; Genocide
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 It was not easy to reach a final formulation of the term (Genocide) of genocide,
and colorful, the definitions in the studies of genocide, and the texts of
international law, but they agreed on a general framework indicates that the
meaning of terminology is the following:
The deliberate destruction of groups of national, ethnic, religious or ethnic is the
general framework of the crime of genocide as stated in the Genocide
Convention of mankind. It is intended by the term genocide in Latin (to kill the
group) and combined with the term genocide the Nazis first, although there are
other crimes applies to these determinants in human history in general, but the
image that reflected the perception Nazi had brought the case of mass murder to
the forefront of studies of genocide, where he was killed millions humans
because of their religion or ethnic origin, and considered the crime of a pattern of
crimes that are committed to the destruction of a group.
And went international law experts and the owners of the International Bill to
commit the crime intended to destroy, in whole or in part, a national groups,
ethnic, racial or religious group across multiple images and whether the crime
directly or inciting them or conspiring to commit, whether during peace or war,
are crimes against the group .

The text of the Convention to prevent genocide that: the present Convention
genocide means any of the following acts:
1. Killing members of the group.
2. Causing serious bodily or serious bodily members of the group.
3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about
its physical destruction in whole or in part.
4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.
5. Transferring children of the group forced their way into another group.

And determined to commit crimes referred to intentional destruction in whole or in
part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.

Before entering in determining the types of genocide must pass the historical
context for the emergence of this crime.
Since the United Nations adopted on 9 December of 1948 a treaty on prevention
and Prevention (genocide) and punished, entered these words in common
discourse to signify the ultimate evil and ultimate form of destruction against
defenseless civilians.

And made this concept widespread growing international use after put in
circulation legal Polish (Rafael Emekn) in 1944, it was noted from which to
dispute all in the second half of the twentieth century, which caused a high
number of civilian casualties later, from Cambodia to Chechnya through Burundi,
Rwanda Guatemala, Colombia, Iraq, Bosnia, Sudan and elsewhere. Has also
launched a label, and retroactively to the massacre of residents of Milos by the
Greeks in the fifth century BC, or what happened to the people of the province
(Alvandi) French in 1793, or what he was subjected Indians of North America. Or
the Armenians in 1915 as well as famine

That hit Ukraine and to the displacement of a number of nationalities in the
former Soviet Union during the Stalinist era and the extermination of European
Jews, Gypsies, and also the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs
the U.S..

Although the division of the common types of genocide is distributed as follows:
 A physical genocide: killing groups of toxic gases (such as the tragedy of
Halabja) or death (as happened in Iraq and elsewhere), or buried neighborhoods
(as happened with the population of southern Iraq), or bombing aircraft, missiles
and other weapons.

 Two biological genocide: of men exposed to view, or abortion, and women in
various ways and intervene in changing the appearance of humanitarian
objectives of the political and religious to eliminate the human factor.

 3 cultural genocide: the prevention of talk in the national language, and the
attack on the national culture (such as what happened in Iraqi Kurdistan and
other regions of the world).

As for the reasons that push for the commission of this crime, Fmjmlha
concentrated in the causes of religious, political, social, and neurological, and
historical conflict in general.

The effects of the use the concept of "genocide" on the cases of divergent
historical objections and a lot of heated debate.
Valasthaddam reflects the need to multi-year term refers to a widespread
phenomenon in the twentieth century, namely the elimination of civilians. The
other terms have been introduced into circulation, such as "extermination policy"
(politicide) 1988, or "extermination of democracy" (démocide) in 1994 but the
(genocide), or "genocide" (génocide) is still popular so that the back of the
jurisdiction in "Research genocide" as they could be followed in the Journal of
Journal of Genocide Research.

The first of the issues raised by the term "genocide" concerning the use of force
in the midst of discussions of identity, politics and humanitarian action.
Conception on the first face the challenges associated with memory, recognition
of any public exposure of people in the past of genocide. Perhaps the proverb
(Armenian) is the most revealing in this context.

The second challenge is human when it is brought to the attention of civil society
institutions and non-governmental organizations to the danger of genocide is
holding, which threatens the peoples and the consequent shock public opinion
and open the way for international intervention. Remains a legal challenge would
be to bring those responsible for genocide before the international courts.

