To enhance capacity and efficient search and rescue team through
           technical training and drilling,
         To provide first aid treatment and rapid transfer to the appropriate
           medical establishment.
         OTOS programme has been expected to complete in 2008. Upon the
completion, there will be a SAR team (10 members) based in each tambon (7,255
tambons) throughout the country.

+ The Flashflood and Mudslide Warning Programme
          The Royal Thai Government has realized that natural disaster of
flashflood and mudslide is becoming Thailand‟s current threatening hazards. In this
regard, DDPM has collaborated with Department of Provincial Administration,
Department of Local Administration, the Meteorological Department, Mineral
Resources, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department and
National Disaster Warning Center to implement the project called “Mr. Disaster
Warning” from 2006 to 2007.

          This course aims at creating disaster warning network in flashflood and
mudslide prone village. “Mr. Disaster Warning” is the village volunteer who has
been selected and trained to function as a vigilant, a forewarner and a coordinator.
As the vigilant, he will keep the close watch on the development of the potential
flood and mudslide and check the level of rainwater in the simple rain gauge
installed in his village. As the forewarner, he will report the village headman if there
is any indication that these will be an emergency, then the headman will signed the
manual siren to warn the villagers to evacuate to the safe area. As the coordinator,
functions as the contact person or the coordinators between his community and the
agencies concerned to arrange the warning system and evacuation drill in his
village. Since the inception of the programme, approximately 6,455 villagers were
trained and assigned to be “Mr. Disaster Warning”.

+ Civil Defense Volunteers (CDVs)
        CDVs play an important role in disaster management in Thailand.
Authorized by the Civil Defense Act 1979 and MOI‟s Civil Defense Regulations
                                     APPENDIX V (6)


      2005, Local governments can recruit local residents with age over 18 years to have
      5-days trainings and then grant them the CDV status. Roles of CDVs can be found
      in disaster response, relief, recovery, prevention, mitigation and preparedness. In
      other words, all activities in disaster management have been involved by the
      volunteers. CDVs have been also engaged in general activities organized by
      government agencies at national, provincial and local level. Normally, CDVs are
      not paid by the governments. They work on a voluntary basis. At present, there
      are around 835,000 CDVs in the country (about 1.3% of the total population). But
      due to the increase in number, scale and complexity of disaster, MOI has planed to
      increase the number of CDV to 2 millions (2% of the population) within the year
      2007.

 5. TRAINING ACTIVITIES

    a. Meteorology
        During 1 October 2006 – 30 September 2007, the staffs of the TMD had
 opportunities to participate in the overseas training courses as shown below :

      Table 1: The overseas training courses which the staffs of the TMD had joined

No.              Course Title (s)                   Duration             Country          No. of
                                                                                      participant (s)
1     Training Course on Nowcasting of       11 Oct. - 21 Oct. 06         China              1
      Serious Convection
2     Training Course on                       23 Oct. - 3 Nov. 06        China             1
      Agrometeorological Information
      Services
3     Training Course on Numerical             30 Oct. - 3 Nov.06        Korea              2
      Weather Prediction Products
      (ASEAN-ROK)
4     Training on Seasonal Climate            30 Oct. - 27 Nov. 06        USA               1
      Information for Climate Risk
      Management
5     Training Course on The Use and           31 Oct. - 3 Nov. 06     Hong Kong            1
      Interpretation of City-specific
      Numerical Weather Prediction
      Products
6     Training Course on Emergency             5 Nov. - 18 Nov.06        Japan              1
      Network Implementation Technology
7     Regional Training Workshop on            4 Dec. - 7 Dec.06        Vietnam             1
      Water Affairs
8     Training Course on Integrated           4 Dec. - 22 Dec. 06         Israel            1
      Approach and Sustainable
      Management of Adverse Climate
      Changes Drought and Desertidiation
9     The RANET Training Course               20 Mar. - 23 Mar.07       Indonesia           1
      Technology for Operator
10    Training Course on Severe                1 Apr. - 12 Apr.07         China             1
      Convective Storm Nowcasting
11    Training on “Third Session of the         4 Apr. - 6 Apr. 07        China             1
      Forum on Regional Climate
      Monitoring Assessment and
      Prediction for Asia”
12    Training Course on Forecaster            14 Apr. - 22 Jul. 07        UK               1
                                     APPENDIX V (6)


     Foundation
13   Training Course on Satellite and          28 Apr. - 27 May. 07      China              1
     Radar Meteorology
14   Training Course on Seismology,             5 Aug. - 8 Sep.07       Germany             1
     Seismic Data Analysis, Hazard
     Assessment and Risk Mitigation
15   Training Course on Coastal Zone            25 Jul. - 8 Aug.07       China              1
     Natural Disaster Prevention &
     Warning
16   Training Course on                        27 Aug. - 7 Sep.07        China              1
     Agrometeorological Services for
     Sustainable Agriculture
17   Attachment training on Quality              24 - 28 Sep. 07          China
     Management System                                                                      2

 b. Hydrology

 + RID‟s training programs are regularly scheduled only to the concern local staff and
   will be provided to other in the future.

 + DWR has 3 overseas training activities of which cooperated with MRCS as follows;
      1.      Training in HYMOS software in August, 2007 at Cambodia.
      2.      Training program Mike 11 for modeler in July-September, 2007,
              Thailand and Laos.
      3.      Training in decision support framework in Mae Kok basin and Nam
              Songkhram basin, June 25-29, 2007, Thailand and Laos.

