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									Brief Name           Indicator                        Detailed Description                       Source                    Catalog Source           Note
reporter             Reporting country
reportername         Full name of reporting
                     country
partner              Partner country
partnername          Full Name of partner
                     country
year                 Year
xij                  Bilateral Export from i to j -                                              WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     current US$                                                                 Trade Solution
xji                  Bilateral Export from j to i -                                              WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     current US$                                                                 Trade Solution
mij                  Bilateral Import from i to j -                                              WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     current US$                                                                 Trade Solution
mji                  Bilateral Import from j to i -                                              WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     current US$                                                                 Trade Solution
xiw                  Export of reporter to the                                                   WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     rest of the world - current                                                 Trade Solution
                     US$
xjw                  Export of partner to the                                                    WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     rest of the world - current                                                 Trade Solution
                     US$
miw                  Import of reporter to the                                                   WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     rest of the world - current                                                 Trade Solution
                     US$
mjw                  Import of partner to the                                                    WITS - World Integrated   UN - COMTRADE Database
                     rest of the world - current                                                 Trade Solution
                     US$
gdpi                 GDP of reporter - current                                                   WDI - World
                     US$                                                                         Development Indicator
gdpj                 GDP of partner - current                                                    WDI - World
                     US$                                                                         Development Indicator
xii                  Intranational trade of           Proxy of production sold domestically in   ESCAP Trade Cost
                     reporter                         country i - USD                            Database
xjj                  Intranational trade of           Proxy of production sold domestically in   ESCAP Trade Cost
                     partner                          country j - USD                            Database
rep_income           Income group of reporter                                                    WDI - World
                                                                                                 Development Indicator
par_income           Income group of partner                                                     WDI - World
                                                                                                 Development Indicator
avg_services_pct_i   Average Value-Added                                                         ESCAP Trade Cost
                     Services by Income                                                          Database
                     Group of Reporter i (%)
avg_services_pct_j   Average Value-Added                                                          ESCAP Trade Cost
                     Services by Income                                                           Database
                     Group of Partner j (%)
xii_pctadj           Intranational Trade,                                                         ESCAP Trade Cost
                     Service-Adjusted (i)                                                         Database
xjj_pctadj           Intranational Trade,                                                         ESCAP Trade Cost
                     Income-Adjusted (j)                                                          Database
tijm                 Upper-bound trade cost -                                                     ESCAP Trade Cost
                     tariff equivalent term                                                       Database
tijm_level           Leveled upper-bound                                                          ESCAP Trade Cost
                     trade cost                                                                   Database
tijm_pctadj          Lower-bound trade cost -                                                     ESCAP Trade Cost
                     tariff equivalent term                                                       Database
tijm_pctadj_level    Leveled lower-bound                                                          ESCAP Trade Cost
                     trade cost                                                                   Database
reptag_eu            Regional tag for reporter                                                    ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database
partag_eu            Regional tag for partner                                                     ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database
contig               Dummy variable for            1 for contiguity                               CEPII
                     reporter and partner
                     sharing the same border
comlang_off          Dummy variable for            1 for common official of primary language      CEPII
                     reporter and partner
                     sharing the same
                     common official language
dist                 Bilateral distance            simple distance (most populated cities, km)    CEPII

