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Genocide It was not easy to reach a final formulation of the term (Genocide) of genocide, and colorful, the definitions in the studies of genocide, and the texts of international law, but they agreed on a general framework indicates that the meaning of terminology is the following: The deliberate destruction of groups of national, ethnic, religious or ethnic is the general framework of the crime of genocide as stated in the Genocide Convention of mankind. It is intended by the term genocide in Latin (to kill the group) and combined with the term genocide the Nazis first, although there are other crimes applies to these determinants in human history in general, but the image that reflected the perception Nazi had brought the case of mass murder to the forefront of studies of genocide, where he was killed millions humans because of their religion or ethnic origin, and considered the crime of a pattern of crimes that are committed to the destruction of a group. And went international law experts and the owners of the International Bill to commit the crime intended to destroy, in whole or in part, a national groups, ethnic, racial or religious group across multiple images and whether the crime directly or inciting them or conspiring to commit, whether during peace or war, are crimes against the group . The text of the Convention to prevent genocide that: the present Convention genocide means any of the following acts: 1. Killing members of the group. 2. Causing serious bodily or serious bodily members of the group. 3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part. 4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. 5. Transferring children of the group forced their way into another group. And determined to commit crimes referred to intentional destruction in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. Before entering in determining the types of genocide must pass the historical context for the emergence of this crime. Since the United Nations adopted on 9 December of 1948 a treaty on prevention and Prevention (genocide) and punished, entered these words in common discourse to signify the ultimate evil and ultimate form of destruction against defenseless civilians. And made this concept widespread growing international use after put in circulation legal Polish (Rafael Emekn) in 1944, it was noted from which to dispute all in the second half of the twentieth century, which caused a high number of civilian casualties later, from Cambodia to Chechnya through Burundi, Rwanda Guatemala, Colombia, Iraq, Bosnia, Sudan and elsewhere. Has also launched a label, and retroactively to the massacre of residents of Milos by the Greeks in the fifth century BC, or what happened to the people of the province (Alvandi) French in 1793, or what he was subjected Indians of North America. Or the Armenians in 1915 as well as famine That hit Ukraine and to the displacement of a number of nationalities in the former Soviet Union during the Stalinist era and the extermination of European Jews, Gypsies, and also the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs the U.S.. Although the division of the common types of genocide is distributed as follows: A physical genocide: killing groups of toxic gases (such as the tragedy of Halabja) or death (as happened in Iraq and elsewhere), or buried neighborhoods (as happened with the population of southern Iraq), or bombing aircraft, missiles and other weapons. Two biological genocide: of men exposed to view, or abortion, and women in various ways and intervene in changing the appearance of humanitarian objectives of the political and religious to eliminate the human factor. 3 cultural genocide: the prevention of talk in the national language, and the attack on the national culture (such as what happened in Iraqi Kurdistan and other regions of the world). As for the reasons that push for the commission of this crime, Fmjmlha concentrated in the causes of religious, political, social, and neurological, and historical conflict in general. The effects of the use the concept of "genocide" on the cases of divergent historical objections and a lot of heated debate. Valasthaddam reflects the need to multi-year term refers to a widespread phenomenon in the twentieth century, namely the elimination of civilians. The other terms have been introduced into circulation, such as "extermination policy" (politicide) 1988, or "extermination of democracy" (démocide) in 1994 but the (genocide), or "genocide" (génocide) is still popular so that the back of the jurisdiction in "Research genocide" as they could be followed in the Journal of Journal of Genocide Research. The first of the issues raised by the term "genocide" concerning the use of force in the midst of discussions of identity, politics and humanitarian action. Conception on the first face the challenges associated with memory, recognition of any public exposure of people in the past of genocide. Perhaps the proverb (Armenian) is the most revealing in this context. The second challenge is human when it is brought to the attention of civil society institutions and non-governmental organizations to the danger of genocide is holding, which threatens the peoples and the consequent shock public opinion and open the way for international intervention. Remains a legal challenge would be to bring those responsible for genocide before the international courts. Can also be the concept of genocide that is a key element in the willingness of an offensive aimed at political