 + The training in flood forecasting will be carried out in Beijing, China this year. The
   outcome will be fruitful to those participants who join the programme. The result will
   be reported in next year.

 + For DWR, there are 7 training activities as follows;

        1. Training in research training for new researcher, August 30-31, 2007,
           Bangkok.

        2. Training in decision support framework in Mae Kok basin and Nam
           Songkhram basin, June 25-29, 2007, Bangkok.

        3. Training in applied GIS for water resources management, June 25-26,
           2007, Bangkok.

        4. Train the trainer in the Integrated Water Resources Management in June,
           2007.

        5. Training in hydrology and applied hydrology, May 14-18, 2007,
           Kanchanaburi Province.

        6. Training in telemetry and MIKE II model, January 22-26, 2007, Bangkok.

        7. Training in Hydro database, January 2207, Bangkok

 c. DPP
                                    APPENDIX V (6)


+ DDPM established Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Academy (DPMA) in
  October 2004 to be the national institution for equipping the personnel in charge of
  disaster management areas. Nowadays DPMA has extended to 6 campuses in
  upcountry.

   The main academy curricula consist of the Fire Fighting, Building Collapse (Search
   and Rescue), Hazmat Emergency Management, Civil Defence Volunteer and
   Disaster Management. Moreover, DPMA cooperate with Japanese, German and
etc.
   experts to develop the curricula.

+ DDPM has promoted the officials to attend the training courses, workshops,
meetings, seminars and exercises in various countries to improve their disaster
management capacities. After tsunami occurrence, DDPM staffs have been supported
the fund by 2006 from the Royal Thai Government to train and study in disaster
management fields in foreign countries.

6. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

   a. Meteorology

   + In 2007, a number of research topics have been done by TMD staff to support
      the improvement of severe weather and meteorological-related forecasting. The
      researches range from monsoonal study, heavy rain, tropical cyclone to
      Tsunami, and drought issues, including:

         1.     Thailand Monsoon Onset Estimation Using MM5 Model,

         2.     Meteorological indicators for Heavy Rainfall Forecast: Case study
                of June 2006 Heavy rainfall in the North and Northeast of Thailand,

         3.     Application of GIS for Tropical Storm-induced Windstorm Assessment
                over Thailand,

         4.    The correlation between Run up of Tsunami and Coastal Characteristics,

         5.     A Study of Meteorological Drought Index Model for Drought Areas in
                Northeastern Thailand.

   b.   Hydrology

   + Department of Water Resources had been done 7 researches as listed belows:

              1. The Delineation of River Basin Boundaries (25 Major river basins
                  including 254 sub-river basins).
              2. Integrated Water Resources Management:Case study in lower Loei
                 basin.
              3. NDVI (Normalize Differential Vegetable Index) for drought forecasting.
              4. API application in flash flood and landslide.
              5. Application of local wisdom in water resources management.
              6. The development of participatory process to empower local community
                  in water resources management: Case study in Mun basin.
              7. The study in the risk factors and community livelihood in flood and
                  landslide hazard area: Case study in upper Ping river basin.
                             APPENDIX V (6)



c. DPP

+ DDPM in conjunction with Vietnam has planned to implement a co-research
  program on GIS for flood area management.
                                   ___________
                                                APPENDIX VI


 Multi-hazard Early Warning System Concept - Proposal on Integrated Hazard Awareness Display
                        WORK PLAN OF PTC WORKING GROUP ON DPP

                                             Prepared by
                                             M C Wong
     Assistant Director, Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China and concurrently Vice Chair of
     UNESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Working Group on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness
                                         in cooperation with
                                       Ti Le-Huu, UNESCAP

                                                       for

            Panel on Tropical Cyclones Working Group on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness
                           35th Session, held in Manama, Bahrain, 5-9 May 2008

                                                1. Introduction

         Early warning system (EWS) is one of the most effective tools available to manage risk and reduce
the toll of natural disasters, as highlighted in one of the five priority areas of the Hyogo Framework for
Action 2005-2015: the need for “identifying, assessing and monitoring disaster risks and enhancing early
warnings” as a critical component (of disaster risk reduction).
         The primary objective of an early warning system is to empower individuals and communities to
respond to protect lives and property. An effective warning system is more than just a set of technical
definitions of warning status and associated criteria. It should convey essential and meaningful information
relevant to the community. It encompasses the means to communicate such information to the intended
audience. It should be able to trigger established contingency measures within the government and draw
orderly collective responses of the public to minimize loss of lives and damage to property. To achieve the
best result, early warning systems should be integrated into disaster risk management effectively. In the
context of hydro-meteorological hazards, several studies have been conducted to strengthen EWS services.
The findings and experiences compiled by the first author based on the previous studies and actual
operations for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) are shown in Annex 1, which
recommend that NMHSs should consciously formulate strategies in the design, presentation, operation,
dissemination and communication of warnings. To this end, operational scientists and meteorologists are
faced with the challenges on the following areas: (i) connecting with stakeholders, (ii) applying advances in
science, (iii) crossing the last mile, (iv) stimulating anticipated action, and (v) getting the science through as
elaborated in Annex 1.
        In the above context, a multi-hazard early warning system would need to effectively serve socio-
economic development process. For this reason, a new mechanism on multi-hazard early warnings was
recommended for regional cooperation on integrating early warning systems into socio-economic
development process of the region. This proposed mechanism is proposed to be built on the premises of
good services on early warning systems, experiences of the work carried out under the auspices of WMO
and most importantly the latest developments in the work of the WMO/UNESCAP Panel on Tropical
Cyclones Working Group on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness to enhance confidence of EWS service
users on the one hand, to facilitate the transfer of know how on early warnings to less developed countries,
and increase visibility of EWS services for more effective integration into socio-economic development
process of the region.
                                               APPENDIX VI


