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					                                            Macomb Community College
                            DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
                                                    South Campus
                                                      Fall 2010
                                            Instructor: Michael A. Colonna
                                               colonnam@macomb.edu
                                      Alternate email: colonnadesign@gmail.com
                                                  Cell: 810.908.2481


                           Text Book - Chapter 1 Recapitulation
                                   September 09, 2010 – Class No. 03

  THE ROLE OF SPECIFICATIONS
      -    Specifications are one component of the documents used for bidding and construction of a project.
           Another component is the drawings. The specifications and drawings are intended to work in harmony to
           describe what shall be built. Other components are bidding requirements and other contract
           requirements, which prescribe the duties and responsibilities of the primary parties of the construction
           contract.
      -    Bidding requirements are applicable during the procurement or bidding phase prior to actual
           construction.
      -    Contract requirements apply during fulfillment or execution of the Contract for Construction.
      -    Each component has distinct purposes. Specifications, as written instructions, are frequently judged by
           courts as having greater importance than drawings when these documents are in conflict, with judgment
           based usually on what is contained in the specifications. This means that specifications should be carefully
           prepared by knowledgeable people.




    DRAWINGS                                    PROJECT MANUAL                                     PROJECT
(Graphic Documents)                   (Text Documents including Specifications)            (Construction Documents)


  DOCUMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION
      -    When an Owner decides to BUILD, RENOVATE or RECONSTRUCT a facility. The Owner usually engages
           others to prepare documents describing the work to be performed and the contractual requirements.

      -    Three primary parties in the Construction Contract: the Owner, the Architect / Engineer and the
           Contractor.

      -    For the actual construction there are three basic types of documents;
      1.   Bidding and Contract Requirements (Text Documents).
      2.   Drawings (Graphic Documents).
      3.   Specifications (Text Documents).
           Combined, these three types of documents are called the “BIDDING DOCUMENTS” (before signing of
           Agreement or “contract”) and the CONTRACT DOCUMENTS (after signing the Agreement or contract).
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation
September 09, 2010
Page 2 of 9

DOCUMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION – continued
    -   Prior to the execution (signing) of the Agreement, the combined documents (Bidding and Contract
        Requirements, Drawings and Specifications) are known as Bidding Documents under traditional design-
        bid-build projects.

    -   Our class will assume the typical Design-Bid-Build type of projects where the project is designed
        (drawings and specifications), the project goes through a competitive Bid process, and a General
        Contractor is awarded the contract for construction.

    -   Under certain types of Construction Manager projects, the Owner may opt to go with a Design-Build type
        project. Under Design-Build projects the bidding is solely between the General Contractor and his
        Subcontractors. The documents prior to signing the Agreement are called Procurement Documents.

    -   In a typical Design-Bid-Build project the contract is not necessarily awarded to the lowest bidder. Other
        considerations might be; reputation, experience / qualifications, scheduling, time completion and
        Insurance / Bond issues.

    -   Our class will focus on the General Contractor as the party who is awarded the contract.


BIDDING DOCUMENTS
    -   Bidding Documents are documents furnished for Bidders. These documents are prepared by the Architect
        / Engineer and the Owner. They consist of BIDDING REQUIREMENTS, CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS,
        DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS. These are issued to prospective General Contractors for competitive
        Bidding. Of the General Contractors participating in the Bid process, the Owner will award the contract to
        only one.
    -   The primary difference between Bidding Documents and Contract Documents is the inclusion of the
        Bidding Requirements.
    -   The Bidding Requirements contain: Advertisement or Invitation to Bid, Instructions to Bidders, Bid
        Forms, and other documents submitted to the Owner for the Owners selection of the Contractor

CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
    -   Contract Documents contain the signed Agreement between the Owner and the General Contractor. The
        Contract Documents have the Bid Requirements removed and now include the Contract Requirements.
        The Contract Requirements typically consist of the executed (signed) Agreement with its related
        documents such as Insurance Forms, Bonds, and Certifications. Note: the Bidding Documents typically
        include copies of the Agreement Form and the General Conditions of the Contract.