Can also be the concept of genocide that is a key element in the willingness of
an offensive aimed at political opponent as did the Serbs of Kosovo when they
went from the mid-eighties they have been subjected to genocide at the hands of
Albanians, or called for by the parties and organizations opposed to Saddam's
regime to understand that certain groups, and minorities and nationalities and
communities exposed to genocide physically, culturally and geographically, or
also accused the participants of the conference in Durban

In 2001 the Jewish state of committing genocide against the Palestinians, the
obvious bottom line is that the words used Ckstrp symbolic of the protective order
to confirm the identity of the people of the victim.

It is believed that researchers can consider the terminology of the new to provide
further clarification. In spite of the difficulty of reaching the definition of a final, but
the variation appeared widely between, for example, a psychologist (Israel
Charney), which classifies every massacre in the category of genocide (including
the Chernobyl nuclear accident) and of (Stephen Katz), who insists that the
process of genocide and one got in history are those faced by the Jews, and their
understanding is clear from the introductions to head off them.

And also differing views on the definition given by the United Nations, while some
agreed to the 1948 Convention as a basis for discussion that can produce them
(the sociology of translation) for the extermination of the American researcher as
you go (Helen Vine). Some object other in contrast to the fact that social
research and historical not based in advance on the text of legal or normative, so
do this to the approach (studies of genocide) the methodology of social sciences,
Then shall the searching analysis of the massacre (as a collective is often on the
Elimination of non-combatants) and wonder about the circumstances and the
possibility of turning the massacre of one or a series of massacres to process

Of the problems raised by the Treaty of 1948 that they give central importance
for the (intent to destroy a group) within the definition of genocide is what makes
translation history of this idea difficult to some extent, there seems to be some
catastrophic events resulting from the advance planning such as famine in
communist China between 1958 and 1962, which claimed the lives of 20 to 43
million people. No one can provide proof that Mao Tse Tung, who has called for
the so-called b (the big leap forward) was intended to eliminate people, tragedy is
due more to the rigidity of the party and Tobawith voluntary and inadequate
economic development.

On the other hand, it can be highlighted more clearly assurances to the will of
Stalin's criminal cause famine in Ukraine between 1932 and 1933, which claimed
the lives of between 6 and 7 million people, and Moscow was the purpose of the
eventual elimination of the resistance there.

Can you talk about the "genocide"?

Opponents argue that the intention of Stalin were not as the elimination of
Ukrainian nationalism. We note that other nations have been exterminated
because of the famine (Cossack country, Cuban, Central Asia ...). However, the
trap that lurks always historian is to shift to a public prosecutor to prove that
everything was prepared in advance, while the outcome of the circumstances of
history and elements of vague or non-specific effect.

The research on the Holocaust reference in the subject from the great author
Christopher Browning, "Ordinary Men".
If we examine what happened in Cambodia or Rwanda or Bosnia, we find that
we have to resort to several types of explanations to explore the depths of this
violent coup wide.

Do you attach crucial importance to ideological and more generally, to an
imagined political rejection of the other when we approach the interpretation of
the transition to an act of genocide?
The primary role of the one who played the intelligentsia in pre-construction on
the faces of the enemy is known, but this ideological axis initiator of the mass
killings never not enough to explain the transition to action.
Should be taken into account "accounts", which is behind the massacres or the
decision (or series of decisions) taken by the cold-blooded a handful of officials.
Valmdzrp stems mostly from a deliberate policy to "clean area" or access to
power or clean race, as happened in Iraq in the campaign called the (cleaning
prisons), or change the demographic reality of Kirkuk, or campaigns genocide
against the Shia and Kurdish opposition to the regime.

But in our search for causes should not lose sight of the irrational dimension in
the massacres and acts of genocide being delirium project seeks to establish a
secure system based on the unity and purity, and not allow the existence of what
disturbs the idea unrealistic.

The (Research genocide) must necessarily pay attention to the different
approaches of psychopathology to the attention of passing through human
history and political science, without a comprehensive interpretation of the

Another question to penetrate this explanation: Is the genocide committed by
strong states or weak states?
Tendency seems automatically to the responsibility of a strong state to require
the commission of genocide and destructive potential of the regulatory and
promotional ... It is also assumed, for example Rudolf Rommel:
"The images of the absolute power kills absolutely."

But the theory of the strong state that is under review at the hands of those who
emphasize the "General Framework", which puts these systems in the
development of incompetence and ignorance, which explains the willingness to
commit massacres despite the advantage of its strength.

So it (the fight) an essential element that must be taken into account. Therefore,
the historians of the model (Philippe Burin) and (Christian Gerlach) considered
that the decision "final solution" adopted by the Nazis, probably starting from
December, 1941, can be isolated from the perception that they are unable to
victory in the war waged on the Soviet Union. Thus, the Hitler had taken the
decision victory in another location, it is essential for the elimination of the Jews
after the defeat that look to the future, especially with the United States entered
the war after the U.S. bombing of the fleet in the port of Pearl Harbor on 6
December 1941.

