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									F rager
                                                                                                                                      SUMMER 2009

                                                                                                                      NEWS AND PRACTICAL VIEWS
                                                                                                                          ABOUT GRASS, CLOVER,
                                                                                                                   FORAGE MAIZE & FODDER CROPS

                                                                                                                     RESEEDING FOCUS

TIRED SWARDS – AN                                                                  THIS ISSUE:
                                                                                   Successful pasture renovation   Restoring white clover

Reseeding is the theme throughout this latest edition of
Forager and where better to start than with an overview of
the cost benefits?                                                                 Benefiting from brassica breaks Adding value through chicory

    or an up to date analysis              declines. We estimate that a
F   we turn first to Kingshay,             poor quality sward by
the independent dairy                      comparison will result in the
specialists, who have                      cost of production rising to
identified over a 2.5ppl                   5ppl. Poor performing
differential between quality               grassland is an unnecessary
grazed grass and older                     extra cost at any time, and the
                                                                                   As Cath explains, the choice     will be the most noticeable
pastures.                                  benefits of rectifying the
                                                                                 between renovation or a full       advantage from a new ley
  “Grazed grass of the highest             situation through renovation
                                                                                 reseed depends on individual       when compared with a five
quality means producing milk               or a full reseed are heightened
                                                                                 circumstances to a degree,         year old ley, with a 33% uplift
for under 3ppl and as such                 in a time of high feed, fertiliser
                                                                                 although there is a point          being typical in the first year
remains the cheapest feed on               and fuel costs.”
                                                                                 beyond which anything other        followed by 10% per year
the farm,” says Cath Woods,                    When a sward is under-
                                                                                 than a complete reseed is a        thereafter. There will also be a
Kingshay Technical Specialist.             performing to this degree, the
                                                                                 false economy.                     better response to fertiliser
“As swards deteriorate and                 key question should not be
                                                                                   “Pasture renovation              from the renewed sward,
sown species become                        whether to reseed, but how to
                                                                                 through over-seeding is the        therefore resulting in more
replaced by weeds, the value               reseed.
                                                                                 cheaper option at about            efficient use of this expensive
                                                                                                                      To gain maximum benefit
                                                                                                                    from pasture renewal, it is vital
                                                                                         Quality grazed             to first put right the issues that
                                                                                           grass will
                                                                                                                    may well have accelerated the
                                                                                         produce milk
                                                                                            for less                deterioration of the old sward,
                                                                                           than 3ppl                so testing soil nutrient levels
                                                                                                                    and soil structure – and taking
                                                                                                                    the necessary action to put

                                                                                                                                   Continued over...
                                                                                 £80/acre, but where swards
                                                                                 contain less than 25% of the
                                                                                 originally sown species a
                                                                                 complete reseed is the best
                                                                                 option,” she says.
                                                                                   “Increased dry matter yield
Continued from over...                       cost £10/acre more, but that’s                                 Kingshay forage production costs
                                             only £2/acre/year over a five
these right – are essential                  year duration and you can
prerequisites.                               expect at least 10% more dry                                                                                                                      6.9

                                                                                           Production costs (pence per litre of milk)
   Then it is important to                   matter yield for that extra                                                                                                               6.1              6.1
select the best herbage                      investment. The extra grass is                                                             6
varieties, and the financial                 worth about £50/acre/year,                                                                                     5.0
difference between top                       which is a return on
quality and bargain basement                 investment of 25:1, so it’s                                                                4
will accumulate over the                     really not worth cutting costs                                                                  3.0                    3.1
duration of the ley.                         in this area.”                                                                             3
   “A dairy farmer should                       There are many perennial
spend as much time selecting                 ryegrass varieties on the
grass varieties as bull semen                market and a poor variety can                                                              1
in my view,” adds Cath“. The                 spoil a mixture. Kingshay
best quality mixture might                   grazing preference trials have                                                             0
                                                                                                                                            Grazed Grazed Grazed Summer      Grass Grass Grass         Maize
                                                                                                                                             grass   grass  grass turnips    silage silage silage
                                                                                                                                                   (20%WC) (old              1st cut 2nd cut 3rd cut