avg_tc_wdi1          Comprehensive trade cost      Average of upper-bound and lower-bound         ESCAP Trade Cost
                     (CTC) - tariff equivalent     trade cost                                     Database
                     term
avg_tc_wdi1_level    Comprehensive trade cost      Average of upper-bound and lower-bound         ESCAP Trade Cost
                     (CTC)                         trade cost                                     Database
samebloc             Dummy variable for            1 for same region                              ESCAP Trade Cost
                     reporter and partner are in                                                  Database
                     the same region
tariff_wa2           Weighted average tariff       Weighted average tariff with replacing         Data is from WITS -
                                                   missing value with preceding year data (if     World Integrated Trade
                                                   available)                                     Solution; missing value
                                                                                                  replacement has done
                                                                                                  under ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database
ctc_xtar2_level      CTC excluding tariff          Equivalent to "avg_tc_wdi1_level/tariff_wa2"   ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database
dist_tc7                Distance component          Distance component extracted from                 ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                    regression of trade cost                          Database
cult_tc7                Cultural component          Cultural component extracted from                 ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                    regression of trade cost                          Database
natural_tc7             Natural component           Natural component extracted from                  ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                    regression of trade cost                          Database
policy_tc7              Policy component            Policy component extracted from regression        ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                    of trade cost                                     Database
airfreight_mlnton_km1   Air transport, freight      Air freight is the volume of freight, express,    International Civil Aviation World Development Indicators   1 stands
                        (million ton-km)            and diplomatic bags carried on each flight        Organization, Civil                                         for
                                                    stage (operation of an aircraft from takeoff to   Aviation Statistics of the                                  reporter
                                                    its next landing), measured in metric tons        World and ICAO staff                                        side
                                                    times kilometers traveled.                        estimates.
cars_per1000ppl1        Burden of customs           Burden of Customs Procedure measures              World Economic Forum, World Development Indicators
                        procedure, WEF              business executives' perceptions of their         Global Competiveness
                        (1=extremely inefficient to country's efficiency of customs procedures.       Report and data files.
                        7=extremely efficient)      The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher
                                                    score indicating greater efficiency. Data are
                                                    from the World Economic Forum's Executive
                                                    Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in
                                                    collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The
                                                    2009 round included more than 13,000
                                                    respondents from 133 countries. Sampling
                                                    follows a dual stratification based on
                                                    company size and the sector of activity. Data
                                                    are collected online or through in-person
                                                    interviews. Responses are aggregated using
                                                    sector-weighted averaging. The data for the
                                                    latest year are combined with the data for
                                                    the previous year to create a two-year
                                                    moving average. Respondents evaluated the
                                                    efficiency of customs procedures in their
                                                    country. The lowest score (1) rates the
                                                    customs procedure as extremely inefficient,
                                                    and the highest score (7) as extremely
                                                    efficient.

child_outofprimary1     Business extent of          Disclosure index measures the extent to           World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                        disclosure index (0=less    which investors are protected through             Business project
                        disclosure to 10=more       disclosure of ownership and financial             (http://www.doingbusiness
                        disclosure)                 information. The index ranges from 0 to 10,       .org/).
                                                    with higher values indicating more disclosure.
container_porttraffic1     Children out of school,    Children out of school are the number of    United Nations            World Development Indicators
                           primary                    primaryschoolage children not enrolled in   Educational, Scientific,
                                                      primary or secondary school.                and Cultural Organization
                                                                                                  (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                                                                  Statistics.
credit_toprivate_pctgdp1   Container port traffic    Port container traffic measures the flow of  Containerisation          World Development Indicators
                           (TEU: 20 foot equivalent  containers from land to sea transport        International,
                           units)                    modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot       Containerisation
                                                     equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size     International Yearbook.
                                                     container. Data refer to coastal shipping as
                                                     well as international journeys.
                                                     Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts
                                                     at the intermediate port (once to off-load and
                                                     again as an outbound lift) and includes
                                                     empty units.
customs_procedure1         Cost of business start-up Cost to register a business is normalized by World Bank, Doing           World Development Indicators
                           procedures (% of GNI per presenting it as a percentage of gross          Business project
                           capita)                   national income (GNI) per capita.              (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                                                                    .org/).
depth_credit_info1   Cost to export (US$ per   Cost measures the fees levied on a 20-foot       World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                     container)                container in U.S. dollars. All the fees          Business project
                                               associated with completing the procedures        (http://www.doingbusiness
                                               to export or import the goods are included.      .org/).
                                               These include costs for documents,
                                               administrative fees for customs clearance
                                               and technical control, customs broker fees,
                                               terminal handling charges and inland
                                               transport. The cost measure does not
                                               include tariffs or trade taxes. Only official
                                               costs are recorded. Several assumptions are
                                               made for the business surveyed: Has 60 or
                                               more employees; Is located in the country's
                                               most populous city; Is a private, limited
                                               liability company. It does not operate within
                                               an export processing zone or an industrial
                                               estate with special export or import
                                               privileges; Is domestically owned with no
                                               foreign ownership; Exports more than 10%
                                               of its sales. Assumptions about the traded
                                               goods: The traded product travels in a dry-
                                               cargo, 20-foot, full container load. The
                                               product: Is not hazardous nor does it include
                                               military items; Does not require refrigeration
                                               or any other special environment; Does not
                                               require any special phytosanitary or
                                               environmental safety standards other than
                                               accepted international standards.
disclosure1          Cost to import (US$ per   Cost measures the fees levied on a 20-foot       World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                     container)                container in U.S. dollars. All the fees          Business project
                                               associated with completing the procedures        (http://www.doingbusiness
                                               to export or import the goods are included.      .org/).
                                               These include costs for documents,
                                               administrative fees for customs clearance
                                               and technical control, customs broker fees,
                                               terminal handling charges and inland
                                               transport. The cost measure does not
                                               include tariffs or trade taxes. Only official
                                               costs are recorded.
edu_spending1             Credit depth of              Credit depth of information index measures         World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                          information index (0=low     rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and      Business project
                          to 6=high)                   quality of credit information available through    (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                       public or private credit registries. The index     .org/).
                                                       ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values
                                                       indicating the availability of more credit
                                                       information, from either a public registry or a
                                                       private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.