           2. Concept on Integration of EWS into the Socio-economic Development Process

        Warning communication can be significantly enhanced when consistent warning information is
received from multiple credible sources. Furthermore, the potential for individuals to respond appropriately
would greatly increase if they are provided with information to enable them to assess their own level of risk
highlighting what life-saving or property-saving actions to take.
        In this respect, the WMO started formal operation of the Severe Weather Information Centre (SWIC)
in March 2005 providing access to the official observations on severe weather and warnings on tropical
cyclones issued by National Meteorological & Hydrological Services (NMHS). The SWIC is an internet-
portal (Fig. 1) (http://severe.worldweather.wmo.int) operated by Hong Kong, China on behalf of
the WMO and currently comprises 20 participating Members of WMO. The information on tropical cyclones
provided by SWIC includes advisories issued by WMO‟s Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres
(RSMC), Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC) and official warnings issued by NMHSs for their
respective countries or regions. At present only forecasts/warnings issued by organizations with specific
responsibility for a region or country are presented and no effort is attempted to harmonize the different
forecasts/warnings. Nevertheless, the SWIC serves the role of a trusted source of official warnings/forecasts
and is an important step towards a more integrated multi-hazard warning system. Furthermore, it provides a
very enabling tool to raise the awareness of the public to approaching hazards.
        At the national level, Department of Disaster Mitigation and Prevention of Thailand has started the
process of building a system of natural risk awareness programme aiming at providing users with relevant
information on major natural hazards in all the provinces of Thailand. Once completed, this national system
could be easily expanded to cover other Members of the Panel. In addition, as Thailand is a member of the
ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, this national system could be also linked to other national systems of
the Typhoon Committee Members.
        At the international level, a similar project is the European Multiservice Meteorological Risk
Awareness (EMMA) programme. EMMA produces operational vigilance charts accessible through Internet
and understandable throughout Europe (Fig. 2). The vigilance chart is a graphical information system on
phenomena such as strong winds, heavy rains, fog, forest fires risks, avalanche risks, storm surges, etc. It is
to be used not only by weather forecasters, but also by general public and decision-makers, easily accessible,
in a form readily understood at a glance and offering the possibility to access more detailed information
from the existing national warning procedures, as well as to risk qualification and behaviour information.
The operational implementation of the project is expected by end of 2006 where EMMA products will be
available to the public.
        This following outlines a potential conceptual design of an Integrated Hazard Awareness Display
(IHAD) for the Indian Ocean region modelled after the SWIC and EMMA programme. The IHAD could aim
at providing multi-hazard information via the internet as a means to exchange and publicize regional
observations and warnings for the promotion of regional cooperation and public awareness on natural
hazards.

                                        3. IHAD Conceptual Design

        Participating Members could jointly set up a regional data centre to collect multi-hazards
information and warnings (such as tsunami, flood, rainstorm, tropical cyclones, etc.) in real time via various
communication means to serve as inputs to IHAD (Fig. 3). The IHAD could comprise a 3-tier system which
may be developed in phases. The first tier would emphasize the use of observation data as a starting point in
the process of building awareness of potential hazard threats. Official observations of hazards and the level
                                              APPENDIX VI


of their seriousness could be collected from relevant authorities and displayed via colour-coded manner on a
common portal to reflect their risk level. Users, including members of the public, by coming to the portal,
begin the process of identifying and assessing the present threat of potential hazards.
        More complete and forecast information would be displayed in the second tier of IHAD. Data
collected would then be used to produce operational vigilance charts accessible through the internet and
understandable throughout the region. The third tier would offer access to detailed warning information from
participating national warning centres. Participating Members may also gain direct access to the complete
data set collected to enable development of their own national multi-hazard early warning system or other
local applications.
         The Multi-hazard Data Centre could be hosted by one of the participating member countries. An
officer from the hosting country might serve as the co-ordinator for administrative convenience to oversee
the design, development and implementation of the Data Centre and the daily operation of the web site.
        Multi-hazard information and warnings may be exchanged via email, ftp and web form. Data
content may be packaged in the form of plain text message or in XML to facilitate exchange. The former
has advantage in simplicity but the latter is preferred as better data integrity could be ensured.
         A pilot project could first be launched as a demonstration of the IHAD concept. This may consist of
a system for a few major hazards to include initially observations on sea-level, heavy rain and tropical
cyclone winds as well as warnings on tsunami, rainstorm and tropical cyclone. A task force could be set up
as part of the PTC Working Group on DPP to facilitate project implementation.