                                                                                         been putting the most                                                            adds Cath Woods. “A poor
                                                                                         promising grass and clover                                                       quality sward is an expensive
                                                                                         varieties through their paces                                                    sward. It is important to know
                                                                                         in independent, field scale                                                      what you want from the grass
                                                                                         trials across the country for                                                    seed you buy and make sure
                                                                                         more than 12 years.                                                              the variety is well matched to
                                                                                             “There are stark differences                                                 your requirements.”
                                                                                         between the palatability of
                                                                                         grazed down tightly while
                                                                                         others are barely touched,”

                                                                                                                                                                          performance by 5%, so the
Cash in on grass breeding progress                                                                                                                                        difference between top and
                                                                                                                                                                          bottom on the lists will result
Grass is green and to the                                                                                                                                                 in a 25% advantage,”
untrained eye one variety                                                                                                                                                 continues Don Pendergrast.
may look very much like                                                                                                                                                   “Alternatively, DARD in
another, but the financial                                                                                                                                                Northern Ireland equate one
advantages of selecting the                                                                                                                                               unit of D-value to
best as opposed to average                                                                                                                                                0.2kg/cow/day of dry matter
or worse is very significant.                                                                                                                                             intake and 0.4kg/cow/day of
                                                                                                                                                                          milk yield – so that’s 2
So says NIAB Forage and                                                                                                                                                   litres/cow/day extra from
Herbage Manager Don                                                                                                                                                       using the best listed variety
Pendergrast, who points out                                                                                                                                               instead of the worst listed.
that the variance in profit                                                                                                                                                   ”The advantages of
potential even from within                                                                                                                                                improving sward quality –
varieties on the official                                                                                                                                                 and selecting the best
Recommended Lists far out-                      ABER VARIETIES BRED AT ABERYSTWYTH CONTINUE TO TOP RECOMMENDED LISTS                                                      available varieties when
weighs any possible                                                                                                                                                       doing so – really are very
difference in seed costs.                    the lowest yielding variety on              £211/ha.                                                                         strong indeed (these figures
   “The argument of selecting                the list. Using the Kingshay                   However, yield is only part                                                   are just the first year). Of
the best available grass                     cost of production for grazed               of the story, as the difference                                                  course management is also
varieties is very strong even if             grass figure of £79/tDM, this               between best quality and                                                         very important, but starting
you simply look at yield,” he                gives a ‘top to bottom’                     poorest quality on the                                                           with the right material offers
says, “but if you add in quality             financial benefit of £87/ha.                Recommended Lists is even                                                        a substantial head start.”
differences and factors like                    Apply the same rationale                 starker. The ‘top to bottom’                                                         Farmers should ensure that
extended grazing (and lower                  to silage yields, where the                 differential on grazing D-value                                                  they only use varieties with
reliance on bought-in feeds)                 highest third year yield comes              on the NIAB lists is five points,                                                the best yield and quality
the figures are staggering.”                 from the new perennial                      with AberStar again leading                                                      combination. Information on
   Looking specifically at                   ryegrass AberBite (offering                 the way at 79.2 D compared                                                       varieties is available in the
grazing yields, the                          1.94 t DM/ha more than the                  with the lowest at 74.2 D. This                                                  latest Herbage Varieties
intermediate perennial                       lowest yielding on the list),               again leads to significant                                                       Guide which will be launched
ryegrass AberStar is the                     then the ‘top to bottom’                    financial consequences, as                                                       at the Grasslands UK show on
highest yielding on the NIAB                 advantage based on                          Don Pendergrast explains.                                                        May 7th. The guide will be
Recommended List and offers                  Kingshay’s first cut forage cost               “One unit of D-value                                                          available from British Seed
a 1.1tDM/ha advantage over                   of £109/tDM is an astonishing               improves animal                                                                  Houses on stand no. 85.
                                                                                                                          “Once the new grass seeds
                                                                                                                       are established we will assess
                                                                                                                       what broad-leaved weed
                                                                                                                       problems are present and
                                                                                                                       apply the most appropriate
                                                                                                                       herbicide,” adds Duncan. “If
                                                                                                                       clover is required I then
                                                                                                                       recommend broadcasting
                                                                                                                       straight onto the surface at a
                                                                                                                       seed rate of 5kg/ha (2kg/acre)
                                                                                                                       after having first grazed the
                                                                                                                       sward down as tightly as
                                                                                                                       possible. The ideal time to do
                                                                                                                       this is usually July or August,
                                                                                                                       when grass growth is less
                                                                                                                       vigorous than earlier in the