expenditure_perstudent1   Domestic credit to private   Domestic credit to private sector refers to        International Monetary     World Development Indicators
                          sector (% of GDP)            financial resources provided to the private        Fund, International
                                                       sector, such as through loans, purchases of        Financial Statistics and
                                                       nonequity securities, and trade credits and        data files, and World
                                                       other accounts receivable, that establish a        Bank and OECD GDP
                                                       claim for repayment. For some countries            estimates.
                                                       these claims include credit to public
                                                       enterprises.
exportcost_usd1           Expenditure per student,     Public expenditure per student is the public       United Nations            World Development Indicators
                          secondary (% of GDP per      current spending on education divided by the       Educational, Scientific,
                          capita)                      total number of students by level, as a            and Cultural Organization
                                                       percentage of GDP per capita. Public               (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                       expenditure (current and capital) includes         Statistics.
                                                       government spending on educational
                                                       institutions (both public and private),
                                                       education administration as well as
                                                       subsidies for private entities
                                                       (students/households and other privates
                                                       entities).
fixedline1                Internet users               Internet users are people with access to the       International              World Development Indicators
                                                       worldwide network. Note: Please cite the           Telecommunication
                                                       International Telecommunication Union for          Union, World
                                                       third-party use of these data.                     Telecommunication
                                                                                                          Development Report and
                                                                                                          database.
fixedline_per100ppl1      Internet users (per 100      Internet users are people with access to the       International              World Development Indicators
                          people)                      worldwide network. Note: Please cite the           Telecommunication
                                                       International Telecommunication Union for          Union, World
                                                       third-party use of these data.                     Telecommunication
                                                                                                          Development Report and
                                                                                                          database, and World
                                                                                                          Bank estimates.
importcost_usd1            Liner shipping connectivity The Liner Shipping Connectivity Index           United Nations          World Development Indicators
                           index (maximum value in captures how well countries are connected           Conference on Trade and
                           2004 = 100)                 to global shipping networks. It is computed     Development, Transport
                                                       by the United Nations Conference on Trade       Newsletter, No. 43.
                                                       and Development (UNCTAD) based on five
                                                       components of the maritime transport sector:
                                                       number of ships, their container-carrying
                                                       capacity, maximum vessel size, number of
                                                       services, and number of companies that
                                                       deploy container ships in a country's ports.
                                                       For each component a country's value is
                                                       divided by the maximum value of each
                                                       component in 2004, the five components are
                                                       averaged for each country, and the average
                                                       is divided by the maximum average for 2004
                                                       and multiplied by 100. The index generates a
                                                       value of 100 for the country with the highest
                                                       average index in 2004. . The underlying data
                                                       come from Containerisation International
                                                       Online.

internetusers1             Literacy rate, adult total Adult literacy rate is the percentage of      United Nations            World Development Indicators
                           (% of people ages 15 and people ages 15 and above who can, with          Educational, Scientific,
                           above)                     understanding, read and write a short,        and Cultural Organization
                                                      simple statement on their everyday life.      (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                                                                    Statistics.
internetusers_per100ppl1   Mobile and fixed-line       Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total  International             World Development Indicators
                           telephone subscribers       telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus       Telecommunication
                                                       mobile). Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                       Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                       of these data.                               Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
literacy_rate_adult1       Mobile and fixed-line       Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total  International             World Development Indicators
                           telephone subscribers       telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus       Telecommunication
                           (per 100 people)            mobile). Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                       Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                       of these data.                               Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
lsci1                   Mobile cellular             Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are       International                World Development Indicators
                        subscriptions               subscriptions to a public mobile telephone        Telecommunication
                                                    service using cellular technology, which          Union, World
                                                    provide access to the public switched             Telecommunication
                                                    telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid          Development Report and
                                                    subscriptions are included. Note: Please cite     database, and World
                                                    the International Telecommunication Union         Bank estimates.
                                                    for third-party use of these data.