                                           4. Draft Work Plan
        In order to enable the Working Group to function smoothly, it will be necessary to mobilize
resources from various donors, including the ESCAP Multi-donor Voluntary Trust Fund on Tsunami Early
Warning Arrangements in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. On that basis, it is proposed that the Work
Plan will include the following:
1.   Sharing of the current plan of the Department of Disaster Mitigation and Prevention 15 July 2008
     (DDMP) with other Members of PTC for coordination and collaboration
2.   Establishment of a task force on IHAD                                                  15 July 2008
2.   Preparation of a project proposal for submission to donors, including the ESCAP 5 Aug 2008
     Multi-donor Voluntary Trust Fund on Tsunami Early Warning Arrangements in the
     Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia by TSU
3.   First design of the IHAD for sharing with other members of the PTC-WG-DPP              31 Aug 2008
4.   Soft launching of IHAD                                                                 31 Oct 2008
5.   Workshop on IHAD, if fund is available                                                 15 Nov 2008
6.   Preparation of report of PTC WG-DPP for subsequent submission to PTC 36                31 Dec 2008
                          APPENDIX VI




Figure 1. Sample Page from the Severe Weather Information Centre
         displaying global distribution of tropical cyclones
                           APPENDIX VI




Fig. 2 Sample page from the European Multi-service Meteorological
Risk Awareness (EMMA) web site displaying multi-hazard risk status
                           of Europe.




            Figure 3 Example of IHAD data flow
                                              APPENDIX VI


                                               ANNEX 1.
      Challenges on the Integration of EWS into Disaster Risk Management
                                                M C Wong
                                Assistant Director, Hong Kong Observatory
                                            Hong Kong, China

                                               Introduction

         Early warning system (EWS) is one of the most effective tools available to manage risk and reduce
the toll of natural disasters. Of the five priority areas identified by The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-
2015 which was adopted last year (January 2005) at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (Kobe,
Japan) to reduce disaster risk, the need for “identifying, assessing and monitoring disaster risks and
enhancing early warnings” was highlighted as a critical component (of disaster risk reduction).
         The primary objective of an early warning system is to empower individuals and communities to
respond to protect lives and property. An effective warning system is more than just a set of technical
definitions of warning status and associated criteria. It should convey essential and meaningful information
relevant to the community. It encompasses the means to communicate such information to the intended
audience. It should be able to trigger established contingency measures within the government and draw
orderly collective responses of the public to minimize loss of lives and damage to property. To achieve the
best result, early warning systems should be integrated into disaster risk management effectively. National
Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) should therefore consciously formulate strategies in the
design, presentation, operation, dissemination and communication of warnings. To this end, operational
scientists and meteorologists are faced with the challenges described below.

                                     1. Connecting with stakeholders

        Success of early warning rests on information from all sides being brought together and
communicated to relevant parties in a timely and useful way for decision making. Understanding the
decision-making process and needs for specific application is critical. The challenge here is mitigating the
disconnect between meteorologists/operational scientists and decision-makers. It is important to recognize
that what is of interest to meteorologists may not be of equal interest to disaster risk managers. The
information needs have to be clearly defined from the perspective of the stakeholders rather than the
meteorological/scientific angle.
        Stakeholders need to be consulted as partners in the design and refinement of high-impact hazard
warning systems, and on the larger scale, the risk management plan. Stakeholders include the public, other
national government agencies, emergency management agencies, local authorities, non-government
organizations, the media, social scientists, national and regional infrastructure authorities, academia, etc.
Different sectors of the community have different natures of business and levels of tolerance of risks
associated with natural hazards.
        Involving stakeholders in developing and enhancing the end-to-end early warning system has many
benefits, such as:
        (i)   improved presentation, structure, and wording of the warnings themselves;
        (ii) more effective communication of the risks and actions to take in response to high-impact
                                                APPENDIX VI

              weather;
        (iii) better understanding of how, and how often, stakeholders want to receive warnings;
        (iv) increased sense of ownership, and therefore, credibility in the warning system; and
        (v)   smoother buying-in of the warning system.
        It is thus important for NMHSs to adopt a culture of working more closely with stakeholders to
define the needs of the warning systems from the perspective of users.
         As an example, consider the implementation of the EWS for natural disasters in Hong Kong. The
Hong Kong Observatory, who is responsible for designing and operating the EWS, makes consultation with
stakeholders on their expected use of the warning early in the design stage to define the user requirements.
When the initial design of the warning (including the warning message, warning symbols and precautionary
announcements) has been completed, user consultation is again made. Product consultation is often
conducted with members of a special interest group, the Friends of the Observatory, comprising members of
the public. The media is also consulted to provide useful feedbacks. When the design of the warning is
finalized, further consultation with other emergency relief personnel to align the meteorological warning
mechanism with the response plans of key response departments are conducted to ensure smooth and
coordinated response to the warning.
         To cater for the changes in user requirements, the Observatory conducts regular review of the
warning system and services, usually on an annual basis. The review process includes communication and
consultation processes with various stakeholders. Views and comments from the public are also solicited
through systematic and regular public opinion surveys, press columns, radio and TV interviews, incoming
emails, discussion forums on amateur weather websites and gatherings of weather interest groups. User
feedbacks from other relevant government departments and key sectors and the media can also be obtained
through regular liaison meetings. These meetings are effective in collecting users‟ views and comments and
conveying messages to users, enhancing communications between the Observatory and key stakeholders.
Any changes or improvements made in response to users‟ feedbacks are made known to the users, reflecting
that the Observatory values their comments and will make efforts to meet their needs, thereby enhancing her
image. Continual review and enhancement of a warning system, involving the stakeholders, will ensure that
stakeholders‟ expectations are met in changing times and the warning system will keep up with the pace of
the society it serves.