      EXTENDING SWARDS                                                                                                 season, as long as there is
                                                                                                                       sufficient moisture. I would not
                                                                                                                       normally recommend applying

     THROUGH RENOVATION                                                                                                any nitrogen for the rest of the
                                                                                                                       season once the clover has
                                                                                                                       been broadcast, and ideally
                                                                                                                       there will be enough moisture
If a sward contains less than                                                  THIS SWARD WAS RENOVATED THE PREVIOUS
                                                                               AUTUMN USING MAINLY ABER HIGH SUGAR     to allow nature to take its
25% of its originally sown                                                     GRASS PERENNIAL RYEGRASSES.
                                                                                                                       course and the clover will
species then a full reseed is
                                                                                                                       establish itself.”
probably the best course of                                                    or March fly larvae, as these can
                                                                                                                          This method of renovation
action, but in a range of other                                                do a lot of damage to grass
                                                                                                                       involves minimum cost whilst
circumstances some form of                                                     leys by feeding on the root
                                                                                                                       hardly hampering forage
renovation can be a cost                                                       system.”
                                                                                                                       production at all.
effective solution that may                                                        Having taken any necessary
                                                                                                                          “We would normally expect
well keep the time out of                                                      remedial action, the advice
                                                                                                                       a boost in performance in the
production to a minimum.                                                       then is to graze down the
                                                                                                                       year of sowing with the sward
                                                                               sward in the spring or early
                                                                                                                       reaching a peak the following
           ccording to Duncan                                                  summer as hard as possible

A          Davison, who now
           works as an agronomist
with Driffield-based BCS
                                                                               before spraying with a
                                                                               reduced-rate herbicide.
                                                                                   “I usually recommend
                                                                                                                       summer,” concludes Duncan
                                                                                                                       Davison. “As with any reseeding
                                                                                                                       system, success is ultimately
                                                                                                                       dependent on doing the basics
Agriculture, timely renovation is                                              applying Reglone at 1litre/ha to
                                                                                                                       right, and of course warmth
a popular spring option                                                        slow down the existing grasses
                                                                                                                       and moisture at the right times
particularly with long term                                                    before drilling the new seeds,”
                                                                                                                       always helps.”
grazing leys. He recommends                                                    he continues. “It’s then a case of
an approach that involves the                                                  drilling grass seeds (not clover)
use of a low-rate herbicide          CHECK AND RECTIFY SOIL STRUCTURE BEFORE
                                                                               at a normal reseeding rate of
application to suppress              RENOVATING A LEY SAYS DUNCAN DAVISON      35kg/ha (14kg/acre) at a seed
competition from the                                                           depth of 6mm (¼ inch). Good
established sward. It is a tried    action,” says Duncan. “It’s also           soil-to-seed contact is essential,
and trusted technique in his        important to do soil analyses at           and it is also important not to
area in North Yorkshire, and like   this stage and to look for any             drill grass seed to deep – my
any reseeding activity it starts    signs of compaction. It may                ‘rule of thumb’ is that the
by ensuring the basics are          well be that a field needs                 optimum seed depth is three-
sorted out first.                   liming, for example, or sub-               times the seed diameter.”
   “I’ll always start well in       soiling – to rectify the problems          With this kind of renovation
advance – perhaps even the          that are causing the existing ley          typically favoured for long term
autumn before - by assessing        to under-perform – before                  grazing leys, white clover is
the existing sward to see what’s    embarking on any renovation.               commonly a requirement, but
                                                                                                                        INCORPORATE CLOVERS AS A SECOND
there and decide whether               ”It’s also important to check           this is ideally carried out during       STAGE OF RENOVATION
renovation is the best course of    for evidence of leatherjackets             a second stage in the process.