opponent as did the Serbs of Kosovo when they went from the mid-eighties they have been subjected to genocide at the hands of Albanians, or called for by the parties and organizations opposed to Saddam's regime to understand that certain groups, and minorities and nationalities and communities exposed to genocide physically, culturally and geographically, or also accused the participants of the conference in Durban In 2001 the Jewish state of committing genocide against the Palestinians, the obvious bottom line is that the words used Ckstrp symbolic of the protective order to confirm the identity of the people of the victim. It is believed that researchers can consider the terminology of the new to provide further clarification. In spite of the difficulty of reaching the definition of a final, but the variation appeared widely between, for example, a psychologist (Israel Charney), which classifies every massacre in the category of genocide (including the Chernobyl nuclear accident) and of (Stephen Katz), who insists that the process of genocide and one got in history are those faced by the Jews, and their understanding is clear from the introductions to head off them. And also differing views on the definition given by the United Nations, while some agreed to the 1948 Convention as a basis for discussion that can produce them (the sociology of translation) for the extermination of the American researcher as you go (Helen Vine). Some object other in contrast to the fact that social research and historical not based in advance on the text of legal or normative, so do this to the approach (studies of genocide) the methodology of social sciences, Then shall the searching analysis of the massacre (as a collective is often on the Elimination of non-combatants) and wonder about the circumstances and the possibility of turning the massacre of one or a series of massacres to process (genocide). Of the problems raised by the Treaty of 1948 that they give central importance for the (intent to destroy a group) within the definition of genocide is what makes translation history of this idea difficult to some extent, there seems to be some catastrophic events resulting from the advance planning such as famine in communist China between 1958 and 1962, which claimed the lives of 20 to 43 million people. No one can provide proof that Mao Tse Tung, who has called for the so-called b (the big leap forward) was intended to eliminate people, tragedy is due more to the rigidity of the party and Tobawith voluntary and inadequate economic development. On the other hand, it can be highlighted more clearly assurances to the will of Stalin's criminal cause famine in Ukraine between 1932 and 1933, which claimed the lives of between 6 and 7 million people, and Moscow was the purpose of the eventual elimination of the resistance there. Can you talk about the "genocide"? Opponents argue that the intention of Stalin were not as the elimination of Ukrainian nationalism. We note that other nations have been exterminated because of the famine (Cossack country, Cuban, Central Asia ...). However, the trap that lurks always historian is to shift to a public prosecutor to prove that everything was prepared in advance, while the outcome of the circumstances of history and elements of vague or non-specific effect. The research on the Holocaust reference in the subject from the great author Christopher Browning, "Ordinary Men". If we examine what happened in Cambodia or Rwanda or Bosnia, we find that we have to resort to several types of explanations to explore the depths of this violent coup wide. Do you attach crucial importance to ideological and more generally, to an imagined political rejection of the other when we approach the interpretation of the transition to an act of genocide? The primary role of the one who played the intelligentsia in pre-construction on the faces of the enemy is known, but this ideological axis initiator of the mass killings never not enough to explain the transition to action. Should be taken into account "accounts", which is behind the massacres or the decision (or series of decisions) taken by the cold-blooded a handful of officials. Valmdzrp stems mostly from a deliberate policy to "clean area" or access to power or clean race, as happened in Iraq in the campaign called the (cleaning prisons), or change the demographic reality of Kirkuk, or campaigns genocide against the Shia and Kurdish opposition to the regime. But in our search for causes should not lose sight of the irrational dimension in the massacres and acts of genocide being delirium project seeks to establish a secure system based on the unity and purity, and not allow the existence of what disturbs the idea unrealistic. The (Research genocide) must necessarily pay attention to the different approaches of psychopathology to the attention of passing through human history and political science, without a comprehensive interpretation of the dream. Another question to penetrate this explanation: Is the genocide committed by strong states or weak states? Tendency seems automatically to the responsibility of a strong state to require the commission of genocide and destructive potential of the regulatory and promotional ... It is also assumed, for example Rudolf Rommel: "The images of the absolute power kills absolutely." But the theory of the strong state that is under review at the hands of those who emphasize the "General Framework", which puts these systems in the development of incompetence and ignorance, which explains the willingness to