                                      2. Applying advances in science

         An effective warning system should have the following components: (a) good observations, (b)
reliable forecasts, and (c) timely incorporation of these observations and forecasts in the warnings. One of
the great achievements of meteorology during the 20th century has been the increased ability of NMHSs,
through improved warning systems, to provide much more reliable information for effective protection of
life and property from natural hazards. With continuing scientific and technological developments,
forecasters will be able to warn at longer lead-times and greater accuracy regarding the „where‟, „when‟ and
„magnitude‟ of an impending natural hazard.
        Conventional observational systems are mainly ground-based in-situ measurement for a single point.
Such systems are often costly to operate and, for remote areas in particular, logistically difficult to maintain.
Increasingly, the emphasis is shifting towards remote sensing techniques utilizing sophisticated radars and
sensors, especially satellite-borne systems that can cover a wide region of the globe. The challenge here is
how to extract relevant critical information from the ever-growing volume of observations, analyses and
                                               APPENDIX VI

prognoses and coming up with a coherent picture of the threat. This is of particular relevance to the warning
of volatile mesoscale weather processes such as rainstorms where the forecast lead time is very short.,
ranging from state-of-the-art global NWP models to nowcasting systems operated by local weather offices.
         Recognizing such operational reality, forecast system developers in the Hong Kong Observatory
have made an effort to come up with purposely designed tools for forecasters and decision-makers. The
approach is to translate all observations, guidance and numerical prognoses into instantly digestible
information that can be directly associated with decision-making criteria. From the Observatory‟s
nowcasting system SWIRLS (Short-range Warning of Intense Rainstorms in Localized Systems), tailor-
made rainfall distribution maps are generated for the next three hours based on 6-minute updated radar
images and 5-minute updated surface raingauge data. For example, the forecast accumulated rainfall maps
for the coming hour (Figure A.1) and the coming two hours gives forecasters a useful objective reference in
operating the rainstorm warning system; whereas quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) on the expected
amount in the next three hours, in conjunction with the running 21-hour total, is a surprisingly effective tool
for assessing the likelihood of landslip warnings.
         Another example is the development and implementation of a decision-support tool in the
Observatory named the Tropical Cyclone Information Processing System (TIPS). The system ingests
objective forecast storm tracks based on numerical weather prediction model outputs as well as the
subjective forecast issued by official tropical cyclone warning centres, generates an ensemble forecast track
and presents the integrated information graphically for reference. Once the forecaster decides on the working
track, the TIPS estimates the timing as well as the probability of occurrence of high winds in Hong Kong
and assess the need for issuance of tropical cyclone warnings to the public (Figure A.2). The system has
greatly enhanced the efficiency of forecasters in the operation of tropical cyclone warnings in Hong Kong.
        Such tools with the capability to assimilate the wealth of observation data, analyses and numerical
products into meaningful parameters will help towards the understanding and utilization of available
information by forecasters to facilitate decision making based upon good solid science.

                                          3. Crossing the last mile

          No matter what technology is used to generate a disaster warning and how the warning is
transmitted from the originating center to users, the warning is useless unless it reaches the affected
individuals in a timely manner. The challenge here is how to cross the last mile effectively to get timely and
appropriate alerts to everyone who needs them. It must not only reach the population in risk, it has to be in a
language that they understand and from a source they trust.

           It is essential for NMHSs to constantly and proactively look for opportunities to improve the
delivery processes of warnings to the public and special clients, harnessing the improvement in forecasting
techniques, as well as advancement in information technology (IT). Rapid development in IT, in particular,
enables fast and efficient dissemination of warning messages through multiple channels and creates
opportunities for more timely forecast and warning services. In this information age, it is inevitable and
logical that the media should be actively engaged as key partners in the process of triggering rational public
response – before, during and after the event.

          The first priority is, of course, the provision of critical warning messages and information for the
media; denying the media reliable information often only leads to wild speculations and counter-productive
panic within the community. But so far, the partnership is often seen in the form of the NMHSs acting as
                                               APPENDIX VI

active information providers and the media as passive information carriers. Yet these days the media have
eyes and ears all over the place that can actually bring them closer to the weather phenomena or other
weather-related incidents. In some cases, their first-hand reports of such events may actually enhance public
awareness of an impending disaster and its potential consequences, hence rendering the warning process
even more effective. How to solicit the active assistance of the media in this respect and how to integrate
media-derived weather information into the warning process offer exciting possibilities and challenges that
would bring meteorologists-media partnership into a new era. Synergizing the power of the media and
innovative IT will certainly promote the intelligent and timely usage of warnings and naturally lead to a
rational overall response to warnings.

          Many EWSs designers assume that everyone can be reached by the mass media supplemented by
the internet. However, there are people who cannot be reached by these methods, such as communities in
hard-to-reach areas and scattered in off-shore islands, undocumented immigrates, homeless people and those
who live on the margins of society for any of a number of reason. Reaching out to these people represents
another great challenge to emergency managers and innovative means have to be invented to handle such
“invisible” populations.