Same can be said in the Armenian question as exterminating the decision was
taken after a severe defeat suffered by the Turks against the Russians in the
framework of the Government of the conflict (Young Turks) to the consideration
of the Armenian minority complicit and allied with the Russians.

This approach emphasizes the thesis that the massacres taking place at the
hands of weak states consider themselves subject to corruption or unable to
victory in the war as long as not to deliberate on the Elimination of civic groups
as a whole.

The urgent task entrusted to the social sciences is to develop knowledge of the
forms of violence leading to massacres if not genocide. This urgency comes from
the fact that heavy human history in this area.

In the early twentieth century was one-tenth of the civilian victims of war and now
the ratio is reversed at the end of the same century to fall between 80 to 90 per
cent of the civilian casualties as a result of armed conflict.

The process approach is also required for the period prior to the crisis and ask
the question:
Is it possible and under what conditions to avoid genocide?

Some suggest a cautionary measures aimed to set the conditions which can turn
to genocide and imagine the means required in order to extend effective aid to
the population at risk.

What is required here raised a fundamental question: Is it possible to avoid
Some suggested focusing on warning procedures aimed at identifying conditions
that could turn into genocide.
And the efforts of non-governmental organizations, journalists and individuals
who have a strong desire to prevent the crime of genocide, its great importance
in order to prevent the tragedy of the valley into oblivion by world public opinion,
as happens for example in Chechnya. At the same time, the public gets bored
because of the tragedies that dogged by the media, so it must keep the logo (not
the day after the massacre) is brought even if the specter of genocide has not
disappeared from our world.

With regard to the commission of the crime of genocide in Iraq, we can say that it
occurred in Iraq of all kinds have been committed in southern Iraq against the
Kurdish people in Kurdistan Iraq by cleansing the Kurdish race geographically,
from the Kurdish areas.

The policy of cultural genocide in the Arabization of the Kurds.

As well as the offense is committed against the Marsh Arabs in southern Iraq, in
Amara and Nasiriyah and Basra, and carried out this heinous crime against the
Kurds and Turkmen in Kirkuk province, also.

It is also the commission of a crime against the Faili Kurds and Iraqi persons
expelled because of their belonging to the Shiite sect.

And annihilation of the human race through the use of chemical weapons against
Kurds and against the Shiites in southern Iraq and in the marshes. This
happened in 1988 and in 1991, and hit civilian targets with missiles and aircraft,
or by artillery fire, as happened with the Kurdish villages safe and during the war
against Iran.

As well as against the sons of Najaf and Karbala and Basra, Samawah,
Diwaniyah and other Iraqi cities that came out against the regime in 1991. Were
buried people alive, it was Saddam's regime to bury hundreds of thousands of
Kurds and Arabs and Turkmen, they are still alive in Iraqi Kurdistan and in Najaf,
Karbala and Basra, Amarah and Samawah and other Iraqi cities, and is this
crime of war crimes committed against the Iraqi people do not can be time-
barred, and the perpetrator is a criminal, international, and can not invoke
international criminal that committed the crime for defensive purposes or for
political motives.

As well as the execution of prisoners who have been exposed to extract
confessions. It can therefore be considered in the execution of prisoners buried
alive, or a crime in this regard, according to received from the controversy over
the reach to define the concept of genocide.

But cases such as this did not work the international institutions of the meeting
on an item legal it can intervene to stop such crimes, therefore remains a breach
exists that there is no legal text following the commission of crimes of genocide,
without the object of this text saying internal affairs, as happened in Iraq and
elsewhere in the world .

As for the position of religious institutions and spiritual position of the Vatican,
which we have considered these crimes against God and man on the grounds
that they violate the human rights crimes. Has identified these crimes in the
principles of the Nuremberg Tribunal as they are the international crimes against
humanity committed intentionally and is a major and serious crimes is a serious
international criminal perpetrator.

And an example of the killing of the civilian population or exterminate them
because of race, color, sex, language, sect, or otherwise, as well as the crime of
denying the civilian population, for example, the displacement of hundreds of
thousands of Iraqis after the overthrow of their nationality on the grounds that
they are the dependency of Iran, as well as the displacement of Kurds from
Kirkuk and other border areas and the crime of Anfal, as well as the crime of
destruction of more than 4500 villages inhabited by the Kurds on the grounds
that it is located on the Iraqi-Iranian border.