commit massacres despite the advantage of its strength. So it (the fight) an essential element that must be taken into account. Therefore, the historians of the model (Philippe Burin) and (Christian Gerlach) considered that the decision "final solution" adopted by the Nazis, probably starting from December, 1941, can be isolated from the perception that they are unable to victory in the war waged on the Soviet Union. Thus, the Hitler had taken the decision victory in another location, it is essential for the elimination of the Jews after the defeat that look to the future, especially with the United States entered the war after the U.S. bombing of the fleet in the port of Pearl Harbor on 6 December 1941. Same can be said in the Armenian question as exterminating the decision was taken after a severe defeat suffered by the Turks against the Russians in the framework of the Government of the conflict (Young Turks) to the consideration of the Armenian minority complicit and allied with the Russians. This approach emphasizes the thesis that the massacres taking place at the hands of weak states consider themselves subject to corruption or unable to victory in the war as long as not to deliberate on the Elimination of civic groups as a whole. The urgent task entrusted to the social sciences is to develop knowledge of the forms of violence leading to massacres if not genocide. This urgency comes from the fact that heavy human history in this area. In the early twentieth century was one-tenth of the civilian victims of war and now the ratio is reversed at the end of the same century to fall between 80 to 90 per cent of the civilian casualties as a result of armed conflict. The process approach is also required for the period prior to the crisis and ask the question: Is it possible and under what conditions to avoid genocide? Some suggest a cautionary measures aimed to set the conditions which can turn to genocide and imagine the means required in order to extend effective aid to the population at risk. What is required here raised a fundamental question: Is it possible to avoid genocide? Some suggested focusing on warning procedures aimed at identifying conditions that could turn into genocide. And the efforts of non-governmental organizations, journalists and individuals who have a strong desire to prevent the crime of genocide, its great importance in order to prevent the tragedy of the valley into oblivion by world public opinion, as happens for example in Chechnya. At the same time, the public gets bored because of the tragedies that dogged by the media, so it must keep the logo (not the day after the massacre) is brought even if the specter of genocide has not disappeared from our world. With regard to the commission of the crime of genocide in Iraq, we can say that it occurred in Iraq of all kinds have been committed in southern Iraq against the Kurdish people in Kurdistan Iraq by cleansing the Kurdish race geographically, from the Kurdish areas. The policy of cultural genocide in the Arabization of the Kurds. As well as the offense is committed against the Marsh Arabs in southern Iraq, in Amara and Nasiriyah and Basra, and carried out this heinous crime against the Kurds and Turkmen in Kirkuk province, also. It is also the commission of a crime against the Faili Kurds and Iraqi persons expelled because of their belonging to the Shiite sect. And annihilation of the human race through the use of chemical weapons against Kurds and against the Shiites in southern Iraq and in the marshes. This happened in 1988 and in 1991, and hit civilian targets with missiles and aircraft, or by artillery fire, as happened with the Kurdish villages safe and during the war against Iran. As well as against the sons of Najaf and Karbala and Basra, Samawah, Diwaniyah and other Iraqi cities that came out against the regime in 1991. Were buried people alive, it was Saddam's regime to bury hundreds of thousands of Kurds and Arabs and Turkmen, they are still alive in Iraqi Kurdistan and in Najaf, Karbala and Basra, Amarah and Samawah and other Iraqi cities, and is this crime of war crimes committed against the Iraqi people do not can be time- barred, and the perpetrator is a criminal, international, and can not invoke international criminal that committed the crime for defensive purposes or for political motives. As well as the execution of prisoners who have been exposed to extract confessions. It can therefore be considered in the execution of prisoners buried alive, or a crime in this regard, according to received from the controversy over the reach to define the concept of genocide. But cases such as this did not work the international institutions of the meeting on an item legal it can intervene to stop such crimes, therefore remains a breach exists that there is no legal text following the commission of crimes of genocide, without the object of this text saying internal affairs, as happened in Iraq and elsewhere in the world . As for the position of religious institutions and spiritual position of the Vatican, which we have considered these crimes against God and man on the grounds that they violate the human rights crimes. Has identified these crimes in the principles of the Nuremberg Tribunal as they are the international crimes against humanity committed intentionally and is a major and serious crimes is a serious international criminal perpetrator. And an example of the killing of the civilian population or exterminate them because of race, color, sex, language, sect, or otherwise, as well as the crime of denying