  Leatherjackets (larvae of the      the impact of March fly larvae
  crane fly) and the lesser known    can be lessened through
  March fly larvae feed on the       pasture management. In
  root systems of pasture grasses    particular, graze down autumn
  and need to be controlled to       pastures tightly to avoid
  ensure best performance of new     excessive amounts of dead grass
  and established leys. Whilst       over winter, as this will reduce
  leatherjackets are best            the food supply and subsequent
  controlled with agrochemicals,     numbers of larvae in the sward.                         LEATHERJACKET                       MARCH FLY LARVAE
                                                                                               6. Broadcasting the mixture:               covers to get too high (800 to

     Maintaining clover                                                                     Mix the clover seed with the
                                                                                            fertiliser in the field. This will
                                                                                                                                          1000 kg DM/ha) and graze
                                                                                                                                          out to low residuals (under 4
                                                                                            avoid the fertiliser and seed                 cm). As the clover seedlings
   in permanent pasture                                                                     segregating on the way to
                                                                                            the field. Simultaneously mix
                                                                                                                                          become established they will
                                                                                                                                          start to supply nitrogen to
    White clover does not persist indefinitely in permanent                                 in the seed as fertiliser is                  the sward.
    grassland. However, research carried out by Teagasc at                                  poured in to ensure an even
     Moorepark in Ireland has shown that the white clover                                   mixture. Up to 12 acres can                      8. Over-winter management:
     content of permanent grassland can be maintained by                                    be done at one time.                          Graze tightly before closing
      over-sowing 20% of swards on a farm each year on a                                                                                  up for the winter and do not
    five-year rotation. The clover seed is mixed with a P & K                                  7. Post sowing management:                 leave a heavy cover build up
    fertilizer and broadcast onto silage stubble in late May.                               Apply slurry after over-sowing                over the winter. Graze tightly
                                                                                            but apply no nitrogen                         again in spring to allow light
                                                                                            fertiliser for the remainder of               to penetrate down to the
                                    leader-follower system is in                            the year. Fertiliser nitrogen                 clover stolons. More stolon
 8 STEP GUIDE                       operation. The sward is partly                          will drive on the grass to the                growth in spring greatly
TO SUCCESSFUL                       grazed by the leaders and the                           detriment of the clover                       increases the clover content
                                    clover seed is broadcast and                            seedlings. Hard grazing is                    and productivity of swards
OVER-SEEDING                        walked in by followers                                  important. Do not allow                       later in the growing season.
                                    allowed in to graze out the
   1. Soil fertility:               sward. Over-sowing during
Soil pH should be between           the autumn is rarely
6.0 and 6.5, and the target for     successful and is not
P and K should be soil index        recommended.
3. Refer to soil sample results.
                                       5. Sowing rate:
   2. Open swards:                  Apply clover seed with 0:7:30
For over-sowing to work the         or similar fertiliser at a rate of
clover seed has to come in          around half a bag per acre.
contact with the soil.              Apply 2kg of a mixture of two
Therefore over-sowing will          good clover varieties selected
work only where there is a          from the Recommended List.
reasonably open sward. For          Pelleted or unpelleted seed
poached swards and swards           can be used with equal
heavily infested with broad-        success.
leaved weeds reseeding is a
better option.
                                                                        VARIETIES FOR OVER-SEEDING
    3. Get rid of docks and
other broad-leaved weeds:            Criteria such as persistence                           areas, with varieties like                   G    AberSheep – intensive
Spray with a suitable                and nitrogen tolerance may                             AberConcord demonstrating                         grazing
herbicide before over-sowing         well be important when                                 the progress.
if docks or other broad-             selecting white clover                                    Aber white clover varieties               G    AberPasture – set stocked
leaved weeds are a problem.          varieties for over-seeding.                            are available from British                        cattle grazing
Once the clover is                   Significant strides have been                          Seed Houses in blends
established the range of             make in clover breeding at                             specifically created for the                 G    AberDairy - rotational
herbicides that can be used          IBERS (formerly IGER) in these                         main sward use.                                   grazing and cutting
is greatly restricted (Dockstar
is recommended).                            Breeding white clover for better tolerance to nitrogen
                                                                                                      Mean 3 years data
   4. Sowing date:
                                                       14//        No Nitrogen              150 kgN/ha/year           300 kgN/ha/year                 450 kgN/ha/year