We did not find in the studies of genocide clearly indicates the type of genocide
can be described in terms of type of genocide geography, as was the case and
was subjected to vast tracts of Geography of Iraq, (palm groves, and marshes) to
a change in the geographical situation, which provides a new area of research in
Studies of genocide, even though some found that it is within the scope of
sabotage and destruction of the environment, while research focuses on the
protection of the genocide of the human race.

It remains the most important in the detailed research studies of genocide is the
lack of explicit legal provisions obliges States not to commit this crime, in
circumstances where governments use strong and weak excuse to internal
affairs which has caused genocide in more than one place in the world.

Models of genocide geographic
The first model:
Tying up the rivers
Site process: the province of Maysan Architecture
The idea of the process: the establishment of earth dams ranging in length
between 6-18 kilometers per the helm on both sides of the main rivers which feed
the marshes of Architecture: the River Wadia. Were taking the waters of the
Great River, Hungary.
River of Justice. River fight. River Acharmekhep. Take water from the River
Alapterp. River swimming pool. Haddam River. River is serious.
Phase of work: the process has been done completely in July 1992.
Results as the process: cutting off water to dozens of tributaries and streams that
used to take water from the rivers mentioned, heading towards the marshes to
irrigate the land on both sides of the river south of the city, architecture and even
the edges of the lagoon, where she poured the remaining water in the lagoon
Has been compounded by water scarcity as a result of this operation is that it has
already been drained by rivers of the seven by 95% when the system has cut off
water Bnoazem especially on the Tigris River for Msdrehma twin river Majar Al-
Kabir River Alapterp for above and thus cut off water for vast areas which occur
after the cities of auspicious and peace justice and Majar al-Kabir.

The second model:
Refine the banks of the river
The idea of the process: the establishment of Sd Turabitin Tqtaan ends of all
rivers and tributaries and streams destined for the Hor architecture, such as
access to water and collect in the course of winning them.
Site process: the province of Maysan architecture.
Start earthen established in this process Gandalh south of the village (on the
peace), located at 686 East written - 348 north through the southern village of
Abu ten (in terms of justice) and then passing through a point east of 700 - 348
and then north through the village of Abu calf (714 East - 347 north) and then
meet in the south at a point 720 east - 347 north to pass Balsd Aturabitin which
were established during the Iraq war - Iran, starting from the Abu Hurry up Beni
Mansour, located at 727 East - 343 north, where it connects in the end, the River
Euphrates, a distance of six kilometers west of the city Qurna.

Sudtin Specifications:
- View the lower embankment from the bottom - and top 1935 20:00
- View high embankment from the bottom and top -25 m 20:00.
- The high Sudtin 18:00.
- The distance between Sudtin 1200 Gandalp at the village (on the peace), in
1400 at the village of Abu Jawatl (hand of justice), in 1600 at the village of Abu
calf, 2000 Hurry up of the children of Abu Mansur.
- The length of each of Sudtin 90 km.
Phase of work: The process was completed in late September 1992.
Outcome of the process: cut more than forty rivers and a table and diverted
towards the east to the area of Abu hastily and then towards the south until it
ends in the Euphrates River in the region of Beni Mansour (West Qurna)
Leading to: -
1 - depriving the population of land dependent on these rivers of water, irrigation
and drinking.
2 - low water levels in Hor architecture, which was poured in it.
Implementing agencies: Ministry of Oil, Ministry of Industry and Military
Industrialization, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Ministry of Agriculture and

The third model:

Convert the Euphrates to the downstream-General
Site process: the province of Dhi Qar (Nasiriya)
The idea of the process: diversion of water from the Euphrates River site
Fudaliyah five kilometers east of the city of Nasiriyah to the course of the year
after the estuary was the last phase of it done by connecting its parts together (it
is known that the course of the year, the estuary is in the Khawr Abd Allah
waterway north of the Gulf).
Phase of work: The process was completed at the beginning of July, 1992.
Outcome of the process:
- Turned the Euphrates River from its course from the city of Nasiriyah to the
downstream course of the year, becoming Mbzla to withdraw water Hammar
where it passes the south, in the lower it.
- Turning the normal course and the historic Euphrates River from Nasiriyah to
Qurna, trocar to withdraw water marshes of Amarah, where is located in the low-
down from them.

The fourth model:
Tying up the Euphrates River
Site process: the province of Dhi Qar (Nasiriya) and the province of Basra.

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