the civilian population, for example, the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis after the overthrow of their nationality on the grounds that they are the dependency of Iran, as well as the displacement of Kurds from Kirkuk and other border areas and the crime of Anfal, as well as the crime of destruction of more than 4500 villages inhabited by the Kurds on the grounds that it is located on the Iraqi-Iranian border. We did not find in the studies of genocide clearly indicates the type of genocide can be described in terms of type of genocide geography, as was the case and was subjected to vast tracts of Geography of Iraq, (palm groves, and marshes) to a change in the geographical situation, which provides a new area of research in Studies of genocide, even though some found that it is within the scope of sabotage and destruction of the environment, while research focuses on the protection of the genocide of the human race. It remains the most important in the detailed research studies of genocide is the lack of explicit legal provisions obliges States not to commit this crime, in circumstances where governments use strong and weak excuse to internal affairs which has caused genocide in more than one place in the world. Supplements Models of genocide geographic The first model: Tying up the rivers Site process: the province of Maysan Architecture The idea of the process: the establishment of earth dams ranging in length between 6-18 kilometers per the helm on both sides of the main rivers which feed the marshes of Architecture: the River Wadia. Were taking the waters of the Great River, Hungary. River of Justice. River fight. River Acharmekhep. Take water from the River Alapterp. River swimming pool. Haddam River. River is serious. Phase of work: the process has been done completely in July 1992. Results as the process: cutting off water to dozens of tributaries and streams that used to take water from the rivers mentioned, heading towards the marshes to irrigate the land on both sides of the river south of the city, architecture and even the edges of the lagoon, where she poured the remaining water in the lagoon itself. Has been compounded by water scarcity as a result of this operation is that it has already been drained by rivers of the seven by 95% when the system has cut off water Bnoazem especially on the Tigris River for Msdrehma twin river Majar Al- Kabir River Alapterp for above and thus cut off water for vast areas which occur after the cities of auspicious and peace justice and Majar al-Kabir. The second model: Refine the banks of the river The idea of the process: the establishment of Sd Turabitin Tqtaan ends of all rivers and tributaries and streams destined for the Hor architecture, such as access to water and collect in the course of winning them. Site process: the province of Maysan architecture. Start earthen established in this process Gandalh south of the village (on the peace), located at 686 East written - 348 north through the southern village of Abu ten (in terms of justice) and then passing through a point east of 700 - 348 and then north through the village of Abu calf (714 East - 347 north) and then meet in the south at a point 720 east - 347 north to pass Balsd Aturabitin which were established during the Iraq war - Iran, starting from the Abu Hurry up Beni Mansour, located at 727 East - 343 north, where it connects in the end, the River Euphrates, a distance of six kilometers west of the city Qurna. Sudtin Specifications: - View the lower embankment from the bottom - and top 1935 20:00 - View high embankment from the bottom and top -25 m 20:00. - The high Sudtin 18:00. - The distance between Sudtin 1200 Gandalp at the village (on the peace), in 1400 at the village of Abu Jawatl (hand of justice), in 1600 at the village of Abu calf, 2000 Hurry up of the children of Abu Mansur. - The length of each of Sudtin 90 km. Phase of work: The process was completed in late September 1992. Outcome of the process: cut more than forty rivers and a table and diverted towards the east to the area of Abu hastily and then towards the south until it ends in the Euphrates River in the region of Beni Mansour (West Qurna) Leading to: - 1 - depriving the population of land dependent on these rivers of water, irrigation and drinking. 2 - low water levels in Hor architecture, which was poured in it. Implementing agencies: Ministry of Oil, Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. The third model: Convert the Euphrates to the downstream-General Site process: the province of Dhi Qar (Nasiriya) The idea of the process: diversion of water from the Euphrates River site Fudaliyah five kilometers east of the city of Nasiriyah to the course of the year after the estuary was the last phase of it done by connecting its parts together (it is known that the course of the year, the estuary is in the Khawr Abd Allah waterway north of the Gulf). Phase of work: The process was completed at the beginning of July, 1992. Outcome of the process: - Turned the Euphrates River from its course from the city of Nasiriyah to the downstream course of the year, becoming Mbzla to withdraw water Hammar where it passes the south, in the lower it. - Turning the normal course and the historic Euphrates River from Nasiriyah to Qurna, trocar to withdraw water marshes of Amarah, where is located in the low- down from them. The fourth model: Tying up the Euphrates River Site process: the province of Dhi Qar (Nasiriya) and the province of Basra.
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