The best time to over-sow is
during May and June before                             12
the ground gets too dry.
Moist soil conditions during                           10
                                       DM Yield t/ha

and after over-sowing are
crucial to success. On heavy                                                      13%
wetter soils the ideal time is                          6                        Increase
after first cut silage in late
                                                        4                                                                                      55%
May or early June. On light                                                                                                                                                     87%
drier soils it is better to over-                       2
sow earlier in May – after
grazing or a harvest of bales.                          0
Hard grazing before and                                       AberConcord Menna         AberConcord Menna           AberConcord Menna                AberConcord Menna
afterwards is important to                              Grass      Clover
ensure success. One method             Tolerance to N important not only for systems with high N application (e.g. dairy) but also for build up of clover N which can inhibit growth
that works well is where a             and contribute to the cycling of clover yield over years.
   Brassica break boosts
   reseeding value
The recent revival in interest                                                                                              Time to prepare properly
in brassica forage crops is in                                                                                           for grassland reseeding is a
part due to fresh                                                                                                        key element of the SwiftStart
management angles on out-                                                                                                system – and particularly as it
wintering and extended                                                                                                   comes without the penalty of
grazing. Whilst established                                                                                              lost forage acres.
crops like Maris Kestrel kale
are underpinning this revival,
there is no doubt that                                                                                                           SWIFTSTART
significant added impetus is                                                                                                     RESEEDING:
being provided by the highly                                                                                                     • Best practice
versatile hybrid brassica
                                                                                                                              • Break crop benefits
Swift and the more recently
introduced Redstart.                                                                                                        • Maximises forage acres
                                                                                                                               • Spring or autumn
        hese rape/kale hybrids

T       are the first commercial
        products from a unique
brassica breeding programme
that is being driven by New
Zealand-based PGG                                                                                                           “It’s vitally important to
Wrightson Seeds. The                                                                                                     make the best possible job of
combination of rapid growth,                                                                                             grassland reseeding to ensure
high palatability, proven                                                                                                top performance from the
animal performance and                                                                                                   new ley over its lifetime,” adds
strong winter tolerance make                                                                                             Paul Billings. “Incorporating a
                                                                                                                         brassica break crop into the
to the UK climate and hence         RESEEDING PROGRAMME MEANS LOST FORAGE ACRES ARE MINIMISED.                           programme will have all the
their use and value is                                                                                                   advantages of enhanced
increasing.                        grass reseed, this will be from                “In the case of a spring               weed, pest and disease
    One of the established         grazing Redstart in the period              reseed, we recommend                      control, whilst also affording
advantages of brassicas in         between ploughing up the                    grazing the old ley for longer            the time to rectify soil
livestock farming rotations is     old ley after an early season               into the season – or taking a             nutrient levels and restore soil
as a break crop in grassland       grazing or silage cut and                   second cut – and then                     structure if required.
reseeding programmes. Now,         drilling the new ley in the                 establishing Swift in later                  “The SwiftStart system
these traditional benefits         early autumn. For those in                  summer to provide a lengthy               offers a structured approach
have been harnessed and            more southerly locations,                   grazing through the autumn                to reseeding that
enhanced in a new grassland        there is the possibility of a               and into winter. There is then            incorporates best practice
reseeding system that              second grazing of Redstart,                 ample time to make the                    whilst maintaining the
exploits the unique qualities      exploiting the potential of                 necessary preparations for a              highest levels of forage dry
of Swift and Redstart.             regrowth from these hybrid                  spring grass reseed, or                   matter production. It’s a
Developed by British Seed          brassicas and therefore                     possibly grow spring barley               system that works due to the
Houses, the SwiftStart system      further increasing the dry                  with grass undersown or                   unique characteristics of the
can be used for spring or          matter production.                          even forage maize.”                       hybrid brassicas.”
autumn grassland reseeding
and offers a number of               Unique Hybrid Brassicas                                                              Further details on the
significant advantages.
                                                                                                                          SwiftStart grassland
    “Incorporating a hybrid        The hybrid brassicas Swift and Redstart are the first commercially
                                                                                                                          reseeding system are
brassica break crop into a         available varieties to emerge from the only interspecific forage
                                                                                                                          available in
reseeding programme results        brassica-breeding programme currently in operation. Sophisticated
                                                                                                                          a new Farm
in additional forage dry           “embryo rescue” procedures have been used to cross kale and rape
matter production during the       plants to produce hybrids that have then undergone extensive field
process that is not possible       breeding and selection.
                                                                                                                          by British
when going straight back           Animal performance is a major focus of breeding and selection –
into grass,” explains Paul         ensuring the varieties are palatable and nutritious as well as fast
Billings of British Seed Houses.   growing, high yielding and tolerant of a wide range of conditions.
“In the case of an autumn
                                                                                                                                           Further information on Puna II