mobile_subscribers1     Motor vehicles (per 1,000   Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and           International Road           World Development Indicators
                        people)                     freight vehicles but do not include two-          Federation, World Road
                                                    wheelers. Population refers to midyear            Statistics and data files.
                                                    population in the year for which data are
                                                    available.
net_secondary_enroll1   Passenger cars (per         Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles,      International Road           World Development Indicators
                        1,000 people)               other than two-wheelers, intended for the         Federation, World Road
                                                    carriage of passengers and designed to seat       Statistics and data files.
                                                    no more than nine people (including the
                                                    driver).
pc1                     Personal computers          Personal computers are self-contained           International            World Development Indicators
                                                    computers designed to be used by a single       Telecommunication
                                                    individual. Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                    Telecommunication Union for third-party use     Telecommunication
                                                    of these data.                                  Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
pc_per100ppl1           Personal computers (per     Personal computers are self-contained           International            World Development Indicators
                        100 people)                 computers designed to be used by a single       Telecommunication
                                                    individual. Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                    Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                    of these data.                                  Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
phone_subscribers1      Public spending on          Public expenditure on education consists of United Nations               World Development Indicators
                        education, total (% of      current and capital public expenditure on       Educational, Scientific,
                        GDP)                        education includes government spending on and Cultural Organization
                                                    educational institutions (both public and       (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                    private), education administration as well as Statistics.
                                                    subsidies for private entities
                                                    (students/households and other privates
                                                    entities).
phone_subscribers_per100ppl1   Quality of port               The Quality of Port Infrastructure measures World Economic Forum,       World Development Indicators
                               infrastructure, WEF           business executives' perception of their         Global Competiveness
                               (1=extremely                  country's port facilities. Data are from the     Report.
                               underdeveloped to 7=well      World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion
                               developed and efficient by    Survey, conducted for 30 years in
                               international standards)      collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The
                                                             2009 round included more than 13,000
                                                             respondents from 133 countries. Sampling
                                                             follows a dual stratification based on
                                                             company size and the sector of activity. Data
                                                             are collected online or through in-person
                                                             interviews. Responses are aggregated using
                                                             sector-weighted averaging. The data for the
                                                             latest year are combined with the data for
                                                             the previous year to create a two-year
                                                             moving average. Scores range from 1 (port
                                                             infrastructure considered extremely
                                                             underdeveloped) to 7 (port infrastructure
                                                             considered efficient by international
                                                             standards). Respondents in landlocked
                                                             countries were asked how accessible are
                                                             port facilities (1 = extremely inaccessible; 7 =
                                                             extremely accessible).

quality_port_infra1            Rail lines (total route-km)   Rail lines are the length of railway route  World Bank,                 World Development Indicators
                                                                                                         Transportation, Water,
                                                             available for train service, irrespective of the
                                                             number of parallel tracks.                  and Urban Development
                                                                                                         Department, Transport
                                                                                                         Division.
raillines_km1                  Railways, goods               Goods transported by railway are the volume World Bank,                 World Development Indicators
                               transported (million ton-     of goods transported by railway, measured   Transportation, Water,
                               km)                           in metric tons times kilometers traveled.   and Urban Development
                                                                                                         Department, Transport
                                                                                                         Division.
railway_mlntonkm1     School enrollment,         Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of   United Nations            World Development Indicators
                      secondary (% net)          official school age based on the International     Educational, Scientific,
                                                 Standard Classification of Education 1997          and Cultural Organization
                                                 who are enrolled in school to the population       (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                 of the corresponding official school age.          Statistics.
                                                 Secondary education completes the
                                                 provision of basic education that began at
                                                 the primary level, and aims at laying the
                                                 foundations for lifelong learning and human
                                                 development, by offering more subject- or
                                                 skill-oriented instruction using more
                                                 specialized teachers.