NOTE: Bidding Documents include unsigned Agreement Form and Conditions of the Contract (general and
Supplementary Conditions). However, when the Contract is awarded and the Agreement is signed, the Bidding
Requirements are no longer needed and the Contract Requirements become part of the Contract Documents along
with the Drawings and Specifications. The term Bidding Documents will be the term used prior to the execution of
the Agreement. After execution of the Agreement the documents are known as Contract Documents.
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 3 of 9

   -   The Contract Documents consist of;
       1.   Agreement: which is a written agreement between the Owner and the Contractor summarizing the
            Work to be performed, the Time the work shall be completed and the contract Sum. Also identified
            in the agreement are;
            a. Contract Drawings
            b. Contract Specifications
            c. Bonds
            d. Forms
            e. Insurance Certificates
            f. Certifications
            g. Contractors Qualification Statement
            h. Contractors Financial Status
            i. Subcontractor list
            j. Supplier list
            k. Warranties

            THE AGREEMENT IS USUALLY PREPARED BY THE OWNERS LEGAL AND INSURANCE COUNSEL. THE
            AGREEMENT IS BETWEEN THE OWNER AND THE CONTRACTOR. THE ARCHITECT / ENGINEER DOES
            NOT PREPARE THE AGREEMENT.

       2.   The General Conditions and Supplementary Conditions. General Conditions are usually preprinted
            standard Documents prepared by professional societies such as the AIA or the ASCE (American
            Society of Civil Engineers) or the NSPE (National Society of Professional Engineers).

       3.   Working Drawings which is a graphic description of the work to be performed by the Contractor.

       4.   Specifications which is a written description of the work to be performed by the Contractor.

       5.   Modifications which are changes to the documents after the execution (signing) of the Agreement.
            These include Supplemental Instructions, Field Orders, Construction Change Directives, Work
            Change Directives and Change Orders.

   -   Construction Documents and Contract Documents are not the same. Contract Documents are the
       Documents identified in the Agreement. Contract Documents with other documents used during
       construction may be called “Construction Documents” which include Specifications, Working Drawings,
       Shop Drawings, meeting notes, test reports, permits, certifications and operating and maintenance data.
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 4 of 9

SPECIFICATIONS
   -   Could you imagine a movie with no sound? To properly understand what is going on a dialog is essential
       for complete understanding. The relationship between the Contract Drawings and the Contract
       Specifications is similar.




                                                                         ROCKY XXII
                                                             He keeps going and going and going and
                                                                            going…………..



   -   The Contract Specifications are essential for complete understanding of the work to be performed by the
       Contractor.

   -   It is imperative that all parties identified in the Agreement (Owner, Architect / Engineer and Contractor)
       understand the role of the Specifications and understand how the Specifications are used during Bidding
       and performance of the Work under the Contract.

   -   Drawings and Specifications carry equal weight for interpretation of Contract requirements.

   -   Although the General Conditions of the Contract may state otherwise, there is a tendency to give greater
       importance to the Specifications than to the Drawings. Therefore, much care in preparing the
       Specifications as the Drawings.


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS
   -   Information necessary for construction is developed by the Architect / Engineer and is presented in two
       basic types of documents; the Contract Drawings and the Contract Specifications. These two types of
       documents communicate information between the Architect / Engineer and the Contractor. The Drawings
       are pictorial or graphic and the Specifications are verbal or textual.

   -   Drawings and Specifications should compliment each other and there should be no contradictions.
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 5 of 9

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS - continued

AIA Document A201 – General Conditions of the Contract define the following:
        1. The Drawings are the graphic and pictorial portions of the Contract Documents showing the design,
           location, and dimensions of the Work. The Drawings generally include; Plans, Elevations, Sections,
           Details, Schedules and Diagrams.
        2. The Specifications are that portion of the Contract Documents consisting of the written requirements
           of Materials, Equipment, Systems, Standards, and Workmanship for the work and performance of
           related services.
        3. The Work means the construction and services required b y the Contract Documents, whether
           completed or partially completed, and includes all other Labor, Materials, Equipment and Services
           provided or to be provided by the Contractor to fulfill the Contractors obligation. The Work may
           constitute the whole or part of the Project.