Choose the right chicory                                                                                                                   perennial chicory and
                                                                                                                                           premium mixtures containing
                                                                                                                                           this variety is available from
Interest in perennial chicory is                                                                                                           British Seed Houses. There is
growing dramatically since the                                                                                                             also a Farm Bulletin on the
launch of Puna II by British                                                                                                               establishment and
Seed Houses in 2007. Puna II is                                                                                                            management of Puna II
now widely used in the UK,                                                                                                                 available online and in printed
most commonly as a                                                                                                                         form from British Seed Houses.
component of grazing                                                                                                                       Call 01522 868714 or go
mixtures in combination with                                                                                                               online at
perennial ryegrass and white                                                                                                     
clover, or alongside red clover
for finishing livestock, for
example.                                                                                                                                    Out-wintering
                                                            Spreading the word on Puna II
UK-based research on Puna II has
                                                                                                                                            A new publication
                                      BY BRITISH SEED HOUSES AND EBLEX
introduction, with establishments                                                                                                           providing a comprehensive
such as Aberystwyth University,       yields of highly palatable dry                        tolerance and mineral supply
                                                                                                                                            overview of out-wintering
Newton Rigg, and SAC all having       matter, and is proven in terms                        (both functions of a deep tap
                                                                                                                                            methods for suckler cows is
reported on the performance           of livestock growth rates as well                     root) and for its potential to
                                                                                                                                            now available from SAC.
potential of this variety.            as persistency in the sward. It is                    reduce worm burdens in
                                                                                                                                            Published jointly by SAC
   Puna II has been bred for high     also known for its drought                            grazing livestock.
                                                                                                                                            and Quality Meat Scotland,
                                                                                                                                            with support from British
  UK Research Highlights                                                                                                                    Seed Houses, Rumenco,
 G  Weaned Texel x Welsh Mule lambs on grazing leys containing Puna II perennial chicory                                                    Rappa and Scottish
 outperformed control groups grazing a red clover / Italian ryegrass sward or a pure forage                                                 Government, the 32-page
 rape stand in studies at Aberystwyth University (2007).                                                                                    booklet covers out-
                                                                                                                                            wintering on specialist
                                Proportion of lambs slaughtered                         Proportion of lambs slaughtered                     brassica crops as well as the
                                by 33 days into the trial                               by 49 days into the trial                           use of deferred grazing.
                                                                                                                                            Farm case studies and real
 Perennial ryegrass/
                                              70%                                                    87%                                    costs and experiences are
 white clover/Puna II
                                                                                                                                            included to make this a
 Red clover/Italian                                                                                                                         very practical and
                                              60%                                                    80%
 ryegrass                                                                                                                                   inherently useful guide.
 Forage rape                                  37%                                                    67%

 G In a comparative grazing study at Newton Rigg College, Penrith, Cumbria, 53% of lambs
 grazing a sward containing Puna II perennial chicory reached the target 38-40kg liveweight
 whilst just 18% of the comparison group (perennial ryegrass and clover) had attained target
 weight (2006-07).

 G In an SAC study to evaluate alternative forage brassicas for lamb finishing, Puna II was
 found to reduce feacal egg counts in grazing lambs (2007-08).

  FIND OUT                                           Forage Brassicas:
                                                     Year round cost savings and
                                                                                                       Farm Bulletin: Increasing Grazing
                                                                                                       Options with Puna II Chicory.

  MORE...                                            feeding solutions.

  A selection of technical guides                                                                                                                          Bristol
  and Farm Bulletins is available                                                                                                                   Tel: 0117 982 3691
  free on request from British                       Seed Mark 2009: Top quality                       Farm Bulletin: Successful Out-                     Lincoln
  Seed Houses.                                       grazing and silage mixtures,                      wintering on Maris Kestrel Kale.             Tel: 01522 868714
                                                     including AberHSG and other IGER-
                                                     bred varieties.                                                             
  contact                                                                                                                                       The Forager is published as an
                                                                                                                                               information service for livestock
  either the                                                                                                                                    farmers by Germinal Holdings’
  Lincoln or                                                                                                                                 Companies, British Seed Houses and
                                                     Farm Bulletin: Using the BSH                      Clover Management Guide: Best                  Germinal Ireland.
  Bristol                                            Sward Stick (available with free                  practice guide for red and white     Germinal Holdings does not accept any
  offices for                                        Sward Stick, pictured left).                      clover.                              responsibility for the views or opinions
  your free                                                                                                                                     of independent contributors.

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