startupcost_pctgni1   Telecommunications        Telecommunications investment refers to             International            World Development Indicators
                      investment (% of revenue) the expenditure associated with acquiring           Telecommunication
                                                the ownership of telecommunication                  Union, World
                                                equipment infrastructure (including                 Telecommunication
                                                supporting land and buildings and                   Development Report and
                                                intellectual and non-tangible property such         database, and World
                                                as computer software). These include                Bank estimates.
                                                expenditure on initial installations and on
                                                additions to existing installations. Note:
                                                Please cite the International
                                                Telecommunication Union for third-party use
                                                of these data.
telecominv_pctrev1    Telecommunications        Telecommunications revenue is the revenue           International            World Development Indicators
                      revenue (% GDP)           from the provision of telecommunications            Telecommunication
                                                services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data.      Union, World
                                                Note: Please cite the International                 Telecommunication
                                                Telecommunication Union for third-party use         Development Report and
                                                of these data.                                      database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
telecomrev_pctgdp1    Telephone lines            Telephone lines are fixed telephone lines          International            World Development Indicators
                                                 that connect a subscriber's terminal               Telecommunication
                                                 equipment to the public switched telephone         Union, World
                                                 network and that have a port on a telephone        Telecommunication
                                                 exchange. Integrated services digital              Development Report and
                                                 network channels ands fixed wireless               database, and World
                                                 subscribers are included. Note: Please cite        Bank estimates.
                                                 the International Telecommunication Union
                                                 for third-party use of these data.
vehicles_per1000ppl1    Telephone lines (per 100    Telephone lines are fixed telephone lines         International                World Development Indicators
                        people)                     that connect a subscriber's terminal              Telecommunication
                                                    equipment to the public switched telephone        Union, World
                                                    network and that have a port on a telephone       Telecommunication
                                                    exchange. Integrated services digital             Development Report and
                                                    network channels ands fixed wireless              database, and World
                                                    subscribers are included. Note: Please cite       Bank estimates.
                                                    the International Telecommunication Union
                                                    for third-party use of these data.

vehicles_perkm1         Vehicles (per km of road)   Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars,      International Road           World Development Indicators
                                                    buses, and freight vehicles but do not            Federation, World Road
                                                    include two-wheelers. Roads refer to              Statistics and data files.
                                                    motorways, highways, main or national
                                                    roads, secondary or regional roads, and
                                                    other roads. A motorway is a road specially
                                                    designed and built for motor traffic that
                                                    separates the traffic flowing in opposite
                                                    directions.
xrat1                   Exchange Rate                                                                 PWT - Penn World Table
                        (LCY/USD)
ppp1                    PPP: Purchasing Power                                                         PWT - Penn World Table
                        Parity
dxrat1                  Exchange Rate Growth                                                          ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                      Database
misalign1               Undervaluation (-) or                                                         ESCAP Trade Cost
                        Overvaluation (+) against                                                     Database
                        USD
airfreight_mlnton_km2   Air transport, freight      Air freight is the volume of freight, express,    International Civil Aviation World Development Indicators   2 stands
                        (million ton-km)            and diplomatic bags carried on each flight        Organization, Civil                                         for
                                                    stage (operation of an aircraft from takeoff to   Aviation Statistics of the                                  partner
                                                    its next landing), measured in metric tons        World and ICAO staff                                        side
                                                    times kilometers traveled.                        estimates.
cars_per1000ppl2           Burden of customs             Burden of Customs Procedure measures           World Economic Forum,      World Development Indicators
                           procedure, WEF                business executives' perceptions of their      Global Competiveness
                           (1=extremely inefficient to   country's efficiency of customs procedures. Report and data files.
                           7=extremely efficient)        The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher
                                                         score indicating greater efficiency. Data are
                                                         from the World Economic Forum's Executive
                                                         Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in
                                                         collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The
                                                         2009 round included more than 13,000
                                                         respondents from 133 countries. Sampling
                                                         follows a dual stratification based on
                                                         company size and the sector of activity. Data
                                                         are collected online or through in-person
                                                         interviews. Responses are aggregated using
                                                         sector-weighted averaging. The data for the
                                                         latest year are combined with the data for
                                                         the previous year to create a two-year
                                                         moving average. Respondents evaluated the
                                                         efficiency of customs procedures in their
                                                         country. The lowest score (1) rates the
                                                         customs procedure as extremely inefficient,
                                                         and the highest score (7) as extremely
                                                         efficient.

child_outofprimary2        Business extent of            Disclosure index measures the extent to          World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                           disclosure index (0=less      which investors are protected through            Business project
                           disclosure to 10=more         disclosure of ownership and financial            (http://www.doingbusiness
                           disclosure)                   information. The index ranges from 0 to 10,      .org/).
                                                         with higher values indicating more disclosure.