                                     4. Stimulating anticipated action

           Despite the best of forecast and timely dissemination, the warning message by itself does not
necessarily stimulate an immediate response from individuals. Studies have shown that (Mileti and Sorenson,
1990) before an individual at risk responds to a warning, he/she needs to believe the information presented
and personalize the risk. This depends to a large extent on the content and clarity of the initial warning and
the credibility of the issuing organization. The potential for individuals to respond appropriately would
significantly increase if they are provided with information to enable them to assess their own level of risk
highlighting what life-saving or property-saving actions to take. The challenge here is to structure the
warning information in a way that the individual at risk would feel personally affected.

          Another critical element of an effective warning is the assurance that there is a single authoritative
source of the warning and that warnings given in the vicinity of national boundaries are consistent. Warning
information from many sources can present problems. At best this is confusing; at worst, it can be life
threatening when inconsistent, let alone contradictory, information is introduced to the public.

          When there is a shared body of water bordering two countries, it is common practice to exchange
warning information and to co-ordinate the information so that mariners receive the same warning signal
from both countries. The cross-border warning information is also very useful in creating a discussion forum,
possibly through the internet, that makes it possible to coordinate warnings. Communication is significantly
enhanced when consistent warning information is received from multiple credible sources.

           In this respect, the WMO started formal operation of the Severe Weather Information Centre
(SWIC) in March 2005 providing access to the official observations on severe weather and warnings on
tropical cyclones issued by NMHSs (Figure 1 of the main text). The SWIC is an internet-portal
(http://severe.worldweather.wmo.int) operated by Hong Kong, China on behalf of the WMO and currently
comprises 20 participating Members of WMO. The information on tropical cyclones provided by SWIC
includes advisories issued by WMO‟s Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMC), Tropical
Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC) and official warnings issued by NMHSs for their respective countries or
regions. At present only forecasts/warnings issued by organization with specific responsibility for a region
                                              APPENDIX VI

or country is presented and no effort is attempted to harmonize the different forecasts/warnings.
Nevertheless, the SWIC serves the role of a trusted source of official warnings/forecasts and is an important
step towards a more integrated multi-hazard warning system. Furthermore, it provides a very enabling tool
to raise the awareness of the public to the threats of approaching hazards.


                                      5. Getting the science through

            Effective warning must be based on science. However, even the best science does not enable
meteorologists to deliver accurate deterministic forecasts on all occasions to decision makers. Nor can one
expect public preparedness to be able to keep pace with and make best use of scientific knowledge.
Innovative approaches are needed to build effective links between the various stakeholders. Well before
Hurricane Katrina on 29 August 2005, US meteorologists had warned that the worst-case scenario for New
Orleans would involve storm-induced failure of the protective levees around the low-lying areas. This was
exactly what happened but still there were over 1000 deaths and numerous people displaced. The challenge
is getting the science through to policy-makers and the public.

          In Hong Kong, the Observatory attaches great importance raising the public‟s awareness of natural
hazards in Hong Kong through reaching out to the public. To this end, an interest group “Friends of the
Observatory” was established 10 years ago. Regular extension activities such as visits and lectures are
organized for the 7000 members of the group which amounts to 0.1% of the Hong Kong population.
Newsletters with news on the latest development of the Observatory are sent to the members as well as
business partners. Members of the “Friends of the Observatory” in turn are invited to serve in focus group
meetings to provide feedback on new services from the user-point-of view. To enhance partnership with the
media, regular informal gatherings are organized to facilitate sharing of views and experience. A 12-month
publicity schedule is prepared well in advance to facilitate planning and to maximize the impact of the
launch of new services or activities. Gatherings with media representatives are conducted regularly to build
up partnership and enhance mutual understanding.

           The Observatory often partners with other government departments and NGOs to launch various
publicity campaigns on awareness of natural disaster risk prevention and mitigation. In 2005, the
Observatory together with several other government departments and NGOs jointly conducted a one-year
community education programme named as „Safer Living‟ to enhance the public‟s understanding of natural
hazards in Hong Kong so that appropriate response actions can be taken by them to reduce natural disasters
for a safer living. (Details of the „Safer Living‟ programme can be found at
http://saferliving.info.gov.hk/eng/index.htm.)

          Over the past couple of years, the Observatory has gone beyond the training of meteorological
personnel by embarking upon the provision of meteorological education for the public and government
officers. The aim is to promote public awareness and preparedness against weather-related disasters.
Introductory meteorological courses on "interpretation of radar and satellite pictures", "weather forecasting
and interpretation of weather charts", “numerical weather prediction” and “weather observation practices”
are organised regularly for government officers and members of the public. These courses proved to be very
popular. So far, over 2500 people have attended these courses.

         In an effort to reach out to the young generation, the Observatory in collaboration with the Hong
Kong Education City, a government-funded organization for promoting educational services and information
technology culture to the education sector, organized a “Weather Diary” activity for secondary school
                                              APPENDIX VI

students from 17 May to 17 June 2005. The activity was aimed at arousing the interest and curiosity of
students in meteorology through observing the weather. The “Weather Diary” involved students making
observation each day of the cloud amount, state of sky and rain type, and recording them on-line. Students
were free to add remarks and upload photographs they had taken of the sky and clouds. During the one
month period, more than 1500 students from about 250 schools took part in the activity.

          Moreover, the Observatory also maintains close liaison with government departments responsible
for emergency response as well as engages more and more special user groups such as transport operators,
container terminal operators, property management associations, teachers and parent associations, school bus
and nanny van operators, fishermen associations etc. through organizing regular meetings and safety
seminars. Such contacts facilitate better mutual understanding between the Observatory and key user groups
stakeholders users. They also provide a channel to obtain feedback on the Observatory‟s services which will
form the basis for improvement of the warning system.