    -   The term “Work” takes in a broad range of activities which might include; Procurement of Materials and
        Manufactured Products, Fabrication, Delivery to the job site, Storage and Staging at the job site, surface
        preparation, mixing, application, installation, fitting and finishing.

    -   Other Activities include Administration procedures which include preparation and review of shop
        drawings.

    -   Work can include tests and inspections, demonstrations, adjustments and validation of performance
        (commissioning).

    -   Work can also include activities and construction that are temporary in nature such as; temporary
        utilities, fencing / barriers, field office, security and cleaning.

    -   The Drawings and the Specifications must be synchronized. If not, it would be like watching a movie with
        the audio track out of sync.

    -   The information contained on the Drawings and Specifications should be interconnected without
        describing overlapping or contradictory requirements.

    -   It would be confusing if the Plans called for Hollow Metal Door and Frame but the Specifications indicated
        Wood Door and frame.
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 6 of 9

THE DRAWINGS
   -   Drawings should indicate the relationship between elements of the
       facility and may designate the following for each material, assembly,
       component and accessory;
       1. Location
       2. Identification
       3. Configuration, Layout and Dimension
       4. Indicate interfaces and connections between materials, detail assemblies and diagram systems.
       5. Show forms and relationships of building elements.
       6. Indicate limits of work.
       7. Indicate the extent of alternates (base bid vs. alternate bid).
       8. Indicate work to be performed by the Owner.
       9. Identify Drawing symbols.
       10. Indicate the graphic scale of Drawings.

   -   The Purpose of the Drawings is to convey information regarding the intent of the design and depictions of
       Work to be accomplished. This information is presented in a Graphic Form and is usually depicted with
       Plans, Elevations, Sections, Details, Schedules and Notes.

   -   All drawings which are created must be assigned a sheet number. The sheet number is also the drawing
       file name. Every project will likely have the same drawing names and thus the same file names. This can
       be confusing if you are working on more than one project (which is typical), so you have to be careful that
       you do not use a drawing from one project and save it over the same name in another project. You can
       easily separate drawings for different projects by saving them to a different folder for each job. .

Sheets in a bound set should be organized in the following sequence:
   -   C = Civil
   -   L = Landscape
   -   A = Architectural
   -   S = Structural
   -   M = Mechanical
   -   P = Plumbing
   -   Q=Equipment (freezers, refrigerators, etc.: pre-manufactured items that are built-in and need to be
       connected to water, sewer, electricity or gas)
   -   F = Fire Protection (fire sprinklers, standpipes, fire extinguishers)
   -   E = Electrical (power and lighting)
   -   T = Telecommunications (telephone, cctv, cable, wired computer network, intercom, sound, and security)
   -   I = Interior Furnishings

Drawing numbering sequence is as follows:
   -   100 series: plans and reflected ceiling plans (plotted at 1/4" = 1'-0" or 1/8" = 1'-0" scale)
   -   200 series: elevations (plotted at 1/4" = 1'-0" or 1/8" = 1'-0" scale)
   -   300 series: sections (plotted at 1/4" = 1'-0" or 1/8" = 1'-0" scale)
   -   400 series: large scale "blown up" plans, elevations and sections
       (usually plotted at 1/4" = 1'-0", 1/2" = 1'-0" or 3/4" = 1'-0" scale)
   -   500 series: details (plotted at 3/4" = 1'-0" , 1 1/2" = 1'-0", 3" = 1'-0" scale, half size or full size)
       600 series: schedules and diagrams (no scale)
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 7 of 9

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS
D - ARCHITECTURAL DEMOLITION – PROTECTION AND REMOVAL
E - ARCHITECYURAL ELEMENTS – GENERAL ARCHITECTURAL
F - ARCHITECTURAL FINISHES – ROOM FINISHES
G - ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHICS – REFLECTED CEILING PLAN
I - ARCHITECTURAL INTERIORS - PARTITIONS
J - STORAGE ENCLOSURE
K - USER DEFINED
S - ARCHITECTURAL SITE