container_porttraffic2     Children out of school,       Children out of school are the number of         United Nations            World Development Indicators
                           primary                       primaryschoolage children not enrolled in        Educational, Scientific,
                                                         primary or secondary school.                     and Cultural Organization
                                                                                                          (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                                                                          Statistics.
credit_toprivate_pctgdp2   Container port traffic        Port container traffic measures the flow of      Containerisation          World Development Indicators
                           (TEU: 20 foot equivalent      containers from land to sea transport            International,
                           units)                        modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot           Containerisation
                                                         equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size         International Yearbook.
                                                         container. Data refer to coastal shipping as
                                                         well as international journeys.
                                                         Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts
                                                         at the intermediate port (once to off-load and
                                                         again as an outbound lift) and includes
                                                         empty units.
customs_procedure2   Cost of business start-up Cost to register a business is normalized by      World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                     procedures (% of GNI per presenting it as a percentage of gross             Business project
                     capita)                   national income (GNI) per capita.                 (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                                                                 .org/).
depth_credit_info2   Cost to export (US$ per    Cost measures the fees levied on a 20-foot       World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                     container)                 container in U.S. dollars. All the fees          Business project
                                                associated with completing the procedures        (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                to export or import the goods are included.      .org/).
                                                These include costs for documents,
                                                administrative fees for customs clearance
                                                and technical control, customs broker fees,
                                                terminal handling charges and inland
                                                transport. The cost measure does not
                                                include tariffs or trade taxes. Only official
                                                costs are recorded. Several assumptions are
                                                made for the business surveyed: Has 60 or
                                                more employees; Is located in the country's
                                                most populous city; Is a private, limited
                                                liability company. It does not operate within
                                                an export processing zone or an industrial
                                                estate with special export or import
                                                privileges; Is domestically owned with no
                                                foreign ownership; Exports more than 10%
                                                of its sales. Assumptions about the traded
                                                goods: The traded product travels in a dry-
                                                cargo, 20-foot, full container load. The
                                                product: Is not hazardous nor does it include
                                                military items; Does not require refrigeration
                                                or any other special environment; Does not
                                                require any special phytosanitary or
                                                environmental safety standards other than
                                                accepted international standards.
disclosure2          Cost to import (US$ per    Cost measures the fees levied on a 20-foot       World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                     container)                 container in U.S. dollars. All the fees          Business project
                                                associated with completing the procedures        (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                to export or import the goods are included.      .org/).
                                                These include costs for documents,
                                                administrative fees for customs clearance
                                                and technical control, customs broker fees,
                                                terminal handling charges and inland
                                                transport. The cost measure does not
                                                include tariffs or trade taxes. Only official
                                                costs are recorded.
edu_spending2             Credit depth of              Credit depth of information index measures         World Bank, Doing         World Development Indicators
                          information index (0=low     rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and      Business project
                          to 6=high)                   quality of credit information available through    (http://www.doingbusiness
                                                       public or private credit registries. The index     .org/).
                                                       ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values
                                                       indicating the availability of more credit
                                                       information, from either a public registry or a
                                                       private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.

expenditure_perstudent2   Domestic credit to private   Domestic credit to private sector refers to        International Monetary     World Development Indicators
                          sector (% of GDP)            financial resources provided to the private        Fund, International
                                                       sector, such as through loans, purchases of        Financial Statistics and
                                                       nonequity securities, and trade credits and        data files, and World
                                                       other accounts receivable, that establish a        Bank and OECD GDP
                                                       claim for repayment. For some countries            estimates.
                                                       these claims include credit to public
                                                       enterprises.
exportcost_usd2           Expenditure per student,     Public expenditure per student is the public       United Nations            World Development Indicators
                          secondary (% of GDP per      current spending on education divided by the       Educational, Scientific,
                          capita)                      total number of students by level, as a            and Cultural Organization
                                                       percentage of GDP per capita. Public               (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                       expenditure (current and capital) includes         Statistics.
                                                       government spending on educational
                                                       institutions (both public and private),
                                                       education administration as well as
                                                       subsidies for private entities
                                                       (students/households and other privates
                                                       entities).
fixedline2                Internet users               Internet users are people with access to the       International              World Development Indicators
                                                       worldwide network. Note: Please cite the           Telecommunication
                                                       International Telecommunication Union for          Union, World
                                                       third-party use of these data.                     Telecommunication
                                                                                                          Development Report and
                                                                                                          database.
fixedline_per100ppl2      Internet users (per 100      Internet users are people with access to the       International              World Development Indicators
                          people)                      worldwide network. Note: Please cite the           Telecommunication
                                                       International Telecommunication Union for          Union, World
                                                       third-party use of these data.                     Telecommunication
                                                                                                          Development Report and
                                                                                                          database, and World
                                                                                                          Bank estimates.
importcost_usd2            Liner shipping connectivity The Liner Shipping Connectivity Index           United Nations          World Development Indicators
                           index (maximum value in captures how well countries are connected           Conference on Trade and
                           2004 = 100)                 to global shipping networks. It is computed     Development, Transport
                                                       by the United Nations Conference on Trade       Newsletter, No. 43.
                                                       and Development (UNCTAD) based on five
                                                       components of the maritime transport sector:
                                                       number of ships, their container-carrying
                                                       capacity, maximum vessel size, number of
                                                       services, and number of companies that
                                                       deploy container ships in a country's ports.
                                                       For each component a country's value is
                                                       divided by the maximum value of each
                                                       component in 2004, the five components are
                                                       averaged for each country, and the average
                                                       is divided by the maximum average for 2004
                                                       and multiplied by 100. The index generates a
                                                       value of 100 for the country with the highest
                                                       average index in 2004. . The underlying data
                                                       come from Containerisation International
                                                       Online.