                                              7. Conclusions

          Multi-hazard early warning systems must be viewed as an integral element of long-term strategies
in the sustainable development for a safer community. Consequently, there is an inevitable need to ensure
that multi-hazard warnings become an integral part of the disaster risk management efforts in every
community. It also follows that NMHSs need to be recognized as a major component of the corresponding
infrastructure in support of disaster risk management.
           Besides improving the accuracy and lead-time of forecasts and warnings, NMHSs must also
establish links with all stakeholders to make sure that the required science and information get through. In
the fight against natural disasters, meteorologists and scientists must appreciate that disasters involve both
Mother Nature and Mortals. Scientific endeavours constitute only half of the business. For a warning to be
effective, all stakeholders must understand the warning messages and be willing to act. As pointed out by Mr.
C. Y. Lam, Vice-President of Regional Association II (Asia) of WMO, NMHSs must gain the trust of people,
to ensure that the community would indeed take actions upon receipt of the warnings (Lam, 2005). To
achieve this, NMHSs must reach out to the people. This dual nature of the business of natural disaster
reduction, both as a scientific subject and as a human issue, is quite a challenge to researchers and
operational forecasters. As such, apart from scientific capacity building, NMHSs should also expend no less
effort in the building of trust with the community they serve.
References
Lam, C.Y., 2005. National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and Natural Disaster Reduction,
WMO Bulletin, Vol.54, No. 4, October, 2005.


Mileti, D.S. and J.H. Sorenson, 1990. Communication of Emergency Public Warnings – A Social Science
Perspective and State-of-the-Art Assessment, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL-6609, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee, USA. (available on the Internet: http://emc.ornl.gov/EMC/PDF/CommunicationFinal.pdf )
                                           APPENDIX VI




Figure A-1 SWIRLS two-hour rainfall forecast valid at 6 am on 8 May 2004 (left) as compared with the
                    actual rainfall distribution map valid at the same time (right).




Figure A-2 TIPS (Tropical Cyclone Information Processing System), showing forecast track of
                 Severe Tropical Storm Sanvu as at 11 August 2005 21 UTC
                                    APPENDIX VII


                Terms of Reference of PTC Policy Working Group


Guidance

     In establishment of the Policy Working Group, the Panel on Tropical Cyclones
provided the following guidance for their assistance in planning and implementation
of measures required for mitigation of tropical cyclone-related disasters.

          To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Panel on Tropical
           Cyclones and the TSU.
          To promote international cooperation in the five components of
           Meteorology, Hydrology, Disaster Prevention and Preparedness, Training
           and Research.
          To promote the use of advanced information technology and resource
           sharing among Members of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones.
          To reform the Coordinated Technical Plan and annual work programme
           and priority activities.
          To enhance resources mobilization.

Terms of Reference

      The Policy Working Group (PWG) will assist the Chairperson of the Panel on
Tropical Cyclones and the TSU Coordinator to facilitate the implementation of PTC
decisions. The PWG will also act as a “Think Tank/Steering Group” function to
advise and offer options or proposals, as required, to the Panel on Tropical Cyclones
Members, the Panel on Tropical Cyclones, the PTC Chairperson, TSU Coordinator.

          To reform the Coordinated Technical Plan and annual work programme
           and priority activities aiming at enhancing visibility of the Panel.
          To provide overall supervision for the monitoring, review, and evaluation
           of the Coordinated Technical Plan‟s Key Results Areas, Strategic Goals,
           and Activities and make proposals concerning these documents and the
           evaluation of the results achieved to the Panel.
          To provide overall direction and oversight for the Associated Activities
           listed in the Coordinated Technical Plan.
          To provide options and proposals to enhance the effectiveness of the Panel
           on Tropical Cyclones, PTC Chairperson, the TSU Coordinator, and the
           PTC.Coordinated Technical Plan
          To assist in the consideration and coordination of prioritize project
           proposals and their budgets provided by the five components of PTC.
          To provide options and assistance on collaborative activities among the
           five components and priority options to the Panel on Tropical Cyclones.
          To provide options and assistance on mechanisms aimed at improving the
           implementation of the Coordinated Technical Plan and Annual Work Plan.
          To assist in mobilizing resources to achieve the goals and objectives as
           determined by the Panel on Tropical Cyclones in the Coordinated
           Technical Plan and Annual Work Plan.
          Monitor and ensure that the projects/activities authorized by the PTC are
           being accomplished in a timely manner.
          Development, review and propose the format of the Members‟ written
           reports and Members‟ oral reports at the Panel on Tropical Cyclones
           Sessions to focus on the results achieved on the Coordinated Technical
           Plan and Annual Work Plan.
          To evaluate proposals for Panel on Tropical Cyclones‟s Members
           attendance at international meetings funded by the PTCTF.
                                   APPENDIX VII

          Perform missions as required on project/grant proposals to selected
           Members.


Members
          Dr Qamar-uz-Zaman Chaudry, Pakistan, TSU Coordinator as Chairperson
          Mrs Arjuman Habib, Director, Bangladesh Meteorological Department
          Mr G.B. Samarasinghe, Director (Operational Meteorology), Sri Lanka
          Mr. Abdulahi Majeed, Deputy Minister of Environment, Energy and Water
           and Chair of PTC-35 as Adviser
          Other senior experts from interested Members of PTC, and
          Representatives of WMO and ESCAP (as ex-officio members)

The term of service on the PWG is 1 year subject to extension authorized by the

Panel.