THE SPECIFICATIONS
   -   According to AIA Document A201 – General Conditions of the Contract state the Specifications are that
       portion of the Contract Documents consisting of the written requirements of Materials, Equipment,
       Systems, Standards, and Workmanship for the work and performance of related services.
   -   Both the Drawings and Specifications are needed to understand the requirements of the Work under the
       contract and the intent of the design.
   -   The Drawings and Specifications each serve distinct purposes as they relate to the project. The
       Specifications should generally describe the following:
       1. Type and Quality of every product.
       2. Quality of workmanship.
       3. Requirements for fabrication, erection, application, installation and finishing.
       4. Requirements for Codes and Standards.
       5. Dimensional requirements for materials, manufactured products, and equipment.
       6. Descriptions and procedures for allowances and unit prices.
       7. Descriptions and procedures for product alternates.
       8. Requirements for administration of the contract.

COORDINATING THE DRAWINGS
   -   Development of the Specifications goes hand in hand with the Drawings.
   -   Those responsible for preparing each discipline should be responsible for establishing and keeping a
       project check list.
   -   The project check list should establish a schedule of what is to appear on the Drawings, what is to be
       described in the Specifications and what is to be itemized and listed in Schedules on the Drawings.
   -   Specifications checklist should be used to insure the following:
       1. Necessary items are identified appropriately in the Drawings and Specifications.
       2. Specified product names, series, models and catalog numbers are correct.
       3. Drawings and Specifications do not contain duplicate and conflicting information.
       4. Cross references in the Specifications are correct, especially the use of Section numbers and titles for
           related work specified in other sections.
       5. Referenced Standards are correct and applicable.
       6. Manufacturer’s names are correct and contact information is current.

TERMINOLOGY
   -   It is essential that standard terminology be employed and used consistently. “Janitor’s sink” vs. “service
       sink” or P.C. Concrete steps (Pre-cast or Poured Concrete).
   -   Implement the use of proper industry-recognized terminology.
   -   Insist on coordination of terminology between the Drawings and Specifications
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 8 of 9



CONSIDERATIONS FOR USERS OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS
   -   Drawings and Specifications are prepared as from the Owner to the Contractor.
   -   The Owner and Contractor are the two parties who sign the Agreement (Contract).
   -   The Drawings and Specifications are portions of the Contract Documents identified in the Agreement.
   -   THE PRIMARY PURPOSE IS TO DESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTION AND SERVICES REQUIRED BY THE CONTRACT
       DOCUMENTS AND THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THESE TWO PARTIES IN FULFILLING THEIR OBLIGATIONS
       UNDER THE CONTRACT
   -   Drawings and Specifications are needed in order to prepare a complete and accurate estimate. Example;
       When Drawings have notes regarding louvers but no louvers are shown on the Building Elevations or in
       the Specifications, should louvers be included or omitted from the estimate of bid?
   -   Drawings and Specifications need to be understandable by construction inspectors and the supervisors for
       the Contractor and subcontractors.




                       Do you have my
                       drawings done yet chief?




                                             Yea right!
                                             Whatever!
Macomb Community College
DRAD 2230 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
Class Number 03 Text Book Recapitulation Chapter 1
September 09, 2010
Page 9 of 9




                          “THE THREE MAJOR PLAYERS”




     OWNER                                  ARCHITECT                         GENERAL CONTRACTOR


When an Owner decides to Build, Renovate or Reconstruct a facility, the Owner usually engages others to prepare
documents describing the work and the contractual requirements.




                        The Owner                                               The General Contractor



                                                                                SUB        SUB         SUB        SUB

                                                                                STANDARD FORM OF AGREEMENT IS SIGNED
                                                                                 BETWEEN THE OWNER AND THE GENERAL
                                                                                    CONTRACTOR FOR CONSTRUCTION.
                        The Architect
                                                                                 EXAMPLE: AIA DOC A101 STIPILATED SUM




    S       E       M       C       LA       K       EQ
                   Architects Consultants
                           STANDARD FORM OF
                          AGREEMENT IS SIGNED
                      BETWEEN THE OWNER AND THE
                             ARCHITECT FOR
                        ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES
                         EXAMPLE: AIA DOC B141

				
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