internetusers2             Literacy rate, adult total Adult literacy rate is the percentage of      United Nations            World Development Indicators
                           (% of people ages 15 and people ages 15 and above who can, with          Educational, Scientific,
                           above)                     understanding, read and write a short,        and Cultural Organization
                                                      simple statement on their everyday life.      (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                                                                    Statistics.
internetusers_per100ppl2   Mobile and fixed-line       Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total  International             World Development Indicators
                           telephone subscribers       telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus       Telecommunication
                                                       mobile). Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                       Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                       of these data.                               Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
literacy_rate_adult2       Mobile and fixed-line       Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total  International             World Development Indicators
                           telephone subscribers       telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus       Telecommunication
                           (per 100 people)            mobile). Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                       Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                       of these data.                               Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
lsci2                   Mobile cellular             Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are       International                World Development Indicators
                        subscriptions               subscriptions to a public mobile telephone        Telecommunication
                                                    service using cellular technology, which          Union, World
                                                    provide access to the public switched             Telecommunication
                                                    telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid          Development Report and
                                                    subscriptions are included. Note: Please cite     database, and World
                                                    the International Telecommunication Union         Bank estimates.
                                                    for third-party use of these data.

mobile_subscribers2     Motor vehicles (per 1,000   Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and           International Road           World Development Indicators
                        people)                     freight vehicles but do not include two-          Federation, World Road
                                                    wheelers. Population refers to midyear            Statistics and data files.
                                                    population in the year for which data are
                                                    available.
net_secondary_enroll2   Passenger cars (per         Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles,      International Road           World Development Indicators
                        1,000 people)               other than two-wheelers, intended for the         Federation, World Road
                                                    carriage of passengers and designed to seat       Statistics and data files.
                                                    no more than nine people (including the
                                                    driver).
pc2                     Personal computers          Personal computers are self-contained           International            World Development Indicators
                                                    computers designed to be used by a single       Telecommunication
                                                    individual. Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                    Telecommunication Union for third-party use     Telecommunication
                                                    of these data.                                  Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
pc_per100ppl2           Personal computers (per     Personal computers are self-contained           International            World Development Indicators
                        100 people)                 computers designed to be used by a single       Telecommunication
                                                    individual. Note: Please cite the International Union, World
                                                    Telecommunication Union for third-party use Telecommunication
                                                    of these data.                                  Development Report and
                                                                                                    database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
phone_subscribers2      Public spending on          Public expenditure on education consists of United Nations               World Development Indicators
                        education, total (% of      current and capital public expenditure on       Educational, Scientific,
                        GDP)                        education includes government spending on and Cultural Organization
                                                    educational institutions (both public and       (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                    private), education administration as well as Statistics.
                                                    subsidies for private entities
                                                    (students/households and other privates
                                                    entities).
phone_subscribers_per100ppl2   Quality of port               The Quality of Port Infrastructure measures World Economic Forum,       World Development Indicators
                               infrastructure, WEF           business executives' perception of their         Global Competiveness
                               (1=extremely                  country's port facilities. Data are from the     Report.
                               underdeveloped to 7=well      World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion
                               developed and efficient by    Survey, conducted for 30 years in
                               international standards)      collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The
                                                             2009 round included more than 13,000
                                                             respondents from 133 countries. Sampling
                                                             follows a dual stratification based on
                                                             company size and the sector of activity. Data
                                                             are collected online or through in-person
                                                             interviews. Responses are aggregated using
                                                             sector-weighted averaging. The data for the
                                                             latest year are combined with the data for
                                                             the previous year to create a two-year
                                                             moving average. Scores range from 1 (port
                                                             infrastructure considered extremely
                                                             underdeveloped) to 7 (port infrastructure
                                                             considered efficient by international
                                                             standards). Respondents in landlocked
                                                             countries were asked how accessible are
                                                             port facilities (1 = extremely inaccessible; 7 =
                                                             extremely accessible).