Operational modalities

        PWG would conduct most of its work, coordination and communication
through correspondence including e-mail, and would be supported by regular
reporting from the TSU. As described in the above-proposed Terms of Reference of
PWG, considerable amount of important issues and projects for PTC and its Members
will be discussed and accomplished by PWG. To enhance the efficiency of the
operation of TC, it is recommended that a PWG meeting be held at least every year.
At the request of the PTC or PTC Chairperson, the PWG will investigate and review
issues, make recommendations and proposals, and if approved by the PTC, assist in
implementing approved projects, activities, etc.
                                    APPENDIX VIII

                            Activities of TSU during the
                         Inter – Sessional Period 2007-2008

   24th Issue of the Panel News was published in October, 2007 and circulated
    among the Panel members, Typhoon Committee, UN ESCAP, WMO and other
    concerned. TSU also suggested that in future the Panel News would be
    published in the months of April and October every year to cover the seasonal
    weather information, development actvities etc. within Panel member countries
    during the period from October-March and April-September respectively. Keeping
    in view the proposed period relating to the activities/news, 25th Issue of the Panel
    News was published in April, 2008, mostly covering news related to the period
    October 2007 to March 2008 and was circulated among the participating
    Members of the Panel, WMO and other TCP bodies during the 35th PTC Session.
    Copies of the Panel News would be sent to the other concerned through normal
    post.

   TSU was invited to send an Observer to the Twenty-ninth Session of the RA-IV
    Hurricane Committee, Curacao, Netherland Antilles and Aruba from 27 March – 3
    April, 2007 and Thirtieth Session of the RA-IV Hurricane Committee, Orlando,
    USA from 23-28 April, 2008. But in both cases TSU‟s representative could not be
    nominated due to none availability of financial support from WMO.

   WMO / ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones in its 34th Session, Male, Maldives
    offered training to the Storm Surge Experts of Oman and Maldives for the period
    of two weeks with the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi, India from
    20th August – 2nd September, 2007. Due to non-availability of expert from Oman,
    the invitation was extended to Sri Lanka for making nomination of a storm surge
    expert. Therefore, M/S Don Joseph Ajith Weerawardena, Acting Deputy Director,
    Departments of Meteorology, Sri Lanka and Hussain Waheed, Meteorological
    Forecaster, Department of Meteorology, Maldives participated in the training.

   On the kind invitation of India Meteorological Department, Third Training on
    Operational Tropical Cyclone Forecasting was held 14-25 January, 2008. TSU,
    on behalf of WMO invited Tropical Cyclone Forecasters (one each) from
    Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Mr. Malavige Don Dayananda, Meteorologist,
    Sri Lanka Met. Department and Mr. Kathavudthi Marlairodjnesiri, Senior
    Meteorologist, Thai Met. Department attended the training. However, PMD‟s
    nominee could not avail this opportunity due to paucity of time for obtaining
    approval and visa processing.
                                     APPENDIX VIII

   As per para 8.3.1 of the Final Report of PTC-34, Thailand and Oman were
    requested to nominate Chair and Vice-chair of DPP Working Group. Thailand has
    nominated Mr. Adthaporn Singhawichai, Director of Research and International
    Cooperation Bureau, as Chairman of DPP Working Group. However, no
    nomintaion received from Oman for the Vice-chair of DPP. WMO and UN ESCAP
    were informed accordingly by TSU.

   As per para 11.7 of the Final Report of PTC-34, Panel members were requested
    to submit nominations of two experts (from each country) in the filed of
    maintenance of meteorological equipments, information and communication
    technology and other relevant fields to TSU for establishing a Pool / Inventory of
    Experts. In this connection Meteorological Services of Pakistan, Sri Lanka and
    Thailand have submitted names and bio-data of their experts so far. While
    Department of Meteorology, Maldives have shown its inability to nominate
    experts due to limited technical staff.

   Information regarding financial support of WMO and detailed breakdown of
    expenses incurred by TSU during the inter-sessional period is attached as Annex.
                                       APPENDIX IX



                          STATEMENT OF TSU ACCOUNTS
                                       (2007 - 2008)



1.       Balance after 34th Session                        Pak. Rs. 86,140.00


2.       Receipts during the inter-sessional period        Pak. Rs. 271,250.00
         (US$ 4500/= equivalent to
         Pak Rs.271,250/= @ one US$  60.28)
                                                                              ---------------
----------
                                                Total      Pak. Rs. 357,390.00


                                      EXPENDITURE


1.       Running cost of TSU website for one year          Pak. Rs.        6,000.00


2.       Honorarium to TSU-Meteorologist                   Pak. Rs.      92,000.00
         and Technical staff


3.       Expenses incurred on the printing of              Pak. Rs.      70,000.00
         24th and 25th Issues of the Panel News


4. (a) Purchase of stationery for TSU use                  Pak. Rs.        5,000.00
     (b) Expenditure on postage etc.                       Pak. Rs.      15,000.00
                                                           -------------------------
                                                Total      Pak. Rs. 188,000.00



                               Balance in hand          Pak. Rs. 169,390.00
APPENDIX X
APPENDIX X

								
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