quality_port_infra2            Rail lines (total route-km)   Rail lines are the length of railway route  World Bank,                 World Development Indicators
                                                                                                         Transportation, Water,
                                                             available for train service, irrespective of the
                                                             number of parallel tracks.                  and Urban Development
                                                                                                         Department, Transport
                                                                                                         Division.
raillines_km2                  Railways, goods               Goods transported by railway are the volume World Bank,                 World Development Indicators
                               transported (million ton-     of goods transported by railway, measured   Transportation, Water,
                               km)                           in metric tons times kilometers traveled.   and Urban Development
                                                                                                         Department, Transport
                                                                                                         Division.
railway_mlntonkm2     School enrollment,         Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of   United Nations            World Development Indicators
                      secondary (% net)          official school age based on the International     Educational, Scientific,
                                                 Standard Classification of Education 1997          and Cultural Organization
                                                 who are enrolled in school to the population       (UNESCO) Institute for
                                                 of the corresponding official school age.          Statistics.
                                                 Secondary education completes the
                                                 provision of basic education that began at
                                                 the primary level, and aims at laying the
                                                 foundations for lifelong learning and human
                                                 development, by offering more subject- or
                                                 skill-oriented instruction using more
                                                 specialized teachers.

startupcost_pctgni2   Telecommunications        Telecommunications investment refers to             International            World Development Indicators
                      investment (% of revenue) the expenditure associated with acquiring           Telecommunication
                                                the ownership of telecommunication                  Union, World
                                                equipment infrastructure (including                 Telecommunication
                                                supporting land and buildings and                   Development Report and
                                                intellectual and non-tangible property such         database, and World
                                                as computer software). These include                Bank estimates.
                                                expenditure on initial installations and on
                                                additions to existing installations. Note:
                                                Please cite the International
                                                Telecommunication Union for third-party use
                                                of these data.
telecominv_pctrev2    Telecommunications        Telecommunications revenue is the revenue           International            World Development Indicators
                      revenue (% GDP)           from the provision of telecommunications            Telecommunication
                                                services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data.      Union, World
                                                Note: Please cite the International                 Telecommunication
                                                Telecommunication Union for third-party use         Development Report and
                                                of these data.                                      database, and World
                                                                                                    Bank estimates.
telecomrev_pctgdp2    Telephone lines            Telephone lines are fixed telephone lines          International            World Development Indicators
                                                 that connect a subscriber's terminal               Telecommunication
                                                 equipment to the public switched telephone         Union, World
                                                 network and that have a port on a telephone        Telecommunication
                                                 exchange. Integrated services digital              Development Report and
                                                 network channels ands fixed wireless               database, and World
                                                 subscribers are included. Note: Please cite        Bank estimates.
                                                 the International Telecommunication Union
                                                 for third-party use of these data.
vehicles_per1000ppl2   Telephone lines (per 100    Telephone lines are fixed telephone lines      International                World Development Indicators
                       people)                     that connect a subscriber's terminal           Telecommunication
                                                   equipment to the public switched telephone     Union, World
                                                   network and that have a port on a telephone    Telecommunication
                                                   exchange. Integrated services digital          Development Report and
                                                   network channels ands fixed wireless           database, and World
                                                   subscribers are included. Note: Please cite    Bank estimates.
                                                   the International Telecommunication Union
                                                   for third-party use of these data.

vehicles_perkm2        Vehicles (per km of road)   Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars,   International Road           World Development Indicators
                                                   buses, and freight vehicles but do not         Federation, World Road
                                                   include two-wheelers. Roads refer to           Statistics and data files.
                                                   motorways, highways, main or national
                                                   roads, secondary or regional roads, and
                                                   other roads. A motorway is a road specially
                                                   designed and built for motor traffic that
                                                   separates the traffic flowing in opposite
                                                   directions.
xrat2                  Exchange Rate                                                              PWT - Penn World Table
                       (LCY/USD)
ppp2                   PPP: Purchasing Power                                                      PWT - Penn World Table
                       Parity
dxrat2                 Exchange Rate Growth                                                       ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database
misalign2              Undervaluation (-) or                                                      ESCAP Trade Cost
                       Overvaluation (+) against                                                  Database
                       USD
xrat_ij                Exchange Rate                                                              ESCAP Trade Cost
                       (LCY(i)/LCY(j))                                                            Database
dxrat_ij               Exchange Rate Growth                                                       ESCAP Trade Cost
                                                                                                  Database

								
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